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Martian Habitat for the Future

By

Kanyapat Thongta 5861048


Kochakorn Thangsombat 5861307
Saruttaya Rungsakorn 5861140
Sitang Horrungruang 5861148

Present

Astronomy
Mahidol University International Demonstration School
Mr. Gopinath Subramanian
Background Information

NASA’s Journey to Mars

NASA is planning to send human to Mars by 2030s. All the information about Mars we

have right now is the result from robotic explorers which have studied Mars for more than 4o

years. Now, there are still many remaining questions scientists need to find the answer before

start sending people to Mars. In 2015, NASA is successful in sending the Curiosity rover to

gather the radiation data which will help the scientists planning the way to protect astronauts.

Their recent plan is to send Mars 2020 rover to study Martian resources. NASA now has a

detailed plan for Mars project including five phases.


NASA is currently working in Phase 0 which is the phase where they conducts test at

ISS or the International Space Station. Phase Ⅰ will be conducted during 2018 to 2025 which

will include the launch and testing of six SLS rockets. After that, they will launch the Deep

Space Transport or DST tube toward the lunar station in Phase II which is in 2027. In Phase III,

the DST will be restocked with supplies and the Mars crew. And in last Phase which is Phase IV

will be the trip to Mars in 2033.

Transportation

Traveling to Mars use the Mars transit vehicle. The vehicle is comprised of four parts,

two of propellant stages, transit habitat and lander. The astronaut will live in a transit habitat

part. In this part, the astronaut will sleep and practice for their landing. Lastly, the astronaut will

move to lander part when they are near to Mars. The lander part will be detached from the transit

habitat. This journey takes around 7 months.


Food source

Water

Mars has ​Perchlorate​ everywhere. Since the ​Perchlorate​ can be easily found on Mars it

might be possible to find Calcium ​Perchlorate​. Calcium ​Perchlorate​ is a salt. This substance is

very wet. It functions help sucking the water out of the air. It can be helpful to human on Mars in

2 ways which are: First, by separating the water, it gives the water out. This can help the

astronaut for surviving. Second, it gives off oxygen, one of the basic needed for human to

survive. Even though, the ​Perchlorate​ might be something kind of toxic chemical that we need to

avoid but for Mars surviving purpose it can be used as resources that can help us to explore Mars

Food

For the food part, the astronauts have to bring it from the Earth. Since the atmosphere of

Mars consists mostly of carbon dioxide and light can be easily exposed to the surface. Therefore,

plant could not be survive in the Mars atmosphere. Moreover, the soil in Mars is not having

enough nutrients for plants to grow.


Light

The picture above illustrates the difference between the intensity at Earth and Mars.
In Mars at noon the Sun is directly overhead but with the solar irradiance of 590/m2 (590

watts per square metre) which is 710W/m2 less than Earth. With the position of Sun directly

overhead the Mars is only equal to the angle of 36 degree between Earth and Sun. Therefore,

Mars experiences 44 percent less intensity of sunlight.


Temperature

Mars has an average temperature of -46 celsius with the lowest of -143 celsius in winter

and highest of 35 celsius in summer and midday at the equator.

Atmosphere, composition, climate, weather

Mars has a tilted axis of 25.19 degrees, resulting in Mars also has a seasonal changes as

Earth.
Material

1. Wood box

2. Bagasse paper

3. scissors

4. Clear tape
Procedure

1. Brainstorm about the idea of building house on Mars

2. Do researches about differences between the earth Mars

3. Start making a house model

3.1 make the furniture from bagasse paper


3.2 Make the roof from bagasse paper and cellophane and paint the roof by using acrylic
color.
Why it needs to be Mars?

We are growing up learning that there are nine planets in our solar system. Now as the

world is paying more attention to space exploration, we start to find another planet we can live.

Mars One, a Dutch organization, announced their idea of establishing a human colony on Mars

in 2012. Nasa also already make an official provided a detailed plan about Mars mission. So it is

clear that Mars will become a new human colonization in a near future.

There are several reasons for why scientists believe that human can live on Mars. First,

there is an evidence suggesting that there is water in Mars after researchers detected signatures of

hydrated minerals from mysterious streaks found on Mars. So scientists are now working on the

way to bring back ocean to Mars. After finding an evidence indicated that Mars used to have

water, the scientists also believe that Mars also once had a thick atmosphere for water to exist.

Though Mars’ atmosphere is now thinner than Earth’s, it is still thick enough to support

weather.
There are also reasons for why the scientists don’t choose the other planets. For Mercury,

since it’s located near to the sun, it has an extreme temperature. The temperature can go between

-279 Fahrenheit at night to 801 Fahrenheit durian the day. There is a huge difference between the

temperature during night and day time because the temperature of the side that faces the Sun can

be very high and the other side can be very cold. Mercury is also often attacked by asteroid so

it’s not safe for human.

It’s also not quite possible for human to live on Venus because we don’t have much

information about this planet due to its high temperature and pressure. Venus is also the hottest

planet in Solar System which makes it impossible for human to live.


Jupiter is not chosen for a different reason. Since it is the biggest gas planet in Solar

System, it doesn’t have a solid surface. The temperature is also too cold as it’s located far away

from the Sun. Human can’t also live on Saturn due to a similar reason. Though this planet has a

solid core inside, it’s still not possible for human to bear the high pressure there.

For the moon, though this planet is located near to us the most, there is no air there. And

because of this lack of atmosphere, temperature will increase and drop dramatically.
The Structure of the House

Setting

According to NASA, the surface of Mars has an extreme temperature and the atmosphere

does not provide adequate protection from high-energy radiation. The astronauts need a

productive shelter to protect them from a harsh environment. If we build the home without

considering the setting, the cost will be so high. It would be more productive if we find a place to

reduce our investment. Therefore, our group comes up with an idea to build the roof with 3

width. In order to build an effective house with the least investment, we need to find a place that

is surrounded by mountains and a flat landscape at the centre as the mountain would protect us
from cosmic radiation and adverse conditions. We don’t need to put money much into building

the house as we use the advantages of the surrounding environment instead. This is considered to

be one of the most effective methods for the scientists and astronauts.

Energy source

The house is going to use the solar energy absorbed through solar arrays which will be

placed on top of the roof. There are a few factors which support the use of solar energy on Mars.

First, Mars has thinner atmosphere and also thinner cloud which makes it easier for the light to

travels through.
Water Sources

For the water in mars, first we have to find the water sources. According to new

measurements by Nasa​’s ​Curiosity rover​, ​Mars has liquid water just below its surface. Although

water in Mars is known to be deposits of ice due to the conditions on the red planet that it is too

cold and arid for liquid water to exist. From the latest findings, it is saying that the Martian soil is

damp with the liquid brine. The reasons for this is because the presence of a salt that significantly

lowers the freezing point of water. Thus, when it mixed with Calcium Perchlorate the liquid

water can exist down to about -70C, and the salt also soaks up water vapour from the

atmosphere. When there is some evidence of founding water at the surface so the next method is

to prepare the equipment and some advance tools for digging it out. Next, after preparing those

tools all the people whose arrived on Mars should dig the water under the soil and install the

plumbing pipe under the ground and connect it to the ground level to plump and use the water.

Later on, water will get heating up because in Mars when the water get together it will be

freezed-up. Lastly, when the water got pumped from under the soil to the ground level then we

can use it for many benefits including planting the trees, use in daily life, toilet use, etc.
Toilet is one of the necessary things that human needed in their daily life. For the toilets
used in Mars we use the system similar to the aircraft lavatory. Because this is a very first time
on Mars which we might not find the large amount of water source so we use this system first for
a short time used. Also, due to some condition in Mars, it is more appropriate and suitable to use
the air pressure system instead. This toilet system can be called a vacuum toilets. The system
work begins by when you press the flushing button. After that it opens a valve in the sewer line
and vacuum in the line sucks the contents out of the bowl and into a tank. In this system, the
main factor is vacuum because it does all of the work and because of this it makes the system
uses very little amount of water. The advantages of this system is the toilet can be flush in any
direction, including upward. Since a vacuum system does not use gravity to move the water,
there is nothing to stop the sewer pipe from going straight up. Also, that the pipe does not have
to go downward which means you can avoid cutting into the floor to put in new toilets.
Moreover, it can be put anywhere in the building.

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