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Vol. XXVI, No. VIII London New York Paris 35 Cents a Copy

AUGUST, 1921

C Galloway. N. T.



A Modern Milk Condensery The Present Status of the \V Orld's

Robert G. Skerrett Platinum
Advantages of Using Timbered Richard Hoadley TiriKley
Rill Stopes The Edison Roomful of'Air
H. L. Bicknell Frank Richards

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Dta '\{JZ2I=:=^ X—•--^ w



The Standard Machine for Cooling Chemical and Metallurgical Calcines

Derives its HIGH COOLIXG EFFICIENCY from Vaporization of water from the shell.
Its small openings insure DUSTLESS OPERATION. Low speed and water borne weight
cause UPKEEP COSTS. Cooling by Vaporization results in the

General Chemical Company Norton Company

American Smelting & Refining Co. Empire Zinc Company


Engineers, Manufacturers and Contractors DENVER, COLORADO


Turns a small volume of Compressed
Air into a large volume of
Low Pressure Air
Used for blowing forges and other
purposes requiring large volumes
at low pressures.
An ordinary riveting heating forge requires about cubic feet of free air per minute. When taken from

the Compressed Air line as is common consumes about T.o horse power. The Blower uses only
practice, this
two feet per minute (one-third of one H. P.) and draws in the other 4.3 feet from the open air. This is "free
air" witli a new and profitable meaning. Depending on your power cost, the saving will run from SlO to
$25 per month per forge. Look over your ])rocesses and see what other applications you have for the "Air
Transformer." Then send us an order for a few samples. $10 each, complete with needle valve and in-

ternal strainer, delivered anywhere in the U. S. A. Discount in quantities.

We specialize in devices for securing economy in Compressed Air Systems. Do you want our Bulletin
5-A on Air Meters or Bulletin B on the Blower shown above?

New Jersey Meter Company, Plainf ield, N. J.

As a Wiiltrr of rccil^rocul hiisiin • iirlrsy. Iiflj' litur usiilts
August, 1921 COMI'ia-SSF.D AlK M.IC.l/IXI AHv. 3

Ordinary pneumatic hose. No trouble to On "Commander' blade slips

whittle oS slivers from cover with a knife and slides — can't get a hold

Test its DURABILITY yourself

So conspicuous is the cover durability of our improved "COM-

MANDER" Pneumatic Hose that you can prove to yourself, in a few

minutes that it is a better and more economical hose for the severe
service it encounters.

On request, we will send you a small section. We urge that you com-
pare it with a piece of ordinary pneumatic hose. The very feel will em-
phasize its quality, but

— we want you to go farther. Try your nails on both covers. Pound

both with a rock. Then use your knife. Compare the results!

The B. F. Goodrich Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio

"Commander Tneumatic Hose
Please aid the Advertiser by mentioning Compressed Air Magazine when writing

Use Only

"It Reigns Supreme"


AND ^^^^ ^^
In 'i^^^^^
SOLID m \ ff^~"^ ! STOCK

Trade MarL. Reg. U. S. Pat. OH. 1911

"Bulldog Special" Hollow Drill Steel is

used with all Drills, wherever

the BEST is needed.

Manufactured only by the

International High Speed Steel Co.

Main Office and Works— Rocka way, N. J. New York Office— 99 Nassau St.

As II iiuilli-r of rcii/'rocal bHsiiics.'! lotirtrsy. lu'lf' Inicc n-sults



\ol \\\ I. No \ 111, AiiKlisl. lyji

SOTS — For aubacTipllon term* ite firtt Editorial page

Articles A I'ncuiiiHlUally Operated Plant

for SalvaiilnK (iraln
A MrHlrril Milk |>llil.llser.V— /••|)(>-
t Books for Comiiressed Air Work-
Uunlte In Calumet and Hecia ers 10202
trt (J. Ski-rrcll 10169
Shafts John Kiwi anil Orhn Bury Compressor Co 19
HlKh rres-xurcs and (ireat ReHUlts 10176 Potter 1UI92 Cameron Steam Pump Works. A. 8.6-7-17
CleanKliiK Ship's Oil Tanks wllh Aeroplanes to Prospect for t")ll... 1019:1 Cemenl-iiun Company M
Air Instead of Steam Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co 20

Kditnrlals Canned Milk as a Mi- Cook's Sons. Adam 17
The Pri'smt Status of the Worlds dluni for Public Hrallh Shaping — Cooper Co.. <\&(i
Patlnum —
KIchard Hoadlcy- our New Federal Highway Pol- (tardner (Sovernor Co
Tinglry icies —
Housing the Masses Cicneral Electric Co Fourth Cover
Piercing the Secrets of the Him- IJoodrich Co., B. F
Pneumatic Handling Small 3

ala>'an Air tlood Management (irI.scom-Kussell Co 19
—Minus the "Scientific" Hercules Powder Co 11
Tunnel t'nder the Elbe at Ham- Ingersoll-Rand Co 8-21
Development if the Heine Boiler
10182 International High Speed Steel Co.
in America 10197 4
Air Driven Wire Brush for Met- International Trade Press 9
al Cleaning
Book Reviews 10197 .larccki Mfg. Co 18
Measuring Ventilation in Coal Keller Pneumatic Tool Co 18
Advantages of Using Timbered RUl Keystone Lubricating Co 17
Mines .. 10198
Slopes 10183 Lake Superior Loader Co 13
Bearing Metals
Numerous Fatal Dust Explo- Lidgerwood Mfg. Co 5
sions 10198 New Jersey Meter Co 2
Blower Which Exchanges Pres- Pangborn Corporation 17
sure for Volume
Pneumatic Patents 10199
10189 Washer
Perfection 16
Notes of Industry 10200 Powell Co.. The Wm
The EMlson Roomful of Air Frank 16
Richards 10190 Cooling. Heating and Ventilating Sprague Electric Works 18
System 10201 Stearns-Koger Mfg. ("*o 2
First Ship is Salvaged from Cape Steam Turbine Co
Terr.v- 12
Sable Rock 10190 Technical Books 10201 Yarnall-Waring Co 16

Steam, Electric, Compressed Air, Gasolene for All Types of Hoisting Service
The Lidgerwood Hoists
combine strcngtli and speed. ICvery
part is designed to witlistand the strain
falling upon it when the hoist is work-
ing to its inaxiniuiii capacity.

This attention to the general ilesign

of the hoist and to each individual
part produces a hoist that will stand
the severe us-igc of contr.ictors work,
and give.

Speed Safety
y in operation

Cableways Derricks
Catalan upon request

Philadelphia Pittsburgh Chicago Seattle Lot Angelei London. England

Please aid the Adirrtiscr by iiwiilioninij L'o.Mi'RLsstD Air .M.\uA(ii.\E uhcn uiiting

No matter what else happens the mine pumps cannot be stopped. Your
drilling crew works full time, half time, or not at all, depending upon the
demand for tonnage, but the pumps must keep everlastingly at it. Should
they fail, the work of past years and the hope of the future may be lost.

Where a machine plays such an important part it is folly to gamble. You

must protect yourself and others by installing a pump which you know to be

reliable and sturdy.

Miners know Cameron Pumps —have learned to trust them because of sixty

years of working with Cameron. Whether underground, on the sump or shaft,

or on the surface in the power house or mill, you can rely upon both Cameron
Direct Acting or Centrifugal Pumps.

Request Bulletins
7304, 7350 and 7351

Cameron Pumps
As a matter of reciprocal business (curtesy, help trace rcsulti
August, 1921 COMPRESSED .4 IK

Cameron Pumps are built in many sizes and types with capacities ranging
from 12 gallons per minute up to 60.000 gallons per minute.

Cameron Centrifugal Pumps, Class "DV," are built in single units for heads

up to 230 feet. Arranged in series these pumps are satisfactory for heads
as high as 460 feet. Class "DV" Pumps have capacities ranging from 90 to
20,000 gallons per minute.

Cameron Multi-stage Centrifugal Pumps, Class "MT" are built for pump-
ing against heads as high as 1400 feet. They have from two to five
stages in

a single unit and up to ten stages when two pumps are arranged
in series.

Their capacities range from 125 to 11,000 gallons per minute.

Cameron Direct Acting Pumps range in size from 6 inch stroke to 20 mch
stroke and in capacities from 12 to 610 gallons per minute. These pumps are
for general service work, not requiring too high a suction lift. They may be
operated with either steam or compressed air.

A. S. Cameron Steam Pump Works

1 1 Broadway, New York

Cameron Pumps Magazine when writing

Please aid the Advertiser by mentioning Compressed Air

"300 H. P. Price-Rathbun Oil Engine direct-con-

nected to alternator and D. C. Generator at the
plant of the Avery Rock Salt Mining Company,
Avery Island, Louisiana."

Price Oil Engines

Price Engines will economically adapt themselves to any load conditions
between full and no loads. This close regulation makes them highly sac-
isfactory for operating alternating current generators in parallel.

These engines have positive fuel injection without the use of compressed
air, and consequently avoid the complications incident to the use of high
air pressures.

The ignition is by temperature of compression — the fuel consumption of

Price Engines being 0.45 pounds per shaft horse-power hour.

Another feature of these engines is their remarkably small consumption

of lubricating oil.

If you are considering oil engine drive and you should be— you can
benefit by the experience of our engineers. In the meantime let us send
you complete information on Price Oil Engines. "Vertical, Multi-cylinder en-
gines are built in size* from

Ingersoll-Rand Company 105 to 1000 H. P."

General Offices: 1 1 Broadway, New York

" ^"'
Offices the World Ovi't

Ingecsoll -Rand
As a matter of reciprocal business courtesy, help trace results
August, 1921

Are You In Touch?

Are you in touch with your field? The man
who can instantly put the facts into words, cite

this or that instance with absolute certainty, the

man who follows the work of his field as well as

that of his own efforts is the man who leads. He

is the one who reads ENGINEERING WORLD.

ENGINEERING WORLD is a paper of character, a paper of fact,

with a circulation which reaches the big men, the men with the final
"say so." It is read by Engineers, Architects and big Contractors,
experts who are constantly watching for material which they need in

the building of masterpieces, big and little.

You, with the stroke of a pen can send the story of your product
through the entire engineering field, because ENGINEERING
WORLD used as a handbook of information your story is con-

stantly before the eye of the buyer, your name will not be for-

You can sell your product through the pages of ENGINEERING


D If

you need information— ENGINEERING


WORLD can get it

D for you.

If you desire advertising copy— ENGINEERING WORLD pre-

D pares it for you.

one of elex'en publications is
published by the Interna-

D tional Trade Press, Inc.

Engineering World of Engineering' and Conslruclion

A Journal
U. S. A.

Please aid the Advertiser by mentioning Comfressku

Air Magazine tcher, uriling


Gardner Motor Drnen Air Compressor

in works of Marine Engineering Co.,
'Boston, Mass.

The General Superintendent of the

Marine Engineering Co., Boston, says:

"Your air compressor has given such

good satisfaction that we would cer-
tainly recommend it to any one who
might be interested.
It is never out of
order, standing up in wonderful

shape, and has required no repairs

since its installation."

Good words, such as these, follow

Gardner Pumps,
the installation of
Governors and Compressors almost
There is a Gardner Pump, invariably.
Governor or Compressor
just right for practically
every job. Our experience THE GARDNER GOVERNOR COMPANY
is at your service Quincy. Illinois
'Pumps — Gorcrtiors — Compressors

As a matter of reciprocal bustiiess courtesy, help trace results


A Crystal Muck Pile

The mull of a Herailri shot.
These salt mines su^es- vast erys-
' '
tiilpaUices. Mueiing shouUl be
' '

a pleasure utiJer such conJitions

Hercules Dynamite In Salt

Salt the only edible ore — an important mining

product. At the salt mines of Central Kansas the

salt occurs at depths varying from 850 to more
than 1000 feet. In places the vein of salt is over
ten feet thick.

One of the problems in this district was to ol->-

tain an explosive that would not stain the salt.
This problem was solved by producing a dyna-
mite, made on a special oxygen excess formula,
A Well-Salted Mine known as Hercules Special Salt Dynamite. It
Thii seam of salt al Kanopohs, Kansas, is lOYi feet breaks the salt satisfactorily, but does not stain it.
ihiei. Three set-ups of the aho'vc machtne are required
10 drill a standard round of 2i holes. An undercut is This is just one illustration of Hercules service. Different
made luilh a coal-culling type of machine before blast- problems are encountered in underground and open-pit min-
ing the sail iviih Htrcules Special Salt Dynamite.
ing as well as other classes of work. The Hercules Powder
Co. has developed explosives that meet requirements in each
Branch Offices individual case.
Cbinco St. Louii New York
Pimburc. Kao. Denver Hazlcton. Pa. Cut out and mail the coupon below. It \\ ill bring you an
San Francisco Salt Lake Cay Joplin
book that describes these different explosives and
Cbananooca Pituburcb. Pa. Wilminrlun. DcL
the various accessories necessani' for effective blasting.


Wilmington 964 Market Street
Please send mc a copy of your bouk "Hercules Products".

Company ..


Please aid the Advertiser by mentioning Compressed Air Magazine when writing


Turbo Gas Exhausters and Boosters

TEAM turbines, because of their high speed characteristic,
are ideal for driving bh)wers and compressors. Their flexibil-
ity permits highly efhcient operation regardless of the varia-
tion in quantity of air (jr gas desired. This is because the speed of
the turbine may be controlled so that the blower or compressor will
deliver any cjuantity within its range at the desired pressure without
the throttling, which is so detrimental to high efficiency.

Terry turbines are furnished in sizes up to 1,000 H.P., condensing

or non-condensing, for this class of service.

There are more than eighteen hundred Terrys now in operation,

driving exhausters, boosters, blowers and fans for many diti'erent
classes of service.
Write for Bulletin 25

'Of/ices in Principal Cities

ThcTcrrij Steam Turbine Co.
in U.S.A. also in Important
Industrial Foreign Countries Terry 5q.Jiartlord.Comi.U.SA.

/is a vialtcr of reciprocal business courtesy. Uclf' trace results
August, 1921 COMPRF.SSr.D .I/A- M.ICAZIXE Adv. 13


Protects, Preserves and
The cut shows the Kellogg Tunnel,
Concentrator Building and Change House
now Gunited at the mine yards of the
Bunker Hill and Sullivan Mines, Kellogg,
Idaho, where within the past few years
several fires have broken out with dis-
astrous results.
Gunited buildings present a neat
uniform appearance and turnish the high-
est degree of protection against fire and
Simplicity and ease of application,
as well as fire and water proofing
qualities, perfect insulation from
heat and cold, permanency and
economy, are outstanding features
of Gunite.
Let us tell you about the applications
of the "Cement-Gun." Write for our

Cement-Gun Co., Inc.

Cornwells Heights, Bucks Co., Pa.
31) Cluii-cli N. Y. City;
St., (in; Chamber of Comnieroe
BIdg.. Chicago; 211 Fulton BldR.. PittsbuiKh Citizens ;

National Bank BldR.. Los Aneolcs 812 Va. Light & Pow-

ei- Bldg., Richmond; 615 Mohawk Block. Spokane; Eas-

I. Ill


Canada General Supply Co.. 360 Sparks St., Otta-
Mild S5 Water St.. Winnipeg. Man,

The "Cement-Gun is not a re<tricted

article. It may be purchased outright and

used by anyone. We sell Traylor Portable

Air Compressors.

As a matter of rccif'rocal business ioiirlisy, liclp trace results

;^Pr4ncipal Offices
No 1
1 , B R O A D WAY."^^^;il3

A Modern Milk Condensery

Indispensable Services Performed by the Vacuum Pump and the Compressor in

Supplying a Fitting Substitute for Fresh Milk

IS A far cry up-to-date machinery, as manufacturing re-
IT quirements increased, has resulted in quan-
from the lowing
kine to the pulsing PHE VACUUM pump or the tity production of high-grade and thoroughly
compressor; and the
compressor reversed plays
air satisfactory preserved milks.
layman may not read- the principal role in one of History has a way of repeating itself. Des-
ily grasp that a link America's industries that pite his initial success, there was only a mod-
exists between nutri- turns out annually products est demand for Borden's condensed milk up
tion and the vacuum to the value of more than to 1861, but the Civil War gave birth to con-
pump. But we shall see presently that engi- $190,000,000. ditions thatonce emphasized the useful-
neering has its contact with the pasture lands In the United States there are ness and the value of the article. Similarly,
and is doing much to amplify our dietary and fully 240 factories engaged in while the succeeding decades of peace afford-
to give people remote from our browsing
the condensing of milk, and in ed a continually increasing market for milk
herds an abundance of a food peculiarly the course of a twelvemonth of this kind, still the years of the World War
necessary to the maintenance of a balanced they handle quite 4,500,000,- led to a tremendous expansion of the business.
000 pounds of the raw com- In 1913, American factories produced sub-
The scientist
is gradually driving home modity. stantially 250,000,000 cans of sweetened con-
to us that milk can and should play a far big- In reducing the volume 45 per densed milk and 390,000,000 of unsweetened
ger part in our bodily economy than is com- cent, necessary to evapo-
it is
or evaporated milk, the cans being of differ-
monly appreciated. A plenty of fresh or so- rate and condense a tremen- ing weights, and the large size usually of one
called "fluid milk" is not within the reach of
dous quantity of water with- pound. In 1919, our plants put up 2,031,000,000
everyone, not necessarily because of cost but out cooking the milk the pounds of condensed milk, and this represent-
largely by reason of physical circumstances
while. This is effected ed a total value of about $193,000,000.
that hamper transportation and refrigeration through the agency of the Exact figures are not at present available
prior to consumption. Fresh milk is a per-
vacuum pan linked with a showing the amount of capital invested in the
ishable article. Therefore, the technicist has
condenser and vacuum pump. buildings and equipment of this industry to-
done his best to provide a fitting substitute,
Very few of the general pub- day, but ten years ago the structures and their
and thanks to his cunning, preserved milks lic are familiar with the apparatus cost $15,000,000. With the expan-
are to-day available that will answer every
methods of operation of this sion that has taken place since the money
purpose and which may be distributed far and vast business, and yet the involved now cannot be less than $30,000,000
wide with little fear of spoiling. subject is one that concerns — indeed, the sum is probably a good deal
hundreds of millions of peo- more.
How many of us are aware of the extent
of the milk condensing industry in this coun- Before describing tlie various activities in
try? And, further, what percentage of us has a typically modern plant, confusion may be
any knowledge of the care that is exercised avoided by differentiating between the two
in turning out a can of this foodstuff that will virtues in and anywhere under the
storage forms of canned milk most marketed sweet- :

be fit for human consumption and which, be- sun. In short up-to-date methods of manu- ened condensed milk and evaporated milk,
sides, will remain good for a long while after facture place condensed milk, in a nutrition- which is unsweetened. Up to n point both
itspreparation? To the uninitiated, a modern al sense, on a par with fresh milk. It is both commodities are subjected to the same pre-
milk-condensing plant is a revelation; and a food and a medicine. paratory treatment, but the omission of sugar
a trip through one is bound to create a most Commercially speaking, the production of from the evaporated milk imposes some addi-
favorable impression. condensed milk dates from 1856, when Gail tional operations. Let us take the first pro-
The condensing of milk is by no means a Borden established his first factory for its cedure followed in turning out the older var-
simple undertaking. Judgment and caution making at Wolcottville, Connecticut The in- iety, i. e., sweetened condensed milk, and
must be displayed at every step; and just in dustry, then in an experimental stage, has imagine ourselves in the heart of one of
proportion to the measure of this supervision gone through various evolutional processes. New York State's richest agricultural dis-

the finished commodity will retain its original The continual adoption of new facilities and tricts.


Driving a herd from pasture to ually late in the afternoon aj ve grazed all day on the lush gra^ss
of the meadows.

The condensery is a substantial looking Milk is examined in other ways as well. pounds, a like number of times with hot
structure, and and centrally plac-
at the front For instance, samples are scrutinized at var- water, in which soda has been dissolved. The
ed is a receiving station which is conveniently ious intervals for the determination of sedi- cans issue from this apparatus perfectly ster-
linked with highway. An elevated ap-
the ment milk received. Every pos-
in the fluid ilized, and dry. After the milk has been weigh-

proach brings, one by one, the laden and wait- sible safeguard is thrown around the raw milk ed, and the producer has been duly credited
ing motor trucks and horse-drawn vehicles in order that there may be no doubt of its with the amount received, the fluid is fed to a
to a level where they can easily discharge fitness for human consumption when canned. big rectangular storage tank, where it is stir-
their loads of fresh milk carried in the big To this end, in many dairies, especially where red continually by power-operated paddles to
containers familiar to most of us. In the the herds are large, mechanical milking is prevent the butter fat from rising.
receiving room are white-clad workers, and resorted to. Apart from minimizing laboi With a long string of milk-laden vehicles
cleanliness manifested in every direction.
is thisprocedure makes for cleanliness and obvi- steadily discharging at the receiving station,
One expert opens and smells every can; and ates contact with human hands. These me- the quantity of milk exceeds the capacity of
if the odor betrays the slightest taint the chanical milkers are all of them adaptations the tank mentioned, and from that reservoir
milk is rejected and returned to the producer. of the suction pump, and much ingenuity has it is drawn off and led to a battery of circular
If the milk be acceptable then another at- been exercised in bringing them up to their tanks where rotary sweeps keep the milk in
tendant takes one or more samples from each present stage of effectiveness. There are motion. All of these tanks can be chilled by
wagon or truckload of milk and tests are ; thousands of these apparatus now in ser- cold water circulating through an enveloping
made therefrom to ascertain the average but- vice. jacket.
ter-fat content. The measure of butter fat es- The arriving milk is dumped into a large The next stage of the process is to feed the
tablishes the price to be paid for the milk measuring tank, and the containers are then cool milk to hot wells. These are large, open-
delivered. The higher the percentage of but- put immediately through a washing machine topped cylindrical vessels wherein tlie milk
ter fat or cream, as it is commonly known, the where they are twice cleansed with cold water is heated to the required degree by means of

more the farmer gets for his product. and then sprayed, at a pressure of about 150 steam. The hot wells are only partly filled

lllwsiralloiis, CoiirtiRy Hnri1rii (•imili-iisoil MIIU Co

A tj/pi'-al up-to-date milk condensery located in the heart of tilk i* plentiful and 0/ eacellent qualitv- ^ plant of thi»
lort represent* an outlay 0/ quite a quarter 0/ a m«Iton dollar*.

with the raw milk inasmuch as it expands and

rises rapidly when sufficiently heated. The
operation is halted the moment this upward
movement brings the foaming mass level with
the top of the well. .Miont 2.000 pounds of
milk are dealt with at a single heating. The
purpose of this "forewarming" is to destroy
most of the bacteria, yeast, molds, etc., that
may be present both in the milk and the sugar
which is added at this time.
The sugar content is varied from sixteen
to nineteen pounds per 100 pounds of raw
milk. Now for the actual condensing, the
prime work of the plant, which brings into

play the big vacuum pans closed vessels of
shining copper. These are the vital organs
of the condensery, and every other process or
function is tributary to these dominating ap-
paratus. According to the size of the estab-
lishment the number of the vacuum pans var-
ies, but in the factory visited there were three

of these capacious caldrons.

Emphasis is laid upon the part played by
the vacuum pans because in no other way Vacuutti pump .short-belted to an electric motor.

would it be feasible to secure the desired re-

sults to the satisfaction of the ultimate con-
sumer and commercial requirements ; and
here we see how the vacuum pump, per sc, or
the compressor reversed figures in one of
America's greatest industries. The penumatic
engineer stands forth again. Each vacuum
pan has a maximum diameter of something
like seven feet, and the cylindrical portion is
surmounted by a glistening dome. A steam
jacket at the bottom of the pan and a series
of copper coils within the body or cylindrical
section constitute the heating elements.
The coils can be operated separately; and
as these are placed at different heights steam
is admitted to each only when it is covered

by the milk. In the dome is a glazed dead-

light through which the rays of an incandes-
cent globe can be projected into the vacuum I,;ival Sc|>ar,it<>r Co,
pan so that the attendant can watch the height pump short-belted to an electric motor. The dairy <r' •!• \ \'uJ Academy. Gamltrills.

of the milk and regulate the use of the several Md., showing iimiimdiic device for milking
coils accordingly. When the apparatus is in
full swing the milk tumbles about violent-

ly. The vapor given off by the milk

is withdrawn through the action of a
powerful vacuum pump, and this steam passes
from the top of the dome into a condenser.
A vacuum pan of the size in question will
handle, in the course of a working day, fully
100,000 pounds of fluid milk. The milk is
drawn into the pan continuously, but only in
such volume as to offset evaporation. The
aim is to keep the top of the milk at a fairly
constant level, and at a point a little above
the uppermost coil.
The primary object in boiling the milk in
vacuo is lower the temperature at which
vaporizing takes place. Under normal condi-
tions, the boiling point of milk is about 214
degrees Fahrenheit. If actually heated to this
extent the milk would acquire a noticeably
cooked which is undesirable, and the
commodity would change color and become
rather dark. Therefore, the manufacturer
seeks to induce evaporation without inviting
these objectionable changes, and does this by
heating the milk in a partial vacuum. Further,
condensing in vacuo is more economical, can

be accomplished quicker, and for this reason,

the effective capacity of the apparatus is in-
By starting the vacuum pump, and thus
promoting the exhaustion of the vacuum pan,
a suction is created which causes the milk to
flow up into it from the hot wells. As the
milk rises and submerges one coil after an-
other inside the pan, the attendant admits
steam successively to the jacket and to the
various coils. Condensing takes approximately
two hours and the consistency of the milk is

tested from time to time by means of hydro-

meters. It follows logically that a milk rich

in fat will yield more of the condensed pro-

duct than milk low in solids. In round figures,

it requires appro.xiinately 2^4 gallons of fresh
milk to give one gallon of condensed milk.
The vacuum occasioned by the pump ranges
from 25 inches to 28 inches in the pan, and
the higher the partial vacuum the lower the
boiling point. As a matter of interest, water
boils temperature slightly over 126 de-
at a
grees Fahrenheit in a vacuum of nearly 25.9
inches, while with a vacuum of 28 inches the
water will boil at 100 degrees Fahrenheit.
One of the biggest problems in condensing
milk of the sweetened kind is to prevent the
sugar from crystallizing and thus causing what
is known as "sandiness." Success in this direc-

tion depends upon a number of things, such as

the method employed and the time chosen for
adding the sugar, and the temperatures used
both in the hot wells and the vacuum pans,
not to mention the cooling practices after
condensation. Each manufacturer has his own
way of dealing with phase of the sub- this
ject, and. naturally, keeps his procedure secret.
That a satisfactory product is the reward only
of much care is exemplified by the fact that
a deficiency in sugar is apt to invite a gelatin-
ous milk or one that may spoil. On the other
hand, an excess of sugar is certain to produce
When the sweetened milk has been suffici-
ently concentrated it is discharged from the
vacutmi pans into glass-lined tanks whence it
flows through cooHng coils, chilled by circulat-
ing brine supplied by the refrigerating plant
\fur being cooled to the desired degree, the
milk goes on to other glass-lined tanks, and
iinni them it descends to the can-filling ma-

\'i>u Icl ii> go back and lake up the story of

evaporated milk, which was not successfully
maiuilaclined until 1885, and was then un-
doubtedly the outcome of the experience gain-
ed in the production of sweetened condensed

milk The fact thai evaporated milk is tm

swcelened necessilales ihal it he given certain
^perial Irealments llial will make it acceptable
In the nitininte purchaser and insure its keep-
ing qualities.
Ill making evaporated milk, the fluid passes
ihrnugli the hot wells and the vacuum pans.
lU'-l as does the preserved milk, but, of course,
no sugar is added in the hot wells. When the
milk has reached the desired density in a
vacuum pan, the hot and thickened liquid is

withdrawn and fed to a macliinc known to

the industry as a homoRcniicr. This is a six-
/( M by nipOMS of thnur that Ihr water rontcnt of the milk (n rerlucfd
In preparinp aweetenrd condcnacit or evaporated milk. cylinder apparatus of powerful construction

Phases of Can Making and Packing in the Condensed Milk Industry

Fig. 1. The machitus that stamp out the lo;i.s, bottoms ami rai>.i of cans. S.urlion rup.i pick up Ihr blanks of tin platr and handle Ihcm tike
ao many human fingers. Fig. 2. A heading machine which squecsca the tops and bottoms of the cans into place upon the bodies of the containers
prior to their being put through the soldering machine. Fig. 3. To the left is the machine that bends the blanks for the can bodies prior to their
soldering, which is also done mechanicallu. Fig. i. The finishing stage in the can-making shop. The hot cans, after issuing from the last of th«
machines, are cooled by an air blast as they travel on the way to the testing apparatus before passing into the filling room. Fig. 5. Before the
newly made cans are passed on to the filling department they are subject to a test for tightness. In this case the cans make the circuit of a vacuum
testing apparatus, and cans that leak automatically drop into a chute and are discarded. Fig. 6. Placing the cans in boxes ready for shipment.

which pumps the milk and forces it, under a is designed to hold just enough milk to charge stations beneath the plungers, the discs are
pressure of 3500 pounds, through a series of the waiting empty container. They are filled dropped over the filling holes by releasing the

fine apertures. simultaneously, and the operation is controlled vacuum.

From these constricted outlets the milk is- by the working of a lever. A plunger in each The moves a short distance to a
tray then

sues in thin films This process

or streams. cylinder determines the exact quantity of milk second mechanism which places a ring of
serves to pulverize or to break up the globules that can run into it. One of these cylinders solder upon each cap. Finally, the cans reach

of butter fat so that these very fine particles has its tubular glass lining exposed so that a near-by soldering machine, and at the right

remain thereafter distributed throughout the the attendant can see when it is exhausted. moment multiple gas-heated irons are lowered

milk and do not tend to combine again. Other- The outlet of that cylinder is slightly smaller which melt the solder and then, by rotating
wise, the lighter solids would go to the top than the exhaust nipples of the other cylinders, upon their vertical axes, make sure that every
and the heavier ones to the bottom of the con- and, therefore, the milk takes a little longer to point on the rim of the disc is sealed.

tainer —a condition that is distasteful to a escape. In the case of sweetened condensed milk
purchaser. Accordingly, when the index cylinder is nothing more is necessary except to label the
Leaving the homogenizer, the evaporated empty the watcher knows that the other cans cans pack them in cases, and
milk is carried through water-cooled coils by must be filled, and then allows the tray to pass run them directly into waiting cars for ship-
which the temperature is brought down to 60 onward to the machines that seal the con- ment. But evaporated milk, before the labels
degrees Fahrenheit and the next stage of its
tainers. In this fashion lot after lot of the are pasted on, must undergo a concluding
journey takes it to the brine cooler, where its cans are duly charged. treatment to insure its keeping qualities. That
The sealing operation is effected by three is to say, the cans of evaporated milk are sub-
temperature drops to 45 degrees Fahrenheit.
The brine is chilled by the expansion of liquid apparatus. One is equipped with a group of jected to sterilizing by being exposed for a
ammonia from the ammonia compressor. When small hollow plungers or rods that move verti- while to the heat of live steam.
thus cooled, the milk is discharged into callyand which are connected with a suction The sterilizers are big cylindrical affairs of

enamel-lined tanks, from which it flows by pump, and there is a rod or pneumatic finger steel capable of dealing at one time with 6,720
gravity to the can-filling machines. One of for every can in the tray. The first action of The cans are
cans, the contents of 140 cases.

these fillers will handle 100,000 sixteen-ounce the plungers, in advance of the arrival of the set inmetal crates and run into a series of
cans a day. The cans are fed into the ap- laden containers, is to descend and pick up a compartments in a revolving framework some-
paratus in tray lots and are run under a cor- likenumber of little tin discs or caps. A mo- thing like a Ferris wheel. When the sterilizer
responding number of cylinders each of which ment later, when the cans have taken their is thus loaded, its door is closed and the re-

Fif/. 1. The rrrcivitio rnnvi of n viilk rondcnnrrj/, where thr ntn-ifinp fnmlstuff i.^ rnrr/uiiy inspected ami then trciphrti hp an automatir mn-
rhtne. Fig. 2. Clcaninu '"'"'' ulrriUsing tnllk coim brfnrr reluming Ihrm In Ihc ftairgtiirn. Fig. 3. .No mnlirr how rarrfullg ninnnfarlured, or
how exact the technique cmploj/crf in that work, the real teat of the ijualilu of milk, is after all, in the laboratory. Fig. i. So milk m allowed to
enter the supply sent to a condenser]/ until after each cow has been carefully examined by a competent veterinarian. This insures that no milk <«
used which is not safe and wholesome for hvmtyn oonsumptioty.
August, 1921 COMPRESSED AIR MAdA/INE 10175

tort is almost filled with hot water. The tem- course, arc carried on and are duly delivered ands of the pojmlation. Fresh milk is not
perature of this fluid is raised to the desired to the fillers. available to a great many of these people be-

point and maintained there as long as neces- Canned milk was a liiHin to the army and cause of the climate and the difficulties of
sary by the admission of steam. All the while the navy during the recent cunflict, and it has distribution, but condenseil milk can be deliv-
the lranicwi>rk. with its burden of cans of played a conspicuous part in succoring the ered there and kept without fear of spoil-

evaporated milk, slowly revolves. The maxi- sick and the under-nourished in <listresscd ing until needed.
mum temperature and the duration of ex- Kurope, not to mention the afflicted in the Agoodly number of us may not be aware of
posure to it vary agreeably to the seasonal famine-stricken districts of China. Indeed, it, but condensed milk makes it possible to
character of the milk, and the sterilizing is, sick or well, millions are benefited the world satisfy the ever-increasing demand for ire
for that reason, under the supervision of an over by canned milk. Recently, governmental cream. The milk for this purpose is concen-

expert. medical experts have shown that condensed trated without the use of cane sugar, and is
It will be noted that from the moment the milk is likely to help us potently at home in sold in bulk. This commodity is shipped to
raw milk is first received and dumped into the preventing pellagra and in curing the pella- the market in 40-quart cans and it will re-

weighing tank until it is condensed and packed grins in certain of our Southern States where main unaffected week or two if stored
for a

In the cans it is dealt with mechanically and this disease levies its toll upon tens of thou.>- al a proper temperature. The advantage of
untouched by the hands of the operatives.
t'leanlii\ess prevails on all sides and sanitary
precautions are exercised at every step to pre-
vent contamination by microorganisms. This
story would not be complete without reference
to the can-making department of the con-
densery, where the tins are turned out at the
rate of 180 a minute. The manufacture of the
cans is, in the main, a machine proposition, and
labor reduced to a minimum.
is From the
original sheets of tin arestamped and cut the
bodies, the bottoms, the tops with their filling
holes, and the small caps that seal the cans.
Suction cups on the ends of hollow spindles
pick up the metal sheets and feed them to the
cutters and stampers.
The body strip of tin is run through a ma-
chine that bends it into a cylinder, and from
there the part is delivered by a conveyer to
the soldering apparatus. Next, the soldered
body moves on to the assembling mechanism
where the top and bottom, with their edges
crimped, are forced into position. The suc-
ceeding operations alternately solder first one
end and then the other — the slightly tilted can
and then through
rolling first through the flux
a shallow V-shaped trough filled with molten
solder. So far, so good, but the cans must be
tested to make sure that they will not leak
when filled with milk.
As the containers leave the last soldering
machine they speed down a runway and into
recesses set between the double rims of a
vertical wheel. Here each can is caught and
held by a pair of oppositely-facing rubber discs.
and at the same time air under pressure is
forced into the can through its filling aper-
ture. Gripped in this manner, the revolving
wheel plunges the containers successively into
a tank of water. If the soldering has not been
perfect, the compressed air promptly finds an
avenue of escape, and tell-tale bubbles risin^r
through the water instantly locate the defec-
tive can.

At some condenseries the testing is done

differently. The cans are picked up by a hor-
izontal wheel equipped with numerous hollow
spokes each of which terminates in a suction 3/nro/irr;ric co/*D£mf^
cup which is brought against the can top and
over the filling aperture. At a point in its cir-
cular journey on the rotating wheel the con-
tainer is released so that it will drop if the
suction cup cannot hold it. This the cup is
not able to doif the can leaks and air enters

through any hole— thus neutralizing the effort

of the suction. The sound containers, of

this is obvious, and tlie national sweet tooth and the compressor and the dairy herds feed- HIGH PRESSURES AND GREAT
is It is not hard now
catered to accordingly. ing upon tlie lush grass of the valleys watered RESULTS
to grasp the link between the suction pump by streams of crystal purity. Dr. Georges Claude has evolved radical im-
provements and developed high economy in
the liquefaction of air and in the direct com-
bination of nitrogen and hydrogen in gener-
ating ammonia sylithetically. Dr. Claude ob-
tains his ammonia in the liquid form, and
realizes his ultimate product at an outlay far
below that possible where the Haber cycle of
operations is employed. He subjects the com-
bining gases to a pressure of fully goo atmos-
pheres. The first stage of the work involves
the liquefaction ofwell-known
air by the
Claude equipment, after which the nitrogen
is separated from the oxygen by a fractional

distillation. The gaseous nitrogen is then

mixed with a suitable proportion of hydrogen
and compressed to 1,500 lbs. to the sq. in.
The next step is to raise this compression
to 3,000 lbs., using ordinary compressors for
these two stages. In the third operation a
new type of compressor is called into service
which increases the pressure to 13,500 lbs.
an achievement until now deemed feasible in
the laboratory only. Under the best condi-
tions, the Haber process converts into am-
Typical pump fo Iter supply in condenseriea. monia only from ten to twelve per cent, of
the gaseous nitrogen and hydrogen, while for
the Claude installation it is claimed it is

possible to get three times this measure ot

ammonia, and the ammonia is delivered di-
rectly in the liquid form.


When a ship has been used as an oil tanker
for some time, there accumulates inside the
tanks quantities of poisonous gases. It is, of
course, essential toremove these gases very
thoroughly before men can go into the tanks
to do any necessary repairs. An improvement
on the old methods, where steam was used,
which was often ineffective, is afforded by an
apparatus that docs the work with air says
Popular Mechanics A long canvas tube is
lowered into the tank, its bottom end being
tightly cotniectcd to a nozzle-ended pipe con-
veying air under pressure. Near this point
there are two holes in the canvas tube, and
when the compressed air is turned on, it
travels at a high rate of speed inside the tube,
causing suction at these holes that draws the
gases in with the flowing air, and carries
them to the upper open end of the tube.


.\ir cxprissos at the London Terminal are
to be supplied with gasoline in bulk by a
storage pressme system in order to save lime
in the ground operations of the cross-chan-
nel service. I'Texible pipes will be carried
Ironi large tanks to the airplanes and
fed by pressure, eliminating the previous
method of employing mechanics to empty can
alter can into the machine.
The filling by hand of the tanks of a 450-
horscpowcr, ciKlit-scatcr air express takes
nearly one and a half hours, but it will be
possible to replenish thctii in about fifteen
Air lift nynlcm suitable for gupplping water for viilk conitciijicrtca. minutes by the new system.

The Present Status of the World^s Platinum

Colombian Production Replacing the Depleted Russian Output Operations in Colombia —
Now Carried on by Two Modern Dredges to be Increased to a Larger Scale
VARIOL'S AUTHORITIES place the total l.oi,don in Mr. Lewis adds in
1854 at 18.J13. sia. Closely following this other Ural deposits
prodiKtit'ii 111 iihitiiumi in the world to his report to Royal Society of London,
the were discovered and jilalinum began slowly to
date at between Kair million and five million however, that if he were able to still further assume its place in coniiiiercial history with
troy ounces. Assuming tour and one-half mil- purify the metal, its weight would probably be Russia -d^ the kadiiig iimiluicr.
lionounces as a tair average, at today's prices, increased. (The specific gravity of pure plati- Platinum Operations in Colombia
about $73 per ounce, this would represent a num is now determined at 21.5). Althougli Colombia has long held place as
value of $jj8,5oo,ooo. If the entire supply In 1783 the first platinum ingot was made the second largest producer of the world's
could have been marketed at the top-notch by Chabaneau, a French chemist, in the form platinum, its volume, until recently, has been

price of lyiy (and, of course, it couldn't) thv of a cube of about four inches, weighing about small when compared with that of Russia.
princely sum of $705,000,000 might have been 50 pounds. Chabaneau created quite a sensation Stimulated, however, by a demand that looked
realized, for during that year the price ad- when he exhibited the ingot, its extreme it squarely in the face because there was no

vanced for a short period as high as $170 weight leading his audience to believe it to other place to look, venturesome capital has
an ounce. be fastened to the table. been intensively exploiting the rivers of that
But a large portion of this platinum was That platinum was known to the aborigines country and has succeeded in increasing the
mined and marketed when the price was low of .America is evidenced by the findings of Mr. output to respectable proportions although
before chemists and metallurgists discovered D. C. Stapleton, of ornaments made of this still but a portion of Russia's former perform-
its valuable qualities in the arts, and before metal in the tombs of the Incas in the Province ances.
fashion set its stamp of approval on the metal of Esmeraldas, Ecuador. Most of these are At the head-waters of the Condoto, high up
as a perfect setting for precious stones. small and are perforated for attachment or in the .Andes Mountains, is the ledge rock

One of the foremost authorities of the coun stringing and may be described as circular or which has been found to ba the source of the
try, Dr. Frederick Kunz, of Tiffany & Co. elliiitical spangles. The ornaments are made platinum, but it carries such mfinitesimal
New York, has termed platinum, one of the nl gold and platinum combined, one or two quantities that nature has to be relied upon
two "noblest of metals," its associate, of thin layers of the latter having been ham- to wash tho metal down and concentrate it in

course, being gold. Nobody thought of call- mered onto a thin layer of gold. They are the river-btds and adjoining banks before it
ing it "noble" however, in the old days of thought to be at least 2,000 years old, though can be profitably extracted.
placer washings where the yellow metal was tliis is purely speculation. Similar ornaments Except in one other case of quite minor
sought — on the other hand, not knowing what have been found in the prehistoric graves in importance, in British Colombia, no "mother
else to call it, they called it a "nuisance," the island of Tola at the mouth of the Santi- lode" of platinum has ever been located — all

and threw it away. They threw it back into ago river, Ecuador. Many of these relics are platinum mining being done by placer wash-
the beds of the Colombian rivers — for it is in now on exhibition in the Museum of Natural —
ings by hand panning in the old days and in
what is now Colombia that platinum was first History in the City of New York. the small operations of today by big steam —
discovered — and big modern dredges are now Little progress was made in the discovery of dredges in the larger operations that scoop
scooping up again along with other virgin
platinum or its uses till the year 1819 when up the river bottoms with huge buckets. The
nuggets. it into the streets and
They threw the metal was found in the gold mines of the Canadian "mother lode" to which I refer is
yards of the villages, and this habit caused no Daknvliiv lli^lri^t in the I'ral Mountains, Rus- briefly described by the United States Geo-

end of excitement for the natives of Quibdo logical Survey as being at the head of the

some twenty years ago when platinum prices Tulameen River, near the United States
began to mount and the get-rich-quick fever boundary, on the slopes of Mount Olivene.
ran its course. The entire town was panned, It is probably of small extent and value sine*

the government claiming the right to operate knowledge of its existence dates back several
in the streets. The natives panned the yard.s, years, and it has never been worked commer-

however, with rich results in many cases. cially. The bed of the Tulameen River, how-
One enthusiast with a good memory burned ever, has been and still is being panned in a

his house to the ground for the platinum he small way for platinum and gold.
knew was under it. Out of the proceeds of By far the most ambitious and businesslike
his heroic treatment he is said to have rebuilt operations in platinum mining now being car-
his house and banked $4,000 in gold besides. ried on are those of the South American Gold

In view of the many uses to which platinum and Platinum Company in Colombia. This
is now put and of the fact that the early Span-
company controls an extensive territory along
ish adventurers must have encountered it in the San Juan and Condoto Rivers in the

their mad search for gold, it seems strange Choco district, all of which is, or will be, de-
that the first recorded knowledge of its ex- veloped for platinum. .Although the com-
istence dates back no further than 1735 when pany owns concessions covering fully 200
Don Antonio de Ulloa visited that part of miles of rivers, the portion now being worked
South America now known as Colombia. consists of about 50 miles of river bed to-

From that time on, Kuropcan chemists be- gether with some 10,000 acres of adjacent al-
gan to experiment with it in endeavor to de- luvial deposits. Access to the property is had
termine its usefulness and many were the by the San Juan River which is navigable
difficulties they encountered in trying to solve by steamers.
Courtcs.v. .I.wulerM Tfilinkiil Ailvlce Co.. N. Y.
the riddle of a metal containing so many The company, at present, has two dredges
hitherto unknown qualities. Its specific gravity Applicatiun 0/ the gas-oxi/u<!» /<> '» ">a in operation. One of these, with an annual
iicllins of platinum in crudblea as praotioed <n
was fairly established by William Lewis of nost jewelry shops. capacity of 400,000 cubic yards, has been

working for three years. The other began

operations in August, 1920, and has an annual
capacity of 1,000,000 cubic yards. A third
dredge of capacity of about 1,500,000 cubic
yards a year is now being assembled and
is expected to be at work during the coming

summer or early fall. These last two dredges

are quite the "last word" in construction and
efficiency. Built almost entirely of steel in
the United States, they are shipped "knocked
down" Colombia where they are assembled
— a complete air compressing outfit being used
in riveting the parts.
Pits and borings have disclosed the existence
of sufficient gold and platinum for profitable
operations for many years to come, and it is

the announced intention of the company to

new dredges as de-
continue the installation of
velopment work progresses. The values re-
covered based on the work of the first dredge
have been distributed as follows:

'.lurtesy, Giles Platiiiif.-r.. s-l mparc-Tikoiiowitch.

American type of sluice in operation at the Petropavlovsky placer mine on the River Iss.

Courtesy, Cites Platiniteies-Duparc-Tikonowitch.

River Mourzinka near its confluence with the Liala on the Pavdinskaya concessioti.
August, 1921 COMPRESSED A in MAGAZINE l(>17!t

of production. It has been further staled that,

shdulil Russia begin to-day to redevelop her
platinum mines it would lake years to work
up to anything like her old volume of pro-
duction. The best of authorities state that
the big dredges are practically in ruins— rusted
and badly depreciated owing to long continued
The Uses of Platinum
l)f the uses to vvliicli the world's
stock of platiniun has been put, the following
estimate by Dr. Kunz may be regarded as Courtesy. Baker & Co.
approximately correct This platinum nuuaet rnmr to Baker i
400.000 ounces
Company. Newark. N. J., m
1897 from .louth-
For catalyzInK America. Its early history is itoitbt/ul oirinn (o
Dental purposes 1.000,000 ounces rfpcrt(C(/ chnnffes of oicnership. It is the lar-
Chemistry 1.000.000 ounces gest nnoiiet ever found on this side of the Atlan-
contain platinum values along with gold. Dur- Electrical work 500.000 ounces tic and mas exhibited at the I'anauut-I'aciflc
Jewelry 500.000 ounces Exposition in San Franriseo in 1!II3 lehere it
ing the war when platinum was scarce and in
was stolen and never rerovrrcd. It has proba-
great demand the manufacture of muni-
in The 400.000 ounces devoted to catalyzing bly long since been melted doicn. It teeighed
tions, intensiveand efficient search was made, nearly lico pounds and icould be worth at pres-
purposes have been distributed, according to ent prices about $1.7.10. The world's largeat
both by government agents and private pros- the same authority. nugget of platinum icas found in the Ifral Moun-
tains and is said to have weighed eighteen
pectors, to mine these sands commercially. ounces pounds.
To the United States 200.000
Failure, however, accompanied these endeav- England 100,000 ounces
Germany 70.000 ounces
ors. The metal was there as all agreed but France 30.000 ounces although total sales may have reached
not in paying quantities.
The largest uses, says Dr. Kunz. have been 000 ounces, but a large quantity of this is
Diligent search, also, has been made for
for dental purposes and for chemical and returned to refiners and again used.
platinum in Alaska and more or less mystery
physical eciuipment its uses for dental pur-
; The method of refining platinum employed in
surrounds the situation with respect to its
poses and jewelry have been about equally di- the United States assay office is described as
platinum deposits. In 1916, the Geological Sur-
vided. The net amount worked up into jew- follows : "In the electrolytic process of refining
vey reported about twelve ounces shipped from
elry probably does not exceed 500,000 ounces. gold, platinum remains in solution in the gold
Koyuk. Chistochina and Fairhaven districts.
In 1918. the output of platinum, palladium and
other metals of the platinum group was 284
fine ounces, valued at $.?6.6oo. while the values
of platinum and allied metals mined in Alaska
in 1919 and 1920 were $73,663 and $80,000
respectively, as reported by the Geological Sur-
Placer mines of California yield small values
of platinum, producing as high as 460 ounces
in 191", and 530 ounces in 1918. Nevada,
Oregon, Washington, Arizona and Idaho also
contribute every year to the United States
quota. It is evident, however, that, up to the

present time, there has nothing come to light

within our borders or those of our dependen-
cies, which warrants belief that this country
will ever be self-sustaining so far as platinum
is concerned. VVc must look to Russia nr
Colombia— probably the latter— for some time
to come.
Strange as it may appear for there is no ac-
counting for the freaks of nature, the richest
sample of platinum earth ever found in this
country came from the Piedmont section nf
North Carolina about fifteen miles south of
Danville, \'irginia. This is an agricultural re-
gion far removed from the mountain section of
that state. In this case North Carolina upheld
its reputation for producing a greater variety of
precious mclals and minerals in non-paying
quantities than any other state in the Union ;

a veritable iyiiis fnluiis that has lured many

an over-optimistic miner to his ruin. In 1898
there was discovered extremely rich plati-
num dirt in the neighborhood referred to. The
find, however, proved to be only a "pocket."
and "pockets" North Carolina abounds.
in rich
It is stated by Duparc, an authority on Rus-

sian platinum, that, even before the war. the

placer washings of the Ural Rivers were be-
coming depleted and that the old mines could
not last many years longer at their then rate

ficient explosives or poison gas. The modern

quick way of making nitric acid and fuming
sulphuric acid through the use of platinum

as a catalyzer. Chemists cannot explain just

why, but it is a fact, that only when in con-
tact with platinum will certain chemical
changes take place.

Platinum in Jewelry
The use of platinum in jewelry dates from
not more than 25 years ago. When the metal
was low in price fashion paid but little heed to
it. As the price mounted, however, the
Bcoii Monde became interested and. with its

stamp of approval upon the metal, it quick-

ly came into great demand. The jewelry
trade is now said to use approximately 50.000

ounces a year not all new metal because the
present supply will not permit but scrap, and —
in connection with many alloys. The use of
the "noble metal" in jewelry has been called a
fad; a fashion that will soon pass. A fad
because it is expensive.
On this point, however, there is a divided
Courtesy, American Patinum \\i'i. opinion. Most people agree that, as a setting
for diamonds, platinum has no equal. There
Analytical laboratory in a platinum refining establishment.
is certainly no metal known to the arts that
will impart the appearance of quality as well
chloride electrolyte, from which it is precip- pen points are made. One of its chiefly val- as platinum, and it does not oxidize or dis-
itated by means of ammonium chloride. Tlv; uable characteristics is that it is unaffected color. With the proper admixture of iridium,
precipitate is then well washed and reduced by all ordinary acids. It is for this reason platinum forms a metal of such hardness and
at a red heat to a metallic platinum sponge. that dentists employ it since the acids of the toughness that gossamer webs, scarcely vis-
This naturally contains impurities, and is mouth will, in time, destroy almost any other ible to the naked eye can be drawn from it
therefore redissolved in aqua regia, and evap- metal. For the same reason surgeons use it subjected to quite rough usage without ser-
orated almost to dryness, so as to expel the in replacingbroken bones and during the war ious injury. For this reason it is in demand
nitric acid, sulphur dioxide being then passed it performed valuable service in this connec- for making the intricate and expensive de-
through it until all gold is precipitated. Up- tion. Without platinum many lives of severe- signs in jewelry.
on this it is oxidized to bring all the platinum ly wounded soldiers would otherwise have Jewelry shop practice has undergone impor-
into a platinic state and precipitated with been lost. tant changes within recent years, according
pure ammonium chloride. The precipitate is In addition to its spectacular use for sur- to Miss Calm M. Hoke of the Jewelers' Tech-
then reduced in the usual way to metallic gery and for firing fuses, platinum played nical .\dvice Company of New York and an
platinum sponge." an important part in the war. Without it the acknowledged expert in this line of work.
Platinum is most useful in making sul- Allies would not have been able to make suf- Shop foremen had experience in handling
phuric acid and fixed nitrogen ; for light-
ning rod tips ; coloring of pottery and pho-
tographs, and the preservation of standards cf
measurement. Dentists use it because it does
not tarnish or oxidize. No acid other than
arpia re^ia will affect it and for this reason
it is in !»<ntral u--c in rheniical laboratories
and apjiaratus. Platiiuim used in electrical
work is often alloyed, with as high as SO
per cent iridium, and each telephone and tel-
egraph instrument has platinum contacts.
Every high-grade magneto for an airplane,
automobile, motor boat or gas engine has
from Iwii to six contacts of platinum, and
there are a nuillitude f>f platiinim contact.^
on all switchboards and relay in-
struiTicnls. Combined with ten to twenty per
rent of iridium, it is one of the hardest of

metals. Platinum may be drawn into wire

of almost fineness, and one cubic
inch of platinum is capable of being
drawn into a single wire 50,000 miles long
twice around the globe, according to the En-
cyclopedia Pritaimica I

Its melting poitit is 1,775 degrees Centi-

grade which is ecjuivalenl to ,1,227 <lcgrecs
F''ahrenhcit. Platinum is used as lead-in
wires for electrical bulbs,and with iridium
forms the material from which high grade 7i/j>ieol ouiifjimcnf /or the tnrlling of platinum.
August. 1921 rnMrRFSi.<^Kn air maca/ine 10181

that the rising price of platinum has caused

the melting down of most of these coins for
Ihey arc extremely rare and are found only in
museum collections,some of which are in the
.\iniTicaii Numismatic .\ssociation of New
^(>rk City.

It has been recently stated that the Soviet

Kiivernmcnt of Russia propose.* now to issue a
new type ol credit note backed by reserves of
l>latiiuim of value of 37,500.000 rubles and thus,
at;ain monetize platinum.
The precursor of the legal Russian coinage
of platinum was the counterfeit coinage of
Spanish doubloons. A piece of the same size
was struck in platinum and the surface was
then gilded as the specific gravity of the only

partly refined platinum was approximately that

of gold, these spurious coins could be circulat-
ed without much difficulty. Paradoxically
enough, also, there are many other instances of
Co. now operating in Colombian counterfeiting gold coins by using platinum as
ril'prs scoopinti up pay uravel at the rate of a tnillit yards a year. The parts of this big
steel dredge, as xceU n.s of another that will soon be tion. are a^ssembled at the river sites a base— such coins, if they were now in ex-
where they are to work and riveted together by the complete outfit of air compressing ma-
ehinery and pneumatic tootft. istence, being worth as metal many times their
spurious value as coins. Paradoxically again,
gold before that and. when platinum came to dium and rhodium. When associated, how- now is worth so much more than
that platinum
the front, naturally attempted to handle this ever, platinum always largely predominates in gold, owners of old gold rings and other orna-
metal in the same manner. They soon found volume although not always in price. This ments are having them plated with platinum
this difference: gold melts with gas and air, average ratio is best illustrated by quoting the in order to conform with the prevailing mode.

while platinum melted with gas and oxygen

is imports of these metals for the year 1919 as No further back than 1916 it was estimated
under pressure: gold is cast, while platinum given by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic by Mr. Hill of the Geological Survey, that
is wrought; gold is easily purified by fire, Commerce the United States alone used 165,000 ounces of
while platinum is not, but requires the intense
heat from a gas-oxj'gen torch to purify it. IMPORTS OF PLATINIFEROUS METALS— 1919
It was slow work developing platinum until Troy
it was learned by experience that the gas- Platinum 64,550
Iridium 6.808
oxygen torch was the proper agent and now Osmiridium 1,374
99 per cent of the jewelrj' shops in the coun- Palladium 3,739
Osmium 2,339
try melt their platinum by this method. Rhodium 222
"Production of Values" Totals 68,032 100
The years 1911 and 1912 saw the peak of
production of platinum when slightly more
than 313.000 troy ounces were mined in each
of these years, 300,000 ounces, or 96 per cent.,
coming from the Ural Mountains in Russia.
Colombia, South America, came next with
12,000 ounces, and the other thousand or .so
came mostly from this country. New South
Wales and Tasmania. As a producer of crude
platinum, therefore, United States is a
negligible factor. 1912. platinum pro-
duction has been on the toboggan slide, chiefly
owing to war and anarchy in the principal pro-
ducing country.
The following table will tell the story in
which are compiled from reports by
Mr. James M. Hill of the United States Geo-
logical Survey.

which tended to relieve the situation at that TUNNEL UNDER THE ELBE used, one for personnel and three for ma-
time. The Government fixed price was $105 AT HAMBURG terials.

per ounce. 'T'HERE HAS recently been completed at The fine sand from the internal excavation
It is most evident now that this country can- Hamburg. Germany, a tunnel, or, rather, was removed by means of the constantly es-
not be using platinum in the old pre-war vol- twin tunnels with a number of interesting caping compressed air through a discharge
ume as the production figures, I have given features. The tunnels are 1.500 feet long, each pipe, carried down to the bottom of the ex-

will testify. been that many

The result has twenty feet in diameter, and very close to- cavation.
and platinum
substitutes have been introduced gether, 26 feet three inches between centers. One serious "break through" of compressed
is being alloyed more and more with other There are no roadways
approaching these air the river occurred when the upper

metals. With new uses for platinum being tunnels, but at their ends on each side of the cover over the tunnel gave way, the air pres-
constantly discovered and with a decline in river and serving both tunnels there is a well sure disappeared, and a vast quantity of water
production to but a quarter of the pre-war 72 feet in diameter with six lifts in each, three and sand entered the tunnel, fortunately, how-
volume, it would be natural to expect a short- of which 10 by 33 feet are for vehicles up to ever, witliout loss of life.

age in the supply and advancing prices. Such, ten tons, the other three being passenger lifts The high air-pressure adversely affected the
however, does not seem to be the case as the with a capacity of 14.000 passengers per hour. workmen who, in the first instance, were re-

price has held firm at around $73 for some The tunnels were driven by the shield pro- quired to pass a stringent medical examina-
time past. cess with a novel type of lining which con- tion. Of
a total of 4.400 workmen, four deaths.
One Maiden Lane dealer was heard to re- sisted of steel segments riveted together in- 74 severe and 615 light cases, occurred.
mark not long ago that, were he to publish stead of the usual cast iron and bolts. Six
the fact that he was in the market for platinum segments with strong flanges on the sides and AIR DRIVEN WIRE BRUSH FOR
at $75 an ounce, his place of business would ends, the cross-section being similar to a METAL CLEANING
be flooded with the metal. This indicates that girder ten inches high with flanges wider on YyiRE BRUSH cleaning of metal sur-
the market is over, rather than understocked the inside than on the outside, complete a cir- ' faces offers an opportunity for consid-
much of it, too, representing a price to the cumferential ring. The inner surface of the erable saving of time and labor over that re-
owner in excess of the present market. flange provided with a groove into which
is quired by hand in removing paint, rust, scale
The exact stocks held by the various dealers lead material is caulked whilst the
jointing and dirt. However,
it has been difficult to
and refiners is difficult to ascertain. Such space between the lining and the soil is filled obtain a wire
brush of proper design and
information is kept as a trade secret. One with cement grout in the usual manner. Each materials wdiich would work effectively on an
refiner, however, has ventured to estimate that tunnel, which has a central roadway six feet air motor and not wear out too rapidly.
upwards of 50,000 ounces are at present held wide for vehicles and a footpath on either A wire brush of very rugged design has
in this country and a like amount in England. side, is for traffic in one direction only. recently been placed on the market by the
If these figures, amounting to little better than The circular well on the town was con-
side Ingersoll-Rand Company, 11 Broadway. New
a guess, are anything like correct, it will not structed of reinforced concrete an open
in York, for use with its standard No. 6 "Little
be reasonable to expect higher platinum prices circular ditch, seven feet three inches wide David" Drill. It is a brush with face diam-
right away. and 98 feet six inches deep, carried down to eter of five inches and is made up of wires of
a strata of solid main wall being
clay, the a special heat treated steel which has been
built of plain concrete, covered on the out- found to have very good wearing qualities.
PNEUMATIC HANDLING OF side with strong sheets of asphalt with a lin- It is sturdily constructed and will stand up
SMALL COAL ing of hard burnt bricks set in cement. The under severe service.
The success with which grain is dealt with
inside"dumpling" of earth was then removed, It is manufactured particularly as an at-
at shipping ports by compressed air in pipes
the walls finished off and a circular super- tachment for the No. 6 Drill (as illustrated).
suggested the application of that method, and
structure with a large glass dome erected over this type of machine being especially suited
an installation, which has now been in constant
the well. The hoisting machinery for the lifts for work of this nature. The drill has liberal
operation for more than two years, was de-
is placed under the dome. The corresponding bearings to take up all the end thrust when
signed and constructed at Brunswick (Ger-
well on the harbor side of the river had to be pressing down on the work a high speed

many) to transport 50-60 tons of "nut" coal

sunk through a layer of water-bearing sand and very reliable motor, and moreover is of
per hour from the washing-plant to the boiler-
and gravel by means of compressed air, and light weight and small overall dimensions.
house, about 100 yards away. A double-ac-
a double-walled steel cylinder 85 feet in di- It can be used in sharp corners and other
tion air-puni]) lifts the coal liy suction into
ameter. The working chamber at the base, cramped spaces. The whole outfit weighs
the conveying pipe and then by compression
with an air pressure of 35.5 pounds per square only ilj/^ lbs.
forces it through to the point of delivery,
inch, was ^^^ feet high, and provided with a The wire brush is adapted for remov-
over the bunker in the boiler-house. To trans-
strong cutting edge. The space between the ing paint, rust, and dirt from tank.<.
port 60 Ions of this coal per hour requires
double walls of the cylinder was filled with steel cars, structural steel and all sheet metal
about 80 b.]! .Xn air-vessel inserted in the
concrete, and the walls were riveted together surfaces. It is very useful for cleaning iron,
Iii|)c line serves to c(|iialize the pressure and
as Ibc WMik i.r..r,-(Mi'.l l'" air l.icks were <{<•{] .md :ihiminnin i:\'itini;s.
to maintain a regular flow of coal. Wroughl-
iron pipes have been found to wear rapidly,
and these will be replaced by casl-iron pipes.
The system is not applicable to the transport
of round or run-of-minc coal economically,
liul for fine coal its use is extending, and its

speedy adoption for blowing fine coal directly

from the washing-plant lo the coke ovens may
be lookc<l for. Where the distance is not loo
great and the and not at a
line is straight
high angle, the hand conveyor is more eco-
nomical of power; hut when the angle is high
and the line from point to point is crooked,
ihi- pncnnialic system is preferable.

Our mines, including bituminous and an-

thracite, yielded 646,000,000 tons in 1920.

Advantages of Using Timbered Rill Slopes

Elimination of Mucking Operations and Introduction of Waste Filling into the Stope Without
Handling Result in a Large Saving of Cost Per Ton
IN DRDER to complete the discussion com-
menced in the July issue of the Compressed
Air Magazine on rill sloping methods in the
A TIMBERED rill stope com-
^ *-bines the open rill stoping with
Hutte District Mines, this second article de-
the square set method. It is
scribing the timbered rill stopes has been writ-
used in wide veins where the
ore body and walls are not
Whereveins are found to be ten feet or more
firm, needing the support of
in width the method of open rill stoping be-
comes extremely difficult and often very dan-
It has the advantages of the
gerous. For this reason an attempt was made
open rill system in that muck-
to use timber in stopes in the wider veins
ing eliminated and the cost
following the idea of the open rill system of
for filling is very low on ac-
stoping. This proved to be very successful
count of the fact that the
after the first attempts had been changed and
waste is poured directly into
adapted to the timbering idea, some of the
the stope from the level above
stopes being worked at almost as small a cost
without any handling in the
as was attained in the open rill stopes. This
was probably due to the higher grade of ore
It is a cheaper and more effici-
found in these wider veins which could be
ent method of mining than
broken two sets wide by one round.
square setting and it has most
These stopes as well as open rill stopes
of the advantages of open rill
were usually contracted, the basis of pay being
a price set per cubic foot of ore blasted and
delivered into the ore chute. This price in-
cludes the timbering and laying of ore slides
on the waste slope. An extra price was given It is necessary in driving the drifts to
the contractors per set of chute lined when construct switches usually every five hundred
raising the chutes in the center stope raise. feet. To do this the drift is driven two sets
The drawings illustrating the methods de- wide for about ten sets and the proper long
scribed in this article include the following caps are put in at the beginning and ending
No. I shows the practice used in holing a of the wide portion in order to accommodate
rillstope development raise to the level above. the switch which joins the main track at both
No. i-A is the plan of a drift showing develop- ends. Outside of the two long caps at each
ment for timbered rill stopes, both above and end of the switch, regular .sets of timber are
below. This drawing also shows the method used for the rest of the timbering done be-
of obtaining waste for filling the timbered rill tween the two ends.
stopes below by driving the lateral drifts. No. These switches are about long enough to
J shows the preliminary development of the hold ten cars, which is necessary for the muck-
timbered No. 3 gives a good idea
rill stope. ing in the drifts and also the switches come
of a square set which is used to support the in very handily after the development is com-

back and walls of a timbered rill stope. No. plete as trains of ten or more empty cars can
4 shows the timbered rill stope after develop- be loft on a switch above a full chute and the
ment and as it is carried up toward the upper

The preliminary development necessary for

timbered rill stoping is about the same as for
open rilling. Drifts are driven two hundred
feet apart vertically along the vein. These
drifts are offsetted for raises every eleven sets,
the twelfth, thirteenth and fourteenth sets

being made two ahead

sets wide, then driven
lor eleven sets and widened again for thni

The offsets are always made into the foot

wall of the vein, and are for the pur-
pose of starting raises. An extra set in

width always necessary to accommodate


the mouth of an ore chute. It is also a

rule in Butte that all ladder ways shall be
offsetted one set to the side of the drifts in
order to prevent any accident which might
occur from tools or rocks falling down th?

When the first and second floors are com-

plete between the two rill stope raises, min-
ing is stopped until the ore is all cleaned out
and the sheeting timbers put in on top of the
drift timbers through the entire length of the
stope. The center chute mouths are built and
the chutes cribbed up to the second floor. Gob
lagging is nailed to each stope side of the
rill stope raises and the center chutes up to
the second floor, in order thatfrom this time
on all ore broken in the stope can be sorted
and the waste thrown down into the "gob."
which is supported bj" the sheeting.
The next step in developing the timbered
rill is to give the stope, on each side from

the center chutes to the raises, the proper


Square Sett Metmod

^P^.^^E:D RoundTimoEC

/ of Holing

/ Rill Store Raise

^o angle for the rilling method. One way to
Upper Drift accomplish this is to start the third floor on
either side of the center chutes, in the third
set toward the rill stope raise. When this
set is mined and the four post square set is
in place, the third floor is carried on over
until it connects with the rill stope raise.
Then the fourth floor is started, two sets
closer to the rill stope raise and carried over to
5ide Section through Manway this raise. The fifth, sixth and seventh floors
/'ill. 1. .S'ftoii.s Ike practice used in holiiiy u rill nlopc to the level above. arc mined in flu- same manner, dropping two


Upper DR4rT

/fiMI 3topeRai»o Car Storag'' Owitch <Ccnter CKutcc Rill Stope RoiSSy jMorwoy -iip

'Mnin Drift
"V i'V^^'V''"^ "
- '-

^ JitS.A,,,U^M^^.~.t^~,M^,^^f,^

1° ° ° "E "^RoundTimber ^ ? "I T "I Chutea

-Wa»t« CKotea

S^opsRo'*""'"'''"" Level below ^^ ; Rill StopeRoisa. from below

«I^^-(*T'' fr'^'"
-y^'*«^-^-Yirirr*-'-^''«^''V-"^'*nrt(« iuva it^et-i""'^"^"'""^''''^

^^^ --*-LoUrol Drift -*jp ^

'>*v», y9,;>i.i>Kw mii».ii/!m )hm^m»miin>»y»^if!^»^>fi

149 '1

Fig, 1-0. Showing the dcvrlopmcnt of the dri/t for limbered rill .ilnpr.i both above and belou

Mts on each it is only necessary

floor so that of small temporary slides. If there is waste when working at the end toward the rill stope
to mint-one on the seventh floor. This
set in the ore, can be picked out and thrown
it raise it is necessary to tram to the center
gives the stope an angle ver\ nearly the same down on the sheeting timbers over the drift. cMule by means of wheelbarrows.
as that taken by the waste pile when the fill- This waste should be thrown into the gob as When the fifth floor of the stope has been
ing is poured in later down the chute of the near as possible to the rill stope raise end connected to the rill stope raise, the waste
rill stope raise. of the stope. The temporary slides can some- picked from the sorting chutes is also thrown
The ore liroken above the second floor can times be arranged so that the ore can be into the stope until the raise is finished and
be carried down to the second floor by means shovelled directly into the center chute, but he chute emptied of the waste which it is


RltL Srort R*i5C

Fig. 2. PreUminary development of a Umbered nil stope.


ft :
_ nlIHlilfTiTTnTi| LDwwOotrr

Fig. 4. Timbered rill atope after development and as carried up toward upper level.

necessary to break in order to hole the raise ore slide is laid on the waste pile each time, were ten of these stopes, the one nearest the
to the upper level. The slope on each side so that it will catch all ore blasted. shaft being the oldest and highest and the
of the center chutes is developed in this vi^ay. The ore broken in the stope runs down the intermediate stopes being gradually lower
When the raises are finished and the raise ore slide to the grizzly and is sorted, if neces- until the last one which was farthest from
chutes cleaned of waste, bulkheads are built sary, and run down the chute. The waste is the shaft and the lowest. For these stopes it
in the two rill stope raise chutes, nearest the picked from the top of the grizzly and thrown was necessary to drive eleven rill stope raises,
stopes, just above the caps of the seventh into the other chute of the center raise. This 150 ft. apart and all holing on the level above,
floor. This gives a free opening into the stope waste rock can be drawn into cars by the train in the hanging wall as described previously.
and will leave plenty of room for mining crew and dumped down the filling chutes to the See Fig. i.
after the stope has been filled with waste. stopes of the level below. One of the miners As the stopes are advanced up under the
All the lagging in the stope is then removed can run the ore through the grizzly while his upper drift, the shock due to blasting tends to
from each floor and piled in the set, on that partner is drilling. weaken the floor of the upper drift causing it
floor, nearest the center chutes. The waste Timber for the stope is lowered down the to sink in places. This causes the grade of
can be dumped into the top of the bulkheaded rillstope raise from the level above, doing the track to vary some times to such a degree
chute on the level above and the stope filled. away with the slow and costly work of hoist- that it is very difficult to keep it in good con-
As in an open rill stope the waste pile will ing. dition for the motor. For this reason it is
make an inclined surface in the stope con- The above constitutes a "cut" of the stope. the best practice to start as soon as possible,
forming closely to the general angle of rise After all the ore has been run into the ore after the first rill stope raises have been fin-
in the timbers leaving usually a set or two chute, the ore slide is removed from the ished, to drive a lateral drift or haulage way.
open on each floor. The filling completes the waste incline, and piled in a convenient place. parallel to the main drift and at a distance of
development of the stopes. The stope sides of both the center raise and the from 15 ft. to 20 ft. into the hanging wall from
Timbered Rill Stope Mining rill stope raise are gobbed with two-inch lag- the hanging wall posts of the drift.
Development is now complete. Both sides ging, the waste chute of the rill stope raise is
This lateral is driven in the solid rock and
of the rill have been filled and the waste pile bulkheaded on the eighth floor and the stope usually requires very little timbering. In most
extends from the hole in the chute near the can be again filled with waste. While this is be- places no timber is used e.xcept that necessary
peak of the stope on an incline down to the ing done the miners take a cut from the other to suspend the trolley wire for the motor.
grizzly of the center chutes. stope across the center raise bringing both Owing to the rill stope raises being holed in
The miners build a slide composed of two- sides up to the same level at the top and the hanging wall of the upper drift it is possible
inch lagging varying in width from eight bottom. These operations are repeated, tak- to start sections of the going
lateral drift
inches to twelve inches on top of the waste pile ing a cut from one stope and then the other both ways from the top of each raise. See
and extending up the stope about three sets and advancing the whole stope up toward the Fig. i-A. Two crews of drift men were kept
and also a grizzly over the chute next to the level above. at work in the lateral. They worked in the
stope being mined. The mining is then be- When the peaks of both stopes have reached sections of the lateral at the tops of raises
gun. Starting on the third floor the ore to within five floors of the level above, the where waste was needed and all waste broken
is mined up to and across the center "V" part of the stope is mined only, until the i?i the mining of the laterals was trammed to
putting square stope is leveled to one floor, filling is put in
chutes, in set timber after the proper chutes of the raises and dumped
each blast. The ore is blasted down on close to this floor and the stope left until the down into the stopes. This proved to be a
the slide, which was previously built and slides time when it is possible to mine the last five
very efficient and economical way of filling
down to the chute. Round timber is used for floors holing the upper drift.
the stopes. especially as it was necessary to
the square sets in the stope and square loxio- Methods for Filling Stopes drive the lateral drifts in any case. All of
inch timber for the sets put in the center raise. As timbered stopes must be filled after
rill the rock broken in them was used at a very
When the third floor is finished, a set of each cut is taken from the center chutes to small tramming cost.
slide is on the waste, and mining is started
laid the peak, the question of supplying the waste Of course the waste broken in the driving
on the fourth floor advancing it four sets .so in amounts sufficient to keep all of the stopes of the lateral was not suflicient to complete-
that the last two posts will be of square tim- working at once presents itself. At the mine ly fill The rest of the waste
the stopes below.
ber and directly over the first square timber on in which the writer had had his experience fillingnecesary was either taken from the
the floor below. The fifth, sixth and seventh this question was solved in a very efiicient way. chutes on the upper level or transferred from
floors are advanced in the same way. the eighth A system nf rill stnpcs was started on the some other pari of the mine in the main shaft
floor is started from the rill slope raise and new levels, the distance from center to cen- and hauled in and dmnped into the proper
advanced three sets and ninth floor one set. ter nf the rill stope raises being very close chutes.
As the mining progressc; up the "slnpo the In 150 ft. Above one particular level there On account of the fact that the vein in

which mining was done, is composed of

lenticular shaped ore bodies which vary from
a few inches of ore up to a vein width of ten
feet to twelve feet or ini>re. it is sometimes
possible to vary the stopes in the same vein,
u^iing the open rill type where the vein is nar-
rnw and the walls and ore body fairly firm,
.ind in the wider portioi\ of the vein using the
tiinlicred rill system. It ha|)pene<l in cveral
instances that one side of a rill stope. including
ilio ore between two adjacent rill stope raises
was mined by the open rill method and the
half nf tin- sinpo nn the nlher side of the
icnlrr cluitcs mined using the tinihcred
rill mollind. due to the (act that the vein on the

latter si<le was much wider and harder to

hnhl without using timber.
Stnpcs have also been started as open rills

.ind mined as such for several floors, when it

was found that the ore was widening out and
Wfton the roniitanl /irr/mwrc /ft(i preaguro
rfpeivera falUi, ^ in aupplUui from the receiving »n
» »po(;«
(lerthese tanks of water, T' '
' r •
that it was necessary to change the mining

The zinc concentrating mill of the Butte d Superior Vonipany.

East alopc of Anaconda hill looking in a westerly direction.


Upper left —
Madison River davi, No. 2, onrf lu ft. and 12 ft. icood titave pipe carrying water sitppiy to power /lousc for transformation to eleC'
— —
Upper riyht A few of the big air compressors in the plant at the Washoe Reduction Works at Anaconda, Montana. Lower left Cast-
trie power.
ing machine, —
Washoe Reduction Works. Lower riyht Interior of the Rainbow sub-station, Butte, Mont.

method to that of the timbered rill type. To of the drifter type are used for drilling. Of The drill itself due to a steady positive rota-
make this change, a simple matter of lay-
it is this type IngersoU-Rand No. 248, the
the tion keeps the drill hole round and uniform
ing timber on the waste incline as the mining Waugh Turbro, Nos. 60 and 66, and the Sulli- in and the instantaneous control of the

progresses gradually changing over from the van DR-6 have been used. In case mounted air the drill from racing into
feed prevents
open to the timbered rill stope. These in- drills are used the round is drilled somewhat pockets of soft ground, sticking the drill and
stances merely show the flexibility of the rill differently as the ground is usually harder usually causing severe strains on the rotation
system of stoping and the convenient way that than where stopers are used. parts.

it can be adapted to the varying of width of Wet stoping drills are coming to be preferred .Some miners will object at first to the mixed

the vein and the strength of the walls. especially in stopes where the ore is fairly dust and water, more or less of which is
Drilling Rill Stopes hard causing considerable dust when be- usually splashed on them especially when drill-
For drilling in these limbered rill stopes the ing drilled by dry machines. The new type ing straight or nearly straight upper holes, but
IngersoU-Rand CC-ii and CC-21 dry stopc- of wet or water stopers is being equipped when it is realized by them that the slight in-
hamers have been used in the past few years. with self rotating devices and in some cases, convenience caused by this not only prevents
These two drills, known by the miners as with air feed controls. This does away with the miners pthysis or miners consumption,
"stopers" or "buzzies," on account of the speed "twisting the buzzie's tail" as the miners call these wet drills should become very popular.
of rotation of the hammer and the resulting hand rotation of the drill, and allows the Minor repairs on drills, such as the replac-
great number of blows per minute, are of the miner to control the speed of the drilling by ing of worn or broken water needles, nuts,
same general type. The CC-ii has the same simply i)rcssing a button on the handle of the lock washers and side rod springs are taken
cylinder, but a stroke of an inch less than the drill and by varying the pressure on the but- care of in the mine. l'\)r general overhauling
heavier, slower and more powerful hitting ton he can raise the air feed more slowly and cleaning however they are sent to the
CC-21. The Waugh and Sullivan companies or hold the drill suspended on the air feed surface sliop maintained for that purpose.
stoping drills are also used to some extent in while freeing the drill in case of fitchery The steel used in wet stoping drills will be
the mines. Nearly all of this type of drills ground. The added "boon" of water going hollow steel of hexagon section. The min-
are equipped with anvil block chucks in order through the hollow drill not only washes out ing companies have been experimenting with
to prevent the drill steel from falling back the cuttings in the holes but absolutely stops this and other sections and it is expected that
into the hanuner cylinder, and injuring the alldust and by adjusting the amount of water the hollow hexagon steel, shatiklcss, without
hammer. fed through the water needle and blown lugs or collars, and of in. or %in diameter

In some liMibcrcd rill stopes where the through the drill the dripping of water on the will be used most generally.
ground is hard and tough, mounted rock drills miner is reduced to a minimum. The four point straight face cross bit, with


in. change in gage and 12 in. or 18 in. run

IS most generally used in the Butte district, Experimental work on determining the com- PRESSURE FOR VOLUME
drcat care is taken to insure properly formed pression and hardness values of white metal '"T^HK ACC( ).\Ii'AXVI.\'(; illustration shows
and correctly Ka^ed bits and proper shank bearing alloys at temperatures up to 100" C, •^ a blower whose purpose is the transform-
ends on the steels. Bits and shanks are made has been completed according to the Scientific ing of a small volume of high pressure air
and rcsharpened on air operated sharpeners, .Imcricaii. A paper has been prepared en- to a much larger volume of low pressure air
the larger percentage heing done on the Inger- titled "Some Properties of White Metal Bear- such as may be used for the operating of rivet
soll-Kand Sharpen»TS Types No. 5 or No. 50. ing Alloys at Klevated Temperatures," a sum- forges and similar equipment.
The bits are plunge tempered in cidd water mary of which is as follows: An apparatus Referring to the cut, H is a blast tube with
and the shanks are plunged in some soluble is described determining the yield point
for a thread for attaching to the forge or other
and ultimate strength of white metal bearing apparatus, and .V is the high pressure jet

alloys at temperatures up to 100" C. A new nozzle with ah orifice of proper size and shape.
Drilling in a Timbered Rill Stope
design of heating apparatus is described for .S" is and other
a strainer which prevents dirt
The tollowing data illustrating the drilling determining the Brinell hardness of such met- foreign from choking up the small
01 timbered rill stopes are taken from the act- als in the range of temperatures indicated orifice in This strainer may
the jet nozzle.
ual weekly run of an average stope. The tiine above. The compression tests and
results of be cleaned by removing the bottom plug and
allowed for the drilling, timbering and muck- Brinell hardness temperatures up to
tests at
ing and barring down was estimated by a 100° C. are given for five typical white metal
number of men who had been in charge of bearing alloys, including three tin base alloys,
this work for some time and in a number of one lead base alloy, and one intermediate
similar stopes. alloy. These tests showed that the tin base
The time allowed for drilling includes the alloys maintain their properties better at ele-
time necessary to set up the machine, connect vated temperatures than those containing lead.
the hose, actual drilling, freeing any stuck Results of tests are given which indicate that
drills, changing drills and moving from one up to three per cent, the lead in a high grade
"set up" to another. It is the total time spent babbitt does not aflfect the yield point or ulti-
by the man or men, in drilling during the mate strength at 25° C. or 75° C. Tests are
-iiif.-. described which show that the yield point of
This stope is two sets wide, averaging 12 ft. tin base alloy is not affected by heating for si.x

from foot wall to hanging wall. The ore is weeks at about 100° C, but that the yield point
is lowered in the lead base alloy by heating for
a mixture of primary and secondary chalcocite
with pyrite, with stringers of granite running only two weeks at this temperature.
through it in places. The time allowed for
mucking includes barring down, pulling the For estimating purposes in computing heat-
re down the slide to the chute, when neces- ing values, the foUow-ing average figures
sary and sorting the ore on the grizzly. There
should be used
were three men per shift in the stope, working Blower exchanges pressure for volume.
Producer Gas 150 B.T.U. per cu. ft.
two shifts (day and night) of eight hours per
Coal Gas 600 B.T.U. per cu. ft.
24 hours and for six days. Ingersoll-Rand blowing air through it. /' is the needle valve
Coke Oven Gas 550 B.T.U. per cu. ft.
CC-2J dry Stopehamers were used for drill- which regulates the blast and to which the air
Natural Gas B.T.U. per
1,100 cu. ft.
ing. These drills used i54-in. solid cruciform Fuel
hose is connected.
Oil 125,000 B.T.U. per cu. ft.
steel with double tapered four point straight In operation the compressed air issues from
face cross bits. Change in gage '/^-in. and the jet nozzle at high velocity and the energy
run of steel eighteen inches. .\ quarry recently opened up at Bul-
slate resulting from its velocity is imparted to the
By "drilling time" is meant the total time lengarook, X'ictoria,
is said to be maintaining surrounding air which passes forward into the
required to set up the drill, connect air hose, an output of 6,000 school slates per week. throat of the blast tube. This air is replaced
etc., drilling, changing steel and removing any .American scholars of the present day would constantly by additional air flowing in at the
stuck steels. not know what to do with 'em. side openings of the blast tube. The standard
blower will deliver air up to four inches water
DRILL DATA pressure, although higher pressure may be ob-
tained with special jet nozzles. The new de-
No. of tiolf.B drilled per set 5
Depth of hok-s. average 8 feet vice is manufactured by the New Jersey Meter
No. of .shift.-* worked by the men in six days 36
Price paid per shift to >ach man Co., Plainfield, N. J.
No. of sets tomplettd in six days 15
Tons of ore deliver.d to chute 431.5
No. of shifts wiirktd |ier set of ground completed, includes
3t; shifts
drilling, timbering and SIFTING THE NAMES OF ROCKS
mucking, 2.4 A conuiiittee of the Geological Society and
1 5 sets con-
the Mincralogical Society appointed to
No. of hours worked per set 19.2
ICstimate of labor as follows: sider the standardization of British petro-
Drilling 3 hours 30 min.
Timbering 11 " " graphic nomenclature has recently reported its
Mucking 4 " 42 "
recomiTiendalions. No natues of general undis-
Total 19 hour.^ 12 min. puted definitions are discussed and only Brit-
Distance drilled per set five holes 8 ft. long — —
Inches drilled in hours
m 40 feel
480 ish names appear. Forty-seven terms naming
rock species or textures are given preferred
Inches drilled per minute ;= 2.285
210 definitions; twenty-seven terms are classed as
Time drilled per shift three men eight hours each
Distance drilled 23 min.
— — 4hrs. 23 m.
obsolete or unnecessary, being used in more
in 4 hrs. :^ 601.14 Inches
Distance drilled per shift in feet 50 feet 1 Inch than one sense, and their further use is con-
Cost of drilling ior one shift :::;
-^^ — —^

263 minutes
$2,734 demned. In this list one notes "diabase,"
431.6 "binary granite," and "inelaphyre." A list of
• re broken per shift ^ -
.36.95 tons synonyms indicates the committee's preference
2.734 lor nineteen terms which have simplicity or
Drilling cost per ton .7.6 cents
35.95 priority in their favor.

THE EDISON ROOMFUL OF AIR being 6000 cu. ft., it should be only necessary
to know the weight of one cubic foot of air
and multiply it by this number. A cubic foot
IN THE now well known list of questions
of dry air at normal atmospheric, sea level
used by Mr. Edison for the testing of the
pressure (14.7 lb.) and at any absolute tem-
qualifications of candidates for employmenr
perature, Fahrenheit, will weigh 39.819 lb.
is one which has been of special interest to
divided by the absolute temperature, or
me. It admits of such a range of answers,

each perfectly correct and admissible under 39-819

conditions which might be assumed, that I

have some curiosity as to the precise answer (t + 461)

that would have been satisfactory to Mr. t being the temperature by the thermometer
Edison. and Wthe weight of I cu. ft. By this means

The question, as I have it, is : What is the we find that at a temperature of 60 degrees
weight of air contained in a room 20 by 30 the weight of i cu. ft. of dry air would be
by 10 feet? The capacity of the room thus .0764 lb., and the total weight of the air in


A Pneumatically Operated Plant for Salvaging Grain*

CONSIDERABLE DESCRIPTION of a the recovery of the grain and all salvage op- 6tx) were loaded before full power was
nature has appeared relative to
technical erations at the elevator. available. Meantime repaid work on the pow-
the pneumatic conveyance equipment of the The first work necessary was to clear away er house and two legs in north end of work
Guarantee Construction Co. liach of their wreckage to recover the bodies of the men house were started and full power was ready
many installations is a job in itself and is built killed,and to make it safe for men to work. on May 13, and the two legs and belts feed-
specifically to the demands of the case and the The John K. Thompson Company with a large ing them from the storage were started. In
needs of the operator. Hllevators, mills, cereal force of men were engaged several weeks in the south part of the work house the legs were
plants, feed manufacturing properties, etc., are this work and in erecting such machinery as too badly damaged to be readily repaired, so
using this pneumatic equipment adapted suc- could he used to get the grain out. One track four Bernert Blowers were installed to take
cessfully to their several individual needs. The was laid through the west bay of the work grain from bins in south side of storage and
adaptation of this conveyor to the peculiar house and another in the field south of the load it on the tracks in the field.
into cars
conditions created by the explosion of the C. elevator, from main line to the pile of wrecked As soon power house of the plant was
as the
& N. VV. Elevator, operated by the Armour bins at the southeast corner of the storage put in shape and ample jmwer provided for
Grain Co.. heretofore made familiar to our house, and power to operate several farmers' all needs, two separate Airveyor Equipment.s
readers, is typical of the great adaptability of loaders was obtained by bringing a wire from were installed, one of which with 2,40a bushels
the conveyor to unusual circumstances and the the Chicago and Xorth Western round house. capacity per hour is located on the river side.
easy installation of the .\irveyor Equipment. With loaders and a force of trucks
these This removes grain from the river house di-
"Airveyor Equipment." by the way, is the name and teams from the Davison Cartage Co., rect into boats. The other equipment rigging
given the outfit and the system by the manu- loading was started on March 29th and about is set 300 feet from the main storage tanks (in
facturers, the Guarantee Construction Co.. of
140 Cedar Street, Xew York City.
Without repeating the early experience of
those handling grain materials pneumatically
or pointing out the progressive use of the
pneumatic system abroad for handling grain.
where it has been standard for so many years,
both in England and on the Continent, we will
give a brief description of the present installa-
tion used in cleaning up and salvaging grain
at the Armour Elevator referred to.

Our readers will recall reading of the ex-

plosion's disastrous effects on a standard con-
crete and steel structure, and probably there
has been no similar loss or engineering project
in this field so widely commented upon. There-
fore, in making ready for the new house, con-
tract for whose designing has been awarded
to John Metcalf Co. of Chicago, while the
erection work and
all that goes with it will be

done by the Witherspoon-Englar Co. of Chica-

go, we shall treat of the big item in construc-
tion news by showing the steps being taken to
clean away the debris of the old house in
which many millions of bushels of grain were
stored at the time of the explosion.
Entire blocks of concrete storage tanks, if

not entirely demolished, had been moved on

their foundations. The marine leg on the Calu-
met River side had been lifted entirely off its
foundation and set down standing vertically
in the river itself — fortunately in the water
just off the dock instead of being thrown
across the river, and therefore transportation
was not blocked. This is one of the hundreds
of unusual features of this house which have
nonplussed engineers and there are so many

unusual circumstances in this connection that

it seems today that th* cause of the fire and
explosion will never be cleared up.
.At the time of the fire and explosion the ele-

vator contained ai>proximateIy six million bush-

elsof grain, most of which was damaged and
exposed to the weather by the catastrophe.
The salvage grain is being handled for the
insurance companies by the Armour Grain Co.,
who have employed C. W. Austin of the Chi-
cago Grain and Salvage Co., to take charge of

•Reprinted from
"The Price Current —Orain Pneumaticall]/ recovered grain being U)aded into a cargo «Aip,
pneumatic conveyance such distances are no caution against further disaster through ex- GUNITE IN CALUMET AND
drawbacks to the efficient operation of the plosions and fire. Machinery materials and HECLA shafts:^
equipment), which handles 4,000 bushels per the thousand and one buying problems in the
hour and removes grain from the storage bins new house have not been settled; although
T^HE CALUMET & HECLA conglomerate
direct into cars. The inlet of these suction such purchases are now being arranged, in- *• has been mined very largely through in-
leads is in the bottom of the bins where only cluding Fenestra window walls, used in the
clined shifts, the inclination being from 35
one man is required to shift the nozzles from old house, the advantages of which in eleva-
degrees to 40 degrees. From time to time
time to time, but in the Armour job one is tor and mill construction are indisputable.
some of the intermediate were aban- shafts
used more particularly to manually throw out The Metcalf Co. indicate that every known doned until at present there are only five re-
pieces of concrete, steel and other debris found improvement in the mechanical design of a maining in active use. But these have reach-
in the grain being moved. perfect elevator enter into the new work which
The engineers of the Guarantee Construc- will be a monument to the engineers, to the

ed depths so great 8,000 feet and more that —
it is economically impracticable to maintain
tion Co. say in this connection that a piece of contractors, Witherspoon-Englar Co., to
them in working condition.
concrete weighing eighteen pounds was taken the owners, the Chicago & North Western
through their leads and carried into the re- Railroad, and the operators, the Armour
The enormous area stoped out — one and
one-half miles deep by two and one-half miles
ceiving tank. This later device is an interest- Grain Co.
in length —
has started movement so vast that
ing trouble-preventer in the pneumatic system. Some General Remarks no attempts are made to do more than pro-
It takes all of the materials carried in suction One
of the difficulties encountered in stand-
vide temporary checks here and there to main-
through the leads and through the installation ardizing the pneumatic conveyance of grain
tain passage ways in the form of drifts and
of a balanced screen within the tank foreign in certain markets has been the traditional
materials which would tend to clog up the policy of insisting upon retaining all of the
machine, collect on this screen, and automati- dust originally in the grain.
The Constant Squeeze
cally stop operations. The pipe leads carry- The saving of the weight and bushelage in
The masonry crumble
heaviest concrete and

ing out of this receiving tank operate on pres- the dust in a car or in a boat
as so much and massive steel sets are
is quite likely
sure and, as so often explained herein, the lost 1,000 times over in these dust explosions.
twisted and torn. Rock and timber cribbing
combination of suction and pressure convey- There squeeze together in time, and openings in parts
is furthermore to be reckoned with the
ance of air in which the grain is carried pro- of the conglomerate close up to such an extent
loss of life, with possible closer supervision
that after a few years they must sometimes
means of loading
vides a simple but effective by insurance interests of the milling, feed, seed
and unloading cars, boats and barges. and grain elevators, subject to explosive losses. be redrifted in order to be available as passage
The rig on the land side of the elevator Airveyor Equipment, however, includes dust ways.
loaded grain direct into cars at the rate of 33 collectors with each unit so that all dust hav- Occasional so-called "air blasts" occur and
minutes to the car, filling each by the way clear ing commercial value may be collected and sometimes hundreds of tons of rock are
up to the roof, with no losses of grain and re- discharged if desired with the grain. The thrown violently from the apparently solid
quiring only one man at the loading end. manufacturers outline no procedure to the sides of shaft or drift. These phenomena are
On the south side of the demolished tanks owners of their equipment, but they simply accompanied by terrific gun-like reports and
of the elevator a great gang of workmen has make at times Jiave broken twelve-inch air mains,
it possible to retain all dust separately
been working for weeks and it was estimated from the grain for remixing it if desired. torn up tracks, and even filled several hundred
they would continue to do so for several They do urge, however, that the lighter ma- feet of shaft or drift with debris.

months more, removing the grain and the deb- terials in dust collection should be destroyed, It was, therefore, decided to cut off all in-

ris of the demolished structure. containing as they do no feed value. This cline shafts at the 8ist level — about 8100 feet
Up to May 26 about 270,000 bushels of oats thought is certainly deserving of recognition from surface on the incline — and to practically
had been loaded by boat and 920 cars of other by the trade whose members are surely not duplicate the surface layout of a mine at this
grain of various kinds moved. The basement knowingly continuing a practice so unneces- depth with the exception of rock crushers and
is still all filled with grain and as that is sary from an engineering point of view and air compressors. It is planned to erect hoist-
cleared out and bins are emptied, the blowers so disastrous in its consequences by insisting ing engines capable of hoisting from an addi-
and belts are extended further under the upon retaining dust in the original grain in tional depth of three thousand feet, and to
storage. every process. operate an electric railway whose main line
Work is proceeding fairly well, but consid- will be over three miles in length.
erable trouble and delay is and will be caused HIGHEST AND LOWEST LAND Shortly after driving of the main tunnel
by concrete blocking the bin outlets. Loadings The difference between the highest and the had started, we were much disturbed by the
now average about 40 cars per day, but these lowest points of land in the United States is fact that "slabbing" began on a very exten-
will be increased considerably unless unfore- 14.777 according to the United States
feet, sive scale. There were no "air blasts" and no
seen difficulties occur. Geological Survey, Department of the Inter- big caves, but ground that had been carefully
The John S. Metcalf Co., in speaking of the ior. Mount Whitney, the highest point, is
barred for loose would again become danger-
designing and developing reconstruction of the 14,501 feet above sea level, and in Death Val- ous, frequently in a few days. This finally
elevator, are at this early dale unable to specifi- ley there is a depression that lies 276 feet be- became so serious that it was realized that
cally discuss the details. However, they ad- low sea level. These two points, which are the expense of timbering, with the probable
vise that the plant will be rebuilt on practically both in California, are less than 90 miles apart. continuous upkeep cost, niiglit jeopardize the
the same lines as before with certain notable This difference in height is small, however, as success of the entire plan.
improvements, however, as follows : The drier compared with the difl'erence in the height and At some time previous to this our attention
house, in which the drying capacity will be re- depth of land in Asia. Mount Everest rises had been called to .some very successful ex-
built more with the same ton-
substantially, 29.002 foet above sea level, whereas the shores periments which had been conducted by cer-
nage as in the original
house, will however be of the Dead Sea lie 1,290 feet below sea level, tain coal mines where "slabbing" of the roof
built separately from the work house. Its re- a total difference in height of 30,292 feet. had been overcome by the use of "giinite."
moval from the work house proper is the It was. therefore, decided that gimite would

change in design which it is felt will tend A bridge is to be built across San Francisco be tried, and in February, 1019, several hun-
towards better operation. The dust collecting Ray. the money being subscribed and the plans dred feet of tunnel were "gunned." Much to
and ventilating features of the new structure, completed. It will be more than eight miles our gratification, "ilabbinR" slopped at once
which will soon be under way, will embody long, 200 feet wide. and. besides providing and the cement remained imbrokcn.
many changes and improvements. for traffic of all kinds, will carry oil, gas
and It did not seem possible that a quarter to a
An expenditure of more money possibly water pipes and electric conduits for the pub- half inch of cement and sand would have
along this line seems justified, as the first pre- lic utility companies.
•Ahstrnrted from "M. C. M. Almnnus."

tainly a very effective and relatively inex-

pensive relardani for many of these disturb-
The gunite mixture used
consisted of two
and one-half parts of sand to one of cement.
The sand was screened through a three six-
teenths inch mesh.
Air pressure used was 65 pounds.
Water pressure, 40-50 pounds.
Gun used was manufactured by Cement Gun
Company of Corn wells, Pennsylvania.
There were four men used each shift on
"gun" work — two charging the gun and two
men who alternated at the nozzle. These men
did their own barring and trimming and ap-
plied one coat of gunite over a length of
50 ft. of nine by twelve foot tunnel or — an
average of six and one-half lineal feet per
man per shift for a double coat.
The average thickness of one coat varies
Before Ounning. from one-eighth inch to one-fourth inch on
a smooth rock surface. For two coats the
a very and so no more "gun-
lasting effect, thusiasts in the use of gunite under these con- thickness is from one-fourth to three-eightlis
ning" was done couple of months, in
for a ditions and it is scarcely too much to say that inch. Crevices and hollow spots are, of course,
order to give time for something to develop. the entire project might easily have become filled and here the thickness of coat varies a
The only thing that hapened. however, was endangered were it not for the success that great deal.
that due to the gunite being put on all in one has attended its use. About 28,000 pounds of gunite mixture are
coat, it was a little too thick in spots and be- It is not, however, proof against severe used to complete 100 feet of tunnel.
fore the cement had time to set properly, the "air blasts." A series of very severe "blasts" .'\pproximately twenty per cent, of the sand
weight of the material itself pulled the gunite last spring loosened and cracked portion? of rebounded from the rock and fell to the floor.
away from the rock leaving occasional air the gunite for several hundred feet and it This is, of course, wasted.
spaces. This formed a sort of blister which was necessary to trim and "gun" ....» area Wire mesh re-enforcing was tried at first
finally resulted in small slabs of cement fall- again. There was no question as to the cause but was very expensive, difficult to apply,
ing off and again letting the air and moisture of the trouble, however, and the expense of wasteful of gunite, and finally found to be
reach the rock. repair was very small compared to the cost of entirely unnecessary.
work this difficulty has been entire-
In later repairing a timbered drift under similar con- It proved convenient to dry and mix the
ly overcome by putting on two very thin coats ditions. sand and cement on surface and to bring it
— usually one coat on one shift followed by About a year ago a section jf the No. 4 to the operators in packages, each of which
another coat on the succeeding shift. shaft of theNorth Kearsarge mine was giv- contained a full charge for the gun. How-
Up to December 4th, 1920, 8,772 feet ing a great deal of trouble due to "slabbing." ever, when this plan was followed, it be-
have been "gunned" and there is not a stick As an experiment, this section was carefully came necessary to add a very small quantity
of timber being used in any part of this "gunned" and to date has required no further of water when mixing in order to prevent a
completed portion for the purpose of sup- attention. separation of sand and cement during trans-
porting loose ground. N'or are there any At the present writing two conclusions seem it.

cracks showing which would indicate that we obvious — 1st, that the cause of a great deal of
may expect any difficulty in the future from the "slabbing" or caving of the v/alls of our AEROPLANES TO PROSPECT
this source. shafts and other openings is not thoroughly FOR OIL
The most skeptical of us have become en- understood ; —
and 2nd, that "gunning" is cer- Prospecting for oil by aeroplane in the un-
charted wilderness which constitutes the delta
of the Orinoco is about to be carried out for
the British controlled oilfields, according to
a report just published. The company has
acquired oil concessions from the Govern-
ment of Venezuela in the delta of the Orinoco,
a region which is and where
largely unexplored
the ordinary methods of prospecting would be
futile. It is considered, however, that the
presence of oil should easily be ascertained
from the air, since where it comes to the sur-
face vegetation cannot live. A contract foi
the survey has been given to the Bermuda
and West Atlantic Aviation Co., Ltd. The
work will be carried out with seaplanes.

The Department of Commerce, through Mr.

Allport, the representative at Vienna, reports
that a bill is now
before the National Council
proposing to extend the life of Austrian
patents for six years in cases where the inven-
tor was prevented during the war from ex-

A/ter Gunnmg. ploiting or using his invention.


the physiological results essential to proper more impressive, the pellagrins could be cured
Compressed Air Magazine nutrition and physical eflficiency. In short, and their convalescence hastened by giving
—Founded —
1S96 while eating a seeming plenty a person may them a proper daily portion of milk. In this
Devoted to the mechanical arts in general, steadily lose flesh, vim, and capacity to mas- therapeutic campaign, the experts of the U.
especially to all useful applications ot com-
pressed air and to everything pneumatic. ter the daily tasks, whether these be of a S. Public Health Service tried milk in various
Business and Editorial Offices: muscular or mental character. Finally, the forms, and found that one pound of preserved
Bowling Green Building. No. 11. Broadway,
Bowling Green, 8430 condition may reach such a pass as to arouse milk w'as just as helpful as a quart of fresh
New York City. Tel.

Publication Office: Somerville, New Jersey alarm. To put it popularly, the man of re- milk.

Chicago Office: Sears & Irving. Representatives search has made it clear that each one of us Manifestly, w'here the circumstances are such
Peoples Gas Building is, in fact, in which chemical
a laboratory that fresh milk cannot be distributed freely or
Business Office for the British Isles: actions and reflexes of a complicated charac- kept until used, then canned milk is the logical
J. F. Atkinson, Representative
No 31, Essex Street, Strand, London, W. C. 2 ter are continually taking place, and that medium of relief ; and the industry engaged
when Nature's ordered processes are inter- in preserving an otherwise perishable food-
TERMS OP SUBSCRIPTION fered with we are sure to be penalized. stuff thus becomes an enterprise of added im-
$3 a year, U. S. A.. American possessions and
Mexico; all other countries. $3.50 a year, post- There was a time when scurvy menaced the portance. It will probably surprise a good
age prepaid. Single copies, 35 cents. Back is- mariner the world over, and not so long ago many of us to learn that the American manu-
sues more than six months old, 75 cents each.
beri-beri puzzled the medical fraternity while facture of condensed milk has grown in three

William Lawrence Saunders it immense toll among the peoples

levied an decades from an annual production of about
President of the Far East especially. But it has been 38.000,000 pounds to a present yearly output
G. "W. Morrison revealed that these diseases are due directly of more than 2,000,000,000 pounds Indeed, !

Treasurer and General Manager

to malnutrition and are the immediate conse- during the ten-year period from 1909 to 1919
Eugene P. McCrorken
Editor quence of an unbalanced diet. Unbalanced in the business increased 410 per cent. To-day,
Frank Richards that the foods eaten have lacked certain prop- in the United States alone, there are something
Associate Editor erties or constituents —
some of them yet in- like 240 plants employed in the canning of
Robert G. Skerrett visible to the microscope but known to exist milk, and these establishments represent an
Contributing Engineering Editor outlay of many millions of dollars. Their ser-
and to be indispensable to bodily well-being.
Mart V. McGowan And these unseen agencies that promote phys- vice to the public welfare is bound to grow
Editorial Secretary
ical sufficiency fortunately abound in milk. in significance, especially as the diet experts
Arthur D. McAghon
Secretary Taking us as a people, we are a pretty fine stand squarely behind a nation-wide propa-
lot gauged by the standards of brawn and a ganda to promote the daily consumption of a
Foreign Correspondents general fitness to tackle the usual jobs of quart of milk.

Paris life. This may be explained in part by the In this movement for better general health
K. Raleigh
Ben abundance and the varied dietary we can com- the engineer is figuring conspicuously, because
Rue Saint-Florentin, Place de la Concorde
mand as a rule. According to statistics re- it by means of apparatus and equipment of
London cently published by the Federal authorities.
Roland H. Briggs his devising that the raw milk can be treated
No. 165, Queen Victoria St., E. C. 4 Americans consume on an average annually and canned so that it will remain in every way
Berlin quite 44 gallons of milk per capita, and this fit for human use for a long while thereafter.
Charles A. Bratter may account to a good extent for our capacity In other words, an extremely sensitive and
No. 23, Kochstr.. SW., 68
for work and the widespread prevalence of a perishable comestible can thus be brought to a
Hermann Brinkmann pretty high standard of health. However, state that will permit its deliberate distribution
No. 3, Tuchlauben, I there are sections where local food supplies the world over and be capable anywhere of
Madrid do not promote this status, and this is notably furnishing chemical properties so vital to a
Luis Baldasano t Lopez
the case where milk in plenty is not common- continuance of health and strength. But there
No. 7. Jorge Juan
ly available from neighboring sources. is an economic as well as a hygienic angle to

EDITORIALS There is a great area in the United States the gains to be reaped through the conserva-
lying to the south of the Ohio and the Poto- tion made possible by the milk eondenSery.
mac Rivers where agricultural conditions Let it be kept in mind that a pound of can-

CANNED MILK AS A MEDIUM have up to now not led to the forming of ned milk is the equivalent of two and one-half
extensive herds of dairy cattle, and, likewise, pounds of fresh milk. That is to say, the orig-
FOR PUBLIC HEALTH where refrigerating facilities are frequently inal water content of 87 per cent is reduced
in DR MANY YEARS the public looked up- inadequate so that the fresh milk at hand to approximately 30 per cent. In bulk, the
on milk as a food primarily for in-
fluid must be used up promptly and within a short finished commodity is about half that of the
fants and invalids —
something that would an- distance from the points of production. It original raw milk from which it was made.
swer until the digestive apparatus was robust is in this vast region that pellagra has obtain- In consequence, the canned milk weighs less
enough to deal with a more diversified diet. ed a foothold, and this malady, so the U. S. ami requires a smaller space while in storage
To-day, however, students of chemical hy- Public Health Service discloses, attacks year- or during transportation. Assuming an annual
giene have established beyond peradventurc ly fully 100,000 persons. Of the afflicted output of 2,o3o,ooo,(xio pounds of concentrated
that milk is an "entire food" and of vital something like five per cent succumb. Here, milk, the extraction of water in putting up that
importance to the bodily well being of the again, we have another example of the conse- milk leads to a saving in freight of fully 1,200,-
human kind of all ages. Indeed, it seems that quences of an unbalanced diet. 000 tons. h"xpresscd in another way, condens-
milk possesses health-building properties that Medical research has proved that the pella- ing shortens the milk train by 40,000 cars! It
make it well-nigh unique, at least in its aggre- grins, well-nigh without exception, have been would be itnpossihle to slate specifically the
gation of virtues. Therefore, the scientists, living upon foods deficient in vitamines, and, economies due to this lightening of the load,
with reason, point out that everyone of u.^ curiously, the daily ration has either lacked bill they must be great.
would probably ho the better off if milk figur- milk or milk products or the allowance of The one dominant fact in the canning of
ed more conspicuously in our daily ration. milk has been so small that the body has been milk is that this system of conserving a vital
The average layman imagines that he has denied its quota of those mysterious, wonder- resource places at the disposal of mankind any-
only to satisfy his appetite to meet all of the working chemicals. Where milk was to he where a foodstuff of incalculable value. No
tissue-forming and heat-inducing require- had in the needful quantity, the food other- matter where people may be living or working
ments of his system. But the stomach may wise being identical with thai eaten by the it can be carried to them and used to safe-
be fdled with a measure of regularity and pellagrins, dwellers in the same environment guard them against the ravages of those dis-
even the palate pleased without promotinK did not develop pellagra. what is utill
Finally, eases directly traceable to malnutrition.
Augrust. 1!»'J1 comi'1{Essi:j) mi; maca/.ise 10195

SHAPING OUR NEW FEDERAL Transportation conditions are a paramount and of labor arc tending somewhat downward,
HIGHWAY POLICIES ciinsideratiunand should occupy the urgent and as a matter of fact the building of apart-

T^lli: llKSr iiR>>aKC oi l're»idciit Hard-

thought of Federal, state and municipal bodies —
mint houses nut to call them tenements any
to effectremedy.
a Railroad rehabilitation more— is becoming more or less active in the
Congress contained a most per-
iiig to
should be accomplished without delay and outlying boroughs of New York. In the
tinent and important declaration of a progres-
new roads should be constructed and old ones Uronx, for instance, large structures are now
sive policy ot national highway construction
repaired so that food, merchandise, machinery being erected with a rush which will accom-
involving participation by the national gov-
and raw materials will move with despatch modate thousands of families, and doubtless
ernment in rendering aid to the various states.
and flexibility from point of origin to desti- others will follow them in increasing num-
It strongly suggests a comprehensive scheme
nation. This will
prove to be one of the bers.
that will correlate all individual local cfTorts
greatest factors in securing the much herald- Our interest in this matter has led us to note
into one harmonious whole.
ed and most to be desired return to normalcy. one little detail in connection with the erection
Someimportant passages in the President's
No local desire for preference or selfish of these large apartment houses, which has its
statements show how the transportation prob-
gain should be permitted to impede progress bearing on the ultimate costs and the conse-
lem ot America depends upon these feeders
from local
in this direction. quent burden to be carried. A very substan-
to the railroads and "afford relief
tial item ot the cost is in the excavation for
burdens." Inprogram of
reference to the
the foundation. There are quantities of earth
projected highway construction the message HOUSING THE MASSES to be removed and also large masses of rock
The Metropolis of New York need have to be cut and carried away, in some cases the
"There is begun a new era in highway con- no fear of finding out rock surface being above the street In
itself of a job, level.
struction, the outlay for which runs far into and work a
especially in the lines of work which all this single decade has brought a
hundreds of millions of dollars. Bond issues The great change as to the means employed and
itself provides. supreme and un-
by road districts, counties, and states mount ending business of the great the costs involved. Only ten years ago pick-
city is that
to enormous figures, and tlie country is lacing of growing, and it apparently was never axe and shovel would have dug the earth and
such an outlay that it is vital that every effort farther from completion than now. horse drawn wagons would have taken it away.
To the
shall be directed against wasted effort and
thinking observer there is little that can be Then for the rock excavation there would have
unjustifiable expenditure. of greater interest than to watch the pant- been a steam boiler on the street and one or
The Federal Government can place no inhi- ing city forever trying to catch up with itself two heavy tripod drills to be laboriously
bition on the expenditure in the several states, and to see it always hopelessly outdistanced. handled and operated and removed and re-
but since Congress has embarked upon a pol- There is little need of specifying in what placed to accommodate the blasting, the re-
icy of assisting the states in highway improve-
it is most deficient. It must grow to live and sulting debris then removed by hand labor.
ment, wisely, 1 believe, it can assert a wholly live while it grows, and being alive in every .•\ typical up-to-date operation in precisely
becoming influence in shaping policy. part its growth must carry along the entire the same line of work has during the past
With the principle of Federal participation
structure, so that practically it needs more of month or two come under the observation of
acceptably established, probably never to be everything. continually requires the present writer. The first intimation that
It increas-
abandoned, it is important to exert Federal ed space for the carrying on of its manu- anything was going on was in the arrival on
influence in developing comprehensive plans facturing and commercial activities, and is the spot of a steam shovel and in an hour
looking to the promotion of commerce, and ap- or two was shoveling earth into gasoline
acquiring the habit of seeking such spaces it
ply our expenditures in the surest way to guar-
vertically when restricted horizontally. It re- driven, automatically dumping trucks, keeping
money expended.
antee a public return for quires greatly increased internal transportation a string of them busy for two or three days.
Large demands a Federal
Federal outlay facilities for the materials of daily consumption, Before its work was entirely completed a
voice in the program of expenditure. Con- for the mass of products it puts out, for its portable air compressor, gasoline driven, had
gress can not justify a mere gift from the made its appearance and at one corner of the
measureless waste and refuse, but especially
Federal purse to the several states, to be for connecting the workers with their daily lot two Jackhamers were soon rattling away
prorated among counties for road betterment. tasks at the one end and their places of rest with frequent blasting between. The com-
Such a course will invite abuses which it were and recuperation at the other. More than all, pressor and the Jackhamers worked two eight
better to guard against in the beginning. and more than ever before, it just now needs hour shifts per day and their work was soon
The laws governing Federal aid should be houses, or at least housing, in which the done. The building of the rough stone foun-
amended and strengthened. The Federal workers must spend more than a half of their dation walls was begun at once and the indi-
agency of administration should be elevated to living and breathing hours. This last is at cations are that before these lines greet the
the importance and vested with authority reader the brick walls
present, and has been since the century began, entire for the five-
comparable to the work before it. And Con- in the most desperate and urgent need of satis- story walk-up will be completed. The sav-
gress ought to prescribe conditions to Fed- fying and is apparently in the most hopeless ing of time and cost is evident without com-
eral appropriations which will necessitate a ment. R.
state of accomplishment.
consistent program of uniformity which will
The trouble, after must mostly be left
justify the Federal outlay.
correct itself, since no man is wise enough
know of nothing more shocking than the
I to suggest an effective plan or strong enough
millions of public funds wasted in improved to enforce it. There are automatic safety de-
highways ; wasted because there is no policy vices or correcting devices in the big things 'T~»HK I'kESEXT attempt of a British ex-
of maintenance. The neglect is not universal as well as in the smaller ones which come ' ploring expedition to climb Mount Ever-
but it is very near nothing that it. There is into play when all else fails, and our ulti- est, the highest of many peaks reaching to tre-
Congress can do more eflfectively to end this mate reliance must be in something of that mendous Himalayas, and the
altitudes in the
shocking waste than condition all Federal aid character in the present connection. world's and most mysterious moun
on provisions for maintenance. Highways, no It is the habit of the worker in the big city tain, is the attention everywhere
matter how generous the outlay for construc- til hire and not to own the place he lives in, of engineers, geologists, physicists and other
tion, can not be maintained without patrol and the providing and maintaining of such men of science, to say nothing of its firing
and constant repairs. Such conditions insist- places of residence depends upon the assur- the imagination mind.
of The ex-
the lay
ed upon in the grant of Federal aid will ance of pecuniary profit to the owner, and this plorers, from all accounts, have a tough joo
safeguard the public which pays, and guard assurance is apparently becoming more sub- before them, because of the battle they must
the Federal Government against political stantial and more stable from day to day. wage with the rarefied atmosphere and other
abuses, which tend to defeat the very purposes Rents are abnormally high and promising to known and unknown terrors.
for which we authorize Federal expenditure." remain at a high level. The costs of material Once arrived at the "Roof of the World."

as the Tibetan plateau is not too fancifully fact that the intensity of the rays nearly winning of the North Pole. One thing the
designated, the explorers will start their real shut off by the moisture content of the lower expedition can determine when it plants its
work at an altitude of 15,000 feet, greater airs, finds little to obstruct it at such heights barograph or altimeter at the final high point,
than that of Pike's Peak or of the Continental as that of Everest. Also the character of is the exact height of the mountain. Many
Divide in the Rockies, or of Mount Blanc in the rays exerts a destructive effect on doubt that they will ever get more than half
the French Alps, which will give most folk the human body when it is too long ex- way to the summit, even under the best of
some idea of the conditions to be faced. Many posed to them. In the tropics, even near conditions, but they will be able to get an
travelers find quite trying the mile altitude sea level, these rays often have unsuspected accurate close-up measurement of the height,
of Denver and not a few find Mexico City, effect on newcomers not accustomed to them, nevertheless, by surveyors' computations above
about 25 per cent higher, exceedingly un- and scientific care must be given to the choice the recorded barograph point. No member of
comfortable, as far as exertion is concerned. and color of clothing worn. When the white the Indian Survey has been permitted by the
The height of Mount Everest has been vari- men in the Everest exploring party get into Tibetans, hostile as they are to foreigners, to
ously measured by surveyors as being be- really high altitudes it will prove an essen- get nearer to the mountain than 87 miles.
tween 29,002 feet to 30,366 feet, and it is prob- tial caution, say the authorities on the sub- Because of the scientific data it is hoped
ably somewhere within this range, or rough- ject, that they keep their faces well covered Colonel Bury's party will obtain, Compressed
ly a matter of five and two-thirds miles. with grease paint or lanolin. Inch-thick cork Air Magazine, with other watchers in the
The world's highest permanent human set- or pith helmets also must be constantly worn. world of science, will wait upon the ultimate
tlement is a Tibetan hamlet at an altitude of Meantime must be protected against
the feet results of so exciting a project with the great-

16,500 feet, while there are Buddhist monas- and so made

frostbite by shoes lined with fur est interest.Here's the best of luck to these
teries at elevations of 15,000 feet in the foot- that no metal fastenings or nails shall come hardy z'oyageurs in quest of fact in the upper
hills of the Himalayas. A great area of Tibet, in contact with the lining and thus conduct air, and may their findings have highly sig-

larger than that of the easternmost third of the heat away from the foot when walking on nificant values! F. J. T.
United States, is for the most part above 12,- snow at below zero temperatures. At night
000 feet in elevation, or more than twice tlie the temperature on the upper levels of these GOOD MANAGEMENT— MINUS
height of Denver, and has a thinly scattered mountains drops to from 20 to 60 degrees be- THE "SCIENTIFIC"
population of 3,000,000. The natives of the low zero Fahrenheit, so the explorer must Good management, equally with bad man-
region have short legs suited to the rough repose in a fur-lined sleeping bag while en- agement, says Tlw Engineer, London, has ex-
going of their mode of life, and have broad, closed in an inner bag of quilted eider-down. isted ever since there have been factories to be
deep chests, with extraordinary lung capacity. In daytime members of the party must wear managed. It consists in regarding the work-
If these people are suddenly taken to sea two suits of heavy woolen underwear beneath men as fellow human beings rather than as
level, it has been learned, they quickly suc- wool and fur outergarments. complicated and unsatisfactory machines, and
cumb to the effects of air pressure, and are Under these adverse conditions the famous in adopting every labor-saving device or im-

said to be literally drowned in the heavier party of the Duke of the Abruzzi, which nego- proved process of manufacture which can be
air. The effect of a sudden transposition from tiated part of the way up these heights, found justifiedon economic grounds." Good man-
a very high altitude to sea level is much like that a vertical climb of 200 feet was an en- agement is not made any better by being call-
that suffered by submarine divers or workers tirely sufficient day's work! All these points ed "scientific management" and those who
in tunnel caissons under compressed air when will afford the uninitiated some idea of the arrogate to themselves the epithet "scientific"
they emerge into normal pressure too quickly. difficulties and dangers attendant upon this must not claim the credit for having discover-
The scientific phases of the Mount Everest scientific expedition. The higher the explor- ed the wisdom of providing for the workman
expedition, therefore, that arouse the greatest ers climb the more will their strength and the most appropriate equipment and conditions
scientific interest, are those that concern this appetiteswane. In the rarefied atmosphere for performing his particular duties. Similar-

subject of air pressure. It is a mooted aca- one can hear the loud thumping of his own ly the motion students have no right to pre-

demic question, we believe, how high up in heart. Lifting a foot becomes a great effort sume that nobody heretofore has realized that
the air ahuman being accustomed to sea-level and rapid movement is impossible. manual operations can be well or badly per-
atmosphere, for instance, would have to go Sudden avalanches and storms constitute formed. Every engineer will remember being
before he would be physically incapacitated two of the ever-present dangers that are en- instructed when an apprentice in the best way
from the change in pressure on his body, which countered in exploration of the Himalayas. to hold a chisel or to use a file, and that he
is of course adjusted to resist a normal pres- .V tremendous and irresistible avalanche will acquired his individual skill in handicraft by
sure of fifteen pounds to the square inch. Very .sometimes descend in a valley and obliterate continued practice based on general instruc-
few persons have ever reached the height of everything in its path. Strangely enough, tions. All skill is a function of the individual,
Mount Everest either by balloon or airplane. persons have lost their lives half a mile away depending on the combined action of hand
The record-breaking flight of Major R. W. from the crashing rocks, ice and other debris, and brain, and it is more than questionable
Schroeder to 33,113 feet on February 27, 1920, because of the very great changes wrought whether expertness can be transmitted from
which was later described in these columns, suddenly in air pressure. The great moving one man to another, except in a limited de-
was accomplished by means of a supercharg- masses of material pack down the air in the gree, or otherwise than by the methods which

er for the engine, with every protection for valley so swiftly to a high pressure that the experience has developed. Training the
the airman and oxygen tanks to reinforce the human frame camiot withstand it, the lungs muscles of the hand will not produce a
air for breathing. It was, however, a terrific and other organs being severely injured from Shakespeare or a Padcrcwski, and, similarly.
ordeal for the aviator, though he was at tlie the sudden impact of several atmospheres. it will not make a good mechanic. The brain
extreme heights for only a matter of a few On the other hand low air pressure claims which directs the muscles is the essential
minutes. its victims, of course, among exploring moun- thing.

Those who have made investigations into taineers at such heights. The effects of low
the subject, we read, have found that aviators air pressure have "mountain sick-
been called Favorable report on the Keyes bill creat-

At sea level the barometer registers ing a separate Bureau of .\eronautics in the
in the European war collapsed or became un- ness."
conscious at the height of Mount Everest, 30 inches; more than five miles high, on Navy Department was voted recently by the
which they only momentarily touched. The Mount Everest, it would register nine inches. ScTiatc Naval Committee. Members said the
annals of balloon ascensions of the last 50 If the adventurous British undertaking bill would be placed before the Senate for
years are filled with records of deaths due to headed by Col. Howard Bury, which has just adoption at an early dale.
oxygen supply.
insufficient lately headed into the Tibetan fastness from A House commiltcc continued hearings re-

The human body is known also to suffer India, succeeds in reaching the top of Mount cently on a similar bill, with taptain Moffclt,

exceedingly from the effects of the sun's rays Everest, they will have accomplished a great- Director of Naval .\viation,. as the 1 liioi wit-

many explorers contend, than the ness.

when at great altitudes, which is due to thf er feat,

DEVELOPMENT OF THE HEINE dimensions and the characteristic nature of

BOILER IN AMERICA surrounding buildings and landmarks.
A cuiniiiuiiicaliuM ».i.> received regarding a U. S. War Department Orders, with refer-
which appeared in the May >ssue oi
>tatciiiL'nt ence to specifications for Municipal Landing
CoMFRE^^su) AiK Magazine rcterring to the Fields, and flying rules to be observed at all

death ol John J. Main of Toronto, Ont. We L'. .S. Flying Fields, add very materially to
reproduce this statement in the following to- ilie value of this practical book.
gether with some abstracts from our corre- Photographs of landing fields throughout
spondent. Uur original statement was as the country, taken from airplanes, form an
follows iiitercsting feature.

Handbook of Stanoaud Details, by Chahles Many helpful hints for those actively en-
"John J. Main of Toronto, Ontario, presliiunt H. HuoiiES, author of Handbook of Ship C'alcu-
of the Canadian Incinerator Co., and a director luliona, Construction and Operation. Illustrated
gaged in aviation are given, complete direc-
of the Dominion Kadiator Co., died rueently at and Indexed; 312 pp.; Price, $6, net; New York tions for "trouble shooting" in airplane en-
the age of 7U. He was tlio inventor of the Heine and London. D. Appleton & Co.
boiler and was responsible for many important gines being featured.
developments in connection w itii foundry work. HOOK
He emigrated from tlie Island of Jersey to THIS was compiled especially for Aviators, air-plane mechanics, and anyone
Canada when young, engaged himself as a boil- engineers and draftsmen so that they who is at all interested in, or helping to devel-
er worker, and as a result of his invention of
the Heine boiler made a connection with the might have, in convenient form, drawings, op, commercial aviation, will find this indis-
Poison Iron Works of which he became vice- tables, and formulae of standard details for
president and general manager. He retired pensable.
some years ago but during the war served on use in designing. One feature of this book will be found very
the Imperial Munitions Board."
The data have been obtained from a variety desirable and is worth while noting and that
An exception to the foregoing is taken in the of sources. Many of the tables have been isa ruled division of 24 pages for the purpose
following furnished by the leading machine tool manu- of keeping a record of the machine, motor and
facturers in the United States and represent pilot's flying time.
"The statement that John J. Main of Toronto,
Ontario, was tlie inventor of the Heine boiler is their ciirrent practice.
so absolutely without foundation of fact and
also so entirely unjust to Col. K. D. Meier and Besides being of use to engineers and drafts- Financial, Enoineerino, a text for consult-
his life achievement, that 1 feel it necessary to men, students, purchasing agents and others, ing, managing and designing engineers and for
call your attention to the actual facts. students, by O. B. Goldman. Illustrated with
The original patent of the Heine boiler was everyone interested in mechanical engineering 54 charts; 271 pp.; Price, $3.50 net. New York:
taken out by Herman Heine of Berlin, Germany, John Wiley & Sons.
the American rights of which were purchased will find the book of value.
by Col. K. D. Meier in 1883. Col. D. Meier K The volume is essentially a compilation of 'T'HIS BOOK furnishes the rules by which
then founded the Heine Safety Boiler Co., which
was incorporated by him In 1884. tlie standard types, dimensions, sizes, weights, •'• the engineer may determine the value,
The initial patent or invention covering the economically, of the diflterent types and instal-
principle of the Heine boiler was the work of etc., of the materials and manufactured parts
Herman Heine. All others subsequent to that used in the construction of machinery and lations of machinery. It gives the engineer a
were gotten out either by Col. K. D. Meier or
engineers associated with him. engineering structures. basis for rate-fixing, by translating units of
Mr. John J. Main was connected with the time and power into dollars. With
Poison Iron Works of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, No previous book has gathered together, as this book
and became associated with Col. Meier in the this one does, all the data on standard details. the engineer can also determine the financial
development of the Heine boiler because an ar-
rangement was made by which the Poison Iron Some of the standards have been set by or- efliciency of a system, or any of its parts,
Works, of which Mr. Main was an ollicer, acted when the mechanical efficiency known.
as Canadian agents for the Heine Safety Boiler ganizations of engineers and manufacturers, is It

Co. Mr. Main had nothing whatever to do with while others have been more or less arbitrarily will be found useful in organizing new plants
the invention of the Heine boiler and his activ-
ities in connection with its development were set by leading manufacturers. The standards or systems, where economy is eflfected by
confined to sales promotion work undertaken by The book has
the Poison Iron NS'orks. cover fastenings, power transmission, pipe, choosing units of proper size.
tSgd.) John Hunter, tubing and rope and chain fittings,
fittings, been written primarily for the practicing en-
Chief Engineer Heine Safety Boiler.
structural detailsand a large number of mis- gineer. All mathematical deductions are
Material on standard en- marked out in detail, leaving no gaps for the
WAR INSTRUMENTS DESTROY- cellaneous parts.
gineering drawings, and a large number of reader to bridge. A
prominent consulting
ED BY PEACE TREATY tables of value to the engineer and designer engineer who examined
the manuscript said,
The Government Observatory in Saxony,
"That is the sort of material the colleges do
are included. This book is invaluable for
the Aeronautical Institute at Linden-
handy reference and forms a complete guide not teach, and that a young engineer now has
bcrg, and the Geophysical Institute o£ Leipsic acquire after he gets out into business
to the available parts and materials used by to
and Frankfort have asked the Allied Control- and then he pays 'drug store' prices for
engineers and draftsmen. it."
ling Commission for permission to use certain
The table of contents is divided as follows
range finders out of the military equipment, Flyino Guide Book, by Bruce
and Loa Cost segregation, fundamental financial calcu-
for scientific purposes, but according to the KVTI.VGE. Honorary Lieutenant. Royal Air B'orce-
Pilot Captain, Aerial Police Reserve, N. Y. C.
lations, basic cost, vestances, determination
conditions of the peace treaty these instruments Member. Aero Club of America, N. Y. C, with a of size of system for best financial efficiency,
were considered military equipment and, con- foreword by H. M. Hickane, Major.Alr Service
Chief, Information Group, A. S. Member, Aero ; determination of type and size of units.
sequently, had to be destroyed. After lengthy Club of America, N. Y. C. Price $2.50, post-
paid 150 pp.; 38 illustrations; 1921 edition, en-
Every engineer in a responsible position has
negotiations the Allied Controlling Commis- larged and revised to date. feltthe need of solving engineering problems
sion has decided that the request of the abovj in terms of money which necessarily means
THIS BOOK contains valuable information
scientific institutions cannot be granted and and he must supplement his technical education
for all those who are interested in,
that these valuable instruments must be de- development of com- with a knowledge of finance in order to make
desire to help in the
stroyed. The same applies to a great number a complete and harmonious whole. To be
mercial aviation.
of field glasses of very high luminosity able to determine by a definite scientific meth-
The greatest factor, we are told in the fore-
specially made for the use of air pilots dur-
od the comparative value of all things he must
word retarding the growth of com-
that is
ing the war. use and the value of investments in general
mercial aeronautics in the United States to-
day is the lack of established landing fields. is a decidedly useful acquisition.
ZINC IS ZINC These arc absolutely essential to commercial This volume aims to place the engineer in
Zinc seems to be unfortunate in its nomen- aeronautics. Airplanes cannot land in every a position wherein he will be able to meet
clature. Gold is gold, silver is silver and so field so it becomes necessary to prepare fields the financial phases of his work and come
on, but at the mines zinc blende is called suited for their landing and taking off. In to an intelligent conclusion, and with the aid
"jack," until recently slab zinc has been known addition to giving many helpful hints for avi- of an instructor the student also is able to

only as spelter, and we say "galvanize" when ators, the author has included a complete list master mathematical problems, as examples

we really mean "zincize," to cover with a coat- of Federal, municipal and private landing are fully worked out to illustrate the practical
ing of zinc. fields throughout the country, their location, application.

A "products catalog" has recently been is- of two totally different operations at the same In the portable anemometer designed by the
sued by the IngersoU Rand Co. containing a time, or the taking of on two
observations author, a nickel wire is employed having an

general description of the numerous products closely related operations, each diflferent from electrical temperature coefficient of

manufactured by the company. It will prove the other. The watch has in addition tha 0.474 per cent, per deg. C, calculated on 20
a useful addition to any engineer's or com- production dial feature used on the time deg. C. The box containing the apparatus
pany's library as a means of ready reference study watch which saves the mental or pen- is 10 in. X 6j4 in x 7 in. deep, and the weight com-

for many problems which occur in the course cil computation after the observation has been plete is 13 lb. A reading is given directly in
of usual operations. We refer particularly to taken and gives a mechanical testimony that miles per hour, and the precision obtainable
the engineering section which contains data cannot be questioned, showing the amount of is said to be higher than with existing ap-
for the solution of every day pneumatic prob- production per hour after one operation has paratus.

lems and which has been presented in such been performed.

detail that it very likely will be found suffi- NUMEROUS FATAL DUST
cient to determine exact requirements for We acknowledge receipt of the 1920-21 Cat- EXPLOSIONS
new installations. The catalog is well index- alogue of the School of Mines and Metallurgy The Bureau of Chemistry of the U. S. De-
ed, contains 196 pp. and shows numerous of the University of Missouri, RoUa, Mo. This partment of Agriculture is conducting inves-
charts, tables and illustrations. Anyone us- is the fiftieth edition and gives a complete tigations into the causes and the means of

ing or who may possibly use compressed air description of the activities of the university prevention of dust explosions and resulting
in various mechanical applications should
its in the education of young engineers. The fires in grain mills, grain elevators and other

avail themselves of the opportunity to obtain curricula of engineering courses are tabulated grain handling plants. A partial record of
a copy of this catalog. including mining, metallurgy, chemistry, civil such casualties suggests the magnitude of the
. engineering, mechanical and electrical engi- danger.

The B. F. Sturtevant Company, Boston, neering, etc. A survey covering a period of two years
shows that dust explosions have occurred in
Mass., has issued an engineering bulletin. No.
261, containing information about pneumatic MEASURING VENTILATION IN the United States and Canada during that

collecting and conveying systems for dust re- COAL MINES time, resulting in the death of nearly 100
persons, injury to a large number, and prop-
moval and other purposes, as manufactured Professor J. T. McGregor Morris, in a paper
erty damage in excess of $10,000,000. Four
by this company. The illustrations show the read before the British Association, describes
occurred in grain elevators, two in flour mills,
various types of fans made by the concern, a method for measuring the ventilation in
one in a feed mill, and one in a starch fac-
a variety of types and plans of dust removal coal mines, which depends on the change which
hoods and power ar- length of thin wire over tory, this last causing 43 deaths and over $3,-
installations, piping, takes place in a
allowed to pass and which 000,000 property damage. In three grain ele-
rangements. The text explains in detail the which the air is
vator explosions, fourteen lives were lost in
points to be considered in dust collecting as is heated by an electric current of constant
well as including a number of tables on pres- strength.
one, ten in another, and six in the third, all of

and sizes, ca- Under the heating action of the current, the
them doing extensive damage. In an ex-
sures, friction losses, velocities
pacities and weights of exhausters and pip- wire attains a constant temperature in a few
plosion of aluminum dust, six girls lost their

ing. seconds. Heat is then being absorbed from it

lives and as many more were injured. An
explosion of hardrubber dust resulted in the
by the air passing over it, and the higher the
death of eight workmen.
A new instrument of precision has recently velocity of air, the smaller will be the rise in

come combining all the advantages of

to light temperature. This fact permits of the deter-
the which the air is A bill introduced in the Senate provides ap-
the stop watch and the time study watch and mination of rate at
When a wire changes tempera- propriation of $100,000 to conduct further in-
has in addition a split second feature. The passing. in
vestigation of dust explosions in industrial
agency for time and motion study watches and ture, both its length and electrical resistance
many ways it would be simpler to
other instruments of precision formerly held change. In
by M. J. Silberberg has been taken over by take advantage of the change in length, but
located east of Big Pine,
The phosphate beds
Stein & Ellbogen Company, 31 Xorth State this effect is so minute that it is considered
the change in electrical re- Calif., have been purchased by the Big Pine
Street, Chicago, who
have exclusive con-
will better to utilize
To obtain the same effect mechan- Fertilizer Company. These beds comprise
trol of their distribution. The split second sistance.
would entail double the length of wire 1500 acres of land and are said to be rich in
time study watch has a double hand and in ically
when raised to 400 deg. or 500 deg. F. phosphate content.
addition to other features permits the taking

/;/ tell th world

you're out of



l.:t76.4tiT. COMnKKSSliR SYSTKM. Karl A.
Simriion, K(lKt>wouil Park. Pa.
12. In a loiiiiirciwor s.v.>!tem tor a vehicle, the
rumbinatiuii with a niotdr-driveii loiiipies.sor.
and a eompre.ssur ilriven l>y he inunieinum ot I

the Vehicle, of means for selectivel.v iipcralinK

said conii'i-essors in accordance with the fluid
pressure in the conipre.s.sor system, means for
prevenlint,- the siniullaneous operation ot the
two compressors. an<l nuans for insuring the
operation of the compres.sors in a ^iven se-
quence under normal operating conditions.
1.376,545. P.NKI-.MATIC D R 1 I^ L. Corwill
Jackson. Kalamaz Mich.
l,37ii.573. AlH-UU.-VKK. Henri Pieper. Liege.
PULSATtm. Ira G. Fosler, Chicago,
ter Wilkin.son. .I.i^ey City. N. J.
1. A method of separatinn moisture from com-
pressed gases preliminary tu the storage of the
gas in shipping receptacles which comprises,
causing the gas to travel in indirect contact
and countercurrent with preceding portions
thereof whereby the compressed gas is cooled
to a temperature insuring separation of the
major portion of the moisture carried by the
gas, withdrawing the separated moisture while
the gas is at the low temperature, conveying
in indirect contact with the comjiressed gas
additional cooling medium to compensate for
heat derived from thi- surrounding atmosphere
and from condensation of the moisture, and con-
veying the compressed tiehydrated gas to the
shipping receptacle.
1.376.9!(1. BLOWPIPE. George H. Zouck,
Orange. X. J.^ and George L. Walker, New
York. N. Y.
Clement E. Dunn. Burlingame. Calif.
DUt.'TS. Edward E. Lawrence. Jamaica, and
Kenneth I>., New York, N. Y.
MAY 10
Alfred Ekern. MinneaiKilis, and Rudolf A.
Tanner, St. Paul. Minn,
Frank V. Risinger. Ohio.
ALS. Ralph Willmett Thompson, Lelth,
1,377.400. BLOWER. Frans H. C. Coppus,
Worcester. Mass.

FOR AUTOMOBILES. Ernest David, May-

wood, 111.
1,377,479. LIQUID-FUEL BURNER. Charles
C. Hansen. Easton. Pa.
1,377.546-7. MILKING MACHINE. John C.
Beem, Sawtelie, Calif.
1.377.520. SIGNAL. Lonnie Thomas Penny,
Raleigh, N. C.
377,563. 1.379,121
as Morris Davies. Llanelly. Wales.
1,377.583. FLUID-COMPRESSOR. Samuel H.
Human. Chicago. 111.
1,377.694. AIR-HUMIDIFIER. Adolph W.
Lissauer. New York. N. Y,
1377.622, SOOT-BLOWING DEVICE. James
Kemnal. Chislehurst, and John Henry, Xion-
don. England.
1.377.654. SPRAYING-MACHINE. Henry C,
Baumeardner. Aim Arbor. Mich.
1 377 687 OIL-BUR.NING TORCH. Charles B.
Jahnkc. Beloit. Wis, „„^„
George F. Kniix. .Milwaukee. Wis.
1 377,745, PNEl.MATIC MOTOR. Joseph F.
Buhr. Detroit. .Mich.

^ ^ .. ,,
Coll, Mad-
1.377,752. AIR-PU.MP. William D.
1 3*77 776.*^' PUMPING APPARATUS. William

E '
Janney. Toronto Ontario. Canada, and
Harry E. Flscel and Jesse L. Miller, Pitts-

MECHANISM. Fred D. Holdsworth, Clare- num. Of the various chemical elements, oxy-
mont. N. H.
1.377.993. SAND-BLAST JIACHIXE. Elmer gen enters into the crust of the earth, into wa-
A. Rich, Jr.. Chicago. 111.
ter, and the atmosphere to a weight of more
ATUS. Ira H. Spencer, West Hartford, Conn. than the combined weight of all other ele-
MAT 17 ments, and hydrogen is about 16 per cent, of
1,387,028. COMPRESSOR - OVERLOAD REG- the total.
ULATOR. Thomas J. Hart, Corning, N. T.
1.378.060. AIR-SEPARATOR. Thomas J.
Sturtevant. Welleslev, Mass. It is estimated that there are now 23,000,-
Mr. James Prentice Sneddon, director of
1.378,273. LIFE-SAVING APPARATUS. Gio- 000 horses in the United States, and
vanni Piceo, New York, N. Y. 19,000.-
manufacturing activities for Babcock & Wil-
1.378.365. AIR-BRAKE SYSTEM. Donald R. 000 of them would be required to equal the
MacBain, Cleveland. Ohio. cox Co., Bayonne. N. J., died recently at
1.378,395. AIR-BRAKE SWITCH. Ferdinand power now supplied by the central electric sta-
Bechoff and Maurice M. Samuels. New York, Johns Hopkins hospital. Baltimore, following
N. Y. tions of the countrv.
two operations. Mr. Sneddon was also vice-
1,378.717. AIR SATUR.^TING TOWER. Har-
old Neilsen. Middlesex,and Frederick Deacon president of the Pittsburgh Seamless Tube
Marshall, Westminster, London, England,
A steam shovel is rehandling coal on the Co.. Beaver Falls. Pa. He was 58 years of
thur C. Rowlev, Philadelphia, Pa. island of Spitzbergen. well within the Arctic
24MAY circle. The bottom layers of the coal are
1,378,910. AIH-PUMP. John W. Smith, Phila- frozen and it cannot be taken out with the grab Mr. Milan R. Bump of New York, chief
delphia, Pa.
1,378,922. INTERMITTENT-VACUUM MAS- bucket. engineer for Henry L, Doherty & Co., has
SAGE-MACHINE. George A. Ward, Chica-
go, 111. been elected president of the National Elec-
1,379,096, PNEUMATIC-TIRE PUMP. John The C. & G. Cooper Company of Mount tric Light Association, which held its annual
C. Gilbert, Grafton. Mass.
1,379,221. PROCESS FOR PURIFYING AIR. Vernon, Ohio, have added Dallas, Texas, to meeting in Chicago recently.
Henry P. Scott and AVilliam G. Bond, Wil-
mington, Del. their chain of branch offices at Suite 626,
1,379,248. ROTARY
AIR-COMPRESSOR. John Great Southern Life building in Dallas, where Mr. F. M. Feiker, vice president and chair-
O. Carrey. St. Louis, Mo.
1,379,360. BLOWPIPEAPPARATUS. Ray- those interested can procure information on man of the editorial board of the McGraw-
mond B. Pickering. Alameda. Calif.
1,379,403, PNEUMATIC BALL-PROJECTOR, all equipment.
This includes Corliss Steam Hill Company, has been appointed personal
Charles R. Green. Indianapolis. Ind. Engines, large horizontal heavy duty gas en- assistant Herbert Hoover,
1,379,548. FLUID-PRESSURE RAIL-BRAKE. to Secretary of
Peter J. Gaillard, Chicago, 111. gines for either direct connected generator or Commerce, with the title of assistant to the
compressor service, and the smaller single- secretarv.
acting direct driven compressor units. These
latter have been developed especially for the Mr.
\V. S. Hanley, chief engineer of the
severe service in the southwestern oil and New Orleans Great Northern, and stationed
gas fields. at Bogalusa, La., has been appointed chief
Mr. H. P. Simpkinson, who has been trans- engineer of the St, Louis Southwestern, with
ferred from the home office of the C. & G. headquarters at Tyler, Tex.
Cooper Co., is in charge of the new branch
at Dallas, Tex. The plans include a service Mr. Quartus Almon Gillmore, superinten-
department. dent of the ore docks of the American Steel
& Wire Co. at Cleveland, died at his home
Another reduction in price of Hercules Ex-
Figures compiled by the Bureau of Foreign
recently.Mr. Gillmore was born at Lorain,
plosives and Blasting Supplies was announced
Ohio, and was 60 years of age at his death.
on June i. Hercules 40 per cent gelatin was and Domestic Commerce, United States De-
After graduating he started in the dredging
reduced $3500 per ton on that date. The partment of Commerce, show that in the
business with his father and was later em-
present price of this grade, which may be tak- month of April machinery and machine tools
ployed by the city of Lorain.
en as a fair example, is 25 per cent below that to the value of $2,055,422 were exported from
of 1918. It should also be remembered that the United States.
explosives did not raise in price in proportion
Report of the Bureau of Mines
The Tenth .Annual Report of the Bureau
to other supplies, during the war.
Because African producers cannot dispose of Mines of the U. S. Department of the
In addition to reducing its prices, the com-
of their stones readily, they are curtailing the Interior, for the fiscal year ending June 30,
pany also announced the development of
production of diamonds. Of the 11,000 people 1920, has been issued. It is difficult to give it

formulae the result of exhaustive studies and
normally employed in the diamond cutting in- an adequate notice within the space which can
experiments— which have enabled it to dis-
dustry in Amsterdam, Holland, almost 8,000 be spared. The Bureau is doing a wonderful
continue the manufacture of high freezing
are out of work. amount of honest, thorough work of untold
dynamites without sacrificing any desirable
practical value, and its work increases con-
feature which those grades possessed. This
For reasons of economy and tinually. This is suggested in the opening
means that Hercules Extra and Gelatin dyna- difficulties of
Iiaragraph of the report:
mites, Hercules Special No. and Hercomite,i
operation all the air mail routes, except the
"During the year the completion and
and most of the Straight Nitroglycerin dyna- transcontinental line from New York to San
dedication of the magnificent Pittsburgh sta-
mites and Red H Permis.sible Kxplosives can Francisco, will be abandoned. The St. Paul-
tion and central laboratories of the Bureau of
now be used without thawing under all tem- C'hicago, St. Louis-Chicago and other short
Mines marks an epoch in its growth. For the
perature conditions that are encountered in routes already have been discontinued.
first time the Bureau of Mines has a suitable
practically any blasting work.
home and central headquarters for field and
It is proposed to electrify all French ca- investigative work, and for this reason es-
The greatest depth yet found in any ocean nals which carry more than 2,000,000 tons of pecially the bureau should be able to begin a
is 32.088 feet, at a point about 40 miles north
traffic per annum. Sections of various canals period of even greater usefulness to the min-
of the island of Minrlanas in the Phillippincs. already electrified show that this program will ing and metallurgical industries."
At this d*pth the pressure must
water be mean a saving of about 1.500.000 tons of coal The Bureau is apparently quite well satisfied
nearly seven tons to the square inch.
per annum. In 19J0 French canals handled with itself, as it has good reason to be The
96,518,681 tons of merchandise, as against 52,- report is enumeration of the de-
a concise
A computation of the distribution of the 428,400 tons handled in 1919. During the tailed work actually done, and without a
various metals in the crust of the earth indi- war 645 miles of French canals were destroyed wasted word occupies about 150 pages, which
cates that about per cent, of the weight
11/2 Since the armistice 632 miles have been wholly we make
find it impossible to abstracts from
consists of iron and about 5 per cent, alumi- reconstructed. or condense.
cuMi'iii:ssi:i) All! M.Ki.i/.iM-: 10201
August, 1921

COOLING, HEATING AND breeze throughout the auditorium and its cool-
VENTILATING SYSTEM ing effect is decidedly noticeable.
In the cold weather, the volume of air is
Kk SIN'CK large aiKliti>ruiin> have been for perfect
minimum reiiuircd
E\ built the question ot heating, ventilating
reduced to the
ventilation. then passed over heal-
This air is
and cooling such spaces has been an acute prob-
ing coils and treated in the same manner as fur
lem, appreciated only by the lew heating and
the cooling system. With a system at present
ventilating engineers si)ecializing in this class
being marketed there is no necessity for the
ol work. To the "man on the street" an audi-
use of direct radiators and in addition all ex-
torium, a church or a theatre is either too
pensive excavating and duct work are elim-
cold, too warm or smells badly. Perhaps he
inated. In many buildings it has been found
leaves with a I'eeling of heaviness or a head-
that this system, namely the "Typhoon," can
ache which he blames on eyestrain or, in fact,
be installed for the same price as a
'- ituliiuUr.
lliiinl '"
anything but bad ventilation. If none of these t!/lil<""'< /'
heating system.
conditions apply, he simply doesn't notice that are blade braced and strengthened by means of
The general features of the system
he was comfortable— the matter never occurs a reinforcing piece closely riveted and before
shown in the illustrations.
to him. Yet, in the latter case, the audi- shipment each fan is completely assembled
The fan is built in sizes from two to
torium was properly heated and ventilated. construct-
and accurately balanced.
twelve feet. It is substantially
.\bout ten years ago, this matter was serious- important feature is its bearings.
ed to the smallest detail and is built pri-
with a view to- All sizes with self-aligning ball
are supplied
ly considered by engineers marily for service of the most exacting kind.
wards studying these problems and supplying bearing contained in dust-proof grease cases.
Its square angle iron framework readily adapts
the requirements of a system which would This bearing has been used with satisfac-
itself to most forms of construction, but, when
tion and, when set in a grease case, the bear-
do away with all such defective ventilation. necessary, a round frame can be furnished
ing may be run for many months without any
The standard system today utilizes large fan and the fan set in a brick wall.
attention whatsoever.
units constructed to handle enormous volumes The cast iron ring supporting the spiders
large center disc prevents back lash of
of air at a very low rate of power consump- is conical in shape and the blades are cut at an
A air through the center of the fan and the
tion. This air is propelled through the audi- angle to fit closely to its inner surface.
large number of blades gives an adequate
torium in large volumes at low velocity, and great deal of the efficiency of the fan is due
volume of air.
insures for each person in the room, an abun- to this characteristic, as the side slip of the air
In conjunction with the system, there may
dant supply of clean, fresh air. from the blades is deflected by the slope of
also be installed a system of temperature con-
as follow the natural flow
During the hot summer months, this tre- the ring so to
trol which will accurately maintain any tem-
mendous volume of air produces a distinct of all the air passing through the fan. Each
perature desired. This control is maintained
by means of a thermostat set in the room and
connected to the heating medium with small
piping containing compressed air. The com-
pressed air when released uses this energy to
close the steam valves or to operate dampers.
.A small electrically driven air compressor is

also used and automatically maintains a pres-

sure of about fifteen pounds, on all the air


Rumors of the proposed purchase of the
Aetna Explosives Company, Inc., by the Her-
cules Powder Company received definite con-
firmation recently when the Aetna stockhold-
ers sanctioned the sale of its properties, as-

sets, and business.This marked the culmina-

tion of a transaction that has interested finan-
cial and business circles for the past two years.

.•\lthough it has been understood practically

since the close of the war that negotiations
were under way between these two manufac-
turers, it was not until the petition of the

Hercules Company for permission to pur-

chase the Aetna Company had been acted on
favorably by Court of Appeals,
the Circuit
that the proposition assumed any real definite-
ness. By this purchase the Hercules Com-
pany acquires high explosives, or dynamite,
plants near Birmingham, Ala., Emporium, Pa.,
Sinnainahoning. Pa., Ishpeming, Mich., and
Fayville, 111., two black blasting powder plauts,
one at Goes Station, Ohio, and the other near
Birmingham, Ala., a plant for the manufac-
ture of blasting caps and electric blasting caps
at Port Ewen, N. Y., and a plant for the
manufacture of fulminate of mercury, for use
in blasting caps, at Prescott, Ontario, Canada.
Tvphoun roof in.itallaliun showinu anylv iron Tuuf houst wilh sheet metal flniah.

Announcement of Technical Books

COMPRESSED AIR DATA, by William Lawrence Saunders and CIVIL ENGINEERS' POCKET BOOK, by Albert L. Frye.
Charles Austin Hirschberg. An encyclopedia of engineering and necessary labor saver In
allplanning and estimating.
Price, Domestic, $3.00 IVet, Postage Paid.
1600 Pages, numerous Illustrations and innumerable Tables,
COMPRESSED AIR PRACTICE, by Frank Richards, Associate $5.00.
Editor of Compressed Air Magazine.
Price, $3.00 Net, Postage Paid. MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL COST DATA, by Gillette
and Dana.
METAL This is the only handbook devoted exclusively to the costs
Austin Hirschberg. and economic data of mechanical and electrical engineering.
Price, $3.50 IVet, Postage Paid
1734 Pages, 4y2x7, Flexible, Illustrated, $6.0O.
B. Easton, M. A., Associate Member of the British Institute GAS, GASOLINE AND OIL ENGINES, by Gardner D. Hiscox.
of Electrical Engineers.
The only complete work on the subject. Tells all about the
This book, just issued, Is one of the most valuable compressed running and management ot gas. gasoline and oil engines, as
air technical boolis issued in years. It is an indispensable en- designed and manufactured in the United States.
gineering work for those delving deeply into the subject, quoting
250 authorities. 640 Pages, 435 Bngravings, $3.00.
252 Pages, with charts and equations. Price $7.50, postage PRACTICAL ELECTRICITY, by Terrell Croft.
paid. This book contains the fundamental macts and theories of
COMPRESSED AIR THEORY AND COMPUTATION, by Prof. electricityand its present day applications, in an easily under-
Elmo G. Hai-ris. stood way.
An authoritative work that has been especially useful because 642 Pages, 582 Illustrations, $3.00.
of the charts, tables and clear, concise discussion of fundamental CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS, by R. L. Dougherty.
theory. Presents the features of construction, the theory, general laws,
The second edition represents a thorough revision and an testing and design of centrifugal pumps.
enlargement, consisting of a new chapter on "Centrifugal Fans
and Turbine Compressors ;" also an appendix on the Design ot 102 Pages, 111 Illustrations, $2.50.
Logarithmic Charts. HIGHWAY ENGINEERS' HANDBOOK, by Harger d Bonney.
102 Pages 6x9, Illustrated, $2.50.
This book is practical. Pocket size it consists of records of
PUMPING BY COMPRESSED AIR. by Edmund M. Ivens, B. E., actual practice.

M. E., Member A. S. M. E.
The Compression, Transmission and Application of Air. with
New Third Edition. 986 Pages. Price $5.00.
Special Reference to the Lifting and Conveying of Liquids in EXPLOSIVES, by Brunstcig. Munroe d Kibler.
connection with the Displacement Pump and Air Lift. Price $3.50.
266 Pages, 6x8 Inches, 124 Figures. Price $4.00 net.
MODERN TUNNELING, by Brunton d Davis.
Contains clear, simple explanations of the thermodynamic phe- WATER SUPPLY, by Mason.
nomena involved. Of value to Designers, Consulting Engineers. Price $5.00.
Factory Superintendents and Operating Engineers.
207 Pages 0x9, 143 Illustrations. $2.50 (3-4), Postage AMERICAN HIGHWAY ENGINEERS' HANDBOOK, by Arthur
Prepaid. H. Blanchard. Editor-in-Chief and Seventeen Associate

COMPRESSED AIR PLANT, by Robert Peele, Mining Engineer. 1658 Pages, Illustrated. Price $7.00 net.
The Production, Transmission and Use of compressed air. with
special reference to Mine Service. HIGHWAY INSPECTORS' HAND BOOK, by Prevost Hubbard.
Fourth edition, revised and enlarged. Profusely Illustrated. 372 Pages, 55 Figures. Price $2.50.
Price $4.50.
MECHANICAL ENGINEERS' POCKET BOOK, by William d S.. with introduction by R. T. Dana.
Haskell. B.
Robert Kent. 530 Pages, Illustrated, Price $0.00 net.
1526 Pages. 4x6%. Fully Illustrated. $7.00 net.
COMPRESSED AIR PLANTS, by Robert Peele. Air workers must know much about electricity, and there Is
A thoroughly practical book with full information gathered no book from which all the essentials can be so readily and so
from actual work in all lines and formulas, rules and tables for completely obtained as this.
the necessary computation. 440 Pages 7x4>4, 430 Illustrations. $2.00 net. Postage
518 Pages 6x0, 209 Illustrations. $4.50, Postage Prepaid. Prepaid.
Wightman and Saunders. d H. H. Higbie.
It is absolutely true that the cost of these works, built and Vol. I. First Course, 534 pages, 381) figures. Cloth $3.50 net.
building, is greater than that of the Panama Canal and this book Vol. II. .Second Course, 720 pages, :<S7 figures. Cloth $4.00 net,
tells about them.
AMERICAN CIVIL ENGINEERS' HANDBOOK, by Mansfield Harding d Arthur Cutts Willard.
Merriman, Editor-in-Chief, and a Staff of Experts. 750 pages. Illustrated. Flexible "Fabrlkold" Binding $7.00 net.
Fourth Bdltion, Just Published, 1055 Pages. Price $7.00.
HANDBOOK OF COST DATA, by Balbert P. Gillette.
Gives methods of construction and detailed actual costs of 1057 Pages, 606 Figures. Cloth $0.00 net.
mat«rial and labor on all kinds of engineering work. .MINING ENGINEERS' HANDBOOK, by Robert Peele.
lOOO Pages, numerous Tables and Illustrations, $6.00. In one and two volume editions. One volume edition, 2375
HANDBOOK OF ROCK EXCAVATION, by Ilalbert P. Gillette. pages. Price $7.00 net. Tno volume edition) Vol. I,
1225 pages. Vol. II, 1216 pages. Price $8.00.
An eminently practical work covering fully and completely
the drilling, excavating, quarrying and hiindling of rock. THE MINES HANDBOOK. INCLUDING THE COPPER
840 Pages, 184 Illustrations, 87 Tables, $6.00. HANDBOOK, by Walter Harvey Weed.
Contains 1.992 pages of carefully compiled facts and figures.
CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION METHODS AND COSTS, by It bristles with Information of a kind Is Indispensable to
Halbert P. Gillette and Chas. S. Hill. the Banker. Broker, Investor and Machinery Manufacturer.
Treats of concrete and reinforced concrete structures of all Price $ In foreign countries $10^(0.
kinds, giving working detall.s and full data of costs.
700 Pages, 300 Illustrations, $5.00. TECHNICAL METHODS OF ANALYSIS, edited by Roger
Ca.itte Oriffcn.
ELEMENTS OF ELECTRICITY, by W. H. Timbie. book contains a ropre.«entatlve selection of analytical
This book glve.q the "how" and "why" of good, sound electrical methods which have been adopted as standard procedures In a
practice, large cumnierrlal laboratory iiigaKi-d in lechnloal analysis
553 Pages, 415 ilgurrs. Cloth $2.75 net. First Kdltlon, 666 pages, lilnslratcd. Pricel $0.0O net.

Note Subscriptions entered for our readers for all technical, trade and general magazines, tvherrver published. Books on any
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Make all remittances payable to Compressed Air Magazine.

Book and Periodical Bureau, The Compressed Air Magazine,

No. 11, Broadway, New York City

Standard Pumping Equipment

Long life is characteristic of Cameron Direct-Acting Pumps.
They will operate year after year economically and without
trouble. Many Cameron Direct-Acting Pumps have been in

service for thirty, forty or even fifty years and are still giving
satisfactory service.

Cameron Direct-Acting Pumps are standard for many different

pumping requirement. Wherever necessary these pumps can
be fitted on the water end with an acid resisting metal which
insures protection against chemical action.

When conditions justify the use of an air or steam driven di-

rect-acting pump there is nothing to equal the Cameron for
durability, accessibility, smooth operation and low upkeep

A. S. Cameron Steam Pump Works

1 1 Broadway, New York

Write for
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Throttle Indicator Brass Dialed Cocks
For throttling Air, Gas, Gasoline and Oil Engines.
Diamond shaped opening through the key admits
of very close regulation preventing all waste of air,
gas, gasoline or oil.

We manufacture a complete line of Brass and Iron

Air Compressor fittings. Hose couplings. Hose Tails,
Screw Nipples, Spuds and Straps.

Air Valve
Cleans Work Benches and
Machine Tools
A»k your dealer for "Powell Air
Valves and Cocks" or write u»


The Perfection
Engine and Machine Washer
Starting and PressureUnloader (PATENTED)
(Richards Patent)

The Pier Machine Works, Brooklyn, found that the unload-

ing system furnished as standard equipment with their two
compressors was far from satisfactory for intermittent ser-
vice. After having considerable trouble, they finally equip-
ped both compressors with YARWAY
results obtained were so satisfactory that when this com-
pany installed a third compressor recently, they equipped it
with a YARWAY UN LOADER at the start.
Thousands of YARWAY UNLOADERS are saving a dollar
a day or more by reducing the power bills in plants using air
compressors in all parts of the country. Complete details
in Bulletin RP. wlicrc shall wc send ymir

Yarnall - Waring Co.

1 S(r«et
Used extensively in the mining industry for clean-
ing rock drills, parts and other mining equipment
using compressed air in connection with kerosene,
gasoline or other liquid solvent.

Also adapted for applying wood preservatives on

mine timbers.

30 Church Street. New Vork
Sole Hitinufacturer

As a mailer of reciprocal business courtesy, help trace results

August, I02I royfPRESSED AIR MAGAZINE Adv. 17

No Chasing Around
— up grease cups and bearing caps every
hour or two.
— No taking cups, no risking danger with mov-
ing machinery.
— no mopping up drip on or greasy iron steps
or guard — no trouble or worry
rails when you at all
use Albany Grease
— because Albany Grease "stays put"
— it holds its body and consistency, and feeds automati-
cally in just the right proportion to the need.
Once you've put it to work, you can
sit down and take it easy as far as
your lubricating work is concerned
Vou will be surprised to learn the
many advantages that Albany Grease
has over the ordinary grease.

Write lor bulletin CA-1 today

1868 for
qualilr p roi
unexcelled 708-710 Washington St., New York

|n Your Production Do You Use

Greater Lubricating C^ASTlTMGsS
Efficiency— Lower St/V7VI r> iM G «

Lubricating Cost Sheet

Plate Or.
follows the use of Keystone Grease No. 6. STR_|J CT VRA.L

Won't exhaust with the air even under the most In Any Size. Weight or Shape?
difficult conditions Keystone Grease No. 6 keeps
pressure uniform and eliminates shutdowns.
Let us give you the full facts.

have produced in other plants

Better Quicker Cheaper
Cleaning ec Better Finish
WiTH Increa^sep O^JTr>^^T
And Lower ep Cost
AuTOMATic-'DusTLESS Hygienic

ATypeand Size (or EveT3y Rgq^irgmgnt"

Competent Engineers To Aid In j
InlelU^eni Sclcclion&AppVicdlion.
The Keystone Lubricating Co. Of Equipment Suiiedioyour'Secds
Executive Office and Works, Philadelphia
"-Without Cost orOblii^atunv/
New York, Boilon. PitUburgh. Chicago. SaTannah. Si. LouU.
Danver, San Francisco, Minneapolia. New Orleans
Atanciea in Principal Countrtea Throuihout Iha World

Please aid the Advertiser by mentioning Comprjssed Ai» Magazinb when miting

Sprague Steel Armored Air Hose

For high or low pressure service is most economical for use
with all kinds of air tools and air drills. Also hose for
Garage Service.

To Mr. Wm. H. Keller— a line of
Pneumatic Tools has been espec-
ially designed and built tor your
particular industry. Get our pro-
position on KELLER- Mf^STER:
Chippine Hammers Corliss Ualve Drills
Riveting Hammers Ualveless Drills
Sprague Steel Armored Hose is extremely flexible and so Scaling Hammers Sand Rammers
constructed that it cannot kink or burst and the fittings can- Staybolt Riveters Rotary Grinders
not blow out. It is recommended for use where hard service Jam Riveters R vet Cutters

is required. Holders-on Accessories

Write for Pamphlet No. B-3567


Mob. £)£n... 9f General Electric Company g,
t7W>«»S«.N.»Yot» to p

The Erie Unloader Ultimately a Bury "Universal 3=Cyl. Air

New Style Compressor; Why Not install One Now?
For Single, Duplex and The largest .\niericaD
Multiple Stage Steam, firms iisellie "RURV "

Belt or Electric Driven

lir compressor be- —
cause of its proven
Air Compressors
Hack of the "BURY"
Maintains practically a constant Hes 17 years of re-
search, development
air pressure, whatever the re- and conscientious ser-
quirement. Completely unloads vice to users.
If you are interested
and loads Compressor without in the "last word" in
shock or strain. air compressor im-
provements, send for
Erie Compressor the new" Ur UN" Com-
pressor Hooklet Wi.
Governor The Patented
no It Now!
For Single and Duplex Steam 'Universal' Pv
Actuated CompreMors Box Plate \ alv
Durahlc as Ihe
Governs the sjn-eil nf Com- noiseless in
pressors loni.iiiitain tlie slow- tliinand hat(
est constant spied wliicli will grealcr area Silent as the Sphinx
furnish any re<|uire(l supi)ly. an> I) I h c r

and will maintain practically pressor valve

a constant air pressure, wliil
ever the re-
(jnirement, if Class "L"
within the ^uinlc-stage, powcr-
capacity of Iriven, with enclosed
the C o in -
Irame and (lood luhri-
cition. Uuilt in ca-
pacities from I" to US
Cirtular.s on iipftlimtioii to I uliic led ptr minute.

JARECKI MFG. CO. All SliCT. Alt T.%pc< lor All Prt<Hiirc< to MccI Ao> HnslnecrInK KntiilrrmcnU

ERIE, PA. Bury Compressor Co., IIOI West 17th St., Erie, Pa.
As a matter of rccif^rocal busi» toiirlisy. /ii7/' Iim, , i, suits
August, IQ^I COMPRESSliD AIR M.H.A/.IM: Adv. ig

Removes Water

Compressed Air
Stratton Air Separator
Centrifugal force accomplishes the separation.
No pressure loss through the separator.
Simple construction — no moving parts to get out of Older.

Reasonable in price.

Shipment of most sizes from stock.


The Griscom-Russell Co.

2117 West St. Building, New York

What is your per-rivet-driven cost?

T HIS storage tank, although
requiring 24,610 rivets in its
was completed meleven
driving power and endurance of
Boyer Hammers again demon-
strates the superiority of the pat-
days with four No. 80 Boyer Riv- ented three - unit Boyer design.
eting Hammers. Not an unusual Good reasons why Boyers drive
feat, either — for Boyers! most rivets at least • cost - per • tivet-
Nor was it uncommon perform- Secure a Boyer on trial from the
ance when, in thirty seconds, a
nearest Company Branch and
Boyer No. 80 drove a 2^x ij^ inch
watch its mighty wallop pound the

rivet 3,080 of which were driven
"impossible" out of your riveting
on this tank.
This conclusive evidence of the Ask for Bulletin 600-P121.

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company

Chicago Pneumatic Building 6 East 44th Street ' New York
SaUs and *Service Branches alt otrr the World
*li«umaHAU *Chic.oo •l<w«noN UoNmirto



BOYER The world's standard

HAMMERS ichcrci'cr rii'cts arc Jrizn.
As (I mailer of reciprocal biisiinss imirtcsy. Itrip Irace results

In addition to Drilling, Reaming

and Tapping, '"Little David'' Air Drills
are suitable for much work done by hand
They have been adapted to dozens of other operations, particularly on
assembly work. On almost every operation in the assembly of a car there
are places to use "Little Davids" to better, and to reduce the cost of the
"Little David" Air Tools give real all round service at least cost.

Catalog 8000 describes "Little David" Drills, Riveters, Grinders, Hoists,

Chippers and Sand Rammers. Send for a copy.

Ingersoll-Rand Company
General Offices : 1 1 Broadway, New York

No. 2 •Little David nrill

running '-i inch nuts on
rear spring clip.

Please aid the Advertiser by iiieiitioniiu/ Compressed Air .Mag.azine tvlien ivriting
^^^^Z^^.S'^^^ »>n ,r.>-TE=n^

77?^proper use of synchronous motors will increase the

power available for production without increasing the
power bill


Leading industries use

G-E synchronous motors
"IDEALIZATION of the benefits of synchronous
*-^ motor drive to practically all classes of industry
today has been established by the unexcelled perform-
ance of this equipment in thousands of applications.
The continued maximum efficiency and durable op-
eration of the synchronous motor have demonstrated
their dollar -earning and dollar -saving qualifi-
cations in Steel Plants — Railroad Shops — Paper
Mills and numerous other industries— \vhere greater
and more uniform production has been obtained at
lower maintenance cost.
In addition to carrying a load, the synchronous motor
is an efficiency guide to the power factor of the
distribution system— bolstering up the laggard that
eats into profits, cuts down output, and overworks
The recognized merits of the synchronous motor
tell why you should use it. Ask specialists of the
General Electric Company where its application fits
your particular needs. Bulletin No. 41310 gives de-
tailed uses of synchronous motors, and will be sent
Features of phipbn Mi on request.

Soienectady.KY ^^ ® Hini ID) Si 0^ ' aU lai^e 'cities «'"*"*

i^^ft W nui' i T-air iwi '^?r "i- • nn' liH^I v«^