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Form 4 Form 5 E-book
Seminar 1 Biology

Question 1

Energy value or calorific value is the quantity of head produced when one gram of food is
completely oxidized or burnt down. This heat energy is then absorbed by the water in the
boiling tube. Hence, the energy content in food varies among food samples according to their
classes of food.

A group of form 4 students carried out an experiment to determine the energy value for the
following food samples in Diagram 1.1.


Diagram 1.1

Diagram 1.2 shows the apparatus set- up used in this experiment showing the initial water
temperature of 29 ˚C.


boiling tube

retord stand

Needle distilled water

Burning Bread

Diagram 1.2


Seminar 1 Biology

The following steps were carried out:

Step 1: Small pieces of bread (P) is cut off and the mass is weight and recorded using a balance.
Step 2: 20 ml of distilled water was placed into a clean boiling tube by using a measuring
Step 3: The boiling tube is clamped to a retort stand with thermometer placed in it.
Step 4: The initial temperature of water in the boiling tube were measured and recorded by
using a thermometer.
Step 5: The bread (P) is attached to a pin and burnt in a labour gas flame.
Step 6: When completely burnt, the burnt bread is placed below the boiling tube.
Step 7: The water is stirred gently with the thermometer.
Step 8: The final temperature of water is recorded using the thermometer
Step 9: The energy value of bread is calculated using the following formula:

4.2 (23 45 6 ) 8 mass of water (3 ) 8 temperature increase (℃)
Energy value =
mass of food sample (3 )

Step 10: Step 1 until 9 are repeated using anchovy (Q) and cashew nut (R)

Table 1 shows the highest water temperature after the food sample is completely burnt
Increase in water
Type of food Mass of food Final Temperature
sample sample (g) (℃)
P (Bread) 0.6 32
Q (Anchovy) 0.8 38
R (Cashew nut) 1.2 44

a) State two different observations that can be made from Table I

b) State two inferences related to the above observations.


Seminar 1 Biology

c) Complete the variables in Table 2 based on this experiment

Variables Method to handle the variables
(a) Manipulated Variable

(b) Responding variable

(c) Constant variable

d) State the hypothesis for this experiment.


Seminar 1 Biology

Question 2
Diagram 2.2 and 2.3 show the condition of two plants which are added with fertilizer. The
plant in Diagram 2.3 is added with excess fertilizer.

Diagram 2.1 Diagram 2.2

(a) Explain the condition of the plant in Diagram 2.2.

[ 3 marks ]

(b) Diagram 2.3 shows a method of preserving vegetables.


Salt solution

Diagram 2.3

Explain the method used.

[ 3 marks ]


Seminar 1 Biology

Question 3

Diagram 1 shows three stages of mitosis, P, Q and R in an animal cell.


Diagram 3.1

(a) Name the stages P, Q and in the spaces provided in the Diagram 3.1
[ 3 marks ]

(b) Explain what happens at stage Q.

[ 3 marks ]

(c) State the chromosome behaviour at the following stages:

Stage P :

Stage R:

[ 3 marks ]

(d) Explain the importance of mitosis in the process of cloning orchid plants.

[ 3 marks ]


Seminar 1 Biology

(e) Diagram 3.2 shows a cell at stage P. In the next stage, it is found that chromosome M
is not separated.

Chromosome M

[ 3 marks ]


Seminar 1 Biology

Question 4
Green plants synthesise their food through the process of photosynthesis. The chemical
process of photosynthesis can be summarised as in the schematic diagram in Diagram 4.1.

The linked image cannot be displayed. The file may have been moved, renamed, or deleted. Verify that the link points to the correct file and location.

Diagram 4.1

(a) State the meaning of photosynthesis based on the schematic diagram in Diagram 4.1.

[ 2 marks ]

(b) Starting with water and carbon dioxide as the raw materials describe how a green plant
produces starch molecules.

[ 8 marks ]


Seminar 1 Biology

Question 5

Diagram 5.1 shows the roles of useful microorganisms in an ecosystem.
The linked image cannot be displayed. The file may have been moved, renamed, or deleted. Verify that the link points to the correct file and location.

Diagram 5.1

(a) Based on Diagram 5.1, explain how the microorganisms maintain the content of
compound X in the soil.

[ 8 marks ]


Seminar 1 Biology

Question 6
Diagram 6.1 shows a body defence mechanism.

Wound Skin


Body Tissue

Blood vessel

Diagram 6.1

(a) Based on Diagram 6.1, explain the body’s response towards the entry of bacteria into
the body.

[ 4 marks ]

(b) The graph in diagram 6.2 show the concentration of antibodies in the blood
of two individuals X and U, after given two injections of different
Concentration of antibody
Concentration of antibody

Immunity level Immunity level

Time (days) Time (days)

First Second First Second
injection injection injection injection

Individual X Individual Y

Seminar 1 Biology

(i) Explain with examples why both individuals are immune to specific diseases.

[ 5 marks ]

(ii) Describe the differences between the immunity obtained by the individuals.

[ 5 marks ]


Seminar 1 Biology

Question 7

Auxin is a plant hormone which helps in plant growth. Diagram 7.1 shows the growth of a
plant shoot towards light.
Light rays

(a) Explain the role of Auxin in the growth of plant shoot as in Diagram 7.1.

[ 6 marks ]

Diagram 7.2 shows synapse and a reflex arc when hand touches a hot object.

Direction of Synapse
transmission of Axon
nerves impulses

Synaptic vesicle

Hot object

Diagram 7.2


Seminar 1 Biology

(b) Based on Diagram 7.2, explain the pathway of an impulse in a reflex arc shown.

[ 8 marks ]


Seminar 1 Biology

Question 8

Diagram 8.1 shows a graph on how the endometrium in the human uterus varies in thickness
with time. Fertilisation took place on the 16th day of the second month.

Thickness of the endometrium


Time (days)
First month Second month Third month
Diagram 8.1

(a) State the process which took place at X.

[ 1 marks ]

(b) State one reason to support your answer in (a).

[ 1 marks ]

(c) Complete the diagram in Diagram 8.1 to show the changes in the thickness of the
endometrium after day 22 in the second month until day 28 of the third month.

[ 1 marks ]

(d) Explain your answer in (c).

[ 3 marks ]


Seminar 1 Biology

(e) Based on the changes in Diagram 8.1, complete Diagram 8.2 to indicate the level of the
hormone progesterone from the first to the third months.

Hormonal level

Time / Days

First Second Third
month month Month
Diagram 8.2

(f) Explain the changes in the level of progesterone in the three months as shown in Diagram

[ 2 marks ]


Seminar 1 Biology

Question 9
Diagram 5.1 shows a dihybrid cross of pure-breeding round and yellow seeds with wrinkled
and green seeds of pea plant.

Parental genotype




Key :
R: represent dominant allele round seed.
F1 Genotype
Q: Represent dominant allele yellow colour.

Diagram 9.1

(a) In Diagram 9.1, label the alleles for F1 genotype. [1 mark]

(b) State the phenotype for F1 generation.

[ 1 marks ]

Diagram 9.2 shows two possibilities of gametes formation by F1 generation.

F1 Generation First possibilities gametes

Second possibilities gametes

Gamete J Gamete K

Diagram 9.2


Seminar 1 Biology

(c) Name the process that occurred during meiosis which produced different gametes in
second possibilities.

[ 1 mark ]

(d) In Diagram 9.2, complete gamete J and K which are produced in second possibility.
[2 marks ]

(e) State which possibility cause more variation to the offspring.

[ 1 mark ]

(f) Explain one reason for your answer in (e).

[ 3 marks ]

(g) The pea plant of F1 generation which has undergone second possibility is crossed with
the parent which has wrinkled-green seed.
Complete Diagram 9.3 by filling in F1 generation gametes drawn in (d), genotype of F2
generation and phenotype of F2 generation which will be produced.

Gametes from F1 Gametes from Genotype of F2 Phenotype of F2


Diagram 9.3


Seminar 1 Biology

Question 10
Diagram 10.1 shows the human karyotype for individual M and N, and the gametes that can
be produced through process P.

Individual M Individual N

Process P

Gametes S Gametes T

Diagram 10.1

Based on the human karyotype in Diagram 10.1:

(a) State the total number of chromosome in a somatic cell for individual M and individual

[ 1 mark ]

(b) State one difference between individual M and N.

[ 1 mark ]

(c) S and T represent the gametes produced through process P. Complete Diagram 10.1 to
show the number and type of chromosomes inherited by gamete S and T. [ 2 marks]


Seminar 1 Biology

(d) Based on your answer (c), explain the process P.

[ 2 marks ]

(e) Explain the type of variation shown by individual M and N.

[ 2 marks ]