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Dr. Prashanth J.
Assistant Professor
Civil Engineering Department
NIT Silchar

Self-financed Course on
“Recent Advancements in Environmental Engineering”

 Name: Dr. Prashanth J.

 PhD: Coastal Engineering from NIT Surathkal
 “Parametric studies on reshaping berm breakwater with concrete
cubes as armor units”
 Areas of research Interest:
 Coastal Engineering
 Concrete Technology
 Soft computing Techniques

 Publications:
 International Journals – 4
 National Journals – 1
 International Conferences – 6
 National Conferences – 15
 Books – 1


 Introduction
 Sources

 Effects

 Mitigation

 Prevention and Control

 India’s Coastline


What is Marine Pollution ??

Marine pollution is any rubbish

that ends up in the water that
affects anything that lives

The rubbish ends up in the

oceans by people using it as a
giant dustbin.


As per World Health Organization

The introduction by man, directly or indirectly, of substances

or energy into the marine environment, including estuaries,
which results or is likely to result in such deleterious effects
as harm to living resources and marine life, hazards to human
health, hindrance to marine activities, including fishing and
other legitimate users of the sea, impairment of quality for
use of sea water and reduction of amenities.

Quick Facts about the Ocean

 Our Planet is made up of

70% water.

 There is
gallons (326 million trillion)
of water on the Earth.

 96% of water on the earth is

ocean water.

Facts on Marine Pollution

 Over 80% of the pollution in the

ocean is runoff from the Land
 Almost 90% of all floating
materials in the ocean are plastic
 Marine debris, especially plastic,
kills more than one million
seabirds and 100,000 mammals
and sea turtles every year
 Dead Zones which are areas of
oxygen deficient water were life
ceases to exist, have increased
drastically over the past decade.
Why marine pollution is a concern?

 We should care about the

continuing environmental
degradation of our oceans and
costal areas because it is
detrimental to human health,
economic development, climate
and our planet's store of

 It is interfering with the

sustainability of environment
and its resources.
Sources of Marine Pollution

 Point Source – Direct discharge to sea

 Non-Point Source – Indirect discharge to sea

Sources of Marine Pollution Contd…

(1) domestic sewage flushed into the sea

(2) pesticides and insecticides from agricultural fields carried by
streams, rivers and estuaries
(3) the industrial effluents of diverse types discharged into sea
(4) oil substances from submarine seeps, land drainage, oil tankers
and refinery wastes,
(5) radio active wastes discharged from nuclear power stations,
(6) wastes discharged from thermal power stations,
(7) solid wastes
(8) atmospheric pollution and
(9) debris from ocean bed explorations for oil and minerals.
Sources of Marine Pollution Contd…
The origin of various sources of pollution are shown below

Marine pollution: Sewage

 The waste we flush down the

toilet is a big problem. This is
called sewage.
 Typically the problem with sewage
is that it causes massive nutrient
loading in the ocean ecosystem.
 When nutrient loading occurs
there will often be algae blooms
in the water leading to the loss of
dissolved oxygen.
 After the depletion of oxygen
levels from sewage, many
organisms in the ocean die from
being unable to breathe properly. 4/26/2018
Marine pollution: Sewage Contd…

 Other problems associated

with sewage include
parasites/bacteria that
require the closing of coastal
beaches and poisoned
shellfish fisheries.
 For the most part cities in the
developed world have
sewage treatment facilities
but many of the cities in
poorer areas have little to no
sewage treatment.
Marine pollution: Agriculture

 Fertilizers that runoff from farms and lawns is a huge

problem for coastal areas. The extra nutrients cause
 The dead Algae which depletes the water's dissolved
oxygen and suffocate other marine life.
 Eutrophication is the addition of artificial or natural
substances, such as nitrates and phosphates,
through fertilizers or sewage, to an aquatic system.
 Eutrophication has created enormous dead zones in several
parts of the world, including the Gulf of Mexico and the
Baltic Sea

Marine pollution: Agriculture Contd…

 DDT was a widely used pesticide that became concentrated

in marine fish.

 DDT caused brown pelicans and ospreys to produce thin

egg shells.

 Worldwide, DDT has been banned from agricultural use

but is still used in limited quantities for public health

Marine pollution: Industrial Effluents
 These are toxic substances that are released by the
industrialized nations and make their way into ocean systems.

 Toxic chemicals often enter ocean systems through food chains

and affect organisms at different times and places from where
they were released.

 Heavy metal poisoning (such as lead and mercury) from

industrial effluents amass in the tissues of top predators such as
whales and sharks. Many a times such poisoning causes birth
defects and damages nervous system.

Marine pollution: Industrial Effluents Contd…

 PolyChlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial chemicals

used as liquid coolants and insulation in industrial
equipment such as power transformers

 PCBs enter the marine environment through leaks and

from discarded equipment

 PCBs can accumulate in animal tissues and affect



Marine pollution: Oil

 Oil is discharged in to the sea

in various forms as crude oil
and as separate fractions.
Most of the oil fractions are

 Oil and its fractions are used

in various ways from
household needs to
automobiles and industries.
Marine Oil Pollution

Marine pollution: Oil Contd…

 The majority of crude oil forms

sticky layers on the surface,
which prevents free diffusion
of gasses, clogs adult organisms
feeding structures and
decreases the sunlight
available for photosynthesis.

 The spilled oil is more

devastating in the marine

Marine pollution: Oil Contd…

 When oil washes up at a

beach, it can negatively
affect the marine

 Oil can coat marine

organisms and render
their insulating fur or
feathers useless

Marine pollution: Oil Contd…
Marine pollution: Radioactive wastes

 Radioactive waste enters the ocean from nuclear weapon

testing, the releasing or dumping of wastes from nuclear fuel
cycle systems, and nuclear accidents.
 Dumping of high-level radioactive waste is no longer permitted
in the ocean, but dumping of low-level wastes is still permitted.
 High-level wastes usually have longer half-lives. For example,
one common high-level waste that is produced by spent nuclear
fuel has a half-life of 24,100 years!
 It has been suggested that contained nuclear waste should be
disposed in the deep sea. So little is known about the deep sea
environment or the consequences of containment leakage and
failure, that the effects could be devastating.
Marine pollution: Thermal Pollution
 In this type, the normal temperature of marine source water
column is increased to 7-80C from the ambient temperature.

 Mostly the power generating plants along the ocean coastlines

use the marine waters for cooling purposes, which leads to
heated water expelled into the marine environment.

 The excess temperature usually gets reduced by various ways.

As the water has higher specific heat, it takes prolonged time
for cooling unless there is an external mechanism to accelerate
this. The dilution by surrounding water, evaporation and
precipitation may accelerate cooling within a reasonable time.


Marine pollution: Solid wastes

 Solid wastes include junked out fishing nets, plastics, general

household garbage, medical wastes, etc.

 In one case an island 480 kms from the nearest inhabited island
had 950 pieces of solid waste ranging from plastics to tin cans.

 Solid wastes in the oceans is a serious issue as fish entangle

themselves in fishing nets and animals sometimes eat trash
products and die.

 There are numerous examples each year of dolphins, sharks and

whales entangling themselves in fishing nets and dying from
oxygen starvation.
Marine pollution: Solid wastes Contd…

 Mostly of non biodegradable plastics made materials such as

used bottles, cups, plastic bags, plastic fishing nets, metal
pieces, abandoned wreckage ships, etc. are dumped into the
sea. This is also called Ocean dumping.

 Even simple plastic bags can

have large impacts within the ocean.
In one case, a deceased sperm whale
was found to have a party balloon
Blocking its digestive system.


Great Pacific Garbage Patch
 The Pacific Ocean hosts the largest trash dump on Earth. It's
called the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. It is the largest landfill
in the world, and it floats in the middle of the ocean.
 The ocean current has actually given birth to two large masses
of ever-accumulating trash, known as the Western and Eastern
Pacific Garbage Patches, sometimes collectively called the
Great Pacific Garbage Patch.
 The Eastern Garbage Patch floats between Hawaii and
California; scientists estimate its size as two times bigger than
Texas (696,241 km²). The Western Garbage Patch forms east of
Japan and west of Hawaii.
 Each swirling mass of refuse is massive and collects trash from
all over the world. 4/26/2018

Great Pacific Garbage Patch

Great Pacific Garbage Patch
 In some areas, the amount of plastic outweighs the amount of
plankton by a ratio of six to one.

 Of the more than 900 lakh tons of plastic the world produces each
year, about 10 percent ends up in the ocean [source: Greenpeace].

 The garbage patches present numerous hazards to marine life,

fishing and tourism.


Marine pollution: Atmospheric pollution
 Wind blown dust and debris, including
plastic bags, are blown seaward from
landfills and other areas.

 Since 1970, dust outbreaks have

worsened due to periods of drought in

 The USGS links dust events to a decline in

the health of coral reefs across the
Caribbean and Florida

 Climate change is raising ocean

temperatures and raising levels of carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere. These rising
levels of carbon dioxide are acidifying the

Marine pollution: Deep sea mining

 Ocean mining sites are usually around large

areas of polymetallic nodules or active and
extinct hydrothermal vents at about 1,400 -
3,700 meters below the ocean’s surface.
 The deposits are mined using either hydraulic
pumps or bucket systems that take ore to the
surface to be processed.
 Removing parts of the sea floor disturbs the
habitat of benthic organisms, possibly,
depending on the type of mining and location,
causing permanent disturbances.
 Near bottom plumes occur when
the tailings are pumped back
down to the mining site.
 Surface plumes cause a more
serious problem. Depending on
the size of the particles and water
currents the plumes could spread
over vast areas.
 Aside from direct impact of
mining the area, leakage, spills
and corrosion would alter the
mining area’s chemical makeup.


Near bottom plumes

Effects of Marine Pollution
 Untreated or partially treated sewage effluent, or organically rich
industrial effluent such as that from fish processing plants, present
a number of problems.

 Oil spills smother plants and animals, preventing respiration. In

seabirds and mammals it can cause a breakdown in their thermal

 Pesticides, such as DDT, and other persistent chemicals e.g. PCBs,

accumulate in the fatty tissue of animals. These chemicals can
cause reproductive failure in marine mammals and birds.

 Plastics kill many marine animals. Turtles, for example, often

swallow floating plastic bags, mistaking them for jelly- fish.
Human Impacts On Marine Environments
 The release of excess nutrients
into coastal waters. Fertilizers
used on land are washed into the
ocean via rivers and streams.
 High nutrient concentrations
cause phytoplankton blooms
such as, red tides, various yellow
and green foams, slimes, and
Also, phytoplankton naturally contains  An excess of oxygen depleting
dimethyl sulfide which is released from chemicals in the water can lead
dead phytoplankton into the to hypoxia and the creation of a
atmosphere and it can change to dead zone.
sulfuric acid to eventually contribute to
acid rain. 4/26/2018
 The oceans are normally a natural
carbon sink, absorbing carbon
dioxide from the atmosphere.

 Structures made of calcium

carbonate may become vulnerable to
dissolution, affecting corals and the
ability of shell fish to form shells.

 Oceans and coastal ecosystems have

removed about 25% of the carbon
dioxide emitted by human activities
between 2000 and 2007 and about
half the anthropogenic CO2 released
since the start of the industrial
revolution 4/26/2018
Noise Pollution
 Marine life can be susceptible to noise or sound
pollution from sources such as passing ships, oil
exploration seismic surveys, and naval low-
frequency active sonar.

 Sound travels more rapidly and over larger

distances in the sea than in the atmosphere.

 Marine animals, such as cetaceans, often have

weak eyesight, and live in a world largely defined
by acoustic information. This applies also to many
deeper sea fish, who live in a world of darkness.

 Between 1950 and 1975, ambient noise in the

ocean increased by about ten decibels (that is a
ten-fold increase).

 Noise also makes species communicate louder,

which is called the Lombard vocal response. 4/26/2018
Effects on humans

 Cholera

 Minmata disease

 Cancer

 Birth defects or long term

health problems

 Loss of recreational beach

 Loss of food

Cost of Marine Pollution

 3.25 million metric tons of oil wasted vs. 3.4 million metric
tons used by Jamaica annually

 100,000 mammal and 20 lakhs bird deaths annually

 Reduction of GDP by decreasing fishery resource (11.9k

tonnes – 7.7k landed 1960-97) and decreased tourism

 Loss of bio-diversity and potential life saving medicines (for

AIDS &Cancer)


Minimizing or avoiding the

creation of pollutants and
wastes can be more effective in
protecting the environment
than treating them, or cleaning
them up after they have been

It is a key component of

environmental protection and
sustainable development.


 Following are a few suggestions that we should carry

out in order for pollution prevention:
 Mind Your Carbon Footprint and Reduce Energy
 Make Safe, Sustainable Seafood Choices

 Use Fewer Plastic Products

 Help Take Care of the Beach

 Support Organizations Working to Protect the Ocean

 Influence Change in Your Community

 Travel the Ocean Responsibly

How to Protect Marine Life ?

From Oil Pollution

From Garbage Pollution

From Accidental Loss or Discharge of Fishing Gear

Plan to reduce and store your garbage

Garbage Waste Management On-board

Shore facilities

Oil Pollution
From Oil Pollution
 The Discharge of Oily Mixtures into the Sea is Prohibited
Discharge of oily mixtures is allowed while in transit must be less than 15
parts of oil to one million parts of water (15ppm). All fishing vessels over
400 tons are required to be fitted with filtering type of equipment
approved to meet standards set by the International Maritime

 Reduce The Potential of an Oil Discharge

• All leakage of fuel oil, lubricating oil and cooling water should be dealt
with as soon as it is detected.
• A drip tray should be fitted under all engines with suitable drainage to a
holding tank or drum for disposal ashore.
• Ensure that engine rooms and other machinery spaces are fitted with
sump plumbing so that any leakage is collected in the sump.
Garbage Pollution
There are many types of waste generated on board fishing
vessels that are prohibited from discharge at sea including
 Trawl and fishing nets
 Synthetic rope
 Plastic sheeting
 "Six pack" holders
 Fibreglass
 Strapping bands
 Plastic "ice" bags
 Bait gaskets
 Paints
 Electrical/electronic equipment
 Disposable eating utensils
 Floats 4/26/2018
Accidental Loss or Discharge of Fishing Gear

Lost fishing gear may harm the

marine environment or create a
navigational hazard. Many marine
animals die as a result of becoming
entangled in, or ingesting discarded
plastic packing straps; netting of all

Garbage such as rope and plastic

material can also get caught in
propeller shafts or block water
intakes causing major damage and
expensive repairs.
Plan To Reduce And Store Your Garbage

The best way to avoid the discharge of

garbage, and the possibility of fines, is
to reduce the amount of potential
garbage taken onboard and the
amount of garbage generated through
the use of packaged items.

Bulk packaging, reusable and

recyclable packaging and avoiding
plastic packaging, unless it is reusable
or recyclable, are all ways to reduce
the amount of waste generated.
Garbage Waste Management Onboard

Every fishing vessel of 100 gross

tonnage and above, and every fishing
vessel certified to carry 15 or more
persons is also now required to carry
a Garbage Management Plan.

The Garbage Management Plan

contains procedures for collecting,
storing, processing and disposing of
garbage, including the use of
appropriate garbage handling
equipment such as storage containers,
compactors or incinerators.
Shore Facilities

If shore facilities are not adequate for the disposal of oil or garbage,
let the marina owner or port authority know. State/Territory and
local officials should also be notified of the inadequate facilities. If
enough fishermen express concern, upgrading of the facilities is
more likely to occur.

“Prevention is better than Cure”
 Domestic sewage
• Green infrastructure approach

• Septic tank

 Industrial wastewater treatment
• Dissolved air flotation

 Spills - Detection and Cleanup
• Strict discipline • Controlled burning
• emergency contingency plan
• Skimming
• Oil spill clean up equipment
• Solidifying
• Bioremediation


 India has a coastline of 7500 km and 2000 km wide

Economic zone.

• The Indian coastline supports almost 30% of its human

• The Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea are rich fishing
• India continues to be the 7th largest marine fishing
nation in the world.

Coastal pollution in India arises mainly from land-based

• Domestic waste
• Industrial effluents
• Agricultural runoff
• Other sources
• Shipping activity
• Offshore exploration & exploitation
• Infrastructural development

Major industries in India responsible for coastal

pollution are,

• Fertilizers
• Sugar
• Textiles
• Chemicals
• Mines and minerals
• Pulp and paper
• Leather
Impact of pollution on coastal ecology

• Corals Reefs – loss due to anthropogenic stress,

collection and recreational activities.

• Mangroves– degradation due to over exploitation

• Fisheries– decline in catch rate due to overfishing and

overdependence on trawlers.

• Beaches– reduction in benthic organisms due to oil

Pollution management in India

 The Ministry of Environment and Forests under the

Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 has declared the coastal
stretches as Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) for regulating the
activities in the CRZ.
 Water quality standards have been issued.
 Effluent standards prescribed for industries.
 Industries are encouraged to
• Set up waste treatment plants
• Adopt measures to minimize waste
• Recycle waste
• Recovery and reuse of waste water


 Marine pollution is a very serious matter that should not be taken

 It affects our health, our wildlife, and most of our entire planet.
 If we keep abusing our environment and keep heading down the
road we're taking, our planet will not see many days ahead of it.
 If we really want our future generations to live on a clean and
healthy planet, we must do what we can to stop and reduce trash.
 Even a simple thing like recycling a water bottle or picking up a few
pieces of trash off the ground everyday can make a world of a

 Menon and Pillai, “Marine Biodiversity Conservation and

Management”, Report, Central Marine Fisheries Research
 N. V. Vinithkumar, “Marine Pollution - A Perspective,
Monitoring and Control in India”, Report, NIOT.
 Raja Insanbir Singh, “Marine pollution Its causes,
consequences and cure”, Report, Panjab University.
 Weis J. S., “Marine Pollution - What Everyone Needs to Know”,
Oxford Publications, 2015.
 Greenpeace reports
Everything is in our hands!!
To save…
To destroy!!!

Sea bin Project

Ocean Clean up Project

Type Primary Source/Cause Effect
Nutrients Runoff approximately 50% Feed algal blooms in coastal waters.
sewage, 50% from forestry, Decomposing algae depletes water
farming, and other land use. of oxygen, killing other marine life.
Also airborne nitrogen oxides Can spur algal blooms (red tides),
from power plants, cars etc. releasing toxins that can kill fish and
poison people.
Sediments Erosion from mining, forestry, Cloud water; impede photosynthesis
farming, and other land-use; below surface waters. Clog gills of
coastal dredging and mining fish. Smother and bury coastal
ecosystems. Carry toxins and excess
Pathogens Sewage, livestock. Contaminate coastal swimming areas
and seafood, spreading cholera,
typhoid and other diseases.

Alien Species Several thousand per day Outcompete native species
transported in ballast water; and reduce biological
69 also spread through canals diversity. Introduce new
linking bodies of water and marine diceases. Associated
fishery enhancement with increased incidence of
projects. red tides and other algal
blooms. Problem in major
Persistent Toxins (PCBs, Industrial discharge; poison or cause disease in
Heavy metals, DDT etc.) wastewater discharge from coastal marine life,
cities; pesticides from farms, especially near major cities
forests, home use etc.; or industry. Contaminate
seepage from landfills. seafood. Fat-soluble toxins
that bio-accumulate in
predators can cause disease
and reproductive failure.

Oil 46% from cars, heavy machinery, Low level contamination can kill
industry, other land-based larvae and cause disease in marine
sources; 32% from oil tanker life. Oil slicks kill marine life,
operations and other shipping; especially in coastal habitats. Tar
13% from accidents at sea; also balls from coagulated oil litter
offshore oil drilling and natural beaches and coastal habitat. Oil
seepage. pollution is down 60% from 1981.

Plastics Fishing nets; cargo and cruise Discard fishing gear continues to
ships; beach litter; wastes from catch fish. Other plastic debris
plastics industry and landfills. entangles marine life or is mistaken
for food. Plastics litter beaches and
coasts and may persist for 200 to
400 years.

Radioactive substances Discarded nuclear Hot spots of radio activity.
submarine and military Can enter food chain and
71 waste; atmospheric fallout; cause disease in marine
also industrial wastes. life. Concentrate in top
predators and shellfish,
which are eaten by
Thermal Cooling water from power Kill off corals and other
plants and industrial sites temperature sensitive
sedentary species.
Displace other marine life.

Noise Supertankers, other large Can be heard thousands of

vessels and machinery kilometers away under
water. May stress and
disrupt marine life.

Different items take different lengths of time to degrade
in water:
Cardboard – Takes 2 weeks to degrade.
Newspaper – Takes 6 weeks to degrade.
Photodegradable packaging – Takes 6 weeks
to degrade.
Foam – Takes 50 years to degrade.
Styrofoam – Takes 80 years to degrade.
Aluminium – Takes 200 years to degrade.
Plastic packaging – Takes 400 years to degrade.
Glass – It takes so long to degrade that we don’t know
the exact time.