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Dallas, Texas 75206

By

W. John Lee, Humble Oil & Refining Co., Robert R. Harrell, Mobil Oil Co.,

and William D. McCain, Jr., Mississippi State U., Members AIME

@ Copyright 1972

American Institute of Mhbg,MetaUurgical, and Petroleum Engineers, Inc.

This paper was prepared for the Northern Plains Section Regional Meeting of the Society of

Petroleum Engineers of AIME, to be held in Omaha, Neb., Mq 18-19, 19T2. Permission to copy is

restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words. Illustrations may not be copied. The

abstract should contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom the paper is presented.

Publication elsewhere after publication in the JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY or the SOCIETY OF

PETROLEUM ENGINEERS JOURNAL is usually granted upon request to the Editor of the appropriate

journal provided agreement to give proper credit is made.

Discussion of this paper is invited. Three copies of any discussion should be sent to the

Society of Petroleum Engineers office. Such discussion may be presented at the above meeting

and, with the paper, may be considered for publication in one of the two SPE magazines.

which was performed to test the validity of the

In principle, drawdown teata provide data analysis technique proposed by Winestock and

that allow a complete characterization of a gas Colpitts. The study, which was based on a nu-

well. Unfortunately, rapid analysis of draw- merical simulation of the pressure-production

down test data is generally regarded as possible history of a gas well, showed that the analysis

only for the special case in which production technique of Winestock and Colpitts is indeed

rate is maintained strictly constant for the valid for pressure drawdown data obtained with

duration of the drawdown test. In many tests, smoothly varying production rates.

constant production rates are either inconven-

~~~a~~~ i~p~~~ihle CO ~.~~~t~in; analyais of data INTRODUCTION

from such tests has been thought to require the

tedious use of superposition, which, as a prac- To completely characterize a gas well, a

tical matter, means that a computer must be used testing program should provide an estimate of

to perform the necessary arithmetic. reservoir permeability-thickness product, infor-

mation about t-heextent of well ciamag~,iilfOYm=-

Actually, a technique for analyzing vari- tion leading to estimates of the possible effect

able-rate drawdown test data easily and rapidly of stimulation, and deliverability. Unfortunate

has been in the literature since 1965. This ly, conventional gas well testing methods do not

method, proposed by Winestock and Colpitts, is provide all this information. For example, the

virtually as rapid as conventional techniques most common method is the Back-Pressure Testl.

used to analyze constant-rate drawdown tests; This test has two major weaknesses: First, this

and it provides estimates of formation permea- test, at best, provides only deliverability es-

bility-thickness product, skin factor, and tur- timatea, and gives none of the other information

bulence effects. Knowledge of these parameters needed to completely characterize a gas well.

allows more accurate predictions of current and Second, the apparent deliverability detrmined

future deliverability of a tested well than are from this type test is often not the true de-

usually possible with conventional back pressure liverability

tests or isochronal tests.

A second conventional method of testing gas

References and illustrations at end of paper wells, the Isochronal Method2, offers the pOe.Si-

2 UVA711ATTnNnw

nvmulla..v..

“. 4A ~J.~ ~.~~ TESTING METHOD SPE 3872

bility of better deliverability estimates than included in the equation. Further, the equatior

the back-pressure test, but this method also pro contains a turbulence constant, B, which charac-

vides little additional information about the terizes the degree of turbulent or non-darcy

well. flow near the wellbore.

A third method of testing gas wells uses Equation (1) is the basis for the conven-

pressure drawdown tests3. These tests CSI’I pro- tional analysis of a drawdown test: It suggests

vide estimates of permeability-thickness product that if we plot pwf2 vs. the logarithm of time,

and extent of well damage, in addition to deliv- a etraight line should result, and the slope of

erability estimates. Unfortunately, drawdown the line should be related to permeability-thicl

tests must be run at strictly constant rate if ness product. Unfortunately, use of this equa-

the drawdown data are analyzed in the usual way. tion to model a pressure drawdown test requires

‘il

...._

BVeLL m~~~ ...lGnvt matolv

w..”..,..-.--, $ ~oIM~~n~ rate drawdown the drawdown test to be run at an absolutely COY

tests are inconvenient and, at times, virtually stant rate. Winestock and Coipitts~ anaiysis

impossible to perform. One can always use super showed that if the rate varies during a drawdovn

position in analysis attempts, but superposition test by even a few percent, eq. (1) does an ex-

requires tedious arithmetic, and as a practical tremely poor job of modeling the test.

matter, forces much of the arithmetic required

in analysie to be performed on a computer. Winestock and Colpitts suggest that the COI

ventional pressure drawdown equation for tran-

In an attempt to fill this gap in gas well sient flow in a gas well be rearranged as fol-

testing technology, Winestock and Colpitts4 in lows :

1965 proposed a technique for analyzing variable

rate drawdown tests. They claim that their me- rl

thod offers all the information theoretically Pe2 - Pwf2 - @tj2

possible with the drawdown test, and in additior =

qg(t)

they claim that the test data are easily ana-

lyzed.

1

+2s * . . (2

-)

The testing program which Winestock and ● ●

fixed choke. In general, production rate

Notice in the rearrangement that the only

will decrease slowly during this step. Re-

variable on the right hand side is time. Wine-

cord pressure and rate data throughout the stock and Colpitts claim that the rearranged

test. form of the equation can be used to model a

drawdown test in a gas reservoir with a varying

2* Shut-in the well and let reservoir pressure

flow rate if the rate varies smoothly. It is

return to a uniform value. Record pressure

not necessary that the total variation be small

data during this period; this will, Of

it is necessary only that the variation be

course, provide pressure buildup data.

smooth. The equation in this form suggests thai

if the entire group on the left hand side of tht

3. Run another drawdown test with a different

equation is plotted versus the logarithm of timt

fixed choke.

a straight line should result with a slope re-

lated to the permeability-thickness product.

Let us examine the reasoning behind this

proposed testing program. First, consider the

To demonstrate the importance of their mo-

equation which is commonly used to model tran-

dified drawdown analysis method, Winestock and

sient flow in a gas reservoir:

Colpitts presented a field example in their

paper. Figure 1 shows data from the test plot-

Pe2 - Pwf2 = ted as suggested by eq. (l). During this test,

the flow rate decreased by about 30 percent.

Note that two distinct straight-line se~ents

~ zTq (t) appear on the graph. The estimates of permeabi

712 ~

these two straight lines are 39 md-ft and 118

md-ft. Taken literally, this means the permea-

L1

bility-thickness product changed from one re-

+Bq(t)2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(1)

gion of the reservoir to another.

Note that the equation includes the skin factor, plotted using the method suggested by Eq. (2),

S; thus, a characterization of the degree of a far different answer is found. Figure 2 show

damage or stimulation around the tested weii is

----- . . . .- .. ---- .+- .

iPE 3872 W. JOHN LEE, ROBERT R. HARREL and WILLIAM D, McGAIN, JK. 3

appears uniform throughout the entire tested in- the drainage radius, Pe; and the extent of dam-

terval, about 11 md-ft. age or stimulation, reflected by the skin factor

s. With this information, one can estimate how

This example shows that serious errors can much pressure drawdown is due to low permeabili-

be made using conventional drawdown test ana- ty, how much is due to wellbore damage and how

lysis methods if Winestock and Colpitts’ ana- much is due to non-darcy flow as reflected in

lysis procedure really does give the true per- the Bq 2 term. Knowledge of the contribution

- L-.

1-.

A..

-&L...-.

meaiJll*LY Tr.. ..Vn??,,o+

cllluwe~~ p.uu-&L. made by each of these to deliverability prob-

lems can often suggest a cure -- or suggest that

Before we discuss our evaluation of the no stimulation treatment can possibly be effec-

Winestock and Colpitts Method, let us complete tive enough to be economical.

the discussion of the results that are obtained

from the testing program suggested by Winestock The fact that the stabilized delti{erabilit~

and Colpitts. ~qQ2ticw can be found from data obtained in the

testing program suggested by Winestock and Col-

From this program , all the parameters that pitts is interesting, but its practical utility

are needed to characterize a tested weii can be ~ep2cd~ vi~a~~y CG whether or not the drawdown

estimated; these parameters are then included in test analysis method proposed by Winestock and

a stabilized deliverability equation. This eq- Colpitts is really a sound method. Mckinley6

.

uation, which completely characterizes the gas has pointed out that the Duhamel variable rate

well, was given sound theoretical basis by integral can be integrated directly by parts to

Houpeurt5. give

+ ‘t

. . ...*

erability, q , to flowing bottom-hole pressure,

. . . . (3)

+*J L

independent of time--so it is a stabilized de-

liverability equation. where

The pressure at the drainage radiuS:hPe, Ap(t) = pressure drawdown at time t in vari-

~r~

and the permeability-t”hickness product, roll, =kl~ rate test

u..-

found from an analysis of the buildup and draw-

down tests, and the skin factor, S, is found AP(t) ‘ pressure drawdown caused by productio

—

from the drawdown tests. Equations used to cal- at unit rate

culate these quantities are summarized in Appen-

dix A. q(t) = ~$n ;~s~ime t in variable rate draw-

circular drainage area of radius, re. As a ‘(())= rate at time t=o in variable rate

practical matter, the equation adequately de- drawdown test

scribes a well reasonably centered in its drain-

age area; such as a well in a field with uniform The Winestock-Colpitts Method would be exact

spacing. The equation does not describe a one- only if the integral on the right hand side of

well reservoir of irregular shape nor does it Eq. (4) were zero, as it would be in the specia

apply to any well which is highly off-center in case of constant flow rate for which @/dT

its drainage area, such as a well near a sealing equals zero. The method is approximately cor-

fault, even if the field is developed on regular rect only when

spacing.

wells not only gives the deliverability but also

gives the other information needed to properly

characterize the well. This information in- o

cludes reservoir properties, notably permea-

4 EVALUATION OF A GAS WELL TESTING METHOD SPE 3872

is negligible when compared to the simulated variable rate drawdown tests vs.

the logarithm of flowing time, t. Note that

o ● AP(t) “Pi” is used instead of “pe”; in our simulated

qt

++ — tests of “new” reservoirs the quantities are

identical. Now if the Winestock and Colpitts

and there clearly must be some magnitude of rate method is valid, a straight line should appear ox

change with time beyond which the Winestock and such a plot, and the slope of this line should

:olpitts method will “overcorrect” drawdown data. properly reflect formation permeability-thickness

k evaluation of the drawdown test analysis pro- product used in the calculations. Further, the

cedure is thus required before we accept its total drawdown in pressure at any time should

validity. agree with that predicted by the equation

=

of the Winestock and Colpitts method was as fol-

lows: First, the differential equation which de-

scribes unsteady-state flow of gas in a reservoir

was solved numerically, utilizin a modified form

of the Crank-Nicholson technique 5 . For simpli-

city, gas viscosity and Z-factor were assumed to This test for validity was made for all the var-

be independent of pressure. Equations and boun- iable rate drawdown tests simulated.

dary conditions are summarized in Appendix B.

For computational work, equations were re-

The numerical solution was tested in two duced to non-dimensional form, and results were

ways before it was used to evaluate the Winestock generated in terms of non-dimensional variables.

and Colpitts method. First, results from the These variables include

program for constant rate production were com-

nared with other theoretical work in the litera-

~---- kpit

ture8; agreement was excellent. Second, results dimensionless time, td = 0.00026flL12

from the program with constant rate production gw

were compared with the results of calculations

made with the equation dimensionless sand-face flowing pressure,

~i2 - ~wf2 .

Pwd = Pw/Pi

& .

. ..*OO . (5)

and the agreement was again found to be excellent dimensionless normalized plotting function,

Note that gas compressibility, Cg, has been re- fd ‘ (1 - pwd2 “dqd2)/qd

placed by I/pi in the logarithm term.

late drawdown tests conducted at declining rates. where B =

For drawdown tests conducted with fixed chokes, (~)(l$I;T)2

the Winestock and Colpitts paper suggests that

rate declines can be approximated with equations

of the form qg(t] = ~ - b l@j{@C), where ?i,~, .,.

results

Au pres~lltsd i~!thliSpsper ‘were

and C are constants. This is the only form of calculated for red = 1000. Dimensionless time

rate decline investigated in this study. range was such that computations ceased at a tim~

near the time at which reservoir boundaries

With the exception of a few cases, skin should begin to affect the drawdown data; i.e.,

factor, S, and turbulence constant, B, were zero t = 0.06’5red2. Thus , all results reported

in our systematic study of variable rate drawdowr d .max

tests. This results in no loss of generality, in-this paper are for “infinite-acting” reser-

since both the quantities affect only pressure at voirs.

the wellbore; i.e., they do not influence distri-

In terms of non-dimensional variables, the

bution in the formation.

stabilized absolute open flow otential of a gas

well from Eq. (3) with B[qg(t)!2 negligible is

The test for the validity of the Winestock

and Colpitts method was as follows: We plotted 1

(Pi2- Pwf2 - ‘[qg(t)12)/qg(t) as calculated from ‘ . (7)

d,AOF ‘~,(r=~) - 0.5 + S “ “ “ “ ●

In this evaluation we let the rate, qd, at Further, for S = 0, the VdJe of fd at ‘d =

td ~ax be 10, 25, 50, and 75 percent of the 24,400 should be 5.45 frOmW. (8); the computed

‘d =

value from the simulated drawdown test was 5.53,

absolut~ open flow to check whether the magnitud

which is excellent agreement.

of the rate affected validity of the Winestock-

Colpitts method. The rate was allowed to declin

Figure 4 shows results from another simu-

from a high starting value to its final value in

lated drawdown test, but with S = 1.0and

the following way: Dimensionless rateY qdY varie

B’ = 1000. At td= 62,500, the rate, Cld,was

with dimensionless time, td, according to the

0.0609, and the rate was declining at 10 percent

-., cycle.

equation qd = a - b log(t+-O.l). Note that or Cn%s Eiid r~te over nsrh Iogio

-..-..

t ~ , ~~~ = 62,500 for rde = 1000; thus the constan

In this simulated test, pwd2 does not Plot

0.1 in the logarithm above is completely negli-

as a straight line against td; in fact, over the

gible for all but earliest times. The constant

“b” was chosen such that the decline in rate, wa range of times plotted, Pwd 2 is increasing dur-

O, 10, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 200 percent of the

ing the drawdown test. The cause of the increas(

f<nal rate per loglo cycle, and the constant “a”

, -..ql.* L.+ desired in sand-face pressure is the decrease in rate --

was cnoSeilsu~l~ ~,,=.~ ~e121~ ~~ve the

.--,~mtifim=l analysis would predict a

d note tY1atG“LLJ=...AU----

final value at td =td max. This variation in rat’ meaningless “negative” permeability if applied tf

- ,-. -..- s a test such as this.

of change or r~ow ra~e ..-- d...6..~-

-o~m-.A to ~he~k hOW

w~~

Once again, fd plots as a straight line

as McKinley6 suggested, there must be a rate of

change so large that the approximation used by against t~ and the slope of this line iS 1.15.

Winestock and Colpitts does not hold.

Further, ~he computed value of ‘d at t = 24,400

d

was 15.49 in the simulated drawdown test; from

RESULTS Eq. (8), the value of fd is predicted to be 15.4s

Figure 3 shows results of a typical simu- Figure 5 shows the effect of the magnitude

lated drawdown test from our investigation. The of rate decline on the nomalized drawdown test

plot is in terms of dimensionless variables: The plotting method. Curves are shown for constant

nomalized plotting function, fd, sand-face pres- rate, rate declining at 50 percent of the final

rate (at td = td max = 62,500), rate declining at

sure squared, pwd2, and rate, qd, against dimen- s

100 percent , and-rate declining at 200 percent.

sionless time, td. For this particular test,

At each rate decline magnitude, final rate mag-

skin factor, S, and turbulence constant, B, were nitudes from 10 percent to 75 percent of the ab-

zero. At td = td max = 62,500, the rate, Cld,wa solute open flow rate were used; and this final

rate magnitude proved to have almost no effect

25 percent of abs~lute open flow, or qd(tmax) ‘

of fd.

0.0390. Rate was declining at 25 percent of thi

finai rate over eackt IOgIo cycle; e.g.$ st The slope and position of the line for con-

td = 6250, qd = 1.25(0.0390) = 0.0488 and at stant rate agrees exactly with the predictions

of Eq. (8); for rate declining at 50 percent per

= 625, qd = 1.5(0.0390) = 0.0585.

‘d cycle, the slope ia still essentially correct,

but the line is shifted upward somewhat. This

Note that pwd2 does not plot as a straight

means that a small error would result in esti-

line against td; thus, in this case, it is not mating skin factor from such data. For rate de-

clining at 200 percent per cycle, the data for

possible to estimate the permeability-thickness

t > 104 deviate noticeably from the desired

product from the plot of pwd2 vs. td. Note, how

s1!raight line, but even here, the Slcwe at earl-

; eht ~~~-e

ever, that fd does plot ss a straAa... ier times, and thus permeability estimates, are

of acceptable accuracy. In any event, results

against td; further, the slope of this line is

for larger magnitudes of decline in rate are pro-

1.15, which is preciseiy the slope thzt shculd b bahIY of more academic than practical value -- if

observed if Winestock and Colpitts method were should usually be possibly to keep rate changes

exact, as shown by writing Eq. (2) in dimension- within the 50 percent decline rate curve, and for

less form: this decline, normalizeddrawdown test piotting

appears to be of high accuracy.

J

,L lC,O!.LINW L7LIJJ.lLUU

SPE 3872

6 EVALUATION OF A GAS w T ““@~’”” -~unn

ONCLUSION mance Method of Determining the Flow

Characteristics of Gas Wells,” Trans.,

From this study, we conclude that for the AIME (1955) 204, 137-142.

ypes of rate declines most likely to be en-

countered in practice, qg= a-b ln(t+c), and . Carter, R. D., Miller, S. C., Jr., and

or the magnitudes of rate changes most likely Riley, H. G.: “Determination of Stabilized

o be encountered, the Winestock and Colpitts Gas Well Performance from Short Flow Tests,’

lethod of analyzing gas well drawdown tests Journal of Petrolezm TeohnoZogy (June,

,eades to acceptable estimates of reservoir 1963) 651-658.

md well properties.

. Winestock, A. G. and Colpitts, G. P.: “Ad-

vances in Estimating Gas Well Deliverabil-

[NOMENCLATURE ity,” The Journal of Canadian Petrolewn

Technology (1965) VO1. 4, 111-119*

B= turbulence constant,(psia2/MSCF/D)

Bd = (B/pi2)(khpi2/1424~gzT)2 = dimensionless ,. Houpeurt, A.: “Sur l’Ecoulement des Gas dan~

. ..-l_..l___ -- ,.?...-+--+ 3- -117..-4..4..4

LULUULCILGC LULL=L-LIL ies Miiieux l?oreux,” fievue

‘--’-’-w ~“~ns~-~wti

c gas compressibility, vollvollpsi Fp~.cajs ~U PetroZe (December, 1959) Xl_Va

~: :

(1 - Pwd2 - Bdqd2)/qd = dimensionless 1959.

normalized plotting function

h= formation thickness, ft ). McKinley, R. M., personal communication

k= formation permeability, md

m= slope of gas-well drawdown plot, 1. Camaham, B., Luther, H. A., and Wilkes,

psia21cycle J. O.: AppZied htunericaZ Methods, John

pd = P/Pi = dimensionless pressure

Wiley & Sons, Inc. , New York (1969)

Pe = external boundary pressure, psia 440-451.

pi = uniform reservoir pressure to drawdown

test , psia 3. Bruce, G. H., Peaceman~ D. w.> and Rachford

pwd = ~/Pi = dimensionless sand-face flowing H. H.: “calculations of Unsteady-State Gas

pressure F1OW Through Porous Media,” TPcmsactions,

ad,uc = dimensionless sand-face flowing pressure AIME (1953), 298, 79-92.

uncorrected for skin effect and turbu-

lence 1. Ramey, H. J.: “Non-Darcy Flow and Wellbore

Pwf = flowing-bottom hole pressure, psia Storage Effects in Pressure Buildup and

qd . 1424MgzTqg/khpi 2 = dimensionless rate

Drawdown of Gas Wells,” Jou~az Ofpetrozeu

qg = gas production rate, MSCF/D

Technology (l?ebruary,1965) 223-233.

qg,f = gas production rate just prior to shut-

in, MSCF/D 10. Miller, C. C., Dyes, A. B., and Hutchinson,

rd = rjrw = dimensionless radius

C. A., Jr.: “The Estimation of Permeability

‘e = external boundary radius, ft and Reservoir Pressure from Bottom-Hole

red = rejrw = dimensionless drainage radius Pressure Buildup Characteristics,” Trans-

rw = well radius, ft actions, AIME (1950) 189, 91-104.

s= skin factor, dimensionless

s’ = apparent skin factor calculated fron co] 11. Matthews, C. S. and Russell, D. G.: Pressur

ventional buildup test analysis, Bui_hiup and FZm Tests in WeZZs, Monograph

dimensionless Series, Society of Petroleum Engineers,

T= re~~rv~ir ternnerature:

=—__——. “R m–ll.— T ~~e

uauas, Texas (~9~~) L,

t= time, days

td . 0.000264 kPit/$pgrw2 = dimensionless

12. Craft, B. C. and Hawkins, M. H.: Applied

time PetroZeum Reservoir Engineering, prentice-

z. gas-law compressibility factor, dimen-

Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N. J., (1959)

sionless 288.

!-lg= gas viscosity, cp

. reservoir porosity? fraction .,-.mm..T.T..

nrrnlAuLAA

REFERENCES for Testing Program

1. Manual of Back PPessures Testing of Gas The analysis procedure for the buildup and

Wells, Interstate Oil Compact Commission,

drawdown tests closely follows the procedure

Oklahoma City (1962). suggested by Carter, Miller, and Riley3 for con-

stant rate drawdown tests.

SPE 3872 W. JOHN LEE, ROBERT R. HARRELL. and WILLIAM D. McCAIN, JR. 7

,

B. It is obtained from simultaneous solution of s ‘=s+ .**. .(A-4)

Eq. (2) applied to each of the drawdown tests. 1424PgZT “ “ “ “ “

The explicit express for B is

where q = finai fiow just Prior t~ ~bL’dt=in9

g,f

Mscf/D.

B=

mined a buildup test, is related to pressure,

Pe, at the well’s drainage radius by the eq-

uation

. . . . . . ● ✎ ✎ ✎ ✎ (A-1)

356P zTq f

In this equation, the subscript 1 refers to the

first drawdown test and the subscript 2 to the Pe*-F*= +”*” ““*” ”(A-:

second drawdown test. Flowing bottom-hole pres-

sures and instantaneous flow rates are chosen

elapsed time in both tests. Data

after the scm’?e This is a modification of Eq. (6.28) given by

obtained after wellbore unloading has ceased Craft and Hawkins.12

and before boundary effectsl” appear must be

used in Eq. (A-1). In summary, methods exist to calculate B,

kh, S, and pe ; these quantities can then be

e.,.. p~g~ ~~e cjrawdowndata as

we then used in the stabilized deliverability equation,

Pe*-Pwf 2-B[q (t)]* Eq. (3).

vs. log t as in Fig. 2; kh

qg(t)

is est~mated from the slope, m, of this plot APPENDIX B

kb.- m

. . . . . . . . , ●(A-2) Details of Mathematical Analysis

kh may also be estimated from the buildup test, development of the numerical simulation of the

and an average value of kh from the two draw- gas well and gives the procedure used to solve

down tests and the buildup test used in sub- the equations.

sequent calculations.

The differential equation describing the

The skin factor S is calculated next from radial, unsteady-state flow of a gas with con-

a rearrangement of Eq. (2): stant Z-factor is

s=

ay+l sp*_

1424 qg(t)ugzT a~2

r ar

/0.014 kt \

-~ln . . . . . . ..** (A-3)

[\+Bgcgrw* ,I

Values of pwf and qg(t) used in this eq- This equation was solved with the initial and

uation must be at a time, t, at which wellbore boundary conditions

storage effects have ceased and boundary effect:

have not yet appeared.

p=piforallratt=o. . . . . . ..(B-2

Skin factor can also be calculated from a

buildup test, of course, but one must be cau-

tious: The equation ordinarily used to calculate qg = Oor~=Oatr=refort>O . ..(B-3

skin factor for a buildup test assumes 6 ~ ~;

the relationship between the apparent skin fac-

tor~ S’, as calculated from.? buildup test and qe0. = q,(t) Orqg(t) =* ~

the true skin factor, S, isiL ii

atr= rwfort>O . . . . . . . . . . . .(B-4

8 EVALUATION OF A GAS 1 .L TESTING METHOD SPE 387

.L. -..l.

cf-.i+.,

+inn

A”..~v = ~n(rd)$ the differential

LLLCVU”DI-*LU.

equation and the initial and boundary conditions - 4(p$)M+n+~

‘pd2)M-2,n+l

become

a2pd2 e2Y apd2

—= — —0 ● **0* ● ., (n–c\

\u—>)

3Y2

Pd atd The backward difference equation is only first-

order accurate in Atd, so solutions to the

system (B-9), (B-1O), (B-n) were used as a

Pd = forallyattd= O..... (B-6) first approximation to the second-order accurat

Crank-Nickolson-type equation

apd2

—= O aty = ln(re/rw) for t>O . . (B-7)

ay

L

apd2 + )i+l,n

(Pd2)i-1 n-2(~d2)i,n+(pd2

—=qdaty=Ofort>O . . . . . (B-8)

(AY)2

ay 1

e2(i-l)Ay /(P

d

2)i ~+1-(PA2)i

. ~1

.

=

proximated by first GsiGg 2 bad-ward differel?ce ‘1 . (B-12

At

equation of the form ‘pdji,n+l/2 \ d 1“

(Pd2)i_ln+l - 2(pd2)i n+~+(pd2)i+~n+~ For the quantity (pd)i n+l,2 we used the ap-

proximation 9

(AY)2

=

~2(i-l)Ay

(pd2)in+~- (pd2)in (pd)i,n+~/2 = ~ (pd)’~,n+~+ (Pd)i,n

[ 1

(pd)i,n Atd . . ...0 .* (B-1:

‘)

. (B-9)

(pd)’i,n+~ is our first approximation to

● ✎ ✎✎✎☛ .0.0

where

where .

The result of solving the Crank-Nicholson-type

Ay = grid spacing in Y - direction equation the first time we call (pd)”i n+l. W(

,

Atd = time increment spacing

j= grid-point index in Y - direction,

chosen such that y = (j-l)AY,

i=l *****S M L

(pd)i,n+~/2 = ~ (pd)’’~,n+~+ (Pd)i,n

J

time level index . . . . . . ● ✎ (B-11

;: value of grid-point index, i, at the

drainage radius.

and repeat this iterative process until the

Tb&eb~~~p.d~rycQn______

dition~ were approximated by average deviation between iterates

the following equations, second-order accurate

in Ay: k

(pd)::+~ and (Pd)i,n~l is less than 1X10-5

down behavior of a gas well; i.e., calculated

Pd as a function of td, in the following way:

I

‘(qd)n+l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..(B-lc

SPE 3872 W. JOHN LEE, ROBERT R. HARRELL, and WILLIAM D. McCAIN, JR. 9

1

1. Choose Atd and calculate new total elapsed above is independent of the values of the s-kin

time, td. factor, S, and turbulence constant, B. Thus, a

corrected dimensionless sand-face pressure,

2. Estimate (p ~)’i n+l from solution of the

Pwd, which includes turbulence and skin effect

system of equati~ns (B-9), (B-1O), and must be calculated from the equation

(B-n) .

3. Improve the estimate of (Pd)i n+l with so-

9 pwd2 . pwd , UC2 . ‘qd - 13dqd2 . . . . .(B-15)

lution of the system of equations (B-1O),

(B-11)3 and (B-12), and continue to improve

this estimate until the changes between Note that this approach treats skin and tur-

successive estimates is negligibly small. bulence as affecting pressure in a zone of zero

thickness at the sand-face. Once pwd is cal-

The new value of pd of most interest is culated, dimensionless normalized plotting func-

that at the sand-face. The uncorrected value, tion, fd, is calculated and plotted against

PwtiUc, calculated using the scheme described log td.

9

I I I I I I I I I I /

I I I

20 50 100 200

TIME (hours)

I 1/ kh(convontionol) 39 ~ 118md. ft.

I

10 20 50 I 00 200

TIME (hours)

analyzing drawdown data.4

I-

d---

z-

R

0

i=

v

z

?

DIMENSIONLESS TIME, td

,w,e~~

.W*!.,’,

...l+L

-- .b:w ~ff=~~ ~~ +I,mh,.1

.,” -m&L,

-mr.a “u. “WA G.. GG .

/“ o q(j

I

+

2

N.

.0

103 10’ 10=

DIMENSIONLESS TIME, td

‘for well with s ~ 10 and Bd = 1,000.

z-

Q

~1-

Z

i?

~

oCONSTANT RATE

VDECLINING RATE:50 PERCENT/CYCLE

A DECLINING RATE: 100 PERCENT/CYCLE

—IJDECLINING RATE:200pE RcENT/cycLE

I ! 1!11 I I ! II I I I Ii

1(32

.- 1(33 I 04 105

‘DIMENSI(JNLESSTIME, td -

test plot for well with no skin effect or turbulence.

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