You are on page 1of 1524



IIT Bombay, Powai, Maharashtra, India

Sandeep Pendhari
Prakash Nanthagopalan
Vivek Deshmukh
Abhay Bambole
Yogesh Desai

Organizers Under the Aegis of


Sixth International Congress on
Computational Mechanics and

Sandeep Pendhari
Prakash Nanthagopalan
Vivek Deshmukh
Abhay Bambole
Yogesh Desai

Indian Institute of Technology Veermata Jijabai Technological

Bombay Institute
Powai, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400076 Matunga East, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400019

It is our proud privilege to welcome you all to the Sixth International Congress on
Computational Mechanics and Simulation (ICCMS2016) which is being held at Indian
Institute of Technology Bombay (IIT Bombay), organized and hosted jointly by Department
of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay and Department of Structural Engineering, Veermata Jijabai
Technological Institute (VJTI) Mumbai.

The aim of ICCMS2016 is to provide a forum for scientists, academicians, analysts,

designers and practicing engineers from around the globe to interact and exchange ideas
and establish relationships from all areas of theoretical and applied mechanics including
theoretical, computational and experimental aspects, as well as theoretical modelling,
methods of analysis and instrumentation besides setting directions for future growth. It
includes basic discipline-oriented as well as inter-disciplinary areas such as Solid and
Structural Mechanics, Non-linear Mechanics, Composite Structures, Fracture and Damage
Mechanics, Bridge Structures, Material Modelling, Multi-body Dynamics, Computational Fluid
Dynamics, Heat Transfer and many more. The event is being held under the aegis of Indian
Association for Computational Mechanics (IndACM).

The ICCMS2016 has five plenary speakers, who are eminent researchers from different
parts of the world. Apart from the plenary sessions, six concurrent technical sessions have
been scheduled on each day of the congress for the oral presentation of all accepted
papers. Keynote speakers and session chairmen are leading researchers from the thematic
areas of the respective sessions.

We wish to extend our heartfelt acknowledgment to the authors, peer-reviewers and

committee members whose diligent work put into shape the ICCMS2016. We are grateful to
Professor Devang V. Khakkar (Director, IIT Bombay), Professor Omprakash G. Kakde
(Director, VJTI, Mumbai) and Professor Tarun Kant (IIT Bombay) for providing guidance,
encouragement and support.

Lastly but not the least, we would like to thank all the volunteers for their dedication and hard
work for making ICCMS2016 a huge success.

Sandeep Pendhari
Prakash Nanthgopalan
Vivek Deshmukh
Abhay Bambole
Yogesh Desai
'f1'~' ~
'11'('11<1 l'Il~1 I ~ ~,,~
Office 2572 3488, 2576 7001
~, ~ 400076, m«f
2572 3738. 25768000
2572 2545. Extn.: 7001 (0). 8000 (R) e
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay Fax 91-22-2572 3546 (Direct). 2572 3480
Powai, Mumbai -400076, India E-mail
Website: l»
Devang V. Khakhar,
Director <

I am delighted to note that liT Bombay has taken the initiative, way back in the year
2000, in founding the Indian Association for Computational Mechanics (IndACM), an
affiliate of International Association for Computational Mechanics (IACM) to bring
together researchers, especially young researchers, working in the area of
Computational Mechanics on a common platform and has been conducting the
International Congress on Computational Mechanics and Simulation (ICCMS) on a
regular basis. I am also happy to note that liT Bombay and the VJTI have joined
hands to organize the Sixth ICCMS2016 at liT Bombay on 27 June to 1 July 2016.

A distinct discipline of Computational Mechanics which could stand alone on its own
merit started growing its roots in the nineteen hundred sixties with the development of
a revolutionary computational method - the finite element method and the
simultaneous innovations in the design of digital computers. In simple terms,
Computational Mechanics is concerned with application of discrete numerical methods
to describe the behaviour of real life physical phenomena governed by the principles of
mechanics. Computational Mechanics has enabled transformation of much of the
classical Newtonian mechanics into practical discrete numerical procedures and tools
to understand complex natural physical phenomena. These tools are now used
extensively in both developed and developing world for design and simulation in
manufacturing, transportation, communication, defence and may allied fields. Recent
innovations in Computational Mechanics are already making great strides in quantum,
molecular and biological phenomena. Computational Mechanics has made profound
impact on many facets of life, including medicine, energy conservation and national
security. It is well-recognized that scientists and engineers of India and of Indian origin
outside the country have played a very significant role in this development.

I wish the congress great success.

Devang Khakhar
Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute
(Central Technological Institute, Maharashtra State, INDIA)
H. R. Mahajani Marg, Matunga. Mumbai 400019
Tel.No. +91 2224198101-02 Fax:+91 2224102874


Computational Mechanics which makes use of Physics, Mechanics, Mathematics,

and Computer Science emerged as a discipline that provides deeper understanding
of the systems by simulating complex events and use these simulations to design
engineering systems, and its scope includes kilometer scale problems to nano- scale

Hosting the sixth international congress jointly with the premier institute of the
country, the liT Bombay is a matter of pride for my Institute, the VJTI. This four days
event will provide a platform to the researchers, academicians, and the practitioners
to share their experiences, discuss the recent developments and the trends, and I
am sure it will definitely be a value adding experience for all.

I wish the congress the great success.

D.G. Kakde
Sixth International Congress on
Computational Mechanics and Simulation

Devang Khakhar, Director, IIT Bombay, Mumbai.
Omprakash G. Kakde, Director, VJTI Mumbai.

Tarun Kant, Institute Chair Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai.

Congress Chairs
Yogesh Desai, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai
Abhay Bambole, Professor and Dean R&D, Structural Engineering Department, VJTI Mumbai.

Organizing Secretaries
Prakash Nanthagopalan, Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai.
Sandeep S. Pendhari, Associate Professor, Structural Engineering Department, VJTI Mumbai.
Vivek B. Deshmukh, Associate Professor, Structural Engineering Department, VJTI Mumbai.

Sauvik Banerjee, Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai.
Deepankar Chaudhary, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai.
T. I. Eldho, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai
Subimal Ghosh, Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai.
K.K. Sangle, Professor and Head, Structural Engineering Department, Dean Infrastructure and Planning, VJTI
M. A. Chakrabarti, Professor, Structural Engineering Department, VJTI Mumbai.
Nissar Khan, Sr. Tech. Superintendent, Heavy Structures Lab, IIT Bombay, Mumbai.
Advisory Committee
Sondipon Adhikari, Swansea, UK | Satya Atluri, Irvine, USA
Sudhir K Barai, Kharagpur, India | Romesh Batra, Blacksburg, USA
Mallikarjuna Bennur, Detroit, USA | Atul Bhaskar, Southampton, UK
S K Bhattacharyya, Roorkee, India | Gautam Biswas, Guwahati, India
Erasmo Carrera, Torino, Italy | C S Desai, Tucson, USA
Subhasish Dey, Kharagpur, India | B K Dutta, Mumbai, India
A J M Ferreira, Porto, Prtugal | Ranjan Ganguli, Bengaluru, India
Somnath Ghosh, Baltimore, USA | S Gopalakrishnan, Bengaluru, India
Ramana Grandhi, Dayton, USA | Vijay Gupta, Los Angeles, USA
Thomas J R Hughes, Austin, USA | Nagesh Iyer, Chennai, India
C S Jog, Bengaluru, India | Shailendra Joshi, Singapore
Rakesh Kapania, Blacksburg, USA | Santosh Kapuria, Delhi, India
B L Karihaloo, Cardiff, UK | Ashwini Kumar, Gandhinagar, India
Jyant Kumar, Bengaluru, India | G R Liu, Cincinnati, USA
Sudhakar R Marur, Pune, India | Vasant Matsagar, Delhi, India
Sanjay Mittal, Kanpur, India | R Narasimhan, Bengaluru, India
P Nithiarasu, Swansea, UK | J Tinsley Oden, Austin, USA
Nimal Rajapakse, Burnaby, Canada | L S Ramachandra, Kharagpur, India
Manas Chandra Ray, Kharagpur, India | J N Reddy, College Station, USA
Debasish Roy, Bengaluru, India | Anand V Singh, London, Canada
Ram Kumar Singh, Mumbai, India | N Swaminathan, Cambridge, UK
Ramesh Talreja, College Station, USA | Tayfun Tezduyar, Houston, USA

Sr. No. Description

Plenary Sessions

1 Robust Finite Element Modelling Approaches to Systemic Circulation Flow and Heat 1
Hasan H., Cocckerelli A. and Nithiarasu P.

2 Parallel Partitioned Simulations of Real World's Coupled Problems 2

Yoshimura S. and Yamada T.

3 Multiscale Modeling of Failure in Composite Materials 3

Ramesh Talreja

4 St Venant Torsion and Bending of Prismatic Composite Shafts 4

Bhushan Lal Karihaloo and Qi-Zhi Xiao

Keynote Sessions

1 Long Waves in Lattice Waveguides 5

Bhaskar A., Cuan-Urquizo E.

2 Three-Dimensional Numerical Study of Conjugate Heat Transfer in Diverging 6

Duryodhan V. S., Singh A., Singh S. G., and Agrawal A.

3 Solidification With Buoyancy Induced Convection: Evaluation of Different Mushy 7

Zone Formulations
Verma S. and Dewan A.

4 Physics Based Finite Element Interpolation Functions for Rotating Beams 8

Ranjan Ganguli

5 Free Edge effects in Sandwich Laminates Under Tension, Bending and Twisting Loads 9
Dhanesh N. and Santosh Kapuria

6 Finite Element Computations of Complex Flows 10

Mittal S., Chopra G., Furquan M., Navrose, VMK Kotteda and Bhatt V.

7 Tuned Sloshing damper in Response Control of Tall Building Structure 11

Bhattacharyya S.K.

8 Advanced Methodologies for Fracture Analysis and Damage Tolerant Evaluation 12

Iyer N. R., Palani G.S. and Ramachandra Murthy A.

Sr. No. Description

9 Atomistic and Continuum Modelling of Fracture Strength and Adhesion Properties of 13

Dewapriya Nuwan and Nimal Rajapakse

10 Numerical Studies of Piezoelectric Composites Using Nurbs for Geometry and Field 14
Singh A.V. and Raj V.

11 Clean Water and Clean Energy Production: simulation Using Finite Element Method 15
Seetharamu K.N., Spandana K.R., Parikshit B.

12 Two-Temperature Continuum Model for Metal Plasticity 16

Chowdhury S. R. and Roy D.

13 Microstructure Evolution in Metal Nanostructures Under Extreme Conditions of 17

Temperature and Strain Rate
Gupta V., Ghoniem N. M, Crum R, PO G., Seif D., Prikhodko S. V. ,Colorado H. A.,
Ramirez B., Gámez C.

14 Nonlinear Stability Characteristics of Composite Cylindrical Panel Subjected to Non- 18

uniform In-plane Mechanical and Localized Thermal Loadings
Kumar R., Ramchandra L. S. and Banerjee B.

15 A Fast-Multipole Unified Technique for the Analysis of Potential Problems with the 19
Boundary Element Methods
Ney Augusto Dumont and, Hélvio De Farias Costa Peixoto

16 Multi-fidelity Design Optimization: Challenges in Complex Physics-based 20

Computational Mechanics
Ramana V. Grandhi

17 An Overview Of Computational Modeling At Material Chemistry And Micro Scales In 21

Cement Paste
Ram Mohan, Wayne Hodo and Rajendran A.


001 Vibrational Characteristics of Femur Bone 22

Priyadarshi B.K. and Parhi D.R.

002 Analysis of Implants Used for Stabilization of Fractured Bone 25

Dash A. K., Agarwalla D. K., Das H. C., Sahoo J. and Rath A.

003 Influence of Drilling Effect on Bone Stresses by Finite Element Analysis 29

Mahajan A.N. and Kadam B.K.N.

Sr. No. Description

004 Effects of Heat and Mass Transfer on MHD Flow of Blood Through an Artery With 33
Stenosis Having Variable Viscosity
Tripathi B. and Sharma B.K.

005 A Novel Computer Model for Bone’s Adaptation to Mechanical Environment 36

Goyal A. and Prasad J.

006 Fabric Based Characterization of Microstructural Anisotropy of Trabecular Bone 40

Singh A.K., Srivastava P.K. and Mahajan P.

007 Analysis of Internal Fixation Plates 44

Tanweer Alam, Babu M.N. and Pawan Kumar

008 A Study on Accidental Injury & Human Biomechanics in Bangladesh: An Approach to 47

Reduce Accidental Injury & Increase Health Safety
Khan R.R. and Zahin M.M.

Bridge Structures

009 Numerical and Analytical Modelling of Reinforced Concrete Circular Columns Under 50
Mondal A., Ghosh T., Gangan A. and Suriya Prakash S.

010 Analysis of Spherical Dome with Openings Using Finite Element Method 54
Khan S., Bambole A.N., and Murgudkar H.C.

011 Expert System for Bridge Truss Design 58

Bambole A.N., Murgudkar H.C. and Thakur P.

012 Free Vibration Analysis of a Simply Supported Beam 62

Kamble S. D., Shindade A.B. Salokhe N. and Bambole A.N.

Composite Structures

013 Finite Element Modeling of Functionally Graded Material Plates: An Assessment of a 66

New Shear Deformation Theory for Free Vibration Response
Gupta A. and Talha M.

014 Experimental and Numerical Simulation Of ECC Strengthened Masonry Structures in 70

Singh S. B., Munjal P. and Patil R.

015 Two-Dimensional Static Analysis of Composite Plate Subjected to Arbitrary Boundary 75

Conditions Using Extended Kantorovich Method
Kumari P., Yadav P., and Singh A.

016 Finite Element Modelling of FRP Composite Joints Considering Bolt Torque 79
Mandal B. and Chakrabarti B.

Sr. No. Description

017 Thermal Stress Analysis of Functionally Graded Plates and Open Cylindrical Shells 83
Punera D. and Kant T.

018 Bending and Buckling Analyses of Composite Laminates with and Without Presence 87
of Damage and its Passive Control with Optimized Piezoelectric Patch Location
Maiti D.K. and Sreehari V.M.

019 Static Response of Wind Turbine Blade Under Actual Loading Effect 91
Choudhury S., Sharma T. and Shukla K.K.

020 Steel-Concrete Composite Structure- An Advanced Material 95

Suresh Sahu

021 Orthogonal Cutting Process Modeling of Idealised CFRPs 99

Kubher S. and Gururaja S.

022 Numerical Studies on Flange Buckling Behaviour of FRP Box-Beams 103

Kasiviswanathan K. and Upadhyay A.

023 Theoretical Study on Basalt Fiber Reinforced Composite (BFRC) Sandwich Panel 107
Under Flexure
Raj S., Bharathkumar B. H. and Ramesh Kumar V.

024 Effect of Delamination Size and Location on the Dynamics of Thin Pretwisted Strips 111
Salunkhe S.B. and Guruprasad P.J.

025 Stiffened Plates of CNT Reinforced Composites: Static Response Using FEM 115
Bhar A. and Shakya R.

026 Coating Effect on Engine Piston Thermal Behaviour 120

Babu M. N, Tanweer Alam and Kumar P.

027 Static Analysis of Functionally Graded Beam for Power-Law Variation of Elastic 124
Pendhari S. S., Mahajan M., Dhangare P. M. and Gujar P.

028 Optimization of Sandwich Core FRP Bridge Deck 128

Gangwar T., Mandal B. and Chakrabarti A.

029 Slenderness Effect on Behaviour of CFRP Wrapped RC Circular Column 132

Narule G., Bambole A. N., Raut G., Rathod A., and Lendave Y.V.

030 Modal Analysis of Composite Beam Using Abaqus (FEA) 136

Nawale H.H, Roy S. and Jagtap K.

031 Seismic Analysis of Multistorey Building Using Steel Concrete Composite Columns at 140
Soft Storey
Patil S., Jangave S.K and Patil R.S

Sr. No. Description

032 Ballistic Impact Response of Laminated GFRP Composite Plate: Experimental and FE 144
Ansari M.D.M. and Chakrabarti A.

033 Analysis of Laminated Composite Orthotropic Plates Under Bi-directional Bending 148
Subjected to Concentrated Loads
Raval D. and Bambole A. N.

034 Vibration Damping Capacity of Carbon Nanotubes Based Hybrid Composite Spherical 153
Shell Panel
Swain A. and Roy T.

035 Buckling Analysis of Composite Laminated Skew Plate of Variable Thickness Under 157
Biaxial Compression
Priyanka Dhurvey

036 Prediction of Spring-in Deformation for L-Shaped CFRP Components 161

Shah D.B., Patel K.M., Joshi S.J. and Lav K.

037 A Method for Accurate Transverse Normal Stress Evaluation in Laminated Composites 165
Using Simple HSDT
Deshmukh M.B. and Bhar A.

038 Tensile and Compressive Buckling Analyses of Stiffened Laminated Composite Panels 169
Rajanna T., Banerjee S., Desai Y.M. and Prabhakara D.L.

039 Stress and Failure Analysis of Functionally Graded Adhesively Bonded Tubular Socket 173
Joint of Laminated FRP Composites
Nimje S.V. and Panigrahi S.K.

040 Non-Linear 3D Finite Element Analysis of Adhesively Bonded CFRP Lap Joint 177
Lavjiit Singh., Mahesh M. S. and Nimje S.

041 Stochastic Natural Frequency of Composite Plates Using Kriging Model 181
Dey S., Mukhopadhay T., Chakrabarty S., Chowdhury R., Adhikari S., Karmakar A.
and Spickenheuer A.

Computational Fluid Dynamics

042 Numerical Modeling of Flow Around Cylindrical Bridge Piers With and Without Pile- 185
Gautam P., Vijayasree B.A., Eldho T. I., Behera M. R. and Mazumder B. S.

043 Modified Kinetic Streamlined-Upwind Petrov Galerkin Method for Euler Equations of 189
Gas Dynamics
Jagtap Ameya D.

044 High Enthalpy Simulations for Shock Wave Boundary Layer Interaction 193
Desai S., Kulkarni V. and Gadgil H.

Sr. No. Description

045 Design and Testing of Axial Fans for Cooling Engines 197
Abdulazeem D., Baruah A. and Kumar S.

046 Aakalan - A Third Order Finite Volume Solver for Unstructured Meshes 201
Bapat C. J.

047 Unsteady Flow in a Rectangular Lid-Driven Cavity 205

Dalai B. and Laha M. K.

048 Numerical Simulation Of The Turbulent Air Flow In The Narrow Circular Channel 209
With Centre-Cleared Rib Vortex
Bhattacharyya S., Chattopadhyay H., Biswas N., Rakshit A. and Roy A.

049 Cost Effective CFD Methodology to Predict the Free Surface Movement Inside Tank 213
Periyasamy S., Shinde G., Joshi A. and Nikam K.

050 Numerical Simulation of Mixed Convection in a Complicated Porous Enclosure 216

Chattopadhyay A. and Pandit S. K.

051 Development of Bhism for Performance Based Blast Resistant Design of Reinforced 220
Concrete (RC) Structures
Kumar S. and Sharma H.

052 CFD Simulation of Stratification/Dispersion of Helium Layer by Two Heat Sources 224
and Their Interaction in a Thermally Stratified Vessel
Gera B., Ganju S. and Patel R. J.

053 An Experimental and CFD Based Study to Improve Thermal Performance of Car 228
Radiator Using Twisted and Wire Mesh Inserts by Varying Mass Flow Rate
Jain S. K., Sharma M., Saini D., Sharma V., Dadhich M. and Prajapati O.S.

054 GPU Implementation of DSMC Simulation Using DSMCFOAM Solver 232

Aggarwal S. and Bansal A.

055 CFD Simulation of Hydrogen Distribution in Dry/Steam Condensing Environment in 235

Kaiga Containment
Gera B., Ganju S. and Patel R. J.

056 CFD Simulation and Experimental Validation of a Vertical Intake System 239
Samhitha C. D. and Eldho T. I.

057 Numerical Simulation of an Amphibian Aircraft: Estimation of Hydrodynamic Forces 243

and Stability During Take-off and Landing
Saini A. and Bansal A.

058 Numerical Study of Effect of Density and Aspect Ratio on Oscillatory Exchange Flow 246
Through a Circular Opening in Horizontal Partition
Singh R. K., Alam M. and Gera B.

Sr. No. Description

059 Numerical Modelling of Laminar Diffusion Flames Over a Hybrid Unstructured Grid 250
Preetirekha B., Amaresh D., Gadgil H. and Ganesh N.

060 Thermal Comfort Analysis of a Room Using Radiant Cooling System: A CFD Based 253
Sharma N.K., Gunjan G., Dhakara M., Choudhary M., Gupta N. and Gupta P. K.

061 Study of Natural Convection in a Wavy Porous Enclosure in Presence of Magnetic 257
Sarkar C., Pandit S. K. and Dalal D. C.

062 Vortex Structure of Incompressible Viscous Flows in a Lid(s) Driven Cavity With 261
Wavy Wall
Karmakar H. and Pandit S. K.

063 Optimization of Simple Air Duct Heat Exchanger by Perforated Plates : A CFD Based 265
Mittal S., Sharma V., Sharma V., Jain S. K., Dadhich M. and Jangid A. K.

064 ADPI Calculation for Thermal Comfort in Operation Theatre With Angular Diffuser 269
Rahate S.D., Waghmare S. A. and Deshmukh P.D.

065 CFD Simulation of Combined Buoyancy and Pressure Driven Hot Gas Flows Through 273
Square Opening Using Salt Water Analogy
Gera B., Singh R. K. and Alam M.

066 Computational Study of Hypersonic Flow Past a Spherically Blunted Nose Cone 277
Ashish Narayan, Rakesh Kumar and Narayanan S.

067 Energy Deposition in Supersonic Flow Past a Hemisphere Using OpenFoam 280
Dhurandhar S. N. and Bansal A.

068 Assessment of Pulsatile Waveforms on the Blood Flow Dynamics in Intracranial 283
Basumatary M. , Natarajan G. and Mishra S. C.

069 Flow Modelling Around an Amphibian Aircraft Using Openfoam 287

Joshi K. and Bansal A.

070 Numerical Study on Effect of Airfoil Pin-Fin Location in Tube Fin Heat Exchanger 291
Jaganathan A., Deepakkumar R. and Jayavel S.

071 A Sharp Interface Immersed Boundary Method for Inviscid Compressible Flows 295
Brahmachary S., Natarajan G., Kulkarni V. and Sahoo N.

072 Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Mixed Convection Around a Heated Square Cylinder 299
Placed in a Lid Driven Cavity
Gera B. and Singh R. K.

Sr. No. Description

073 An Immersed Boundary Method for Mixed Convection Flows With Large Temperature 303
Kumar M. and Natarajan G.

074 Genuinely Multidimensional Cure for Numerical Shock Instability in a Contact 307
Preserving Riemann Solver
Simon S. and Mandal J. C.

075 Numerical Simulation of Lid-Driven Square Cavity Using Staggered Grid Based Finite 311
Volume Method
Varma I. J., Maniyeri R. and Kang S.

076 Numerical Investigation of NACA 0025 and NACA 0021 of straight blade Darrieus 315
turbine for Hydrodynamic Application
Patil B.S., Kumar K., Thakare H.R. and Narkhede M.M.

077 Water-Gas Two Phase Flow Characteristics in Horizontal Pipeline-A CFD Study 320
Senapati S. K and Dewangan S. K.

078 Numerical Investigation of Flow Through Steam Turbines Using the Mixing Plane 324
Shukla S., Mishra R., Chaudhary N. and Suman S.

079 Thermohydraulic Transport Characteristics of Inclined Ribs in Micro Channel 328

Bhattacharyya S., Laha S., Basu S., Das S.G. and Chattopadhyay H.

080 Steady Flow Computations Using HLL-CPS Scheme With Low Mach Number 332
Gogoi A. and Mandal J.C.

081 Investigation of 3-D Flows in a Tandem Compressor Cascade With Various Chord 336
Sherin S. B., Manas M. S. and Shine S. R.

082 Prediction of Flow Parameters for a Flow Past Rows of Staggered Cylinders Using 340
Artificial Intelligence Methods
Sharma N. and Singh U.

083 Effect of Corrugation Geometry on Power Consumption and Friction Factor in a 344
Bharath Ram R. , Sudharsan T. S. and Naren P. R.

084 Numerical Study of Flow Distribution in a Parallel Channel Manifold 348

Aswin R., Shravan Raaghav K R. and Naren P.R

085 Experimental and Numerical Study on Wake Evacuation Effects in Expansion 352
Deflection Nozzles
Mohan K., Munjal P., Vishak S. and Vaidyanathan A.

Sr. No. Description

086 Numerical studies of a shell-and-tube PCM based heat storage unit 356
Samanta H., Roy P.C. and Barman N.

087 Heat Transfer Augmentation of Helixchanger Using CFD 360

Raje N., Tandale M. and Manjunath C.

088 Numerical Investigation of Evolving Flow Structure Around Ahmed Body Mounted 364
with Solar Panel of Different Configuration
Mohammad Rafiq B. Agrewale and Maurya R.S.

089 Investigation of Acceleration Effects on Rocket Aerodynamics 368

Kumaravel G. and Rathakrishnan E.

090 Effect of Winglet Corrugation for Improved MAV Aerodynamic Performance 371
Dwivedi Y. D. and Donepudi Jagadish

091 CFD Analysis of Perfusion Kinetics in Brain Tumor with DCE-MRI Derived Model 375
Bhandari A., Bansal A., Singh A. and Sinha N.

092 Numerical Investigation on Effect of Moving Vanes and Vehile Velocity on Exhaust 379
Flow of Engine in Armoured Combat Vehicle
More R.R., Patil B.S., Lagad R.B. and Trikande M.W.

093 CFD Simulation of Cascade Fin Flow at Low Subsonic Speeds and High Angles of 383
Tripathi M., Mahesh M.S. and Misra A.

094 Boyancy Driven Heat Transfer Effect in Room Ventilation due to Discrete Heat 387
Gupta N. and Nayak A. K.

095 Evaluating Differences in Airflow Patterns for Similar Rural Kitchens using CFD 391
Ronita Bardhan, Ramit Debnath and Rangan Banerjee

Fluid Mechanics

096 Hydraulic Performance Analysis on Corrugated Type Plate Heat Exchanger 396
Kumar B., Singh D. and Singh S. N.

097 Effect of rotation and baroclinicity on heat transport and turbulent convection in 400
annular flow
Banerjee A.K., Bhattacharya A. and Balasubramanian S.

098 On Bubble and Spike Evolution in Rayleigh-Taylor Instability 404

Ghosh Brindaban

099 Thermo-Hydraulic Simulation of Oxidizer Booster Pump for Semi-cryogenic Engine 407
Thomas B.G., Unnikrishnan Nair P., Sarangi S.K. and Narayanan V.

Sr. No. Description

100 Noise Radiation from Compressible Reacting Mixing Layers 411

Chary P. S. and Samanta A.

101 High Fidelity Simulation of Flow Over a Flapping Wing Using Parallel Computing 415
Bose C., Gupta S. and Sarkar S.

5102 Reduction of Secondary Flow Losses in Linear Turbine Cascade by Boundary Layer 419
Kiran K. N. and Anish S.

Fluid-Structure Interaction

103 3D Coupled CFD-FEA Dynamic Stall Analysis of 5 MW NREL Wind Turbine 423
Baseline Rotor
Fatima N. and Gopal K.V.N

104 Coupled Fluid-Structure Analysis of Inlet Distortion Measuring Rake for Fighter 427
Vashistha R. and Gogoi A.

105 Investigation of Vibration Transmission in Cantilevered Structures Submerged in Fluid 432

Considering Fluid-Structure Interaction
Sumathi V., Jalaldeen S., Selvaraj P. and Murugan S.

106 Fluid-Film Dependent Added Mass and Added Damping for Parallel Plates 436
Verma G., Eswaran M., Sengupta S., Ram Reddy G., Mammen S. and Bhattacharya S.

107 Effect of Heat Transfer in Supersonic Flow Reattachment 440

Vidyarthi N. K., Sreejith K. and Deepu M.

108 Explicit Time Marching Coupling Schemes for Fluid-Structure Interactions 444
Hoskoti L. and Mahesh M. S.

109 Aeroelastic Stability of Delta Wing Configuration 449

Aravinth A.D. and Mahesh M.S.

Fracture and Damage Mechanics

110 Sequential Experimental Design Based Uncertainty Quantification 453

Bhattacharyya B. and Ray S.

111 Damage Detection in Composite Beams Using Vibration Based Method 457
Joshi S.P. and Dawari V. B.

112 Fatigue Analysis of Concrete Members Under Variable Amplitude Cyclic Loading 461
Jeshna C. C., Bhowmik S. and Ray S.

Sr. No. Description

113 Mixed Mode Stress Intensity Factor and Crack Growths Modeling of Double Edge 465
Cracks Laminated Composite Plate Subjected to Tensile and Shear Loadings Using
Lal A., Mulani S. B., Kapania R. K. and Singh B. N.

114 Mechanics of Fracture of Porous Bulk Metallic Glasses 469

Hajare R. and Tandaiya P.

115 Meshfree Analysis of Cracked Panel Repaired by Bonded Composite Patch 473
Pathak H., Singh A. and Singh I.V.

116 Determination of Size Independent Fracture Energy for Various Grades of Concrete 476
Beams- Three Approaches
Hemalatha T., Ramachandra Murthy A. and Aravindan M.

117 Obtaining Fracture Properties of FRC by Inverse Analysis Using the PGSL 480
Optimization Algorithm
Stephen S. J., Raphael B. and Gettu R.

118 A Linearized Toughness Model for Concrete by Considering Toughening Mechanisms 484
Simon K. M. and Kishen J. M. C.

119 Meshfree Analysis of Beams and Columns in the Presence of Initial Damage 488
Gupta A. and Arun C. O.

120 Numerical Analysis of Electro-Chemical Model for Pitting Corrosion 492

Vagbharathi A. S. and Gopalakrishnan S.

121 Edge Crack Simulation Using T-Spline Based Xiga 496

Singh S.K., Bhardwaj G., Singh I.V. and Mishra B.K.

122 Stochastic Fracture Analysis of Laminated Composite Panel With Elliptical Crack 500
Subjected to Biaxial Load Using X-Fem
Palekar Shaiesh P. and Achchhe Lal

123 Numerical Studies on the Influence of Notch Depth and Location on the Natural 505
Frequency of Indeterminate Beams
Stuti M., Varun K., Kalyana Rama J. S. and Ramachandra Murthy A.

124 Influence of Notch to Depth Ratio on Fracture Process Parameters of Plain Concrete 509
Beam Using Concrete Damaged Plasticity Model
George J., Kalyana Rama J. S., Siva Kumar M. V. N., Vasan A. and Ramachandra
Murthy A.

125 Damage Development During Single Fiber Fragmentation 513

Parambil N. K. and Gururaja S.

Sr. No. Description

126 Analysis of Fatigue Crack Propagation in Plate Girder 517

Das R. and Thakkar B.

127 Analysis of Crack Propagation in a Welded Lap Joints 521

Patel Y. and Thakkar B.

128 Analysis of Crack Propagation in Gusset Plates 525

Chapani M. and Thakkar B.

129 Analysis of Crack Propagation in a Plate Girder 528

Patel R.H. and Thakkar B.

130 Failure Assessment in Aluminium Plate Using Continuum Damage Mechanics 531
Nawab S. and Thakkar B.

131 Effect of Flexural Cracks on Behaviour of RCC Beams Under Torsion 535
Bariya M. and Thakkar B.

132 Nonlinear Analysis of Fiber Wrapped Reinforced Concrete Beams With Cohesive 539
Chakraborty S., Jha D. K., Reddy G. R. and Srinivas K.

133 Numerical Simulation of SPT Data Using GTN Material Damage Model to Evaluate J- 542
R Curve
Kumar P., Dutta B. K., Chattopadhyay J. and Shriwastaw R. S.

134 Study of Various Damage Indices Under Seismic Loading- A Review 547
Parekar S. D. and Datta D.

135 Characterization of Near Crack Tip Stresses for Fracture Testing Specimens from 551
Strength Mismatch Weld
Kumar S. , Singh P. K. and Patel R. J.

Geo Mechanics

136 Effects of Intermediate Principal Stress on Shear Localization During Tunnel 555
Sisodiya M. and Das A.

137 A Numerical Study on a Rock Slope Failure with the Rate, State, Temperature and Pore 559
Pressure Friction (RSTPF) Model
Singh A. K. and Singh T. N.

138 Redistribution Principle Approach for Evaluation of Seismic Active Earth Pressure 563
Behind Retaining Wall
Maskar A.D., Madhekar S. N. and Phatak D. R.

Sr. No. Description

139 Three Dimensional Computer Simulation of Laterally Loaded Monopile Foundation 567
for Offshore Wind Turbine
Deshmukh R.R. and Sharma V. K.

140 Effect of Soil Structure Interaction on Vertical Irregularity in Framed RC Structure 571
Dhadse G. and Mohod M.

141 Numerical Modeling of Reinforced Copper Slag Embankment using Plaxis 3D 575
Athulya G.K., Choubey M. and Mandal J. N.

142 Evaluation of Soil Deformation Modulus 579

Wagh J.D., Joshi P.H. and Bambole A.N.

Heat Transfer

143 Solution of Stochastic Heat Conduction Problem Using Galerkin Based Polynomial 582
Correlated Function Expansion
Chakraborty S. and Chowdhury R.

144 Dynamic Characteristics of Printed Circuit Boards: A Parametric Study 586

Jayaraman S., Trikha M., Somashekar V.N., Kamesh D., Venkatesh K. and Ravindra

145 Comparison of Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics in Triangular and Sinusoidal 590
Shaped Wavy Channels
Harikrishnan S. and Tiwari S.

146 Thermal Behaviour Analysis of V-Through Flat Plate Solar Water Collector: An 594
Experimental and CFD Based Study
Jangid A.K. , Sharma N. K., Jain S. K., Dadhich M., Sharma V. and Agarwal D.

147 Effect of Location of Heat Source and Rayleigh Number on Natural Convection in A 598
Square Cavity Using Thermal Lattice Boltzmann Method
Patil M.Y., Patil A.J. and Sewatkar C.M.

148 Computational Analysis of Flow and Thermal Characteristics of Pin-Fin Heat Sink 602
Manogna J., Deepakkumar R. and Jayavel S.

149 Visualization of Thermal Transport in Discretely Heated 2-D Complex Solid 605
Narasimha Suri Tinnaluri and Jaya Krishna Devanuri

150 Numerical Simulation of Natural Convection With Radiative Heat Transfer in a Cavity 609
Parmananda M., Khan S. and Dalal A.

151 LBM Simulation of Free Convection in an Enclosure Containing Heat Generating Low- 613
Pr Fluid
Gera B. and Singh R.K.

Sr. No. Description

152 Natural Convection in an Open Cavity With Surface Mounted Electronic Components 617
Muthukrishnan S. and Madhusudhana R. Gavara

153 Design, Manufacturing and Performance Analysis of Different Thermoplastic Gears in 621
the Gearbox for Moped
Gupta A.R., Aloni S.N. and Datey S.N.

154 Study of Condensation Heat Transfer in Helical Coil 625

Rashed Ali., Gulhane N. P., Kanase A. and Date P.

155 Numerical Analysis Off low Boiling Heat Transfer in Single Horizontal small diameter 628
channel using VOF Multiphase Model
Jignesh R. and Kumar K.

156 Numerical Study on Convective Mass Transfer Enhancement by Baroclinic Torque 631
Induced Vortex
Aravind G.P., Muhammed Rafi K. M., Fahd Bin Abdul Hasis and Deepu M.

157 Thermohydraulic Study of V - Corrugated Heat Exchanger 636

Dutta P., Das A. and Dutta P. P.

158 Numerical Analysis of Natural Convection Around a Pair of Heated Cylinders inside a 640
Cold Square Enclosure
Chauhan S. P. and Thakur H.

159 Parametric Investigation of Performance of Portal Frame At Elevated Temperature 644

Sharma S., Bhatt P., Singh T., Matsagar V. and Reddy G. R.

160 Thermal Design and Analyses of Lithium-Ion Battery for Rover of an Interplanetary 648
Missions: Modelling and Simulation
Jayaraman S.., Channi A., Bindagi S.V., Srinivasan M.S., Satyanarayana, Ravindran
R., Barve S.G. and Sharma A.K.


162 A Study on River Bed Degradation Due to Mining of Coarser Top Sediment 652
Barman Bandita and Sarma A. K.

163 Two Phase Interface Model for Transport Phenomena During Sublimation of Crystals 656
and Vapor Phase Reaction
Sawant R., Inamdar S.R., Karimi I. A. and Kulkarni B. D.

164 Flood Plain Simulation of an Urban River Catchment: A Case Study 660
Zope P.E., Eldho T. I. and Jothiprakash V.

Material Modelling

Sr. No. Description

165 Ballistic Studies of Boron Carbide Tiles against 7.62 mm AP Projectile 664
Savio S. G., Srivathsa B. and Madhu V.

166 Inclusion Modelling in Concrete With the Extended Finite Element Method 668
Thirumalaiselvi A., Anandavalli N. and Rajasankar J.

167 Mathematical Model for Reinforced Concrete Problems 672

Ramana P. V. and Kunal B.

168 Material Modeling and Simulations of Highly Flexible Structures 676

Pawar V.S., Guruprasad P. J. and Pant S.R.

169 Analysis and Optimization of Multi-Plate Wet Clutch With Different Friction Materials 681
Shaha U. and Tembhare G.U.

170 Numerical Evaluation of Flexural Strength of NBG-18 Graphite 685

Bansal M., Singh I.V., Mishra B.K. and Sharma K.

171 FE Based Investigation of Heat Effected Zone and Temperature Distribution in Copper 688
and AISI 304 Stainless Steel Weldment
Singh G., Saxena R.K. and Pandey S.

172 Mechanical Behaviour of Epoxy Matrix Under Tension, Compression and Shear Using 692
DIC: Experiments and Numerical Modeling
Gupta M. and Mahajan P.

173 Study of Agglomerate Breakage in a Shear Flow Using Numerical Simulations 696
Akiti N., Hapgood K. and Khakhar D.

174 Prediction of Compressive Strength of Concrete with Natural Aggregates and Recycled 700
Aggregates Using M5’ Model Tree Algorithm
Jain S. and Barai S.V.

175 Evaluation of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) Geofoam Creep Using Plaxis 3D 704
Beju Y.Z. and Mandal J. N.

176 Simulation of Soil Subjected to Underground Blast Using Flac3D 708

Kumar R., Choudhury D. and Bhargava K.

177 Microstructure-Guided Constitutive Modelling for Design and Development of 712

Sustainable Next Generation Infrastructure Materials
Sumanta Das, Xianghui Xiao, Nikhilesh Chawla and Naryanan Neithalath

Micro and Nano-Mechanics

178 Buckling of Nanobeams Using Different Nonlocal Continuum Theories 716

Babu B. and Badri P.P.

Sr. No. Description

179 Size Dependence in Mechanical Behaviour of Polystyrene Micropillars Under 720

Guruprasad T., Bhattachary S. and Basu S.

180 Length Scale Effect on the Deformation Behaviour of Bio-Inspired Nanocomposites 724
using Molecular Dynamics
Mathiazhagan S.and Anup S.

181 Dispersion Properties of Linear Microelastic Peridynamic Bar 728

Mutnuri V.S. and Gopalakrishnan S.

182 Evaluating Thin Film Mechanical Properties Applying Nanoindentation: 732

Computational, Experimental and Analytical Study
Mallikarjunachari G. and Ghosh P.P.

Multi Body Dynamics

183 Kinematic and Dynamic Analyses of 3-Link Cooperative Manipulators Handling 736
Hazardous Chemicals
Ranjan R. and Dwivedy S. K.

184 Pendulum Impact Test on Thermally Damaged Reinforced Concrete Frames 740
Singh Tarvinder, Sharma Shailesh, Parmar R. M. and Reddy G.R.

185 Response of Fire Damaged RC Slab Under Impact 744

Sharma S., Tarvinder Singh., Parmar R.M. and Reddy G. R.

186 Stroke and Tolerance Stack Up Analysis of an Automotive Side Door Latch 748
Vinod Kumar R., Elango M. and Udupa N.

187 Effect of Nonlinearities in the Suspension of Heavy Goods Vehicles on Vehicle Road 751
Joshi S., Vichare C., Pable M.J. and Seshu P.

188 Inverse Dynamic Analysis of Axial Piston Pump Using Augmented Newton-Euler 755
Milind T. R. and Mitra M.

189 Numerical Rigid and Flexible Multibody Dynamic Modeling of an Axial Piston Pump: 759
Validation, Comparison and Parametric Studies
Milind T. R. and Mitra M.

190 Boundary Element Modeling of the Acoustic Radiation of an Axial Piston Pump: 764
Numerical Implementation
Milind T.R. and Mitra M.

Sr. No. Description

191 Numerical Modeling of the Structural Acoustic Radiation and Sound Pressure Fields 768
of an Axial Piston Pump
Milind T.R. and Mitra M.

192 Displacement & Arrest of Occupant on Automotive Seat System in Frontal Dynamic 772
Crash Condition: Anti-Sub Feature on Seat Cushion
Dharmadhikari V. D. and Chougule V.N.

Multi-Phase Flow

193 Modelling and Simulation of Cyclic Oxidation of Thermal Barrier Coatings using 776
Srivathsa B., Meena Kumari V., S. Gokul Lakshmi and Das D.K.

194 Numerical Study of Effects of Particle Diameter and Particle Volume Fractions on 781
Dispersed Gas-Particle Flows Through Vertical Channels
Kotoky S., Dalal A. and Natarajan G.

195 CFD Modelling of Gas Bubble Formation in a Stagnant & Co-Flowing Liquid Medium 785
Prasad V. K., Singh S. P. and Chatterjee D.

196 The Role of Consistency in the Simulation of High Density Ratio Flows 789
Patel J.K. and Natarajan G.

197 Three-Dimensional Deformation of a Droplet on a Square Duct Wall Considering 793

Wetting Effects
Bhardwaj S. and Dalal A.

198 Analysis of Droplet Solidification During FCI in Severe Accident of Nuclear Reactors 797
Ghosh B. and Mukhopadhyay D.

199 Numerical Analysis of Micromixer With Flow Disturbing Ribs 800

Srikarthikeyan K.K., Krishnah S., Arunkumar S. and Venkatesan M.

200 A Multi-Phase Closed Pipelines Simulation Approach for Transportation of Heavy Oil 805
With Open foam in HPC
Alomoy Banerjee and Barman S.

201 Numerical Heat Transfer Analysis of Pin Fin With Ellipsoidal Beads 810
Madhumitha R., Arunkumar S., Balachandar C. and Venkatesan M.

202 Topology Optimization of Pre-Mixing Zone in a T Shaped Micromixer for Enhanced 814
Madhumitha R., Arunkumar S., Ravichandran V. and Venkatesan M.

203 Comparative Study of Coal Combustion in Air and O2/CO2 Environment 818
Rajneesh Vachaspati, Om Prakash Singh, and Ray T. K.

Sr. No. Description

Multi Scale Modelling

204 Mechanical Properties of Concrete Exposed to Burning 823

Ramana P.V., Bisht K., Pathak D. and Gupta R.

205 The Waste Materials as Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate in Concrete-Outlet 827
Ramana P.V., Manish M. and Kunal B.

206 Molecular Mechanisms in Self-Folding Behaviour of Hydrogel Nanocomposite 831

Mathesan S., Rath A. and Ghosh P.

207 An Efficient Locking Free Multiscale Finite Elements for Free Vibration Analysis of 834
Carbon Nanotubes
Singh S. and Patel B.P.

208 Displacement Analysis of a Compliant Micro-Gripper Using PRBM & FEA Method 838
Darawade P.B., Shendge M.P., Deshmukh A.S., Jain S.S., Joshi R.S. and Mitra A.C.

209 Adaptive Multiscale Finite Element Method for Simulation of Heterogeneous Material 842
Patil R., Mishra B.K. and Singh I.V.

Non-Linear Mechanics

210 Inelastic Seismic Response of Asymmetric Buildings 846

Raut R. and Madhekar S.

211 Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of RC Frames Using Fragility Curves 850

Bhende S. and Pednekar S.

212 Impact Test on Reinforced Concrete Slabs 854

Parmar R.M., Tarvinder Singh. and Reddy G.R.

213 Geometric Nonlinear Analysis of Cable Domes 858

Sudarshan Krishnan

214 Numerical Analysis of Scaled Containment Model 862

Parthesh Parekh P., Parmar R. M., Singh R. K. and Reddy G.R.

215 Effect of Circular Web Perforation in Rectangular Lean Duplex Stainless Steel (LDSS) 865
Tubular Beams – A Finite Element Study
Sonu J.K. and Singh K.D.

216 Structural Performance of Elliptical Hollow Steel Tubular Braces Under Ultra Low 869
Cycle Fatigue Loading
Narendra P.V.R. and Singh K.D.

Sr. No. Description

217 A Comparative Study on Effect Fibre Volume Fraction on Ex-Situ BMG Composites 873
Through Unit Cell Simulations
Gouripriya S., Sinha S.A. and Tandaiya P.

218 Finite Element Analysis of Plain Cement Concrete 877

Joshi A.D., Gujar P.S. and Pendhari S.S.

219 Estimation of Local Stresses and Strains for Notched Geometries Using Non-Linear 881
Khatawate V.H., Dharap M.A. and Moorthy R.I.K.

220 Frictional Hysteresis in an Elastic Body With Microcracks 885

Biswas S., Jana P. and Chatterjee A.

221 Analysis of a Nonlinear Flexural Wave-Breathing Crack Interaction in A Slender Beam 889
Using Wavelet Spectral Finite Element Method
Joglekar D. M. and Mitra M.

222 Buckling Behaviour of Inelastic Castellated Beam 893

Baskar K., Aarthy E. and Cyril Thomas A.

223 Non- Linear Behaviour of Laterally Restrained Beams With Sinusoidal Corrugated 897
Baskar K. and Sadananda H.I.

224 Non-Linear Behaviour of Girders with Horizontal Web Splice 901

Baskar K. and Sawant R.

225 Non-Linear Analysis of Castellated Beams 905

Baskar K., Shobana R. and Cyril Thomas A

226 Nonlinear Computational Analysis of Multi Strand Helical Wire Rope Isolators 909
Patel N. and Kumaraswamy A.

227 Energy Harvesting from Oriented Piezoelectric Beam 914

Garg A. and Dwivedy S.K.

Novel Computational Techniques

228 An Improved Approximation Strategy for Multi Objective Evolutionary Optimization 918
Chatterjee T. and Chowdhury R.

229 Design and Optimization of Brake Slack Adjuster for Light Commercial Vehicle 922
Braking System
Karwande S.V.

Sr. No. Description

230 Stability Preserving Runge Kutta Method Using Genetic Algorithm 925
Neelan A. G. And Nair M. T.

231 A Refined Time Series Model for Structural Health Monitoring 929
Lakshmi K. and A. Rama Mohan Rao

232 A Novel Technique for Solving Three Dimensional Problems 933

Ramana P.V.

233 Computational Mechanism on Large Deformable Bodies Using Novel Technique 937
Ramana P.V.

234 An Innovative Method for Solving Structural Engineering Problems 941

Ramana P. V., Kunal B., Gupta R., Agrawal N. and Singh A.K.

235 A review on Applications of Meshless Methods to Flow and Transport Processes in 942
Porous Media
Boddula S. and Eldho T.I

236 The Equality of Partial Solutions for Nth Order Differential Equations Using Novel 946
Ramana P.V. and Gupta S.

237 Modelling and Analysis of Metal Drilling Process Using Experimental Study and Finite 951
Element Method
Ponnusamy Pandithevan and Vinayaga Muruga

238 Fatigue Analysis of ABS Mould 955

Addanki Sambasiva Rao, Dharap M.A. and Venkatesh J. V. L.

239 Finite Element Simulation of PZT Induced Guided Wave Modes in Isotropic 959
Cylindrical Shells
Jayesh P. and Bijudas C.R.

240 A Computer Numerical Simulation Study Between System Level and Component 963
Level Model of a System Under Design
Hariram Shanmuganathan

241 Optimizing the Design of Engine Timing Chain System of Passenger Car 967
Shinde A.P.

242 Novel Algorithms for Simulation of Free and Moving Boundary Problems 971
Rangarajan R.

243 GA Based Thickness Optimization of Flat Slab 975

Raje S. S. and Doiphode G.S.

Sr. No. Description

244 Optimization of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers by Minimizing the Entropy 978
Generation Using Bat Algorithm
Tharakeshwar T.K., Seetharamu K.N., Durga Prasad B. and Kumar B.

245 Computational Performance of Isogeometric Analysis in Exterior Acoustics Using 982

Perfectly Matched Layer
Dinachandra M. and Raju Sethuraman

246 A Study on the Behaviour of the Basis Functions in Differential Quadrature Method 986
for Elasto-Static Problems
Durga Rao S.S. and Sethuraman R.

247 Multi-Block Structured Grid Generation using Algebraic Techniques for Complex 990
Rocket Models
Kumaravel G. and Unnikrishnan C.

248 Effect of Friction Between Punch & Die on Springback in 60 Degree V Bend 994
Sayyad V.M., Phalle V.M., Vishwadeep C. H. and Patil S. S.

249 A Computer Simulation Model for Smartly Actuated Dorsal Fin With Compliant 998
Mechanism and Shape Memory Alloy
Govindarajan G. and Sharma R.

250 Comparative Study of Metallic and Composite Belly for Belly Landing of a Light 1002
Banakar P. and Akshatha H. T.

Porous Medium Mechanics

251 Heat Transfer Enhancement of Heat Exchanger Using Porous Medium: A CFD Based 1006
Sharma V., Mittal S., Sharma N.K., Jain S.K., Sharma V. and Dadhich M.

252 Simulation of Advective-Dispersive Transport in a Porous Medium Using the Operator 1010
Splitting Technique
Tinesh Pathania

253 Characterization of Flow and Thermal Behaviour of Product Gas Constituents in the 1015
Throat-Less Downdraft Gasifier
Kane A. A., Maurya R. S., Tiwari I. and Lobo S.

254 Flow of Grains Through an Orifice in a Rectangular Silo 1019

Bhateja A. and Khakhar D. V.

255 Design and Development of Energy Efficient Cold Storage Interior Using 1023
Computational Techniques
Maradkar R. R. and Maurya R. S.

Sr. No. Description

256 Effect of Field Parameters on Saltwater Ingression in Coastal Aquifers 1028

Ukarande S. K. and Sonawane S. B.

Smart Structures

257 Dynamic Response of an Asymptotically Correct Piezoelectric Sensor With a Tip Mass 1033
Banerjee S. and Roy S.

258 Notch-Type Damage Detection in Plate Structures Using a Refined Time-Reversed 1037
Lamb Wave Method
Kapuria S. and Agrahari J. K.

259 FE Modeling of Sandwich Beam With Two-Plane Edge Debonding of Piezoelectric 1042
Shear Actuator
Venkat Rao K., Raja S. and Munikenche Gowda T.

260 Critical Buckling Analysis of Spherical Shells 1047

Desai D. J., Chauhan N. H. and Doiphode G. S.

261 Impact of Irregularity on the Propagation Behavior of Surface Wave in a Layered 1051
Piezoelectric Structure
Singh A. K., Kumar S. and Mahto S.

262 Detection of Damage in Surface-Mounted PZT Transducers using Voltage Amplitude 1055
Ashwin U., Sathyanarayana C.N. and Raja S.

263 Magnetically Coupled Broad Band Piezoelectric Energy Harvester b 1059

Malaji P. V. and Ali S. F.

264 Finite Element Analysis of a Piezoelectric Plate Based on First Order Shear 1063
Deformation Theory
Pendhari S. S., Jadhav S.S., and Patil V.

265 Behaviour of Polypropylene Fibre Reinforced Concrete Pavement Under Static Wheel 1067
Mohod Milind and Kadam K. N.

266 Accurate Modelling of Shear Monomorph Sensors 1071

Raveendranath P. and Sulbhewar L. N.

267 An Experimental Study of a Novel Energy Scavenger Cum Vibration Absorber 1075
Vishvanath Allamraju K. and Srikanth K.

268 An Energy-Based Approach for Extracting the Dynamic Instability Parameters of 1079
Dielectric Elastomer Actuators With Unequal Biaxial Prestress
Bajpayee S., Joglekar D. M. and Joglekar M. M.

Sr. No. Description

269 Radial and Thickness Mode Calculations of PZT-5H Disc by Using Ambient 1084
Vishvanath Allamraju K.

270 Vibration Based Hybrid Energy Harvester for Broadband Harvesting 1088
Rajarathinam M. and Ali S. F.

Solid and Structural Mechanics

271 Correlations Between Stiffness and Microstructure of a Species of Bamboo 1092

Mannan S. and Basu S.

272 Rayleigh Wave Propagation in Liquid Layer Lying over a Pre-Stressed Orthotropic 1097
Chudhary S. and Sahu S. A.

273 Thermostructural Design of an Unconventional Section with Stiffened and Unstiffened 1100
Jayanthi G. and Jain P.C.

274 An Experimental Study on Slender Hollow Circular Stainless Steel Columns with 1104
Single Circular Perforation Subjected to Axial Compression
Lalthazuala R., Konjengbam D. Singh

275 Gauge Widening/Condemning of Parabolic Profile Locomotive Wheels While Braking 1008
with Composite Brake Blocks
Vineesh K.P., Vakkalagadda M.R.K and Racherla V.

276 Flexure of Fixed Thick Beam Using Trigonometric Shear Deformation Theory 1112
Dahake A. G., Manal S. S. and Sawant R. M.

277 Micromechanical Modelling of Spiral Wound Gasket Under Uniaxial Compression 1116
Rino Nelson N., Siva Prasad N. and Sekhar A. S.

278 Analysis of Prestressed Hollowcore Slabs With Openings: A Numerical Study 1120
Sameer K. Sarma P. and Surya Prakash S.

279 HDMR Based Model Updating in Structural Damage Identification 1124

Naveen B.O. and Balu A.S

280 Static Analysis of Doubly Curved FGM Panel on Rectangular Plan-form 1127
Bahadur R., Upadhyay A. K. and Shukla K. K.

281 Static Analaysis of Doubly Tapered Thin Walled Composite Box Beam Under Axial 1131
Tushar Sharma, Murari V. and Shukla K.K.

Sr. No. Description

282 Strength and Vibration Analysis of Transmission Housing of a Tractor 1135

Ahuja M., Deshpande N. V. and Patil S.

283 Study of Rayleigh Wave in Orthotropic Layer Lying Over an Orthotropic Half-Space 1139
With Initial Stress
Singhal A. and Sahu S. A.

284 Energy Absorption Characteristics of Aluminium Alloy 6061 Square Corrugated Tubes 1142
Under Axial and Oblique Impact Loading
Rawat S., Upadhyay A.K. and Shukla K.K.

285 Moment-Rotation Behavior of Stainless Steel Beam-Column Bolted Connection 1146

Bhavsar V. S. and Dawari B. M.

286 Fragility Based Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Framed 1150
Structures b
Veerendra Kumar P. and Siva Kumar M. V. N.

287 On Plane Strain Problems of Eccentric Elastic Rings in Bipolar Coordinate Systems 1154
Desai P. and Pandya V.

288 Comparative Study of Outrigger Structural System 1158

Senghani J.S. and Mistry P.B.

289 Design of Acetone Vapour Sensor Using Microcantilever 1162

Kamble C. and Panse M.S.

290 Structural Analysis Using Affine Arithmetic 1166

Ch Raveendra Babu, Ajay Kumar N. and Balu A. S.

291 Buckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Plates Using Inverse Hyperbolic Shear 1170
Deformation Theory
Kulkarni K., Singh B.N and Maiti D.K.

292 Evaluation of Coupled Partial Models Using Graph Theory and Sensitivity Analysis 1174
Naik A. and Balu A. S.

293 Damage Detection of Structures Using Wavelet Analysis 1178

Srinivas P. and Balu A.S.

294 Adaptive Refinement Strategy for Crack Propagation Analysis Using EFG Method 1182
Bhavana S. S. Patel, Babu K. S. N., Katta V.

295 Study on Analysis of RC Slabs Under Concentrated Loading 1186

Katrodiya D.G., Chauhan N. H. and Chauhan R. L.

Sr. No. Description

296 Experimental Investigation of Hollow Stainless Steel Square Stub Column With Single 1190
Perforation Under Axial Compression
Sanasam Vipej Devi, Konjengbam Darunkumar Singh

297 Large Deformation Analysis of Point Supported Conoidal Shells Using Element Free 1194
Galerkin Method
Watts G., Pradyumna S. and Singha M.K.

298 Non-Linear Finite Element Analysis of ESP Hopper 1198

Patel P., Jadhav S.S. and Kushwaha R.

299 B-Spline Wavelet Finite Element Method for 1D Bi-Material Problems in Elasto- 1202
Vadlamani S. and Arun C.O.

300 Floor Response Spectra Considering Structural Nonlinearity Effect: Experiments and 1206
Kothari P., Parulekar Y. M., Reddy G. R. and Shenai G.V.

301 Probabilistic Flutter Analysis: A Perturbation Approach 1211

Kumar S., Kumar Onkar A. and Manjuprasad M.

302 Layerwise Solution for Nonlinear Static and Dynamic Stability of Laminated 1215
Composite Plates Using B-Spline Finite Element Method
Susmita Mondal and Ramachandra L.S.

303 Strength of Fixed Ended Circular, Square, and Flat Oval Hollow LDSS Slender 1219
Columns Under Axial Compression
Sachidananda K., Singh K. D.

304 Effect of Cross-Sectional Shape on Compressive Strength of LDSS Stub Columns 1223
Brahma J., Singh T.G., and Singh. K. D.

305 Static and Free Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Plates: Mechanical, Thermal 1227
and Hygrothermal Loading
Dhinde M. and Desai Y.M

306 Study of Indentation of an Elastic Layer Substrate by a Rigid Wedge Indenter Under 1231
Plane Strain Conditions
Karuriya A.N. and Bhandakkar T.K.

307 Second Gradient Approach for Modelling Damage 1235

Kakarla S. S. and Rajagopal A.

308 Effect of Damping on the Dynamic Response of a Beam With Non-Ideal Boundary 1239
Mahapatra Kavikant, Panigrahi S.K. and Gaur Abhishek

Sr. No. Description

309 Retrofitting and Rehabilitation of Elevated Water Tank After Investigation of 1244
Corrosion Status by Using Nondestructive Techniques
Nayak C.B. and Thakare S.B.

310 Validation of Theoretical Stress Concentration Factor for Varying Notched Geometries 1248
Using FEA
Khatawate V.H., Dharap M.A. and Moorthy R.I.K.

311 Force Based Linear Static Analysis of 2-D Curved Tapered Timoshenko Beam 1252
Rajapakse R.M.C.M., Wijesundar K.K. and Dissanayake P.B.R.

312 Effect of Cover to Longitudinal Reinforcement of Square RC Column for Axially 1256
Compression Testing.
Narule G. and Bambole A.N.

313 Non Local Analysis of Laminated Plates using Third Order Shear Deformation Theory 1260
Considering Surface Stress Effects
Raghu P. and Rajagopal A.

314 Numerical Simulation on Performance Evaluation of Chemical Anchors Embedded in 1264

Sasmal S., Lieberum K.H. and Koenders E.A.B.

315 Growth of Yield Front in Statically Indeterminate Bar by Using Domain 1268
Decomposition Method
Nayak P. and Saha K.N.

316 Behaviour of RC Shear Wall With and Without Opening Using Concealed Bracing 1272
Mahadik S. N. and Bhagat S. R.

317 Design and Testing of Compressor Mapping Test Cell for High Horse Power 1276
Kumbhalkar S. and Khairnar H.P.

318 Acceptable External Loads on Nozzle of a Pressure Vessel by Non-Linear Finite 1280
Element Method
Pranitha Prabhakaran and Jadhav P.A.

319 Simplified Approach for Seismic Analysis of Base Isolated Multi-Storeyed Structure 1284
Nagender T., Parulekar Y. M. and Reddy G .R.

320 Free Vibration Analysis of Isotropic Skew Plate 1288

Mohd Abrar Abdul Alim and Bhattacharyya B.

321 Large Deflection Analysis of Leaf Spring Under Three Point Bending 1291
Ghuku S. and Saha K.N.

Sr. No. Description

322 Linear Static Analysis of a Structural Member by Finite Element Method 1295
Bandgar S. and Kshirsagar S. D.

323 Crashworthiness and Multiobjective Optimization of Axially Loaded Aluminium 1299

Elliptical Tapered Hollow Sections
Narayanan A., Rawat S. and Upadhyay A.K.

324 Semi-Analytical Solutions for Functionally Graded Smart Plate in Cylindrical Bending 1303
Sawarkar S., Pendhari S. and Desai Y. M.

Transient Dynamic Problems

325 Incremental Dynamic Analysis of RC Building Frames 1308

Sabharanjak K.G. and Dawari B.M.

326 Inverse Problem on a Timoshenko Beam Using Time Domain Spectral Finite Element 1312
Kulkarni R.B., Gopalakrishnan S. and Trikha M.

327 Study of Thermal Behaviour of Brake Disc Materials 1315

Panda D. and Timmaraju M.V.

328 Inspection of Adhesively Bonded Lap Joints Using Spectral Finite Element Method 1319
Paunikar S. and Gopalakrishnan S.

Vibration and Control

329 Response Analysis of Adjacent Structures Connected by Friction Damper 1323

Patel C.C.

330 Simulation of Quarter Car Model for the Shock Absorber Compliance with Rubber 1327
Bush and Washers
Barethiye V., Pohit G. and Mitra A.

331 Bispectral Analysis for Nonlinear Identification of Structures 1331

Prawin J. and Rama Mohan Rao A.

332 Numerical Investigation into Effect of Cell Size of Honeycomb Core on the Free 1335
Vibration Behaviour of Polymer Nano-Composite Sandwich Beams
Royal Madan, Rajesh Kumar Bhushan, Santosh Kumar Sahu and Rama Sreekanth P.S.

333 A FE Model for Dynamic Behavior of a Functionally Graded Rotor-Bearing System 1339
Debabrata G., Debabrata C. and Rajiv T.

Sr. No. Description

334 Seismic Behavior of LNG Tank Isolated by Double Variable Curvature Friction 1343
Pendulum System
Patel F.V., Soni D.P. and Chauhan N.H.

335 Seismic Response of Short-Period Buildings With Special Reference to Response 1347
Reduction Factor
Pingale O., Madhekar S.N. and Pore S.M.

336 Dynamic Behaviour of Communication Antenna for Space Missions: Modeling and 1351
Jataraman S., Trikha M., Somashekar V.N., Kamesh D, Venkatesh K. and Ravindra M.

337 Nonlinear Analysis of Active Vibration Absorber With Self Sensing and Actuating 1355
PZT Actuator by Acceleration Feedback
Mohanty S. and Dwivedy S K

338 Identification of Crack Advancement in Gearbox by Application of Entropy 1359

Measures on Acoustic Emission Signal
Ram Bihari Sharma and Anand Parey

339 Use of Top Weak Storey of Multistoreyed Building as a Tuned Mass Damper for 1363
Seismic Response Mitigation
Deshmukh S., Ghadage J., Gunjal K., Hoke A., Kawle D. and Madhekar S.

340 Seismic Vibration Control for 20-Story Non-Linear Benchmark Building: A State-of- 1367
The-Art Review
Moyade R. and Madhekar S.

341 Optimization of Passive Vehicle Suspension System by Genetic Algorithm Using 1371
Mitra A C , Desai G.J., Patwardhan S.R. , Shirke P.H., Kurne W. M. H. and Banerjee

342 Comparitive Study Between Non-Parametric Magneto-Rheological (MR) Damper 1375

Model With Parametric Bouc-Wen Magneto-Rheological Model
Hemantha K., Kumar H. and Gangadharan K. V.

343 Simulation and Analysis of Tool Chatter in Turning Operation 1379

Shrivastava Y., Kumar S. and Singh B.

344 Harmonic Response of CFPI-Isolated Elevated Liquid Storage Tanks 1383

Patel J.M. and Panchal V.R.

345 Free Vibration Analysis of Isotropic Moderately Thick Spherical and Conical Shell 1387
Panels Using a Four Node Discrete Kirchhoff Quadrilateral Flat Shell Element.
Kulkarni S.D., Chopade V.S , Badhe A.S. and Dagade V.A.

Sr. No. Description

346 Free Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Sandwich Plates Using Four Node 1391
Discrete Kirchhoff Quadrilateral Element Based on Reddy'S Third Order Shear
Deformation Theory.
Deshpande G.A. and Kulkarni S.D.

347 Dynamic Analysis of Flat Slab RC Structure 1395

Dhangar A. and Narule G.

348 Analysis of Multi-Storey Building Under Biaxial Excitation. 1399

Kalshetty P. and Narule G.

349 Flow Induced Vibration Design of Heat Exchanger Tubes Subject to Cross Flow 1403
Patil G.V., Dharap M.A., Moorthy R. I. K. and Khot T. K.

350 Dynamics of a 2D Curved Cantilever Timoshenko Beam Element Using Force Based 1407
Finite Element Formulation
Kasun Dharmasiri, Wijesundara K.K., Dammika A.J. and Dissanayake P.B.R.

351 Seismic Analysis of Buildings With Stiff Bottom Storeys 1411

Pingale O., Manohar S.N. and Madhekar S.N.

352 Influence of the Poisons Ratio on the Eigen Values of PZT Discs for Uniaxially Loaded 1415
Energy Harvesters
Viswanath K. Allamraju and Srikanth K.

353 Enhancing Suspension Behavior Using Design of Experiments 1418

Mitra A.C., Kiranchand G. R., Snehal Dhakare and Mukul Jawarkar

354 Application of Energy Harvester for Controlling the Propeller Induced Vibration and 1422
Generating the Electricity
Viswanath K Allamraju and Srikanth K.

355 Smart Base-Isolation Using Fuzzy Control 1426

Lakhani M. T. and Soni D. P.

356 Evaluate the Performance of Quarter Car Suspension System With Nonlinear 1431
Hysteresis Magnetorheological Damper
Hemanth K., Lohit S. K., Hemantha Kumar and Gangadharan K. V.

357 Dynamic Modeling & Simulation of Dual Clutch Transmission With Mechatronics 1435
Deotarey Rahul

358 Analysis of Natural Frequencies and Loss Factors in Sandwich Composite Plates With 1438
Magnetorheological or Electrorheological Elastomer Core
Gopal K.V.N., Sharma P., and Garg M.

Sr. No. Description

359 Seismic Risk and Loss Assessment of Open Ground Storey RC Structures 1442
Gautham A. K. and Gopikrishna

360 Vibrational Analysis and Detection Crack Parameter in Clamped-Clamped Beam 1446
Using Cascade Artificial Neural Network
Banerjee A. and Pohit G.

361 Base Excited Random Vibration Analysis of Thin Shells 1450

Kiran Kumar P., Rama Krishna D. and Subrahmanyam

362 Structural Identification on Beam Structures Using OKID/ER Algorithm 1454

Jacob J. and Nandakumar P.

363 Fault Diagnosis of Anti Friction Bearing Using Daubechies Wavelet 1458
Patil Sangram S. and Phalle V.M.

364 Effect of Centre Distance Variation on Performance of Spur Gear 1462

Sayyad V.M., Patil S.S., Vishwadeep C. H. and Phalle V.M.

365 Response of an Elastic Plate With a Constrained Interior Point Under the Effect of 1466
Grazing Sound
Swapnil Sapkale,.Sucheendran M. M. and Shakti Gupta

367 Dynamic Characteristics of Retrofitted RC Frame Building with Yielding Type X- 1470
Shaped Metallic Elasto-Plastic Damper
Madheswaran C.K., Prakashvel J., Sathishkumar K. and Ashmimonisha I.

368 Application of Friction Dampers for Improving the Seismic Performance of Structures: 1474
An Overview
Pednekar S.C., Iwalekar A.A. and Bambole A.N.

369 Earthquake Analysis Of Concrete Gravity Dams: Some Recent Development 1479
Maity D. and Mandal A.

370 Free Vibration Finite Element Analysis of a Circular Cylindrical Shell 1483
Rawat A., Matsagar V. and Nagpal A.K.

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Biomedical Engineering and Rheology Group, Zienkiewicz Centre for Computational Engineering,
Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, United-Kingdom
Cardiff University School of Medicine, Institute of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, Wales Heart
Research Institute, Cardiff CF14 4XN, United-Kingdom.

Abstract: In this paper an overview of various finite element algorithms to robustly

solve flow and heat transfer equations of a human systemic circulation is presented.
Several novel methods of solution are investigated and compared. A novel locally
conservative Galerkin method coupled with Newton-LU decomposition, Global
Galerkin method, and explicit method are investigated to address the behaviour of
blood flow in a one-dimensional human arterial network. Unlike explicit methods,
proposed techniques result in stable and robust computational strategies for non-linear
system of equations and achieve a fast convergence. The proposed methods are
compared against each other and also with other methods to demonstrate their validity
and stability for studying systemic blood flow and heat transfer characteristics.
Keywords: Finite element method; Global Galerkin; locally conservative
Galerkin; implicit; explicit; systemic circulation; blood flow; bio-
heat transfer.

*Author for Correspondence: 1

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Systems Innovation, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Japan
RACE, The University of Tokyo, Japan

Abstract: We have been developing a parallel partitioned simulation system to solve large
scale real world’s coupled problems. This paper describes some key technologies of the
system, and demonstrates its practical performance and effectiveness through solving
various kinds of real world’s problems.
Keywords: Coupled analysis; Partitioned approach; Parallel computing; FSI.


Author for Correspondence: E-mail:

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Aerospace Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering Texas A&M
University, College Station, USA.
Department of Engineering Science and Mathematics Luleå University of Technology, 971 87 Luleå,
Abstract: Failure in composite materials is known to initiate at the level of
constituents. Further development of the failure process and ultimate failure of the
composite structure depend on the fiber architecture and other geometrical details. A
composite failure analysis must therefore be at multiple length scales. This paper will
outline a multiscale modeling scheme and illustrate the approach with two examples:
tensile fiber failure and transverse matrix cracking. For the case of fiber failure, a five-
cylinder axisymmetric finite element model containing an initially broken fiber at the
center will be used to conduct stress analysis and formation of a failure plane will be
simulated by a crack growth procedure. The transverse crack formation will be
analyzed as a linking up of fiber-matrix debond cracks. Formation of these cracks will
in turn be analyzed by an energy-based criterion. The local scale modeling will take
account of the manufacturing induced irregularities and defects by appropriate
representation of these in the failure analysis. Finally, an assessment of the multiscale
approach as a rational alternative to the currently used failure theories, which are
formulated on homogenized composites, will be presented and the challenges
remaining to address in future will be outlined.
Key words: Composite failure; Multiscale modeling; Failure theories.


Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 3

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016



School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
LUSAS FEA Ltd, Forge House, 66 High Street, Kingston-upon-Thames, UK.

Abstract: This paper discusses the use of high-performance incompatible,

enhanced-strain and hybrid stress elements for the St Venant torsion and bending of
composite prismatic shafts, formulated in terms of the warping function. The
properties of the shaft are uniform along its length but piece-wise constant and
orthotropic across its cross-section. In order to analyse composite shafts whose
microstructural details are difficult to be modelled directly by finite element
discretisation, the two-scale asymptotic (or mathematical) homogenisation
approach is also discussed; the resulting equilibrium equations can be readily
solved by the aforementioned high-performance elements.
Keywords: Composite Shaft; Enhanced-strain Element; Homogenisation;
Hybrid Stress Element; Incompatible Element; Bending; Torsion

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


University of Southampton, SO30 7QF, UK.

Abstract: Long elastic waves in lattice waveguides having woodpile architecture,

such as those encountered within 3D printed materials, are studied. Two stacking
arrangements are considered—when alternating layers have filaments aligned over
each other and when they are staggered. Axial, thickness-shear and flexural wave
propagation in waveguides made of such material is analysed. Propagation
characteristics of bulk waves that result from coupled bending-shear motions are
analytically derived. The effect of porosity on wave propagation is analytically
examined. Coupled shear-flexure motion is found to be strongly dependent on the
microstructure of the lattice. The wavelength is assumed to be significantly larger than
the characteristic periodicity of the lattice. Illustrative examples are given.
Keywords: Lattice waveguides; Dispersion relations; Timoshenko beam;
Bending-shear coupling

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 5

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1,


Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, India.
Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Hyderabad, India.

Abstract: Increase in applications of varying cross sectional area microchannels in

microdevices has provided the need to understand fluid flow and heat transfer through
such flow passages. This study focuses on conjugate heat transfer study through a
diverging microchannel. Three-dimensional numerical simulations are performed
using commercially available package. Diverging microchannels with different
geometrical configurations (i.e. varying angle: 1-8°, depth: 86-200 µm, solid-to-fluid
thickness ratio: 1.5-4) are employed for this purpose. Simulations are carried out for
varying mass flow rate (3.3x10-5-8.3x10-5 kg/s) and heat flux (2.4-9.6 W/cm2)
conditions. Heat distribution along the flow direction is studied to understand the
effect of wall conduction. Wall conduction number (M) varies from 0.006 to 0.024 for
the range of parameters selected in the study. Wall conduction is observed to be a
direct function of depth and solid-to-fluid thickness ratio, and varies inversely with
angle of diverging microchannel. It is observed that the area variation and wall
conduction contribute separately towards redistribution of the supplied heat flux. This
leads to reduced temperature gradients in diverging microchannel. The results
presented in this work will be useful for designing future microdevices involving
heating or cooling.
Keywords: Wall conduction; Diverging microchannel; Heat flux gradient

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 6

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


VERMA S.1, 2 and DEWAN A.2*
Solid State Physics Laboratory, DRDO, Timarpur, Delhi India.
Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi India.

Abstract: A comparative assessment is performed between purely porous formulation

of the mushy zone controlled by permeability and the hybrid formulations controlled
by both permeability and viscosity of the mushy zone during solidification of a binary
alloy. The Darcy's Carman-Kozeny equation is used to model the permeability of the
mushy zone in porous formulation for all the models. The first hybrid model employs
switching functions to simultaneously control the permeability and viscosity of the
mushy zone up to a critical solid fraction and thereafter it switches to a purely
permeability controlled porous formulation. The second hybrid model assumes mushy
zone to be non-newtonian slurry with the liquid viscosity following a power law up to
the critical solid fraction and a permeability controlled porous medium thereafter. A
two-dimensional computational domain of aqueous ammonium chloride (NH4Cl-H2O)
solution employing continuum mixture approach is considered for the analysis. Model
with purely porous mushy zone formulation showed higher solutal gradients in the
mushy zone resulting in higher solutal buoyancy driven convection in mushy zone
along with higher bulk macrosegregation effects in comparison to the hybrid models.
Both the hybrid models showed potential of capturing the settled free floating
particles and broken dendrites with the non-newtonian slurry hybrid model showing
potential of capturing the liquidus irregularities.
Keywords: Phase change; Mushy zone; Porosity; Permeability; Columnar:
dendritic morphology; Equiaxed morphology.

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 7

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Aerospace Engineering Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore India.

Abstract: Rotating beams are ubiquitous members of industrial structures such as

wing turbine rotors, helicopter rotors, turbomachinery, robotic systems and aerial
robots. Typically, finite element analysis is used to solve the vibration problem for
these structures. We show that it is possible to significantly enhance the efficiency of
the finite element methods for rotating beams by creating basis functions which more
closely satisfy the governing differential equation of the structure. Since the rotating
beam equation cannot be solved as an exact solution, different approximate strategies
are explored to improve finite element convergence, especially at higher rotating
speeds where the centrifugal stiffening terms become dominant.
Keywords: Finite element method; Basis functions; Shape functions; Collocation
method; Free vibration

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 8

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


CSIR- Structural Engineering Research Centre, Taramani, Chennai, India.
Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India.

Abstract: An accurate analytical solution for predicting the free edge effects in
sandwich laminates under tension, bending and twisting loading is presented. The
recently developed mixed-field multiterm extended Kantorovich method (MMEKM)
has been used to obtain the solution of the governing equations, which are developed
using the Reissner-type variational principle. The present mixed-field approach
enables the exact and point-wise satisfaction of traction-free edge and interlaminar
continuity conditions for displacements and stresses. The numerical results presented
for different loadings and lay-up show rapid convergence of the iterative series
solution. The comparison of the present results with the detailed FE solution shows
good agreement. The present solution captures the singularity of stresses in the free
edge region by showing the rise in its peak magnitude with the number of terms in the
solution. The presented accurate 3D elasticity based solution can act as a useful
benchmark for assessing the accuracy of solutions obtained from other approximate

Keywords: Free edge stresses; Sandwich panel; Extended Kantorovich method

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 9

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, India.

Abstract: A brief review of our research activities is presented. Stabilized finite

element methods are used to solve two and three-dimensional, unsteady turbulent
flows past complex bodies at various Reynolds (Re) and Mach (M) numbers. The
stabilized finite element methods that are being used are robust, accurate and able to
handle complex geometries including those that deform with time. Flow problems
involving fluid-structure interactions as well as aerodynamic shape optimization for
superior aerodynamic performance are also presented.

Keywords: FEM; Fluid Dynamics; Transition; Vortex Induced Vibrations;

Fluid Structure Interaction; Shape optimization.

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 10

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, India.

Abstract: The paucity of space and requirements of building infrastructure has

driven us to explore for taller building systems. Also a large number of construction
materials has emerged and are being used extensively in buildings. The usage of
light weight high strength materials reduces the space requirement and also
becomes economical. However, such structures have structurally become
susceptible to the lateral loading generated due to wind or earthquake. Attempts are
made to control the response of tall building systems by introducing control
mechanisms in the form of active, passive or hybrid system. Usage of liquid storage
tanks in tall building system in the form of a passive control device proves
effective. Several works have been carried out in the past to understand the efficacy
of such system, which popularly is known as tuned liquid dampers or tuned
sloshing dampers (TSD). The present paper deals with the development of a
numerical code to demonstrate the efficacy of such tuned sloshing damper
considering fluid structure interaction effect.

Keywords: Sloshing; Damper; Response control; Building; Passive system;

Tuned Sloshing Damper (TSD)


Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 11

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Academy of Scientific & Innovative Research (AcSIR) & former Director, CSIR-Structural Engineering
Research Centre (CSIR-SERC)

Abstract: The objective of the paper is to present the advanced methodologies for
fracture analysis and damage tolerant evaluation of metallic structural components
for efficient and safe design of structural systems meeting the functional criteria. An
efficient and novel Numerically Integrated-Modified Virtual Crack Closure Integral
(NI-MVCCI) technique has been demonstrated for 4-noded bilinear, 8-noded (regular
& quarter-point), 9-noded Lagrangian and 12-noded cubic isoparametric family of
finite elements. Another advanced numerical method, Extended Finite Element
Method (XFEM) for fracture analysis of cracked stiffened panels has been discussed.
Methodologies for crack growth and remaining life assessment of structural
components under constant and variable amplitude loading have been presented.
Brief description on residual strength evaluation has been provided. Numerical
studies on fracture analysis to compute Strain Energy Release Rate (SERR), G and
stress intensity factor (SIF) and remaining life assessment and residual strength
evaluation have been conducted and the results are compared with the respective
analytical/experimental results.
Keywords: Crack closure; Linear elastic fracture mechanics; Stress intensity
factor; Strain energy release rate; Damage tolerant design;
Remaining life; Residual strength; Extended finite element method

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail:
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016




School of Engineering Science, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada V5A 1S6.
Department of Civil Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada K1S 5B6.

Abstract: We developed a computationally efficient atomistic model to predict the

fracture strength of pristine and defective graphene under various processing
conditions (e.g., temperature, strain-rate), which is critically important in designing
graphene-based systems. Furthermore, we developed a continuum-based spring model
to characterize the influence of surface defects on the adhesion properties of graphene
interfaces. These models have been extensively validated using molecular dynamics
simulations. Results reveal that temperature highly degrades the strength of graphene,
and the strength is strain rate dependent. We also found that defects significantly
reduce the strength and interfacial adhesion of graphene.
Keywords: Graphene; strength; adhesion; molecular dynamics.

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 13
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


SINGH A. V.* and RAJ V.
Mechanical and Materials Engineering Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract: This paper deals with the response studies of piezoelectric sandwich
composites by the energy method. The equation of motion is deduced from the
principles of minimum potential energy. To do this displacement and electrical fields
are required as a priori. Hence, the above said field functions are described by Non-
Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) in two and three dimensional domains and
applied against static and free vibration analyses of thin and very thick sandwich plates
and piezoelectric prismatic bar. Nonlinear variation of the electric potential is
considered through the thickness and modelled by a discrete layer-wise linear scheme.
The present formulation is successfully validated against a finite element code.

Keywords: Energy method; Piezoelectric composites; Sandwich plates and

beams; Electro-elastic composites; NURBS.


*Author for Correspondence: E-mail:

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Mechanical Engineering, PES University, Bangalore, India.

Abstract: One Dimensional Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to develop an

analysis model for Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO), Direct Forward Osmosis (FO)
and Reverse Osmosis (RO). A 1 D FEM model is developed and simulated on
MATLAB. The predictions of the present method are compared with those available
in literature, both numerical and experimental. In addition, for the first time in
literature, the variation of concentration of solute on the feed and draw side as well as
the variation of water permeate flux along the length using the variable mass transfer
coefficient is predicted. There is a need to introduce new non-dimensional parameters
to make the ɛ-MTU model a more generalised model (applicable to FO, PRO and RO)
and to aid the design of the mass exchangers.
Keywords: Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO); Forward Osmosis (FO); Reverse
Osmosis (RO); Concentration Polarisation; Finite Element
Method (FEM); Salt flux; Non-dimensional parameters

Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 15

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Computational Mechanics Lab., Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Science,
Bangalore, India.

Abstract: A physically based continuum plasticity model for metals from the
consideration of non-equilibrium thermodynamics is presented. The modeling is
accomplished in a two-temperature framework that appears naturally by considering
the thermodynamic system to be composed of two weakly interacting subsystems,
namely the kinetic vibrational and configurational subsystems. While the atomic
vibrations of plastically deforming metals form the kinetic vibrational subsystem,
much slower degrees of freedom in terms of the motion of defects constitute the
configurational subsystem. Both subsystems assume their own temperatures and fall
out of equilibrium from each other because of the externally imposed driving.
Dislocation density characterising the configurational subsystem is considered to be
the state variable for the present development. The continuum model accommodates
finite deformation and describes plastic deformation in a yield-free framework via a
microforce balance along with the conventional macroforce balance.
Keywords: Metal viscoplasticity; Non-equilibrium thermodynamics; Two-
temperature framework; Dislocation density

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 16

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, UCLA.
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, UCLA.

Abstract: This paper explores a fundamental connection between ductility and

domain size in metallic solids under extreme conditions of cryogenic temperatures
and strain rates (108s-1). A series of novel experiments, backed by multiscale
modelling and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, are presented that
involve loading of TEM-ready single crystal nano-pillar samples of Cu of varying
lengths (50 nm to 1 m) and aspect ratios (50 nm to 100 nm in diameter) by laser-
generated stress waves of sub-nanosecond rise times, under extreme conditions of
strain rate (>108s-1) and temperature (100K). The nucleation stress for Shockley
partials, which can be taken as a proxy for the onset of ductile deformation, was
measured to be only 1 GPa. This is an order of magnitude lower than the previously
measured values of 35 GPa in bulk geometries. TEM observations show remarkable
ability of the material to re-arrange itself through motion of dislocations to form
subgrain boundaries within a very short duration of only few nanoseconds.
Keywords: Ductility; Shock loading; FCC metals; TEM; MD Simulations.

*Author for Correspondence: 17

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016



Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, India.

Abstract: The non-linear stability analysis of composite cylindrical panel subjected

to non-uniform in-plane mechanical and thermal loadings are reported here. The
buckling of composite panel subjected to non-uniform mechanical / localized
thermal loads is solved in two steps as the prebuckling stress distribution within the
panel is not known a priori. In the first step, the semi-analytical expressions for the
pre-buckling stresses within the composite cylindrical panel under non-uniform in-
plane mechanical / thermal loadings are developed by solving in-plane elasticity
problem. Subsequently, using these in-plane stresses within the cylindrical panel,
the governing equations for nonlinear stability of layered composite panel are
formulated using variational principle. The cylindrical panel is modeled based on
Donnell’s shell theory considering higher order shear deformation theory and
incorporating von-Kármán geometric nonlinearity. The Galerkin’s method is used
to solve the non-linear governing partial differential equations. The influence of
different types of mechanical and thermal loadings, initial geometric imperfections,
and biaxial loadings on the postbuckling equilibrium paths is investigated.
Keywords: Composite cylindrical panel; Non-uniform mechanical loading;
Localized thermal loading; Galerkin method; Nonlinear stability


*Author for Correspondence: E-mail:

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1,


Civil Engineering Department, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Abstract: The proposed developments are based on a consistent implementation of

the conventional, collocation boundary element method (BEM) – with concepts taken
from the variationally-based hybrid BEM. A scheme is used to expand a generic (not
problem-dependent) fundamental solution about hierarchical levels of source and field
poles, which is particularly advantageous to make the technique seamlessly applicable
to 2D and 3D problems of elasticity or potential, in terms of different types of curved
elements for generally complicated topology. The proposed compact algorithm is
more straightforward to lay out and seems to be more efficient than the ones available
in the technical literature – particularly because the outermost loop refers to field
nodes and geometry, in what may be called a reverse implementation. Owing to space
restrictions, the basic features of the recursive algorithm for both the simplified hybrid
and the conventional BEM are left to an expanded version of the paper. Some
numerical results are shown for the conventional BEM, with validation and
assessment for a few simple, but very large-scale, 2D potential problems with
complicated geometry and topology for constant, linear and quadratic elements. Since
iterative solvers are not required in this first step of numerical simulations, an isolated
assessment of accuracy, computational effort and storage allocation of the proposed
fast multipole technique becomes possible.
Keywords: Boundary elements; Fast multipole methods; Variational methods.

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 19

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Wright State University, 3640 Colonel Glenn Hwy., Dayton, OH 45435 USA.

Abstract: Engineering systems development design is currently pushing the envelope of

traditional multidisciplinary design capabilities. Bringing multiple physics into the design
loop earlier in the design process has shown promise in handling the strict requirements
constantly being placed on various areas of computational mechanics, such as the design
of next generation military aircraft. The goal in multi-fidelity design is to aid in this
process to expand traditional design capabilities through the implementation of techniques
developed to mitigate inadequacies and/or obstacles associated with various levels of
complex physics in a single design process. Achieving a desired level of accuracy while
maintaining a low computational cost may very well be the greatest obstacle combating
computational design. However, other hindrances exist such as determining the
appropriate physics (i.e. acoustic, thermal, structural), level of physics (i.e. Potential
Flow, Euler, Navier Stokes), and mesh refinement to utilize in any given computational
model. This work focuses on leveraging higher fidelity information to correct lower
fidelity models so as to take advantage of the speed associated with the latter without
compromising accuracy. Corrections are implemented via a custom Hybrid Bridge
Function (HBF) while the design aspect is governed through the implementation of a
special Trust Region Model Management (TRMM) methodology. Multi-fidelity design
optimization is demonstrated on a thermal plate demonstration problem consisting of four
differing levels of fidelity. Results show that employment of the described methodology
succeeds in obtaining a design at a lower cost while maintaining a necessary level of

Keywords: Hybrid Bridge Function; Multi-Fidelity; Optimization; Physics-based

Simulation; Trust Region Model Management.


Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 20

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Nanoengineering, North Carolina A&T State University.
Engineering Research and Development Center, Vicksburg.
University of Mississippi at Oxford

Abstract: Complex, heterogeneous material and morphological nature of cement

paste requires starting from their material chemistry and microstructural morphology
through appropriate scale relevant computational models. These enable capturing
multi-scale material features that influence their properties and behavior at
engineering scales. An overview of such modeling starting from nanoscale material
features through material chemistry level modeling via molecular dynamics (MD);
finite element based repeated volume element (RVE) models of complete three-
dimensional virtual microstructure including evolution of microstructure due to
hydration in cement paste is presented. Predictive constitutive material models for
hydrostatic compression that is solely based on material chemistry structure for a key
hydrated cement paste material constituent calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) is
summarized. Micro-scale RVE finite element based predictive effective modulus
properties, as well as results from our modeling work to understand shock wave
propagation in a cement microstructure is briefly presented. Multi-scale modeling that
links across various length scales and material features in complex heterogeneous
material systems such as cement paste provides an effective way of coupling material
science and engineering towards their better understanding and tailored material
design. These present a new direction for integrated material science and engineering
approaches for development and understanding of complex materials and structures.
Keywords: Multi-Scale Modeling; Molecular Dynamics; Cement Paste; Calcium
Silicate Hydrate; Repeated Volume Element

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 21

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Robotics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering National Institute of Technology,
Rourkela Odisha, India.

Abstract: Implementation of mechanical principles to the activities performed by the

biological tissues to obtain their biomechanical behaviour is included under the
branch of science called as Biomechanics. To have sufficient information about the
response of different body parts under various loading conditions, the vibrational
modelling of the bone type structures is required. By the three-dimensional modelling
of the biological structures, the resonant frequencies of various modes can be found
out and safe ranges of frequencies for operation can be suggested.
Keywords: Biomechanics; Femur; Frequencies of Operation

INTRODUCTION Out of them, some approaches are

Biomechanics is the applications of concepts Ultrasound, Stress wave propagation, X-ray
of mechanics into the analysis of structures tomography, vibration analysis etc.
and functions of biological systems of plants, Vibration analysis is a non-destructive and
animals, human beings, etc. Nikolai relatively low-cost method for analyzing
Bernstein coined the word “Biomechanics” mechanical and physical properties of bones.
from two ancient Greek words “Bios” The steps involved in the vibration analysis
meaning life and “Mechanike” meaning are forced excitation of the object, analysis of
mechanics. So Biomechanics is the study of output signals, recording frequencies and
living structures using laws of Mechanics. mode shapes. The output response of a
Biomechanics is an integral part of system depends on the input signals or the
engineering. The traditional forms of nature of excitation provided and the
Mechanics like Newtonian Mechanics and properties of the system that is excited. The
Material Science can be applied to the system properties include mass, density and
analysis of biological structures. Biological structure of the system. By mechanical
systems are much more complex than stimulation of the bones and analyzing the
mechanical systems. Various numerical response, information about various
method techniques can be applied to all parameters can be collected. These factors
studies of biological systems. Biomechanics are fractures, postures, osteoporosis and
may involve calculation of stresses, strains, loosening of artificial hip joint etc. To
mode shapes and frequencies of vibration. By perform the vibrational analysis, various tools
analyzing the mechanical and physical are available out of which most widely used
properties of bones, their abnormalities can one is the Finite Element Analysis (FEA).
also be studied. Various techniques have FEA is an effective tool that can perform
been developed to study in vitro and in vivo both static and dynamic loading analysis of
properties of bones over past few decades. various human organs such as the structure of


*Author for Correspondence: 22

Priyadarshi and Parhi

the bone. To analyze the structures of discussed physical principles associated with
complicated geometry and materials which forced oscillations to determine its impact on
are not homogeneous, FEA is used. FEA is vibration exercises. (Gupta and Tse, 2014)
primarily based on a computer interface. For studied about the vulnerability of the femur
modelling of the complicated shapes and bone to fracture as it is the highest load
inhomogeneous material properties, FEA is carrying bone of the human body.
accepted widely and considered as an
alternative tool in the field of Biomechanics. VIBRATIONAL ANALYSIS OF
The femur is considered as the largest and FEMUR
longest bone of the human skeletal system. It For analyzing various characteristics of the
is also called as the thigh bone. The hip joint femur bone, finite element modelling is
is formed by the femur in connection with the considered as the best tool as it exactly
pelvis at the proximal end and knee joint is approximates the result. The accuracy of
formed in connection with the tibia at the finite element modelling depends mostly on
distal end. The highest percentage of the the consideration of geometry, loading
weight of the body is taken by the femur; conditions and boundary conditions. The
hence it carries the maximum chances of geometry of femur bone varies from person
bone fracture. Some previously available to person. Practically the bones are
literature on vibrational behaviour of femur anisotropic and nonlinear materials. But for
bone can be cited as follows. the ease of analysis, they are taken as
Koch (1917) analyzed the structural isotropic and linear in nature. Their
mechanics of the femur and examined properties are also taken as elastic for
various loads applied to the femur and the analysis.
response of the femur to these loads. Toridis The various properties of the femur bone
(1969) studied about determination of are approximated as below:
mechanical stresses developed in the femur
Material density ρ = 866 Kg/m3
under various loading conditions. Piotrowski
and Wilcox (1971) developed a computer Poisson’s ratio γ = 0.4
operated program for the calculation of Young’s modulus E = 7.585 GPa
torsional and bending stresses developed in
the femur. (Rybicki, Simonen and Weis, For restriction of motion created by the
1972) used a mathematical model to examine adjacent bones during normal sitting or
the effects of muscle forces on the femur and standing, a fixed-fixed boundary condition is
the stresses thus developed (Khalil, Viano taken for the analysis at both knee joint and
and Taber, 1981) identified the resonant hip joint. In order obtain the responses of the
frequencies and mode shapes of the femur by femur, modal analysis is performed by finite
applying both analytical and experimental element tools. The governing equation of
methods. (Gdoutos, Raftopoulos and Baril, dynamic response is given as follows:
1982) critically reviewed about the  M x  C x   K x  0 (1)
mechanical behavior of human femur.
(Stenfelt, Hakansson and Tjellstrom, 2000) Where [M] = Mass Matrix
examined about patterns of vibration in bone [C]= Damping Coefficient matrix
conducted sound using a skull added with
[K]= Stiffness matrix
damping material. (Rittweger, 2010)

Vibrational Characteristics of Femur Bone

For undamped free vibrations [C] = 0 biomechanical stress analysis of the

So, the solution can be approximated as human femur Biomaterials 3(1) 2-8.

x   X  eit (2)

Gupta A and Tse K 2014 Vibration analysis
of femur bone using ELMER Journal of
In the above solution, {X} represents the Engineering Science and Technology
respective amplitudes of masses and variable ICMTEA Conference 12-19 School of
ω represents the corresponding frequency of Engineering Taylor’s University
each Eigen vectors. Now the governing December 2013.
equation thus reduces to Khalil T B Viano D C and Taber L A 1981
 K     M   X   0
(3) Vibrational characteristics of the
embalmed human femur Journal of
The above problem is considered as an Eigen Sound and Vibration 75(3) 417-436.
value problem in matrix algebra, and it can
Koch J C 1917The laws of bone
be considered as linear by replacing ω2 by λ.
architecture American Journal of
The system is then solved by using ANSYS
Anatomy 21(2) 177-298.
software to find out natural frequencies and
mode shapes of vibration. Piotrowski G and Wilcox G A 1971 The
stress program: a computer program for
RESULTS the analysis of stresses in long bones
Bones are complex three-dimensional Journal of biomechanics 4(6) 497-506.
structures. To explain the output response of Rittweger J 2010 Vibration as an exercise
bones to mechanical impact, an modality: how it may work, and what its
understanding of the basic vibratory motions potential might be European journal of
is important. The vibratory motion analysis applied physiology 108(5) 877-904.
of bones provides an idea about the various
Rybicki E F Simonen F A and Weis E B
types of load that are acting on the bones.
1972On the mathematical analysis of
stress in the human femur Journal of
biomechanics 5(2) 203-215.
Vibration analysis of the biological structures
Stenfelt S Hakansson B and Tjellstrom A
gives us reliable information about designing
2000 Vibration characteristics of bone
of the replicas if any damage occurs to the
conducted sound in vitro The Journal of
systems. The finite element modeling can be
the Acoustical Society of America 107(1)
used as the best tool for the analysis because
it improves the accuracy of the results
obtained. The modeling provides us the Toridis T G 1969 Stress analysis of the femur
various frequencies and mode shapes of bone Journal of biomechanics 2(2) 163-174.
type structures. The resonant frequencies are
to be kept in observation to avoid damage.

Gdoutos E E Raftopoulos D D and Baril J D
1982 A critical review of the

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, ITER, SOA University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
Dept. of Orthopaedics, IMS and SUM Hospital, SOA University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

Abstract: The fixation of fracture of a bone can be done by using different implants
such as screws, plates and nails. The bone in human body is usually exposed to axial
compressive load, torsional load (Twisting moment) and bending load. Among these
three types of loadings, axial compressive force and torsional load are being exerted
Therefore the objective of this research work is to deduce the stability against axial
compressive, torsional load and combination of both the loads following
instrumentation of implants such as plate and screws (Only screws or plate with
screws). Over and above, the stresses due to the axial compressive force and twisting
moment are usually seen to play in bones exposed more for movements (as seen in
upper limb) as lower limb is required for stability. So the objective of this work is to
find out the effectiveness of screw with plate and screw following fracture fixation in
consideration to axial and torsional loading. Plate and screws are commonly used in
upper limb fracture fixation where emphasis is laid down on mobility. From the Finite
Element Analysis (FEA) of the bone, plate, screw model (using MIMICS & Solid
Works) and theoretical analysis, it is observed that the screw and plate arrangement
provides maximum resistance to the fracture site for maintaining stability following
compression of the fracture site. The deformations and the magnitude of stress were
also found to be less in comparison to the independent screw arrangements for
fracture fixation.
Keywords: Screw; plate; stability; fracture; FEA; theoretical.

INTRODUCTION is supposed to influence fixations of fracture

The fracture in human bone can be fixed by and union as well. The screw being used
both internal and external fixators. independently for fixation of fracture play a
Technically internal fixation renders vital role in bringing apposition of fragments
anatomical reduction with perfect apposition with perfect anatomical reduction and
and no doubt it brings pre-fracture state of the simultaneously it takes part in bearing the
bone. Different means such as screw, screw load along with the respective bone.
with plate as extra medullary and Therefore the performance of the screw with
intramedullary nails are use for internal respect to its position in the bone seems to be
fixation of bone following fracture. Thus the matter of great concern and obliviously
mechanical behavior of implants during load requires biomechanical analysis. The 3-D

*Author for Correspondence: 25

Dash et al.

finite element solid model [Zhang et al., that 3-D finite element solid model of femurs
2013] of femurs in partial has been analyzed In partial volume is more close to the real
by exposing the volume using the CT scan bone and fit for FEA when compared to the
data and conducted the finite element analysis results by rendering the whole volume. A
(FEA) considering different materials for parametric study [Haase and Rouhi, 2013]
cortical bone, cancellous bone and pulp have been performed based on finite element
cavity. The compressive stress was found to analysis on the bone-screw models to
be in the medial surface of the femur i.e. in evaluate the stress shielding of the stimuli by
the calcar femorale. They have concluded comparing the stress and strain.
energy density (SED). It has been found from Theoretical Analysis
the study that, stress and SED have been The stress and strain developed in the bone
transferred between the bone and screw can be formulated considering the internal
which can be attributed to the stimuli transfer energy as function [Ciarlet and Ayache,
parameters. However, it has been observed 2004]. The stress matrix has been presented
that transfer of both stimuli has been in equation (1), where the components are the
increased with the screw with angle thread combination of normal stresses and shear
and small diameter and transfer of stress has stresses acting along the X, Y and Z
been increased with the reduction of the directions.
screw's elastic modulus. In both the cases
σ =  xx , yy , zz , xy , xz , yz 
SED has been found to decrease which [1]
signifies that, the bone-screw model analysis
requires the proper assessment of SED. A The strain and the external stress are related
comprehensive study of the different fixation as per the equation (2) exhibiting a linear
techniques [Taljanovic et al., 2003] have been elastic model.
performed and from the study, it has been σ=Ce
observed that the internal and external Considering the equilibrium conditions of the
fixators are basically used for bone fracture system under consideration and following
healing. Even bone grafts are also adopted by laid down boundary conditions, the
surgeons for stabilization of fractured bone. equilibrium equations can be described as;
MATERIALS AND METHODS  xx  xx  xx [3.1]
   Fx  0
x x x
The different materials involved in the
 xy  yy  yz [3.2]
analysis are bone and stainless steel. The    Fy  0
x y z
material properties for the bone has been
 xz  yz  zz
considered with respect to the grey scale    Fz  0 [3.3]
x y z
value obtained from MIMICS software. For Through finite element method, the stiffness
stainless steel the material properties such as and the force can be related as per the
density, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio equation (4).
are considered as 7750 kg/m3, 193 GPa and
 K U    F 
0.31 respectively. [4]
Where, U is the vector containing the
The bone and implant assembled models are displacement of the pth node and expressed as
analyzed using two methods such as equation (5).
Theoretical analysis and Finite element
analysis (FEA). U= u 1, x , u u
1, y , u u u
1, z , .................... n, x, n, y, n, z t [5]

Analysis of Implants used for Stabilization of Fractured Bone

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS assembled models have been subjected to

In recent times, various problems and combining loading pattern 500 N (Axial
situations in bio-mechanics have been compressive loads) & 20 N-m (Torques).
analyzed by developing computerized model Using the static analysis module of the
for better understanding of the underneath analysis software, maximum deformations
phenomena which subsequently assist the and maximum equivalent stress have
bio-medical engineers and medical determined for each scenarios.
practitioners for carrying out their research RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
and practice effectively. In such scenarios,
The stress and deformation results obtained
finite element analysis (FEA) has played a
from theoretical and FE analysis for the bone
significant role for analyzing the
and implant models for three different
computerized model to obtain the various
orientations have been presented in table 1
parameters such as deformation, stress for
(three screws fixed normal to the long bone
better understanding of the model under
axis), Table 2 (three screws fixed inclined to
various loading and boundary conditions. In
the long bone axis) and Table 3 (plate and six
the current research, a cortical section of the
screws fixed normal to the long bone axis).
bone of a middle aged man has been modeled
From the data presented in the tables it is
using the CT scan data and MIMICS
observed that the equivalent stress value is
software. An oblique crack has been
maximum for the combined loading case for
generated in the same model to simulate the
the scenario where screws are fixed inclined
fracture condition of the bone. The
to the long bone axis both for theoretical
orthopedic screws and plates for the fixation
analysis and FEA whereas minimum stress
of the fractured bone model have also been
was found to be for screws fixed normal to
modeled using the same modeling software
the long bone axis. The stress value found for
with the standard dimensions available. The
plate and screw assembly was little higher as
bone, plate and screws have been assembled
compared to screws fixed normal to the long
in three different scenarios i.e. bone with
bone axis.
plate and six screws, three screws normal to
the long bone axis and inclined at 45º to the As far as deformation is concerned it is least
long bone axis separately. The assembled for the plate and screw arrangement for both
models have been separately imported to the theoretical and FEA analysis of magnitude
computerized analysis software and 0.12081 mm and 0.12750 mm respectively.
discretized subsequently. The number of
elements generated during meshing of the
assembled models of bone with plate & Though both the screw placements normal to
screws and bone with only screws are 152237 the bone axis and inclined to the bone axis
and 67621 respectively. The quality of add to the strength of the bone at the fracture
meshing has been found to be good site, but deformity to axial and rotational
(Skewness of all elements is less than 0.53). loading is very high. Among the two
The boundary conditions for the assembled methods, oblique screws has still less
model have been laid down. Finally, the resistance to deformity in both axial and
models have been subjected to load of 500 N torsional loading. So only screw placement in
(Axial compressive loads) and 20 N-m fracture fixation is insufficient in terms of
(Torques) separately. Also at the end, the stabilization of fracture. Screws can be

Dash et al.

applied for temporary fixation and REFERENCES

compression at the fracture site. Screws Ciarlet P G and Ayache N 2004 Handbook of
placed normal to the fracture line and applied Numerical Analysis XII Elsevier North
in a compression manner (overall Drilling the Holland 556-558.
proximal cortex) gives the maximum Haasea K Rouhi G 2013 Prediction of stress
compression at the fracture site. Screws shielding around an orthopedic screw:
Using stress and strain energy density as
placed normal to the bone axis produce
mechanical stimuli Computers in
overriding of the fragments while Biology and Medicine 43(11) 1748-1757
compressing the fracture. Taljanovic M S Jones M D Ruth J T
Benjamin J B Sheppard J E Hunter T B
2003 Fracture Fixation Joint
(upx, upy, upz) = Displacement of the pth node.
Arthroplasties and Prosthese 23 1569-
σ = Applied external stress
σxx, σyy, σzz = Normal Stresses along the
Zhang Y Zhong W Zhu H Chen Y Xu L and
coordinate axes
Zhu J 2013 Establishing the 3-D finite
σxy, σxz, σyz= Shear stresses along the surfaces
element solid model of femurs in partial
e = Material strain
by volume rendering International
A= Axial Compressive Load
Journal of Surgery 11 (9) 930-934.
T= Twisting load or Torsional load
Table 1. Equivalent stresses and total deformations obtained from
theoretical analysis and FEA of three screws fixed normal to the long bone axis
Equivalent Stress (Mpa) Total Deformation (mm)
Theoretical FEA Theoretical FEA
500 (A) 74.390 77.993 0.79547 0.83769
20 (T) 394.242 412.56 0.05622 0.05915
500 (A) + 20 (T) 396.367 414.22 0.88728 0.93211

Table 2. Equivalent stresses and total deformations obtained from theoretical

analysis and FEA of three screws fixed inclined to the long bone axis
Equivalent Stress (Mpa) Total Deformation (mm)
Theoretical FEA Theoretical FEA
500 (A) 173.178 181.13 0.80706 0.84704
20 (T) 912.063 954.74 0.06147 0.06486
500 (A) + 20 (T) 922.842 956.71 0.86692 0.91120

Table 3. Equivalent stresses and total deformations obtained from theoretical

analysis and FEA of plate and six screws fixed normal to the long bone axis

Equivalent Stress (Mpa) Total Deformation (mm)

Theoretical FEA Theoretical FEA
500 (A) 21.236 22.274 0.03555 0.03741

20 (T) 366.288 384.07 0.06103 0.06446

500 (A) + 20 (T) 518.379 539.36 0.12081 0.12750
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Vishwatmak Om Gurudev College of Engg, aghai, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract: The purpose of this paper to understand the complicated structural

relationship between bone components and twist drill tool by investigating the effect
of drilling on the stress distribution using a three dimensional finite element analysis.
The aim is to achieve stresses at different depth with the consideration of actual shape
of the bone model, choice and size of element. The mandible bone of an actual patient
with drilling hole for single unit implant is created using Mimics, NX (UG),
Hypermesh software and evaluating the stress distribution using Ansys software at top
surface, 5mm and 10mm bone depth.
Keywords: Implant, Mandible, Cortical and Cancelleous bone, Anisotropic, 3D

INTRODUCTION optimization of implants, analysis of the

implant insertion process, design
The structural performance of a structure
optimization of prostheses, the effect of
involves identification of the loads which act
clinical factors such as bone quality on
upon a structure, and the forces and stresses
implant success, the distribution of forces and
which arise within the structure due to these
stresses on implant supported bridge,
loads and then designing the structure to
irregular geometry, complex material
successfully support and resist these loads.
properties and complicated loading
Bone is a structural foundation for a load
conditions involved in dental structures
carrying implant. The stresses on bone due to
[Salles et al., 2010]. The magnitude of this
drilling, surrounding implants, are as well
temperature rise is determined by a number
important to evaluate. A dental implant is a
of factors, including drill geometry and
small titanium screw that serves as an
diameter, rotational speed, feed rate, axial
artificial replacement for the root portion of a
thrust force, initial drill tool temperature and
missing natural tooth. These structures, being
internal or external cooling [Bertollo and
the stiffest components of an implant system,
bear a great amount of stress and are
responsible for transmitting the load to the
bone. In recent years, therefore understanding
of stress pattern in dental structures has been
of great interest [Elia et al., 2008]. The main
metallic biomaterials are stainless steels,
cobalt alloy, and titanium and titanium alloy
used for biomedical applications with
specific properties such as biocompatibility,
corrosion resistance etc. [Werner et al.,
2011]. In implant dentistry, Finite Element
Analysis (FEA), the most suitable technique,
has been used extensively for investigating a Figure1. Actual position of
number of aspects including shape implant in bone

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 29

Mahajan and Kadam

The dental implant placed into the bone well as geometry [Frisardi et al., 2012].
serves as an anchor for the prosthetic device Cortical Bone is outer shell of bone is 2mm
as shown in Figure.1 and it is one of the thick and inner bone is called as cancelleus
better preventive maintenance procedures in bone. The elastic material properties of the
dentistry. Bone is a complex anisotropic, cancellous and cortical bones have used in
porous, viscoelastic and composite. It is also the study are shown in Table 1.
non homogeneous in material properties as
Table 1. Elastic Material properties
Materials Modulus of elasticity Poisson's ratio
Ex = Ey = 12600, Ez = 19400 µ xy = 0.3, µ xz = µ yz = 0.253
Cortical Bone
Gxy = 4850, Gxz = Gyz = 5700 µ yx = 0.3, µ zy = µ zx= 0.39
Ex = Ez = 1148, Ey = 210 µ xy = 0.055, µ xz = 0.322, µ yz = 0.010
Cancellous Bone
Gxz = 434, Gxy = Gyz = 68 µ yx = 0.010, µ zy = 0.055, µ zx= 0.322
Twist Drill Tool, E = 104000 G = 38806 0.34
Titanium Ti- 6al-4V

Bone structure of a patient is has a complex

geometry and complex material interaction,
thus, a detailed image processing is needed
before stress analysis. A CBCT scan of the
patient has been taken to obtain its image in
DICOM (Digital Imaging and
Communications in Medicines) format as
shown in Figure.2. The requirement of actual
shape, size, and location of implant is
obtained by DICOM images and are then Figure 2. DICOM Figure 3. 3 D
used to produced 3D model using Image model in
Mimics11.11 software (Interactive Medical Hypermesh
Image Control System, Materialise Inc.,
Leuven, Belgium) supported by Imaginarium
(India) Pvt. Ltd. Mimics software is used to
convert DICOM image into STL.file format.
The length of bone, approximately 25 mm, is
to be considered for modelling and stress
analysis. Hypermesh is used to create
surfaces by joining all grid nodes and forms
isocontour with the help of segmentation as
shown in Figure.3. The bone have irregular
geometry so it's very difficult to create
surface. NX (UG) software is used to process
model of bone into solid (refer Figure.4) Figure 4. Solid Figure 5. Cad
without changing the geometrical shape of model in NX UG Model
patient's bone. The drilling tool with 2.8mm
diameter inserted in the outermost bone and
yellow colour indicates inner region of bone
shown in Figure.5.
Influence of Drilling Effect on Bone Stresses by Finite Element Analysis

Convergent study shows that good converges

for mesh size of 0.5mm. The mesh controls
as 0.5 x 0.5mm and density of bone for this
patient as 750 kg/m3 are considered. The
Number of element calculated at top surface
of bone is 116064, at 5mm deep from top
surface of bone is 188945, and at 10mm deep
from top surface of bone is 188744. Actual
size of bone could not be possible to measure
due to uneven surface, but volume of bone
Figure 6. Figure 7. Meshing element considered for analysis is
Tetrahedron Model 6561.8927mm3. The finite element analysis is
Meshing done using Ansys software using solid 185
The bone geometry is highly complicated, elements. The ranges of insertion torque and
also the materials interacting in this analysis axial force applied are 300 Nmm to 600Nmm
are both isotropic as well as anisotropic and and 0 to 110 N respectively. The stress values
hence a 3D analysis of structure is are presented at three bone depth, namely,
recommended. Hypermsh software (refer 5mm, and 10mm level from top surface of
Figure 6) is used for mesh generation. 3D bone in Graph 1, 2, 3.
four noded tetrahedron element is chosen.

Graph No 1. Stress Variation at insertion Torque 300 Nmm

Graph No 2. Stress Variation at Insertion Torque 400 Nmm

Mahajan and Kadam

Graph No 3. Stress Variation at Insertion Torque 600 Nmm

Element Analysis of Bone Loading

Caused by No passively Fitting
The finite element analysis has been Implant-Supported Dental Restorations
conducted for the drill tool with combination Quintessence International 42(6) June
of different axial loads and Insertion torques. 2011.
The present study shows that the stress
Bruno Salles Sotto-Maior, Eduardo Passos
increases for bone depth upto 5mm, at
Rocha, Erika Oliveira de Almeida,
increasing the insertion torque and axial load.
Amilcar Chagas Freitas- Junior,
The stress is higher in the cancellous bone
Rodolfo Bruniera Anchieta Altair
i.e. at 5mm depth than in the cortical bone i.e.
Antoninha Del Bel Cury 2010
at top surface, with greater stress variation
Influence of High Insertion Torque on
among the insertion torques. The stress is
Implant Placement An Anisotropic
observed at 10mm depth increases with the
Bone Stress Analysis. Braz. Dent J.
decreasing of load and increases with the
21(6) 2010.
insertion torque. The result of the present
study demonstrated that bone depth is Nicky Bertollo and William Robert Walsh
directly proportional to stress upto 5mm from Drilling of Bone: Practically,
top and bone depth is inversely proportional Limitations and Complications
to stress for 10mm depth of bone from top Associated with Surgical Drill- Bits
Gianni Frisardi Sandro Barone Armando V
REFERENCES Razionale Alessandro Paoli Flavio
Elias C N Lima J H C Valiev R Meyers M A Frisardi Antonio Tullio Aurea Lumbau
2008 Biomedical Applications of and Giacomo Chessa 2012
Titanium and its Alloys Biological Biomechanics of the Press-Fit
Materials Science March 2008. Phenomenon in Dental Implantology:
An Image-Based Finite Element
Werner Winter Paul Steinmann Stefan Holst
Analysis Frisardi et al. Head & Face
Matthias Karl 2011 Effect of
Medicine 8(18).
Geometric Parameters on Finite

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Mathematics, BITS Pilani.

Abstract: In this paper, the effect of heat and mass transfer on blood flow through
a stenosed artery subject to the action of external magnetic field is investigated.
Effects of viscosity variation and variable hematocrit at the arterial wall have been
duly taken care of in the study. Governing equations have been modeled by taking
blood as incompressible magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) Newtonian fluid. The
highly nonlinear momentum equations are simplified under the assumption of mild
stenosis. Homotopy analysis method (HAM) is used to solve nonlinear equations of
momentum, temperature and concentration profile. The effects of Hartmann
number, variable hematocrit parameter on velocity, temperature and concentration
have been analyzed with the help of graphs.
Keywords: Newtonian Fluid; Incompressible fluid; Stenosis; Magneto hydro
dynamical fluid (MHD); Hematocrit; Homotopy analysis method

INTRODUCTION under the corresponding boundary

conditions we modelfor
Today’s industrialized world blood flow
velocity, temperature and concentration
in our body through arteries pose grave
profile. For solving these nonlinear
health risks and are a major cause of
differential equations we use homotopy
mortality and morbidity. It is believed that
analysis method and plot the graph for
abnormal growth of arterial thickness is an
concentration, velocity and temperature
early process in the formation of
profile using MATLAB code.
atherosclerosis and one of the most
widespread diseases in humans. The
accumulation of substances in arteries is
known as stenosis and it changes the flow
pattern and hemodynamic conditions that
exist in the artery before catheterization.
The aim of this present paper is to study
the influence of heat and mass transfer on
blood flow when external magnetic field is
present and stenosis is narrowing of
an artery. In this paper we assume blood as Figure1 Geometry of an axially non
symmetrical stenosed artery
a incompressible Newtonian biomagnetic
fluid and stenosis as mild stenosis. So
taking care of all these assumptions and

*Author for Correspondence: 33

Tripathi and Sharma


We consider the cylindrical coordinate In the following figures, we present
system (r, θ, z) in such a way that 𝑢
�⃗, 𝑣⃗ and computer simulation results for the
��⃗ are the velocity component in 𝑟⃗, 𝜃⃗ and
𝑤 proposed model by using MatLabR2014a.
𝑧⃗ directions. Here we consider variable
viscosity of the blood which is represented
axially where
µ(r) = µ 0 (1+βh(r))(1)

𝑟 𝑚
where h(r)=H[1-� � ].

Ro is the initial radius and r is the distance

from the centre. H is the maximum
hematocrit at the center of the artery. M is
magnetic field, T is temperature and C is
Figure 2(a). Velocity variation with
The model is given by following non- Change in height of stenosis𝛿
dimensional governing equations:
=0, (2)

= 0, (3)

∂p 1 ∂ ∂w 1
= [r ( )] + 𝑎2 [( − (𝑚 +
∂z r ∂r ∂r 𝑟
𝑚−1 ∂w 1 ∂ ∂w
1)𝑟 ) + (1 − r m ) ( )]
∂r r ∂r ∂r

1 1−𝑟 𝑚
–[(M2 + ) +𝑎2 ( )]w (4)
Figure 2(b). Velocity variation with
1 ∂ ∂θ ∂w 2 change in Magnetic field M
[r ( )] +𝐸𝑐 𝑃𝑟 � � =0(5)
r ∂r ∂r ∂r

1 1 ∂ ∂σ 1 ∂ ∂θ
[ (r ( ))] + 𝑆𝑟 [ (r ( ))] =0(6)
Sc r ∂r ∂r r ∂r ∂r

The corresponding boundary conditions

∂w ∂T ∂C
= 0, = 0, = 0 at r=0,
∂r ∂r ∂r

w=0,𝑇 = 0, and 𝐶 =0 at r= h(z).


h(z) = (1 + 𝜉𝑧)[1 − η ((z − σ)

Figure 3.Variation in shear stress at
− (z − σ)n ) ] the stenosis throat.

Effects of Heat and Mass Transfer on MHD Flow of Blood through an Artery with Stenosis Having
Variable Viscosity

field shear stress increases. In figure 4 it is

observed that temperature profile increases
as we increase porosity parameter. In
figure 5 it is clear that as we increase value
of Schmidt number concentration profile

Liao S J1995 An approximate solution
technique not depending on small
parameters a special example
International Journal of Nonlinear
Figure 4. Variation in temperature with Mechanics 30(3) 371-380.
change in porosity parameter Z
Mekheimer Kh S EI Kot M A
2008Themicropolar fluid model for
blood flow through a tapered artery
with a stenosis. Acta MechSin 24
Nadeem S Akbar Noreen Sher Hayat T
Hendi Awatif A 2011Influence of
heat and mass transfer on Newtonian
biomagnetic fluid of blood flow
through a tapered porous arteries with
a stenosis Journal Transport in
Porous Media 91 81-100.
Sinha A and Mishra J C 2014 MHD flow
of blood through a dually stenosed
artery effects of viscosity, variable
Figure 5. Variation in concentration hematocrit and velocity-slip The
with change in Schmidt number
Canadian Journal of Chemical
CONCLUSION Engineering 92 23-31.

The quantitative effects of the magnetic Srivastava N 2014 Analysis of flow

field M, porosity parameter Z, Schmidt characteristic of the blood flowing
number Scin nontapered arteries for through an inclined tapered porous
Newtonian fluid are observed. In figure artery with mild stenosis under the
2(a) it is observed that decreasingly when influence of an inclined magnetic
we change the height of stenosis velocity field Journal of Biophysics.
profile decreases and from figure 2(b) it is
clear that as we increase applied magnetic
field velocity profile decreases
respectively.Figure.3 shows variation of
shear stress at the stenosis wall, as we
increase the value of applied magnetic

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Ropar, Rupnagar, Punjab, India.

Abstract: Mechanical environment is a key factor in bone adaptation. Computer

models of bone adaptation reported in the literature were not able to fit all the
available in-vivo experimental data on loading induced osteogenesis (i.e., new bone
formation). It may be due to the fact that the exact relationship between mechanical
environment and site specific osteogenesis has not been well understood. Most of the
models have not considered the effect of important loading parameters (such as
frequency, number of cycles/mice, and time) on new bone formation. Accordingly, in
this study, we attempt to build a computational model which incorporates in-vivo
experimental data and loading parameters. All the data used in the present study was
taken for in-vivo loading of tibia of C57Bl/6 mice. The model was trained and tested
with step-wise regression method. The model identifies the correlation between new
bone thickness and loading parameters. The model’s predictions were found close to
in-vivo experimental results. The relationship identified from the model may be used
to develop an invertible computer model to predict loading for a desired site-specific
new bone formation.
Keywords: Bone adaptation; mechanical environment; stepwise regression
model; New bone thickness.

INTRODUCTION predict the amount of new bone formation,

however, closely predicted the location of
It has been observed from various animal
new bone formation. Accordingly, this study
experiments [LaMothe and Zernicke 2004;
proposes a model to predict the location and
Srinivasan 2002] that new bone formation
the amount of new bone formation. The
may also happen at the sites of minimal strain
model includes the site specific new bone
magnitude especially near the neutral axis of
thickness and the loading parameters as
bending in long bones. In these cases most of
inputs. Regression model has been developed
the computer models failed to predict the
to identify correlation between the site
location of new bone formation as they have
specific new bone thickness and the loading
considered that osteogeneses may occur only
parameters. Models predictions were found in
at the sites of elevated normal strain. A few
accordance to experimental studies.
computational studies have attempted to
explain such anomalies [Tiwari and Prasad MATERIALS AND METHOD
2012] however the explanation were limited
to single experiment. In addition, these Data Collection
studies have not considered the effect of
The experimental data for the model were
loading parameters (load time, rest time,
loading frequency, age etc) on new bone extracted from the studies of Lynch (2011);
formation. As a result, these models failed to Sakai (2011); Sugiyama (2009); Weatherholt

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 36

Goyal and Prasad

(2013), etc. In these studies, murine tibiae of RESULTS

C57Bl/6 mice were loaded in cantilever We have compared the model’s prediction
bending, axial compression, and four point with the experimental results of in-vivo
and three point bending. The bone formation studies where mouse tibiae were loaded in
was noticed at mid-diaphysis. Hence the cantilever bending and axial loading
reported histological cross-section were taken separately. It can be observed from figure 1
from these studies and has been divided in 36 that the model closely predicts the site
equal sectors with radial lines (each 10° specific new bone formation at endocortical
apart) passing through centroid. These lines and periosteal surfaces. However, the
intersect the periosteal and endocortical coefficients of parameters used in modeling
surface at 36 circumferential points. The equation to predict periosteal new bone
scaled new bone thickness and radial distance formation in cantilever loading case has been
from the centroid have been computed at presented in table 1. New bone thickness can
these points and have been taken as inputs in be measured from table 1 using Eq.1. Other
the model. Applied loads and moments in the equations will be provided in the full length
experiment were resolved in x-y-z direction. paper.
These forces and moments along with
frequency, loading time, cycles, and age were 
Parameterj  Coefficient j   (1)
also included as inputs.
The entire data was divided in two sets This model not only predicts the location but
according to cantilever bending and axial also the amount of new bone formation. The
compression models for periosteal and equations in the model are quadratic in nature
endocortical surfaces. Various regression thus allows easy inversion which will help in
techniques such as Least Square Error development of a model to predict
method, Stepwise regression, Elastic Net and mechanical environment when a site specific
LASSO were used. Stepwise regression was
new bone formation is desired.
found suitable to closely fit the experimental
data. This regression analysis provides an
empirical relation to estimate the site specific
new bone thickness ( t pi ) as a function of The authors acknowledge Department of
forces in x-y-z direction ( Fx , Fy , Fz ) ,moments Science and Technology for research
fellowship. We also thank Abhishek Tiwari,
in x-y direction ( M x , M y ) ,sine and cosine of
PhD Research Scholar, IIT Ropar for his help
angles (Si , Ci ) , age of mice ( Age) , cycle in writing the manuscript.
load time (CLT ) , cycle rest time (CRT ) ,
frequency of loading excluding rest time ( F ) REFERENCES
, total cycles in experiment (TCE ) , and net LaMothe JM and Zernicke RF 2004 Rest
loading time of experiment ( NLTE ) where I inserted combined with high frequency
ϵ [1,36]. Coefficients of these parameters in loading enhances osteogenesis J. of
the equation are given in table 1. Applied Physiology 96 1788-1793.
Lynch M E Main R P Xu Q Schmicker T L
The model has been used to predict the site Schaffler M B Wright T MMeulen
specific new bone thickness for different MCH 2011 Tibial compression is
loading cases to test the accuracy. anabolic in the adult mouse skeleton

A Novel Computer Model for Bone’s Adaptation to Mechanical Environment

despite reduced responsiveness with

aging Bone 49 439–446. (a)
Sakai DKii I Nakagawa K Matsumoto H N
Takahashi M Yoshida S Hosoya T
Takakuda K Kudo 2011 A remodeling
of actin cytoskeleton in mouse
periosteal cells under mechanical
loading induces periosteal cell
proliferation during bone formation
PLOS One 6 1-11.
Srinivasan S Weimer D A Agans S C Bain
SD Gross TS 2002 Low magnitude
mechanical loading becomes osteogenic
when rest is inserted between each
loading cycle ASBMR 17 1613-1620.
Sugiyama T Price J S Lanyon LE 2009 (b)
Functional adaptation to mechanical
loading in both cortical and cancellous
bone is controlled locally and is
confined to the loaded bones Bone 46
Tiwari AK and Prasad J 2012 Investigating
role of shear strain in bone adaptation
International Conference on Design of
Biomaterials (BIND-12) December
2012 IISC Banglore.
WeatherholtAM Fuchs RK Warden SJ 2013
Cortical and trabecular bone adaptation
to incremental load magnitudes using
the mouse tibial axial compression Figure 1. Blue and red curves
loading model Bone 52 372–379. represent bone surfaces before and after
loading in order. Calculated bone
thickness at various locations are shown
by black *. (a) Mid section tibia with
cantilever bending (Srinivasan et al
2002). (b) Mid section tibia with axial
compression loading (Weatherholt et al

Goyal and Prasad

Table 1: Coefficients of various parameters responsible to predict new bone formation thickness at various locations
of mid section tibia of C57BLJ6 mice in case of cantilever bending at periosteal  =-22.8
Para. (1-6) Fx Mx Si Ci R pi 1/ Age
Coeff. (1-6) 209355 20217 -4.5 9.3 0.6 -88
Para. (7-12) CRT F TCE NLTE M xCi M y Ci
Coeff. (7-12) 0.7 -0.34 0.011 -0.001 -338109 -411995
Para. (13-18) Si Ci Si Rpi Ci Rpi Fx M y Ci M x M y Ci M x Si Ci
Coeff. (13-18) -220 0.05 0.6 1426600 137739 18251
Para. (19-24) M y Si Ci M y Ci Rpi Si Ci Rpi Fx Rpi Fx M y Si Ci M xCRT
Coeff. (19-24) 22190 -0.2 -9 0.4 66 0.04
Para. (25-30) Si / Age Si CRT Si NLTE C Rpi i
FxC Rpi i
Rpi / Age
Coeff. (25-30) 17 0.1 -0.0003 4.7 -14.5 1.2
Para. (31-36) Rpi F Si Ci / Age Rpi Ci / Age Fx Rpi Ci / Age M x SiCi / Age Rpi Si Ci / Age
Coeff. (31-36) 0.005 889 -4 11 291 4
Para. (37-42) CRTSi Ci CRTCi Rpi CRTSi Ci Rpi FM x Si Ci FM y Ci Rpi TCESi Ci
Coeff. (37-42) 37 0.003 0.3 0.1 -0.002 0.9
Para. (43-48) TCESi Ci Rpi NLTEM xCi NLTESi Ci NLTECi Rpi NLTEFx M y Ci NLTEFxCi Rpi
Coeff. (43-48) 0.006 -0.0025 -0.04 -0.00015 -0.007 0.0003
Para. (49-54) NLTEM x SiCi NLTESi Ci Rpi M y Si C i
M y SiCi Rpi M x M C 2
y i
Si2Ci Rpi
Coeff. (49-54) 0.008 -0.0007 -33 1.3 5 -0.09
Para. (55-60)
Si C Rpi
M x M y Si C i
M y S C i
S C Rpi
Si Ci R 2
M x M y SiCi Rpi
Coeff. (55-60) 1.3 -4.4 12 -0.6 0.03 0.05
Para. (61-66)
M y S Ci Rpi
M y Si Ci R 2
pi S Ci R
2 2
pi M x M y C Rpi i
M y Si C Rpi i
M y Ci2 Rp2i
Coeff. (61-66) -0.008 -0.005 0.0014 -0.11 0.3 0.0115
Para. (67-72)
Si C R i
2 2
pi M x M Si C
y i
M SiC Rpi
y i
M y S C R i
2 2
pi M y Si C R i
2 2
pi Ci2
Coeff. (67-72) -0.02 -0.1 -0.08 -0.13 0.002 -136
Para. (73-78)
( M y Ci ) 2
( Si Rpi ) 2
(Ci Rpi ) 2
(M x M y Ci ) 2
(M y Ci Rpi ) 2
(SiCi Rpi )2
Coeff. (73-78) 26 -0.005 -0.04 0.3 -0.001 0.006

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Applied Mechanics Department, IIT Delhi, New Delhi, India
Snow & Avalanche Study Establishment, Chandigarh, India

Abstract: Relationship between microstructure and anisotropic elastic properties of snow

have been investigated in this study. Morphology based Zysset-Curnier elasticity model is
used to compute the elasticity tensor of all bone samples. Zysset-Curnier elasticity model
has been used to compute the elasticity tensor for all bone samples. Micro-finite element
(µFE) models of the bone samples was built from the tomographic data to compute the FE
based orthotropic stiffness and compliance tensor of the bone samples. Homogenization
was done over these µFE models to evaluate the effective properties of each bone sample.
Representative volume element size of the samples is predicted using these effective
properties. At last morphology based stiffness and compliance matrix components are
compared with the stiffness and compliance matrix components obtained from the µFE
analysis. It has been found that morphology (trabeculae volume fraction and fabric tensor)
based stiffness and compliance components are comparable with the µFEA based
compliance and stiffness matrix. Therefore anisotropic elastic behaviour of trabecular bone
can be determined by considering the morphology of the microstructure.
Keywords: Trabecular Bone; Anisotropy; Morphology; Homogenization; RVE

INTRODUCTION For a direction dependent microstructure,

directional quantities are required for the
Trabecular bone is a matrix of trabeculae characterization of the microstructure and
where trabeculae are randomly oriented this could be done by the fabric tensor
which is responsible for the structural [Cowin, 1985], where fabric tensor is the
anisotropy. Pores in the trabecular bone measure of local architectural anisotropy in a
microstructure are filled with marrow which material [Cowin, 1985; Odgaard et al., 1997].
is a fluid like material. Solid part (trabeculae) A morphology based Compliance tensor (E)
is deformable and respond to load and relation was given by Zysset et al., (1998)
therefore modelling is done considering the that is the fabric (Mi) and volume fraction (ρ)
trabeculae matrix only (marrow excluded). dependent (Eq. (1)).
To predict the anisotropic behaviour of a 3
material one can perform the experiments in ( ,M )=  Mi  Mi 
i 1  0  k mi2l
different directions. But trabecular bone is a 3
fragile material and performing experiments 
i  j 1  0  mi m j
k l l
(M i  M j  M j  M i ) (1)
especially under multi-axial loading is very )
difficult and time consuming. Another 3
alternative is to use the image based finite
  2G 
i  j 1
k l l
mi m j
(M i  M j  M j  M i )
element modelling anisotropic behaviour can
be predicted for such materials.

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 40

Singh et al.

In Eq. 1, ε0, ν0 μ0, k and l are Zysset-Curnier QUANT3D [Ketchman and Ryan, 2004].
(ZC) model constants, ρ is the volume These values are put in Eq. 1 to compute the
fraction and mi is the eigenvalues of the compliance matrix of all samples. A
fabric tensor. ZC constant can be evaluated comparison for stiffness components
using the linear regression analysis over a obtained from FE and ZC model is shown in
number of sample data. figure 1.
The main aim of this paper is to present the Bounds for each sample have been evaluated
two different methods for finding out the using the anisotropic composite materials
anisotropic elastic behaviour of trabecular bounds relations [Cowin et al., 1999; Yoon et
bone. Both the methods are applicable to any al., 2002] to compute the effective properties
random oriented porous media (e.g. snow). (isotropic effective Young’s moduli and
First method is finite element method based isotropic effective Poisson’s ratio) of each
and is commonly used to find anisotropic sample. RVE size for sample 1185 and sub-
elastic behaviour of porous materials. samples (1185_1 to 1185_8) have been
Whereas the second method is Zysset- predicted considering isotropic effective
Curnier model based which is microstructure Young’s moduli (Eeff) and isotropic effective
based. Poisson’s ratio (νeff) as a deciding parameter.
Table 1. µ-CT image details of five
different trabecular bone samples.
FE simulation on image based finite element Sample Resolution Cubic size Cube side
models built from μ-CT images is carried out (µm) (pixels) length
on 29 trabecular bone samples. These 29 (mm)
samples are extracted from 5 samples out of 1003 59.9 301 16.77
which three are bigger samples (1003, 1185 1224 30.0 301 8.38
and 1289) that are partitioned into eight parts 1185 59.9 301 16.77
making the physical dimension equivalent to 1122 30.0 301 8.38
other two samples (1122 and 1224) making a 1289 59.9 301 16.77
total 29 samples (8.38 mm). Micro-CT details Table 2. ZC model constant
of 5 samples is shown in table 1.
ZC parameters
Compliance matrix for each sample is Sample
ε0 ν0 µ0 k l
computed using the homogenization All 0.85 0.18 0.29 2.20 -0.91
technique. Periodicity mixed uniform
boundary condition [Pahr and Zysset, 2008]
are imposed on all μFE models for the
computation of compliance tensor. The
Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio of
trabeculae are assumed to be 1 GPa and 0.22


The components of compliance matrix are

used to evaluate the ZC model constant using
the Turner-Cowin log transformation model
relation [Turner et al., 1987] (A1). ZC model Figure 1. Comparison of ZC and FE
constant are tabulated in table 2. stiffness components
Fabric tensor and volume fraction These properties are evaluated for concentric
measurement for all samples are done in cubic volume of increasing size. Isotropic
Fabric Based Characterization of Microstructural Anisotropy of Trabecular Bone

effective property vs. volume (%) is drawn as has the knowledge of microstructural
shown in figure 2 and figure 3 to predict the parameters.
correct RVE size. From figure 2 effective RVE size is within the range as given in
property are getting converge at 40% of the previous literature (3-5 mm of side length)
cubic volume size. for trabecular bone.
Appendix I

Turner-Cowin model with log transformation,


Figure 2. Modulus based RVE analysis


Figure 3. Poisson’s ratio based RVE

Similarly in figure 3 effective property
converges at 60% of the cubic volume size Zysset-Curnier compliance matrix
(under some tolerance).Therefore RVE size
can be can be taken as the 60% of the cubic
volume (5.03 mm3) and mechanical response
of the overall structure can be determine by
performing numerical simulation on this

ZC model stiffness components are
comparable with the FE based stiffness
components with a coefficient of
determination 0.7792. ZC model is
morphology based and therefore this REFFERENCE
approach can well predict the anisotropy of a
porous material. This approach can be Cowin Stephen C 1985 The relationship
applied to any porous random media, if one between the elasticity tensor and the

Singh et al.

fabric tensor Mechanics of Materials modeling in mechanobiology 7(6) 463-

4(2) 137-147. 476.
Cowin S C G Yang and M M Mehrabadi Turner Charles H and Stephen C Cowin 1987
1999 Bounds on the effective Dependence of elastic constants of an
anisotropic elastic constants Journal of anisotropic porous material upon
elasticity 57(1) 1-24. porosity and fabric Journal of materials
Ketcham R A and T M Ryan 2004 science 22(9) 3178-3184.
Quantification and visualization of Zysset Philippe K 2003 A review of
anisotropy in trabecular bone Journal of morphology–elasticity relationships in
Microscopy 213(2) 158-171. human trabecular bone: theories and
Odgaard Anders et al 1997 Fabric and elastic experiments Journal of biomechanics
principal directions of cancellous bone 36(10) 1469-1485.
are closely related Journal of Yoon Y J G Yang and S C Cowin 2002
biomechanics 30(5) 487-495. Estimation of the effective transversely
Pahr Dieter H and Philippe K Zysset 2008 isotropic elastic constants of a material
Influence of boundary conditions on from known values of the material's
computed apparent elastic properties of orthotropic elastic constants
cancellous bone Biomechanics and Biomechanics and modelling in
mechanobiology 1(1) 83-93.

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India
Department of Mining Machinery Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India

Abstract: In the present work an analysis has been made on internal fixation plates.
For analysis purpose, bone, screws and metal plates are chosen. Finite Element
analysis is made using ANSYS software. Parametric and validation models are
considered and their results are compared. The models discussed reveals insight into
the nature of applied fixation plates. Axial compressive loading are stable in nature
but may cause stress shielding in bones and hence resulted in bone loss, screw tear
and fixation failure. Parametric study, gives the possibility to reduce the problem by
decreasing the plate thickness and angle.
Keywords: Internal Fixation; Bone; Cantilever; Stress

Internal fixation is a process that involves Present study is done with finite element
surgical implementation of implants for the software ANSYS. Analysis is done on stress
purpose of repairing a bone. Internal fixators shielding of two bone plate models, one is
include bone, screws and metal plates. Metal parametric model and other one is validation
plates for internal fixation of bones are being
model. Validation model deals with a range
used for more than 100 years. Although
of static loading conditions on a three
initial shortcomings such as corrosion and
dimensional model of a self-compressing
insufficient strength have been overcome,
stainless steel plate applied to an Plexiglas
more recent designs have not solved all
tube which represents of bone post-union.
problems. It is the goal of researcher to Subsequent parametric models involve the
develop a plate that accelerates fracture changes in plate thickness, position of
healing while not interfering with bone
screws, and angle of coverage of plate over
physiology [Rouhi G., 2006].
the bone surface.
The introduction of rigid plates had by far the
Initial observations reveal that with the
greatest impact on plate fixation of fractures.
increase in thickness of plate and the angle of
It has been suggested scientifically that bone
coverage of plate over the bone surface
loss is mainly caused by stress shielding but
reduces the stresses that develop on the
not with the interference with the cortical
underlying bone. Comparison is made
perfusion secondary to bone plate contact. In
between two models one is the ideal case and
internal fixation of bone the bone plates are
the other represents a practical situation i.e.
fastened to the bone on its tensile surface.
fixed bone model and control bone model.
The main problem in the internal fixation of
The fixed bone model is modelled as the
bone is the difference in stiffness of plate and
plate is rigidly fixed to the surface of the
bone which causes alteration in normal
bone this result in the elimination of
loading conditions of the bone [1985-2006].
separation of plate and the bone. This also
allows the transfer of normal and shear

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 44

Alam et al.

stresses from the plate to the bone and vice r0 is the distance from neutral axis when a
versa. Under different loading conditions the force F is applied Practically the bone is not
Von Mises stresses are observed in each case rigidly fixed to the surface of the bone but
as it is one of main failure criteria in any instead it is fixed with screws. A model
material [Cheal et al. 1983]. Three types of representing this situation is made in and is
loading conditions are used for the fixed plate being analyzed. The stainless steel plate is
model; fixed to the bone surface with four titanium
1. The axial stress which acts along the axis screws. There is also change in the
of the bone. parameters the thickness of the plate is
changed from 3 to 4.5 mm and the angle of
2. The bending moment that place in the coverage is also changed from 60 to 90
first case. degrees. A four-point bending moment
3. Eccentric force which is similar to the produces high value of stress in the model, as
axial force but the axial of loading is not symmetry exists in the model only one-half
along the central axis of the bone. of the models are used for the analysis.


Bending takes place when a force is applied
on the bone on its top surface i.e.
perpendicular to the axis of bone if one side
of the bone is fixed it simply behaves as a
cantilever beam. Taking hand as an example
axial loading occurs when an effort is made Figure 1 Showing three different loading
to push things, same is the case with condition; F1 is axial compressive load,
eccentric loading but the axial varies from F2 is eccentric and M represents the
that of axial loading. A self-compressing moment
316L stainless steel plate and a Plexiglas
tube, symbolizing the bone, is modeled using RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
ANSYS. The material properties used in this Theoretical and validation results are similar
study are as follows: Plexiglas tube: E = 3.1 as eccentrically axial loading application
GPa, and ν = 0.2, Plate: E = 196 GPa, and ν = caused the bending of plated-bone
0.3. The use of Plexiglas, results in a construction. There is a discrepancy between
tendency for higher bending and lower axial the values obtained from that of finite
rigidities, and is most comparable to the element method and that of composite beam
canine femur. As there is symmetry in the theory.
model therefore only one-fourth of the model
is used to analyze as it reduces the solution
time. The axial load applied is 342 N,
bending moment applied is 9.34 Nm and the
eccentric load applied is 342 N. The stresses
in the bone from a distance from the neutral
axis is given by Perren S M (2002).
B    Figure 2 (a)Model developed for analysis
E A AB  EP A P E B I B  E P I P
purpose and (b) Equivalent stress due to
axial compressive load

M  F (r0  y) This is due to the fact that there is a rigid

(2) contact between the plate and the bone but as
for composite beam theory it can only find
Analysis of Internal Fixation Plates

the resultant stress at the cross section of the CONCLUSION

Centre for externally applied axial load and
From above analysis, we can conclude the
bending moments. For the determination of
 Theoretical and validation results are
similar as eccentrically axial loading
application caused the bending of plated-
bone construction.
 Since the relative motion between the
bone and plate is not considered hence
theoretical and parametric results have
differences in values.
 For all loading conditions, rigidly fixed
Figure 3 (a) Equivalent stress due to plate application to a fractured bone
eccentric loading and (b) Equivalent reduces the levels of bone strain and
stress due to bending
longitudinal stresses immediately below
the plate.

Cheal E J Hayes W C White A A 1985. Stress
analysis of a compression plate
fixation system and its effects on
long bone remodelling Journal of
Biomechanics 18(2) 141-150
Cheal E J Hayes W C White A A Perren S M
Figure 4 Effect of applied bending 1983. Stress analysis of a simplified
moment (a) Equivalent strain distribution compression plate fixation system for
and (b) Equivalent Stress distribution fractured bones Computers and
Structures 17(5/6) 845-855
stresses due to plate and screw tensions
requires complex models such a model is Perren S M 2002. Review Article: Evolution
designed in ANSYS to analyze the stresses. of the internal fixation of long bone
fractures Journal of Bone and Joint
The application of axial stress results in Surgery 84-B(8) 1093-1100
bending moment of the composite fixed bone Rouhi G 2006. Theoretical aspects of bone
model and its magnitude is maximum at the remodelling and resorption processes:
fracture plane. It was observed that the PhD Thesis, University of Calgary,
application of eccentric axial stress results in
increase of equivalent stress at the outer edge
of bone contact region and its value is not
significant if a bending moment is applied.
However, all the three loading conditions
result in the increased value of stresses at the
fracture site.

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


KHAN R. R. and ZAHIN M. M.
IUT-OIC,Gazipur, Boardbazar, Bangladesh

Abstract: Bangladesh has a very high road accident fatality rate with official figures
indicating more than 60 deaths per 10,000 motor vehicles. Everyday around eight
persons die in road accidents. The actual rate of fatality is likely to be even higher. As
a result, it is a matter of concern to deal with the after effects of accidents. Without
understanding the biomechanics of a human body that falls victim to an accident, it’s
difficult to take proper actions to mitigate the effect. This paper focuses on the
accidental injury & Biomechanics analysis with a view to increase health safety.
Keywords: Accident; Biomechanics; Fatality.

The problems related to the accident
reporting system and the data derived from it,
as reported by Quium (1995), have not been
resolved and official statistics are prone to
under reporting. The number of accidents has
increased by 43% between 1982 and 2000,
while the number of fatalities has increased
by around 400% within the same period
[Louis Burger, 2005]. In Dhaka City, 15 to Figure 1. Stress Strain curve of a human
20% of accidents involve minibuses, cars or bone
buses. In Bangladesh as a whole, buses and
trucks are each involved in more than 20% of THE MECHANISM OF WHIPLASH
accidents [Maniruzzaman and Raktim Mitra] INJURIES
So it’s important to understand the after In a normal human’s neck, the cervical spine
effects and biomechanics of a human body has a lordotic shape [Galasko et al., 1993] In
during an accident. Necessary actions can be rear-end collisions, the passenger seat moves
taken by understanding the phenomena. towards the impact, and the back part of the
seat applies force to the body of the
passenger. As the seat pushes the result of
When an accident occurs & a person falls to this force the lower part of the neck moves in
victim, shockwaves occur in the body & the same direction. At the moment of the
cause stress and strain in the organ. If the impact, the lordotic shape of the neck
type & size of stress exceed the strength of disappears, and the cervical spine straightens
the tissue, the injury occurs. As the body of the passenger continues to be

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 47

Khan and Zahin

pushed, the head moves backwards, and the guideline for Roads transport authority to
extension starts. establish road safety in Bangladesh

Figure 2. The phases of the mechanism

of whiplash injury: Phase1: Reaction
Phase2: Extension

METHODOLOGY Figure 3. Biomechanics Simulation

 Important Accident data is to be
collected including acceleration, force &
distortion that occurs during an accident.
 Vertical horizontal & longitude data has  Using Smart Caps to avoid accident
to be used for computational modelling,  Energy absorbing infrastructure has to be
musculoskeletal models and dynamic built in important roads.
simulations of movement using Kinovia  Emergency efficient brake system has to
& Opensim software. be ensured during vehicle manufacture
 Biofedality (characteristics of dynamics process
close to human being) can be understood
through this. CONCLUSION
 Virtual Crash 3 software has to be used Bangladesh is a country which is accident-
for simulation purpose. prone and day by day the death toll is
 Toyota Sedan car series models will be increasing for it. The earlier the
used for analysing the accident situations biomechanics can be understood properly, the
for different conditions. quicker the proper steps to reduce injury
effects after accident can be taken.
 All the values will be selected based on
the condition & guideline by BRTA, REFERENCES
Bangladesh standard.
Galasko C S B Murray P M Pitcher M
ANALYSIS & RESULT Chambers H Mansfield S Madden M
Jordon C Kinsella A Hodson M 1993
 The simulation result will indicate the Neck sprains after road traffic accidents:
after effects of an accident that a person A modern epidemic. Injury 24(3) 155-
falls to a victim. 157
 The result would be used for establishing
Louis Burger 2005 Group-BCL. Strategic
energy consuming wall in risky roads in
Transport Plan. Dhaka Transport
Coordination Board, Ministry of
 The result would also help to set up a
A Study on Accidental Injury & Human Biomechanics in Bangladesh: An Approach to Reduce Accidental
Injury & Increase Health Safety

Communications, Government of Bangladesh University of Engineering

Bangladesh. (2005). (draft). and Technology, Bangladesh.
Maniruzzaman K M and Raktim Mitra Road Quium A S M A 1995 Road Accidents in
accidents in Bangladesh Department of Bangladesh. IATSS RESEARCH 19 Turk
Urban and Regional Planning, Neurosurg 2014 24(4) 466-470.

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Dept. of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, India.

Abstract: This paper compares the efficiency of tension stiffened softened truss
model (TS-STM) and a nonlinear finite element (FE) model to predict the behaviour
of reinforced concrete (RC) circular columns under torsional loading. Predictions of
the models are calibrated with test data on two circular columns taken from literature.
Overall torque – twist behaviour and average strain in the transverse reinforcements
were parameters for comparison. It is observed that both the models predicted the
overall torsional behaviour of the test specimens reasonably well. However, the peak
twist and post peak behaviour were better captured by the TS-STM. Average strain in
transverse reinforcements predicted by the TS-STM was also closer to the measured
values compared to the FE predictions. On the whole, it can be concluded that, TS-
STM performs better than nonlinear FE model in capturing the overall response of
circular RC columns subjected to torsional loading.
Keywords: Circular RC columns; Torsion; Nonlinear finite element analysis;
Softened truss model.

INTRODUCTION experimental data on local as well as global

behaviour of two circular columns tested in
Reinforced concrete bridge columns are
the University of Missouri under torsional
subjected to torsional loading during seismic
loading. Overall torque – twist behaviour and
vibration due to various reasons. Neglecting
strain in the transverse reinforcements
this torsional moment in the design process
predicted by the models were compared with
may lead to sudden catastrophic failure of the
experimental data. It is observed that both the
entire bridge structure. So, it is of primary
models predicted the overall torsional
importance to accurately predict the torsional
behaviour of the test specimens reasonably
strength of the bridge columns. However,
well. However, the peak twist and post peak
very few studies in the past focused on the
behaviour were better captured by the TS-
understanding of torsional behaviour of RC
STM. Average strain in transverse
members from analytical or FE perspective.
reinforcement predicted by the TS-STM was
This study aims at filling this knowledge gap
also closer to the measured values compared
existing in this important area of research by
to the FE predictions. On the whole, it can be
presenting a comparative study on the
concluded that, TS-STM performs better than
efficiency of TS-STM and nonlinear FE
nonlinear FE model in capturing the overall
approach in predicting the overall torsional
response of circular RC columns subjected to
response of circular RC columns. Predictions
torsional loading.
of the models were calibrated with

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail 50


EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM concrete after cracking. However, Mondal

and Prakash (2015) showed that tension
Experimental data of two circular columns
stiffening significantly influence the
(H/D(3)-T/M()-1.32% and H/D(6)-T/M()-
behaviour of concrete under torsion and
0.73%)(Figure. 1) tested at University of
proposed tension stiffened (TS) STM. The
Missouri (Prakash, 2009) was used in this
same TS-STM is used in this study for
study for validation of the developed model.
analytical calculations. It adopts a
Cyclic torsional loading was generated in the
displacement controlled iterative technique to
tested specimen by controlling two horizontal
calculate torque – twist behaviour of RC
servo-controlled hydraulic actuators. The
axial compressive load was applied by a
hydraulic jack on top of the load stubs. BACKGROUND ON NONLINEAR
A full scale nonlinear finite element model
was developed in this study using
commercial finite element code ABAQUS.
Damaged plasticity approach [Jankowiak and
Lodygowski, 2005; SIMULIA, 2011] was
used as a material model for concrete. Elastic
– perfectly plastic material model for steel
reinforcement. Perfect bonding was assumed
in the steel – concrete interface. Bond
behaviour (slip) was approximately modelled
Figure. 1 Cross section of tested by specifying tension stiffening relationship
specimens of concrete. Explicit integration scheme was
adopted owing to its numerical stability and
BACKGROUND ON SOFTENED robustness in convergence [Zimmermann,
TRUSS MODEL 2001]. The bottom of the columns was fixed
and a monotonic time dependent rotation was
Softened truss model (STM) was developed applied on the top in addition to a fixed axial
in the University of Huston [Hsu, 1968] in compression. Concrete was modelled by
order to estimate the torsional response of three dimensional brick elements (C3D8R)
reinforced concrete (RC) members. The and reinforcing bars were modelled by linear
model assumes that, an RC member under truss (T3D2) elements.
torsional loading behaves as a thin tube with
an effective thickness ( t d ) which is known as RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
the thickness of shear flow zone. The thin Overall Torque – Twist Behaviour
tube is an assembly of membrane elements
Overall torque – twist behaviour of the tested
which are subjected to bi-directional state of
columns were predicted by the developed FE
stress. The STM is formulated based on three
model and TS-STM and were compared with
basics tenets of mechanics, i.e. equilibrium
experimental data as shown in Figure. 2. It
equations, compatibility equations and
can be observed that, predictions of both the
constitutive laws. Original STM was
models are more or less close to observed
developed by ignoring the tensile capacity of
behaviour. However, Peak twist and post
Numerical and Analytical Modelling of Reinforced Concrete Circular Columns under Torsion

peak behaviour are more accurately captured

by the TS-STM compared to the proposed FE

Strain in the transverse reinforcement of
specimen H/D(3)-T/M()-1.32% measured
during experiment is compared with
predicted values as shown in Figure. 3. It was
observed that, TS-STM predicted strain
values are closer to the experimental data
compared to FE predictions.
Figure.3 Strain in transverse

The FE model developed in this study
efficiently predicts overall torsional response
reinforced concrete circular columns
including the strain in reinforcement.
However, TS-STM was found to outperform
the proposed FE model in regards to accuracy
of prediction. Peak twist and post peak
torsional response was better captured by the
a) H/D(3)-T/M()-1.32% TS-STM. Besides, local behaviour like strain
in transverse reinforcement predicted by TS-
STM showed better correlation with
measured values compared to FE predictions.
On the whole, it may be inferred from this
study that, TS-STM is relatively more
accurate than the proposed FE model in
predicting overall torsional response RC
circular columns.

This analytical work is carried out as part of
the project funded by SERB, Department of
b) H/D(6)-T/M()-0.73%) Science and Technology, India. Their
financial support is gratefully acknowledged.
Figure.2.Overall torque - twist
Experimental data used in this study was
carried out as a part of a project funded by
NEES-NSF-NEESR, USA, the National
University Transportation Centre, and the
Intelligent Systems Centre of Missouri S&T,

USA. Their financial support during the PhD Mondal T G and Prakash S S 2015 Effect of
work of second author is also gratefully Tension Stiffening on the Behavior of
acknowledged. Reinforced Concrete Circular Columns
under Torsion Engineering Structures
REFERENCES Journal Elsevier 92 186-195.
Abaqus Analysis User's Manual 6.11 Prakash S S 2009 Seismic Behavior of RC
Dassault Systèmes Simulia Corporation, Circular Columns under Combined
Providence RI USA. Loading Including Torsion PhD Thesis
Department of Civil Engineering
Hsu T T C 1968 Torsion of Structural Missouri University of Science and
Concrete - Behavior of Reinforced Technology Missouri USA.
Concrete Rectangular Members
Torsion of Structural Concrete SP-18 Zimmermann S 2001 Finite Elemente und
American Concrete Institute Detroit MI. ihreAnwendung auf physikalisch und
Jankowiak T and Lodygowski T 2005 Report TUE-BCO 01. 05. Technische
Identification of Parameters of Universitat Eindhoven Niederlande.
Concrete Damage Plasticity
Constitutive Model Foundations of
Civil and Environmental Engineering 6.

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Veermata Jeejabai Technical Institute, Mumbai, India
Padmabhooshan Vasantdada Patil Institute of Technology (PVPIT), Budhgaon, Sangli, India

Abstract: Dome structures are widely used in the field of construction technology
such as nuclear reactors, pressure vehicles, space vehicles, roofs of industrial
buildings, etc. Domestic applications includes domes in mosques, auditorium, igloos,
etc. The dome structure require certain number of openings which are essential for
services like maintenance, ventilation etc. The main aim of this study is to perform
finite element analysis of Spherical Dome with openings under static loading which
result from the self-weight of dome and a concentrated load at the crown to obtain the
most economical size of opening that can be provided at different locations and to
obtain the optimum location (in terms of angle with horizontal) at which an opening
of a particular size can be provided. Equations have been developed for most
economical aspect ratio and optimum angle at which openings should be provided for
various cases of Spherical Dome with 2/4/6 number of openings. Variations in
maximum stress intensity produced in the dome due to increase in aspect ratio and
increase in angle of opening have been shown.
Keywords: Spherical dome; most economical aspect ratio; Optimum location of
openings; Maximum stress intensity; Maximum stress zones;

INTRODUCTION water tanks and commented on its optimum

Dome can be defined as a thin shell generated design. Hani Aziz Ameen (2011) performed
by the revolution of a regular curve about one the Finite Element Analysis of Large
of its axes. The shape of the dome is Diameter Concrete Spherical Shell Domes.
governed by the type of the curve and the Authors investigated the behaviour and
direction of the axis of revolution. In case of strength of modern thin spherical shell domes
Spherical Dome, the curve is circular in of large diameter (50-100 m) made of
shape. The wide applications of domes in concrete with and without ribs (5-10 cm
construction technology can be credited thick). Present study is focused on the effect
primarily due to their high strength capacity of the openings in Spherical dome under
to resist loads at low cost, aesthetic view, static loading. An attempt is made to develop
architectural shape. There were many equation for the most economical aspect ratio
investigations carried out to assess suitability and the angle of opening. General purpose
of Spherical domes. Steven James Hoggan Finite Element Package Ansys version 12.1 is
(1982) studied the feasibility of using used for the analysis.
reinforced concrete in the design of spherical

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 54

Khan et al.

OBJECTIVE OF STUDY Table 1. Maximum stress intensities - 4

The Spherical dome once constructed,
requires a certain number of openings. These Maximum stress intensity (N/mm2)
are essential for the various services like Aspect Ratio 30⁰ 40⁰ 45⁰ 50⁰ 60⁰
ventilation, access etc. Primary objective of
0.02 3.50 3.49 3.48 3.48 3.47
this study is to carry out a study on the effect
0.03 3.50 3.49 3.48 3.48 3.47
of these openings subjected to its variation in
0.04 3.51 3.49 3.48 3.47 3.47
terms of angle of opening and its aspect ratio.
0.05 3.52 3.49 3.48 3.47 3.46
The numbers of openings considered are
0.06 3.54 3.49 3.48 3.47 3.45
2/4/6, the angle of opening with respect to
0.07 3.68 3.49 3.48 3.46 3.44
horizontal is varied between 30⁰ to 60⁰.
0.07 3.87 3.50 3.48 3.46 3.44
Subsequently the equations for the most
0.08 4.05 3.50 3.48 3.46 3.43
economical aspect ratio and the optimum
0.08 4.24 3.50 3.48 3.46 3.43
location (in terms of angle with horizontal)
0.09 3.58 3.48 3.45 3.42
are developed based on the obtained results.
0.10 3.87 3.48 3.45 3.40
The aspect ratio is termed as 0.11 4.16 3.63 3.44 3.39
𝐷𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 opening 0.12 3.88 3.44 3.38
𝐴𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑐𝑡 𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜 =
𝐷𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑑𝑜𝑚𝑒 0.13 4.01 3.44 3.37
0.13 4.07 3.45 3.36
PROBLEM FORMULATION AND 0.13 4.13 3.49 3.36
MODELING 0.14 3.74 3.34
In this study, Spherical Dome of span 10m 0.15 3.97 3.34
and thickness 100mm is considered. 0.16 4.08 3.33
Variations in maximum stress intensity 0.16 3.32
produced in the dome due to increase in 0.17 3.31
aspect ratio and increase in angle of opening 0.18 3.30
are compared for various angles of openings 0.19 3.28
and aspect ratios respectively. The different 0.20 3.34
cases for which the dome was modelled and 0.21 3.47
analyzed are: 0.22 3.51
• No. of openings considered: 2openings 0.23 3.59
/ 4openings / 6openings 0.24 3.65
• Aspect ratio of openings 0.25 3.76
- Ranging from 0.02 ~ 0.28 0.26 3.92
• Location of openings
- 30° / 40° / 45° / 50° / 60° w.r.t. DESCRETIZATION OF THE
horizontal SYSTEM
Material Properties considered Free meshing option available within
• Grade of concrete: M30 ANSYS is used for meshing of the dome
• Density of concrete: 25KN/m3 structure. A convergence study was carried
• Young’s Modulus E: 27386 N/mm2 out in order to optimize the mesh size.
• Poisson’s ratio ν:0.2 Element used for descretization is SHELL99

Analysis of Spherical Dome with Openings Using Finite Element Method


The analysis results were extracted and
plotted using ANSYS post processor. The
maximum stress intensity near openings is of
primary importance in this study (Figure. 1)
Sudden increase in stress beyond the certain
aspect ratio is observed (Figure. 2). It is also
observed that this threshold value differs for
the different number of openings. This
threshold value of aspect ratio value is Figure 1 Stress Intensity contours of
Spherical Dome with 4 openings at 45⁰
termed as the most economical aspect ratio.
In addition to the stress near opening, the
maximum stress intensity and its locations
are also identified.
Governing stress is observed to be the stress
at bottom till the intersection point (Figure.3),
beyond which the stress at opening is the
governing stress i.e. the maximum stress in
the structure. Based on these results the
equations have been developed for the most
economical aspect ratio and the angle of
opening. The optimum location (or angle) of
the openings can be determined using these
equations. Figure 2 Variation of stress intensity near
opening for Spherical Dome with 4
For 2openings,
openings at, 30⁰,40⁰,45⁰,50⁰,60⁰, for
different aspect ratios
𝒚 = 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟏𝒙𝟑 − 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟏𝟏𝟓𝒙𝟐 + 𝟎. 𝟎𝟒𝟔𝟓𝒙
− 𝟎. 𝟓𝟕 Table 2. Most economical aspect ratio for
4 openings
For 4 openings,
𝒚 = 𝟒 ∗ 𝟏𝟎−𝟕 𝒙𝟑 + 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟎𝟒𝒙𝟐 − 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟐𝒙 Angle of Most economical Aspect
+ 𝟎. 𝟎𝟕𝟖 opening Ratio
For 6 openings, 30⁰ 0.06
𝒚 = −𝟏. 𝟔𝟔𝟕 ∗ 𝟏𝟎−𝟔 𝒙𝟑 + 𝟐. 𝟐𝟓 ∗ 𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝒙𝟐 40⁰ 0.085
− 𝟎. 𝟎𝟎𝟕𝟎𝟖𝟑𝒙 + 𝟎. 𝟏𝟏 45⁰ 0.1
y indicates the most economical aspect ratio 50⁰ 0.1275
for the particular location
x indicates the angle at which openings are 60⁰ 0.19

Khan et al.

6. Stress at the bottom of the dome

remains constant with respect to the
aspect ratio or the angle of opening.
7. Most economical aspect ratios for 2/4/6
number of openings are derived.
8. The most economical size of the
opening is derived for the 2/4/6 number
of openings.
9. The equation developed can be used to
Figure 3 Variation of stress vs. Aspect determine the location of the opening
Ratio for 4 openings at 30⁰
for a particular angle.
Similarly, equations for optimum location (or
angle) of openings have also been developed: REFERENCES
For 2openings,
𝐱 = −𝟒𝟕𝟔𝟏𝟗. 𝟎𝟓𝐲 𝟑 + 𝟏𝟐𝟏𝟒𝟐. 𝟖𝟔𝐲 𝟐 Al-Azzawi Hammad D 2011 Compression
− 𝟔𝟕𝟑. 𝟖𝟏𝐲 + 𝟑𝟕 between Numerical and Modified
For 4 openings, Methods for Analysis and Design of
Spherical Domes Subjected to Static
𝐱 = 𝟏𝟓𝟕𝟔𝟖𝐲 𝟑 − 𝟕𝟎𝟑𝟒𝐲 𝟐 + 𝟏𝟏𝟖𝟒𝐲
Distributed Loads Per Surface Area of
− 𝟏𝟗. 𝟏𝟖
Shell European Journal of Scientific
For 6 openings,
Research 63(3) 428-438
𝐱 = 𝟑𝟎𝟑𝟎𝟑. 𝟎𝟑𝐲 𝟑 − 𝟖𝟔𝟑𝟔. 𝟑𝟔𝐲 𝟐
+ 𝟏𝟏𝟒𝟔. 𝟗𝟕𝐲 − 𝟏𝟐 Ameen H A 2012 Finite Element Analysis of
x indicates the optimum location (or angle) at Large Diameter Concrete Spherical Shell
which the openings should be provided. Domes Dirasat: Engineering Sciences
y indicates the aspect ratio of the openings 38(1)
Ray W C and Edward L W 1999 Early Finite
CONCLUSION Element Research at Berkeley Fifth U.S.
1. The maximum stress intensity in the National Conference on Computational
zone around the opening increases Mechanics University of California
Berkeley August 1999
linearly with the increase in aspect
ratio. BucalemM L and Bathe K J1997 Finite
2. For aspect ratios less than the most Element Analysis of Shell
economical aspect ratio, the maximum Structures Archives of Computational
stress is produced at the bottom of the Methods in Engineering 4(1) 3-61
dome. Timoshenko S P and Woinowsky K S 1959
3. For aspect ratios greater than or equal to Theory of plates and shells McGraw-hill
the most economical aspect ratio, the Bairagi N K1990 Shell Analysis Khanna
maximum stress is produced at the Publisher New Delhi
periphery of the opening.
4. As the aspect ratio of the opening
increases, the maximum stress intensity
near opening increases
5. Maximum stress near opening reduces
as the angle of opening increases with
respect to angle.

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


V.J.T.I., Mumbai, India.
PVPIT, Bubdgaon, Sangli, India.
Executive Engineer, CPWD, India.

Abstract: Design of the bridge truss possesses a very high degree of complexity, due
to involvement of large number of parameters. Such design process comprises many
challenges and in order to carry out design, a designer requires knowledge expertise,
capability to take intuitive decisions. To carry out the efficient design, a large
database generated is used interactively with the conventional methods, which in turn
can optimize the design process. The said database comprises of knowledge from
different experts, books, rules etc. An algorithm which uses the knowledge or
database, and carry out the design in similar manner in which an expert, with all the
necessary knowledge is termed as an Expert system. In present work, an Expert
system is developed which aims for the optimum design of the bridge trusses for the
IRC loading.
Keywords: Truss bridge design; Expert system; Artificial Intelligence;

INTRODUCTION systems were developed in these areas

Design of the bridge structures is a complex e.g. MYCIN, developed by Stanford
process, which involves many parameters. University which was applied successfully in
Considering the level of complexity, the areas diagnosis, RTEXPERT develpoed by
design process necessitates the requirement Adeli and Al Rijlesh, was applied in area of
of very large database/ knowledge. Although trussed bridge design. The artificial
this database / knowledge is present, a human intelligence techniques can be applied to
expertise is required to take decisions and to solve any design problem because of its
choose the appropriate design parameters in heuristic nature, but at same time it remains
such a way that the design is optimized. In challenging task since design is an open
such a scenario, computer generated ended problem. The Expert system lessens
programs are becoming an aid to the the involvement of human, by emulating the
engineers. The conventional programming decision making ability of the human expert.
techniques cannot provide solution since it In broad sense, Expert system is an electronic
requires a very large database, intuitive/ replacement for the human expert. In present
judgemental knowledge. In such domain, study, an Expert system is developed for
knowledge based Expert systems has been optimum (minimum weight) design of bridge
applied successfully. Expert systems are truss subjected to moving load as per Indian
finding its application in the areas of Road Congress (IRC) loadings.
interpretation, diagnosis and design. Expert

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 58

Bambole et al.

OPTIMIZATION with the help of numerical machine

The Expert system provides the optimum experimentation. Wide ranges of parameters
design of the four types of the bridge trusses, were considered for the process of numerical
viz. Pratt, Parker, curved chord K, and experimentation. The classification of the
parallel chord K truss. The span range truss members is carried out based on the
considered is between 20 to 200 m. The results obtained, and according the shape of
design loads are as per Indian Road Congress the ILD (Figure 1). The classification is
(IRC). The developed Expert system consists based on the load reversal characteristic of
of sophisticated optimization algorithms in the member. Such classification is carried out
addition to the heuristic and knowledge base. for all types of trusses.

Optimization is carried out by two types of

penalty functions viz. interior penalty
function and exterior penalty function.

Stiffness matrix method is used for the truss
analysis by the. Skyline method is used for
the matrix formation.


The truss design is carried out for the uniform
lane loading and moving load as per IRC
loads. In order to obtain the maximum Figure.1: ILD Classification for the truss
response, influence line diagram are obtained

Figure 2: Architecture of the Expert System

OPTIMIZATION OF THE TRUSS The design process has broadly four steps,
MEMBERS conceptual design, preliminary design,
analysis for the dead and live loads, and the

Expert System for Bridge Truss Design

final detailed design. Conceptual design knowledge base. The inference can work
consisting of selecting the type of truss, and both forward and backward ways in order to
its configuration in terms of height, number achieve the desired goal. The GUI can plot
of panels etc. The type of bridge is selected the truss configuration, loads, influence line
based on the heuristic and knowledge base. diagrams (Figure.2). The developed Expert
Number of panels are selected based on the system has provision to the user to override
machine experimentation. The preliminary the values suggested by the system. User can
design process is selection of the initial cross alter the design parameters based on his/her
section of the truss members. Expert system judgement, in addition to the suggestions by
initially classifies the members in 4 groups Expert system. A numerical study is carried
viz. bottom chord members, top chord out on a 52 m span truss bridge
member, inclined members, vertical
members. Constant cross section is assumed
as a starting point and subsequently the
optimization is carried out based on the
experimentation study. The minimization
function is as follows
𝑊 = 𝑤 𝑥 ∑(𝑥𝑖𝐿𝑖)
The minimization of the above equation is
subjected to following equations,
𝜎𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑥 ≤ 𝜎𝑖𝑎𝑡 … 𝑗 ∊ 𝑗1
𝜎𝑖𝑚𝑖𝑛 ≤ 𝜎𝑖𝑎𝑐 … 𝑗 ∊ 𝑗1
⃒𝜎𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑥 − 𝜎𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑥 ⃒ ≤ 𝜎𝑠𝑡𝑟 𝑟
𝑖 = 1,2,3 … . 𝑛
𝐾𝑖 𝐿𝑖
≤ 𝑆𝑖
𝛿𝑚𝑎𝑥 ≤ 𝛿𝑎 Figure.3: Tree Diagram for Machine
The relationship between minimum radius of Experimentation
gyration and the area of cross section is
worked out for optimization. W14 section is DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
used for the reference. It is observed that the The Expert system developed can provide an
piece wise linear regression fit approximates optimum truss design for four types of truss
the minimum radius of gyration. based on the IRC loading. The knowledge is
obtained through machine experimentation.
The recommended truss for a particular range
of the truss is divided into number of spans.
The interactive Expert system is developed in Several design alternatives consisting
the C language. The architecture of the different number of panels and heights
Expert system comprises of Knowledge Base, pertaining to constraints are carried out. The
Parameters, Rules, Control Boards (CB), optimization is carried out subsequently. The
Inference System and GUI. (Figure. 2) The most optimum shape of the truss among the
parameters comprises of main parameters spans is obtained. A linear regression
like length, truss type etc. The rules define between span length and key layout
the conditions. The control blocks are main parameter is established as
building blocks which interact with the
Bambole et al.

𝑲𝒆𝒚 𝒑𝒂𝒓𝒂𝒎𝒆𝒕𝒆𝒓 = 𝒂 ∗ 𝒔𝒑𝒂𝒏 𝒍𝒆𝒏𝒈𝒕𝒉 + 𝒃 - Expert system has capability to

provide important parameters like,
Key parameters: Ho – Optimum height, NPo number of panels, and height of truss
Optimum number of panels, a & b are the etc. These serves as the starting point
constants obtained by linear regression fit. for the design process.
(Figure. 4)
Richhard Forsyth et al. 1984 Expert system
principles and cases. Cham and Hall
S S Rao 1991 Optimization, Theory and
application, second edition Wiley
Eastern Ltd. New Delhi
Figure. 4: Result from Expert System Melaragno M. 1981 Simplified Truss Design
Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. New York
 For bottom chord and top chord member
Adeli H and Balasubramaniyam K V 1998 A
of Pratt truss stress and/ slenderness
knowledge Based system for design of
constraints are active. Bridge Trusses: ASCE Journal of
 For bottom chord and top chord member Computing in Civil Engg. 1 1-202
of Parker truss only stress constraints are IRC 6 1966 Standard Specification of code of
active. practise for road bridges; section.
Loads and stresse Indian Road
 For first and last vertical members of Congress 1984 New Delhi
Pratt truss, stress/ slenderness constraints
are active. For the remaining vertical NOTATION
members, and inclined members of Pratt W Weight of the truss
truss, slenderness constraints are active. w specific weight of the truss material
 For the vertical and inclined member of xi cross sectional area of the member i
Parker truss, slenderness and/ or Li Length of the member i
fabrication constraints are active.
𝜎𝑖𝑚𝑎𝑥 Max. stress in member (tensile)
 The Expert system is advantageous due
𝜎𝑖𝑚𝑖𝑛 Min. stress in member (compressive)
𝜎𝑖𝑎𝑡 Allowable tensile stress in member i
- Design of the bridge involves many
complexities, and in such a case Allowable compressive stress in
human expert is required who member i
possesses required knowledge, 𝜎𝑠𝑡𝑟 𝑖 Allowable stress range in fatigue
intuitive decisions making skills etc. 𝐾𝑖 Effective length of member
to carry out efficient design.
Minimum radius of gyration of
- Human expert has limitations e.g. member i
may get fatigue, rare breed, etc. Allowable slenderness ratio of i
- Expert system can emulate the human member
expert which has capability to take 𝛿𝑚𝑎𝑥 Maximum displacement
intuitive decision using knowledge
𝛿𝑎 Allowable displacement
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Structural Engineering Department, VJTI, Mumbai, India.
Electrical Engineering Department, VJTI, Mumbai, India.

Abstract: In this paper free vibration analysis is carried out on a simply supported steel
beam of I cross section. Experimentation is carried out on a steel beam of 6m span. The
BDI (Bridge Diagnostics, Inc.) system is used for data acquisition. Accelerometers were
used to catch the vibration response of the beam. The Natural frequency values were
obtained using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. FE modelling is carried out
using ABAQUS software. Block Lanczos method is used to perform modal analysis.
For theoretical validation the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is used. The theoretical,
experimental and analytical values are compared. Good agreement between the
theoretically calculated natural frequency, analytical and the experimental natural
frequency is seen after comparison.
Keywords: Natural frequency; Euler-Bernoulli; ABAQUS; Modal analysis; Block

INTRODUCTION In the present study, vibration analysis is carried

out on a simply supported beam to study the
Beams and beam like elements are principal
response characteristics. Steel beam is used for the
constituents of many civil as well as numerical analysis. The results obtained
mechanical structures. Vibration analysis can numerically are validated with the results obtained
be used to predict the behaviour of a structure from the simulation and experimentation. The
using the modal or vibration data. It helps in simulations have done with the help of ABAQUS
understanding and evaluating the behaviour of software. Experimentation is carried out on a 6 m
a structure in actual scenario. A major concern span steel beam having I-cross section. The BDI
is given to vibration analysis of a structure (Bridge Diagnostics, Inc.) system is used for data
now a days because the intention is to avoid acquisition. Uniaxial Accelerometers were used to
the vibration related malfunctioning or let- catch the vibration response of the beam.
Frequency Analysis Based on the Fast Former
downs of the structure. The main reasons that
Transform (FFT) Algorithm is the tool of choice
the vibration analysis is given a prime
for measurement and diagnostic of vibration.
importance is due to the fact that the actual
working environment and working conditions THE EQUATION OF MOTION IN FREE
are changing day by day as the technological VIBRATION
advancement is taking place. It has become an
effective way of recognizing, understanding For free vibration (p(x,t)=0), eqn. 𝐸𝐼 +
𝜕𝑥 2
and forecasting the dynamic behaviour of a 𝜕2 𝑦
̅ = 𝑝(𝑥, 𝑡) Reduce to the homogeneous
structure. 𝜕𝑡 2
differential equation

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 62

Kamble et al.

𝜕4𝑦 𝜕2 𝑦 The substitution of the roots of eq. (11) into

𝐸𝐼 2 +𝑚
̅ =0 (1)
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑡 2
eq.(10) provides a solution of eq.(5). The
The solution of eq.(1) can be found by the general solution is then given by the
method of separation of variables. It is superposition of these four possible solutions,
assumed that the solution may be expressed as namely
the product of a function of position ф(x) and 𝛷(𝑥) = 𝐶1 𝑒 𝑎𝑥 + 𝐶2 𝑒 −𝑎𝑥 + 𝐶3 𝑒 𝑖𝑎𝑥 + 𝐶4 𝑒 −𝑖𝑎𝑥
a function of time f (t), that is, ………… (12)
Where C1, C2, C3, and C4 are constants of
𝑦(𝑥, 𝑡) = ɸ(𝑥)𝑓(𝑡) (2)
integration. The exponential functions in
The substitution of eq. (2) in the eq. (1), leads eq.(13) may be expressed in terms of
to trigonometric and hyperbolic functions by
𝜕4 ɸ(𝑥) 𝜕2 𝑓(𝑡)
means of the relations
𝐸𝐼𝑓(𝑡) +𝑚
̅ɸ(𝑥) =0 (3)
𝜕𝑥 2 𝜕𝑡 2
𝑒 ±𝑎𝑥 = cosh 𝑎𝑥 ± sinh 𝑎𝑥
This last equation may be written as
𝑒 ±𝑖𝑎𝑥 = cos 𝑎𝑥 ± 𝑖 sin 𝑎𝑥 (13)
𝐸𝐼 ɸ𝐼𝑉 (𝑥) 𝑓̈(𝑡)
=− (4)
̅ ɸ(𝑥)
𝑚 𝑓(𝑡) Substitution of these relations in to eq. (13)
We designate the constant by ω2 which yields
equated separately to each side of eq.(4) 𝛷(𝑥) = 𝐴 sin 𝑎𝑥 + 𝐵𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝑎𝑥 + 𝐶 sinh 𝑎𝑥 + 𝐷 cosh 𝑎𝑥
results in the two following differential (14)
equations: Where A, B, C, D are new constants of
𝐼𝑉 (𝑥) 4
ɸ − 𝑎 ɸ(𝑥) = 0 (5) integration. They are evaluated by considering
the boundary conditions at the ends of the
𝑓̈(𝑡) + 𝜔2 𝑓(𝑡) = 0 (6)
4 ̅ 𝜔2
Where 𝑎 = (7)
𝐸𝐼 In this case the displacements and bending
It is particularly convenient to solve eq.(7) for moments must be zero at the both ends of the
ω and to use the following notation, namely beam: hence the boundary conditions for the
simply supported beams are
𝜔 = 𝐶√ ̅ (8) 𝑦(0, 𝑡) = 0, 𝑀(0, 𝑡) = 0,

In which 𝐶 = (𝑎𝐿)2 . 𝑦(𝐿, 𝑡) = 0, 𝑀(0, 𝑡) = 0.

𝑓(𝑡) = 𝐴 cos 𝜔𝑡 + 𝐵 sin 𝜔𝑡 (9) 𝜕2𝑦
In view of eqs 𝑀 = 𝐸𝐼 and 𝑦(𝑥, 𝑡) =
𝜕𝑥 2
Where A and B are constants of integration. 𝛷(𝑥)𝑓(𝑡), these boundary conditions imply
Equation (5) can be solved by letting the following conditions on the shape function
ɸ(𝑥) = 𝐶𝑒 𝑠𝑥 𝛷(𝑥).
(10) At x=0,
The substitution of eq.(10) into eq.(5) results 𝛷(0) = 0, 𝛷" (𝑥) = 0 (15)
in (𝑠 4 − 𝑎4 )𝐶𝑒 𝑠𝑥 = 0
At x=L,
Which, for a nontrivial solution, requires that
𝛷(𝐿) = 0, 𝛷" (𝐿) = 0 (16)
4 4
𝑠 −𝑎 =0 (11)
Free Vibration Analysis of a Simply Supported Beam

The substitution of these boundary conditions EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH

into equation (14)
A simply supported steel I beam was used for
𝛷(𝐿) = 𝐴 sin 𝑎𝐿 + 𝐶 sinh 𝑎𝐿 = 0 experimental purpose. The BDI (Bridge
𝛷"(𝐿) = 𝑎2 (−𝐴 sinh 𝑎𝐿 + 𝐶 sinh 𝑎𝐿) = 0 Diagnostics, Inc.) system was used for data
acquisition. Accelerometer was used to
(17) measure the vibration response (i.e.,
Which, when added, give 2𝐶 sinh 𝑎𝐿 = 0. acceleration, velocity and displacement). Data
acquisition system acquires vibration signal
From this last relation, C = 0 since the
from the accelerometer, and encrypts it in
hyperbolic sine function cannot vanish except
digital form. It takes encrypted data from the
for a zero argument. Thus eqs.3 reduce to
data acquisition system and after processing
𝐴 sin 𝑎𝐿 = 0 (18) (e.g., FFT), it displays frequency as output by
Excluding the trivial solution (A=0), we using analysis software.
obtain the frequency equation.
sin 𝑎𝐿 = 0 (19)
Which will be satisfied for
AnL = nπ; n=0, 1, 2 . . .
Substitution of this roots into eq. 8 yields
𝜔𝑛 = 𝑛2 𝜋 2 √ (20)

Where the subscript n serves to indicate the Figure 1. Lab Setup

order of the natural frequencies.

Flange Width = 50mm
Flange Thickness = 5mm
Beam Height = 100mm
Web Thickness = 4mm
Length of Beam= 6000mm
Figure 2. Frequency Plot from FFT
By using equation (20) the theoretical values
obtained for the first three modes are shown The experimental values obtained for the first
in Table 1. two modes are shown in Table 2.

Table 1. Theoretical Natural Frequency Table 2. Experimental Natural Frequency

Mode No Theoretical Frequency (Hz) Mode No Experimental Frequency (Hz)

1 8.8 1 8.95
2 35.19
2 33.77
2 79.17

Kamble et al.


MODAL ANALYSIS By comparing the theoretical and
experimental natural frequency it is observed
The Finite Element Modelling was done using
that the percentage error for the first and the
ABAQUS software. A 2-node linear beam
second mode is 1.7% and 3.84% respectively.
(B21) element in a plane was used. Block
Lanczos method is used to perform modal Similarly, by comparing the analytical and
analysis. Properties of the steel beam are as experimental natural frequency it can be seen
follows: Modulus of elasticity (E) = 200 GPa, that the percentage error for the first and the
Poisson’s ratio = 0.3, Density = 7850 kg/m3. second mode is 4.8% and 0.6% respectively.
The analytical values obtained for the first Good agreement between the theoretically
three modes are shown in Table 3. calculated natural frequency, analytical and
the experimental natural frequency is found.
Chopade J P Barjibhe R B Free Vibration
Analysis of Fixed Free Beam with
Theoretical and Numerical Approach
Method International Journal of
Innovations in Engineering and
Technology (IJIET).
Figure 3. Mode 1
Mario Paz Structural Dynamics Theory and
Computation ISBN: 81-239-0978-0.
Vigneshwaran K and Behera R K 2014
Vibration Analysis of a Simply Supported
Beam with Multiple Breathing Cracks 1st
International Conference on Structural
Integrity, ICONS-2014
Akhilesh Kumar Mahto J N Experimental
investigation of crack in aluminium
Figure 4. Mode 2 cantilever beam using vibration
monitoring technique International
Journal of Computational Engineering
Research 4

Figure 5. Mode 3
Table 3. Analytical Natural Frequency

Mode No Analytical Natural Frequency(Hz)

1 8.529
2 33.974
3 75.911

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


School of Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India.

Abstract: In this paper, a finite element modeling of recently developed cosine

function based shear deformation theory is formulated and implemented for free
vibration of functionally graded material (FGM) plates. The shear deformation is
expressed in terms of a cosine function of thickness coordinate. The theory inherently
satisfies the zero transverse shear conditions on top and bottom surfaces of the plate.
The material properties of plate are assumed to vary according to power law
distribution of the volume fraction of the constituents. The governing equations are
obtained for the free vibration of FGM plate. The results are compared with the exact
three-dimensional (3-D) solutions. Finally, the influences of power law index, aspect
ratio, thickness ratio, geometric configuration and various boundary conditions on the
frequency parameter of the FGM plates have been investigated.
Keywords: Cosine function; Shear deformation theory; Free vibration; Boundary

INTRODUCTION rectangular thin plates was investigated by

Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) are the Abrate (2008) using the CPT. Talha and
microscopically inhomogeneous composite Singh (2010) modified transverse
materials in which the mechanical properties displacement in the consideration of HSDT to
vary smoothly and continuously from one investigate the vibration response of FGM
surface to the other. This is achieved by plates. Ferreira et al. (2006) considered
gradually varying the volume fraction of the collocation method with multiquadric radial
constituent materials. These novel materials basis functions along with the FSDT and
which were first introduced by Koizumi in third-order shear deformation plate theory
1984 in Japan (1997). (TSDT). A three-dimensional solution has
been presented for free and forced vibrations
Functionally graded materials seized much of simply supported rectangular plates by Vel
attention towards the structural application and Batra (2004). Gupta and Talha (2015)
due to their extraordinary mechanical presented a detailed review on recent
attributes. Plates and shell are assumed to be development in modeling and analysis of
most important constituent of structure. In an functionally graded materials and structures.
open literature, it is observed that a wide
range of researches has been carried out on It is observed that in several non-polynomial
free vibration of the FG plates. Free vibration theories, transverse normal strain is
of FG simply supported and clamped neglected. The main objective of present
study is to propose a new theory which

*Author for Correspondence: 66

Gupta and Talha

incorporates both, transverse shear strain and nonzero linear strains associated with the
transverse normal strain. To implement this displacement field in Eq. (1) are:
theory, a suitable C0 continuous 𝜕𝑢𝑜 𝜕2 𝑤𝑏 𝜕2 𝑤𝑠
εx = −𝑧 + 𝑔(𝑧)
isoparametric finite element with 8 degrees of 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 2 𝜕𝑥 2
2 2
freedom (DOFs) per node is considered to 𝜕𝑣𝑜 𝜕 𝑤𝑏 𝜕 𝑤𝑠
εy = −𝑧 2
+ 𝑔(𝑧)
minimize the computational exercise without 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 2
′ (𝑧)𝑤
affecting the solution accuracy. The material ε𝑧 = 𝑓 𝑠 (2)
properties of functionally graded material 𝜕𝑢𝑜 𝜕𝑣𝑜 𝜕2 𝑤𝑏
𝛾𝑥𝑦 = + − 2𝑧 +
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥𝜕𝑦
plate are assumed to vary continuously 𝜕2 𝑤𝑠
through the thickness of the plate, according 2𝑔(𝑧)
to a power-law distribution of the volume 𝜕𝑤𝑠
𝛾𝑦𝑧 = (𝑔′ (𝑧) + 𝑓(𝑧))
fraction of the constituents. The effect of the 𝜕𝑦
plate parameters such as aspect ratios, side to 𝜕𝑤 𝑠
𝛾𝑥𝑧 = (𝑔′ (𝑧) + 𝑓(𝑧))
thickness ratios, and volume fraction index 𝜕𝑥
on the natural frequencies of FGM plates is It is evident from Eq. (2) that in the present
presented for various boundary conditions. theory both, transverse shear strain and
The comparative and convergence study of transverse normal strain exist which is the
proposed theory is also accomplished with novelty of the present theory. Further
assumption is made to ascertain the Co
the available published results available in
continuity as ϕ x =w b , x ϕ y = w b,y , 𝜃 x = w s , x

open literature.
, 𝜃 y = w s,y.


The structural kinematics of the plate is PLATE
expressed with the help of newly developed The finite element formulation has been
cosine function based shear deformation employed to obtain the generalized
theory (CFSDT). The transverse eigenvalue problem for the free vibration of
displacement components (w) possess the the FGM plates. A nine-noded isoparametric
through-thickness variation in terms of element is used in the analysis.
trigonometric function of thickness
coordinate. After splitting the transverse STRAIN ENERGY OF THE PLATE
displacement ‘w’ into bending 𝒘𝒃 and shear
The strain energy of the plate is given as,
𝒘𝒔 parts, the displacement field can be 1 (𝑒)𝑇 [𝘬](𝑒) {ℛ}(𝑒)
expressed as shown in Eq(3). . ∏ = ∑𝑁𝐸
𝑒=1{ℛ} (3)
𝜕𝑤𝑏 𝜕𝑤𝑠
𝑢 = 𝑢𝑜 − 𝑧 + 𝑔(𝑧) Where [𝘬](𝑒) and {ℛ}(𝑒) are the linear
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 stiffness matrix and displacement vector for
𝜕𝑤𝑏 𝜕𝑤𝑠 the element, respectively.
𝑣 = 𝑣𝑜 − 𝑧 + 𝑔(𝑧)
𝜕𝑦 𝜕𝑦
𝑤 = 𝑤𝑏 + 𝑓(𝑧)𝑤𝑠 (1) KINETIC ENERGY OF THE PLATE
𝜒 𝜒𝑧 Kinetic energy of vibrating plate for total
Where, 𝑔(𝑧) = Ϛcos( )𝑧 2 , 𝑓(𝑧) = 𝑧cos( ) .
2 ℎ number of element NE is given as
The values of parameter Ϛ and 𝜒 is evaluated
𝑇 = ∑𝑁𝐸
̇ (𝑒)𝑇 [𝑚](𝑒) �ℛ̇ �(𝑒) 𝑑𝐴 (4)
𝑒=1 ∫𝐴(𝑒) �ℛ �
in the post processing step and ascertained as 2
-0.5 and 0.1 respectively. Clearly, it is seen (e)
Here [m] is the inertia matrix of element.
that the displacement fields in Eq. (1) handle
only four unknowns, i.e. u o ,v o ,w b ,w s. The
Finite Element Modelling of Functionally Graded Material Plates: An Assessment of a New Shear
Deformation Theory for Free Vibration Response


The governing equation of motion for free
vibration of FGM plate is developed through Non-dimensional natural frequencies are
the variational principle, it may be given as evaluated using proposed cosine function
follows, based shear deformation theory. In the
[𝐾]{∆} = 𝜆[𝑀]{∆} (5) succeeding section, an investigation is carried
out to find the influence of different aspect
where [M], [K],and {∆𝑖 } are global mass ratios (a/b), side to thickness ratios (a/h), and
matrix, global linear stiffness matrix and
volume fraction index on the vibration
global displacement respectively. 𝜆 = 𝜔𝜔2,
where 𝜔𝜔 is defined as frequency of natural characteristics of FGM plate. Four boundary
vibration. conditions (CCCC, SSSS. SSCC.CCFF) are
used in the analysis. The non-dimensional
NUMERICAL EXAMPLES AND frequency parameter is assumed as 𝜔𝜔 �=
RESULTS 𝜔𝜔(a ⁄h) √(ρ c /E c ) . The material properties of

the constituent material are E m = 207.78 GPa,

𝜌 m = 8166 kg/m3 for Stainless steel

OF FG PLATES (SUS304) and E c = 322.27GPa, 𝜌𝑐 = 2370

kg/m3 for Silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ).
Example 1.This example is performed for
Table 2 shows the frequency parameter for
Al/ZrO 2 square FGM plates with all edges
square SUS304/Si 3 N 4 FGM plate with
clamped (CCCC) boundary condition for
various side to thickness ratio (a/h) and
different values of the power law index ‘n’.
volume fraction index (n) with fully clamped
The non-dimensional frequency parameters
(CCCC) boundary conditions. Aspect ratio is
are obtained by applying three dimensional
considered as 1 and √2 . It is observed from
continuum model as 𝜔𝜔 � = 𝜔𝜔√(12(1 −
2 2 2 4 2 the table that by increasing a/h ratio, the
𝜈 )𝜌𝑐 𝑎 𝑏 /π 𝐸𝑐 ℎ . It is evident from the
frequency parameter decreases. It is also
comparison study that the present results are
perceived that the frequency parameter
in good agreement with those generated by 3-
decreases as the volume fraction index
D exact solution for all volume fraction
increases from 0 to higher value. This is due
indexes ‘n’.
to fact that the larger volume fraction index
Table 1. Comparison of frequency means the plate has a smaller ceramic
parameter 𝜔𝜔
� for Al/ZrO 2 FGM plate with component and hence the stiffness is reduced.
all edges clamped (CCCC) The natural frequencies of rectangular plate
Volume fraction index ‘n’
Mesh Size
0 .5 1 2 10 100 with 𝑏 = √2𝑎 are smaller than the other one,
4 2.920 2.662 2.532 2.411 2.222 2.114 b = a.
9 2.902 2.627 2.494 2.382 2.221 2.104
16 2.988 2.702 2.568 2.459 2.296 2.168 Tables 3-5 show the frequency parameter of
25 2.709 2.447 2.323 2.222 2.078 1.966 FGM plate made of SUS304/Si 3 N 4 for
36 2.673 2.416 2.294 2.193 2.049 1.939 Simply (SSSS), Simply supported-Clamped
et al 2.740 2.491 2.370 2.256 2.083 1.964 (SSCC) and Clamped –Free (CCFF)
(2007) boundary conditions, respectively. The top
It is also clear from the convergence study surface of the plate is assumed to be ceramic
rich, whereas the bottom one is metallic rich.
that the performance of the present theory is
The similar trend is observed in the
good in terms of solution accuracy and frequency parameter as discussed in table 2.

Gupta and Talha

Highest frequency parameter is seen in the the available exact 3D elasticity solutions.
case of all edges clamped boundary condition The results reflect that the fundamental
(CCCC), whereas, the lowest frequency frequencies decrease with increasing the
parameter is observed for Clamped –Free volume fraction index as well as side-to-
boundary condition (CCFF).
thickness ratios.
Table 2. Frequency parameter ω� for
SUS304/Si3N4 FGM plate with all edges Table 5. Frequency parameter ω
� for
clamped (CCCC) SUS304/Si3N4 FGM plate with Clamped
-Free (CCFF) boundary condition
Volume fraction index ‘n’
b/a a/h Volume fraction index ‘n’
0 0.5 2 10 100 b/a a/h
5 0.7385 0.5089 0.3982 0.3435 0.3225 0 0.5 2 10 100
1 10 0.2314 0.1595 0.1252 0.1082 0.1011 5 0.4325 0.2967 0.2331 0.2023 0.1891
20 0.0647 0.0446 0.0351 0.0303 0.0283 1 10 0.1214 0.0836 0.0657 0.0569 0.0531
5 0.6685 0.4608 0.3602 0.3108 0.2919 20 0.0319 0.0219 0.0173 0.0150 0.0139
√2 10 0.2078 0.1432 0.1124 0.0971 0.0908 5 0.3094 0.2122 0.1666 0.1447 0.1353
20 0.0578 0.0398 0.0313 0.0271 0.0253 √2 10 0.0866 0.0596 0.0468 0.0406 0.0379
20 0.0227 0.0156 0.0123 0.0107 0.0195
Table 3. Frequency parameter ω
� for
SUS304/Si3N4 FGM plate with Simply REFERENCES
supported (SSSS) boundary condition
Abrate S 2008 Functionally graded plates
Volume fraction index ‘n’ behave like homogeneous plates
b/a a/h
0 0.5 2 10 100
5 0.4890 0.3359 0.2651 0.2291 0.2138 Composites Part B—Engineering 39
1 10 0.1567 0.1080 0.0849 0.0733 0.0685 151–158.
20 0.0463 0.0319 0.0251 0.0216 0.0202
5 0.3786 0.2605 0.2050 0.1771 0.1655
Ferreira A J M Batra R C Roque C M C Qian
√2 10 0.1164 0.0803 0.0630 0.0544 0.0509 LF Jorge RMN 2006 Natural
20 0.0341 0.0236 0.0185 0.0160 0.0149 frequencies of functionally graded plates
Table 4.Frequency parameter ω
� for by a meshless method Composite
SUS304/Si3N4 FGM plate with Simply Structures 75 593–600.
supported –Clamped (SSCC) boundary Gupta A and Talha M 2015 Recent
condition development in modeling and analysis
of functionally graded materials and
Volume fraction index ‘n’
b/a a/h structures Progress in Aerospace Sci.79
0 0.5 2 10 100
5 0.6903 0.4753 0.3719 0.3212 0.3015 1-14.
1 10 0.2130 0.1468 0.1152 0.0996 0.0931
20 0.0589 0.0406 0.0319 0.0276 0.0258
Koizumi M 1997 FGM activities in Japan
5 0.6282 0.4327 0.3383 0.2922 0.2743 Compos Part B 28 1–4.
√2 10 0.1923 0.1325 0.1040 0.0899 0.0840 Talha M and Singh B N 2010 Static
20 0.0529 0.0364 0.0286 0.0248 0.0231
Response and Free Vibration Analysis
CONCLUSION of FGM Plates using Higher Order
Shear Deformation Theory Appl. Math.
In this article, the cosine function based shear Model 34(12) 3991–4011.
deformation theory is proposed for Uymaz B and Aydogdu M 2007 Three-
investigating the free vibration response of dimensional vibration analysis of
FGM plates. This theory account for both the functionally graded plates under various
transverse shear and normal deformations of boundary conditions J. Reinf. Plastic
the plate. Free vibration of FGM plates with Compos.26(18) 1847–1863.
various boundary constraints are carried out Vel S S and Batra R C 2004 Three-
assuming the variation of material properties dimensional exact solution for the
follows power law distribution. The present vibration of functionally graded
rectangular plates J Sound Vibr.272(3)
computational solutions are compared with
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Civil Engineering, BITS Pilani, Pilani, India.

Abstract: Innovative composite materials for strengthening of deficient concrete and

masonry structures have been recently proposed by construction sector. Precast
Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) sheet has been used to strengthen the
masonry structure. An experimental investigation has been carried out to predict the
flexural response of masonry beam strengthened with precast ECC sheets. The precast
ECC sheet is bonded using epoxy to the masonry beams in tension as well as both on
the tension and compression faces to make sandwich composite beam. The
experimental results are compared with the numerical results obtained by commercial
finite element software, ABAQUS 6.11. Furthermore, a parametric study has been
performed. The parametric study incorporates the effect of various parameters such as
span-to-depth ratio of tension strengthened as well as sandwich composite masonry
beams. The present study demonstrates that applying precast ECC sheets increased
the load carrying capacity and ductility, while validating the numerical results with
those of experimental results. The numerical results obtained using ABAQUS closely
capture the experimental response of ECC strengthened clay-burnt brick masonry
Keywords: Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC); Flexural strength;
Masonry beam; Numerical modelling; Sandwich beam

INTRODUCTION cement mortar as bed joint for improving the

In recent years, research investigation have flexural response of the masonry structures.
focussed on rehabilitation, retrofitting and [Lin 2010] tested unreinforced masonry walls
strengthening of existing deficient structures retrofitted with ECC shotcrete and concluded
with the use of new strengthening materials that ECC is effective material to resist in-
such as fiber reinforced polymers (FRP), plane loading of retrofitted unreinforced
ductile fiber reinforced composite (DFRCC), masonry but additional reinforcement is
engineered cementitious composite etc. In the required to resist out of plane loading.
past, numerous investigations have been [Kyriakides 2012] proposed the two-
carried out on strengthening of masonry dimensional non-linear finite-element micro-
structure with FRP [Triantafillou TC, 1998; modelling approach to simulate unreinforced
Hamed and Rabinovitch, 2007; Singh et al., masonry beams retrofitted with a thin layer of
2015]. The ECC material and technology ECC. The study concluded that both a
came into existence in early nineties. [Singh detailed and simplified micro-modelling
et al. 2015] used ECC in replacement of approach is able to capture the experimental

*Author for Correspondence: 70

Singh et al.

performance of the ECC retrofitted masonry depicts the nomenclature and descriptions of
beams. beams used in the study. All beams were
tested under four-point loading and subjected
The objective of the present study is to
to monotonic load till failure. The schematic
analyse the flexural response of clay brick
of 4-point loading arrangement for beam is
masonry beams externally strengthened with
shown in Figure 1.
precast ECC sheet on tension face and/ or
both on tension as well as compression face Table 1.Mix proportion of ECC in Kg/m3
of masonry beams. Moreover, numerical
Super Recr
modelling has been done for validations and Cem Silica Fly-
Water Plastici on
parametric study to predict the effect of span- ent Sand ash
zer Fiber
to-depth ratio using commercial finite 620 620 620 290 8.5 26
element software ABAQUS.
Table 2. Details of beam specimens
A total of 7 clay-burnt brick masonry beams Specimen Details
of size 230 mm (width) x 110 mm (depth) Numerically modelled masonry
and 860 mm length were cast. The masonry control beam
beams have nine brick units with eight mortar Experimentally tested masonry
joints, each of approximately 20 mm control beam
thickness. Out of the 7 beams, 2 beams were Numerically modelled sandwich
masonry beam
strengthened on bottom (tension face) with
Experimentally tested sandwich
ECC sheet of 35 mm thickness and 2 beams SB-E
masonry beam
were strengthened on both the compression Numerically modelled tension
and tension faces like sandwich beam with strengthened masonry beam
ECC sheet of 35 mm thickness. The other Experimentally tested tension
three beams acted as control beams (i.e., strengthened beam
unstrengthened). Epoxy was used as bonding
material for strengthening purpose. The mix
proportion of cement mortar used for casting
of masonry beams was 1:3 (cement: sand).
The beams were cured for 28 days before
testing. The five-brick prisms compressive
strength of masonry and the compressive Figure1. Schematic loading arrangement
strength of 70.7 mm cubes of cement mortar
are 2.85 MPa and 21.67 MPa, respectively. NUMERICAL MODELLING
Generally, ECC mix consists of cement,
Numerical modelling was performed using
micro silica sand, fly-ash, water, super
commercial finite element software,
plasticizer, and polymeric fibers to reinforce
ABAQUS (2011). All the parts were created
the mix. Present study used polyester fibers
as a three dimensional (3D) deformable solid
of triangular shape with a trade name Recron
part.The concrete-damaged plasticity model
3s CT-2424 supplied by Reliance, India. The
of ABAQUS was used to model ECC and
mix proportion of ECC is presented in Table
masonry as it precisely accounts the
1. The 28-days compressive strength of the
nonlinear behaviour. This nonlinear material
150 mm ECC cube is 55 MPa. Table 2
Experimental and Numerical Simulation of ECC Strengthened Masonry Structures in Flexure

properties reflect the material behaviour experimental result (TSB-E) and shown in
beyond elastic range. The plasticity figure 4. The nature of load versus deflection
parameter such as dilatation angle have been curve is observed to be similar.
taken as 30° and 37° for masonry and ECC,
respectively. Solid elements C3D8R, i.e.,
linear 8 nodes iso-parametric three The effect of span-to-depth ratios (L/d) on
dimensional brick elements with reduced the flexural response of strengthened beams
were examined by the numerical modelling
integration were used for masonry and ECC.
using ABAQUS.
The element type COH3D8, i.e., 8 nodes
three dimensional cohesive elements was 12
used for epoxy and cement mortar. The
cohesive elements were finely meshed
compared to solid elements. 8

Load (kN)
Num (SB-A)
2.5 Exp (SB-E)
2 2
Num (CB-A)
Exp (CB-A) 0
Load (kN)

0 1 2 3 4
Mid-Span Deflection (mm)
Figure3. Numerical validation of
0.5 sandwich masonry beam response

0 8
0 0.5 1 1.5 7 Num (TSB-A)
Mid-Span Deflection (mm)
6 Exp (TSB-E)
Load (kN)

Figure 2.Numerical validation of control

masonry beam response 4

Figure2 shows the comparison of flexural 0

0 1 2 3
responses of control masonry beam obtained Mid-Span Deflection (mm)
using ABAQUS and experimental four point
flexural tests. It is observed that the flexural Figure4.Numerical validation of tension
response of the control masonry beam is in strengthened masonry beam response
close proximity to the corresponding
experimental response with maximum
deviation of 12.8% in the peak load while the
deflections corresponding to the peak loads
are the same. Similarly, it is shown in Figure.
3 that numerically and experimentally
obtained flexural responses of the sandwich
beam are in close agreement. The ABAQUS
results for beam strengthened in tension
(TSB-A) is validated with the corresponding

Singh et al.

12 concluding remarks and recommendations

could be made for the effective design and
10 fabrication of low cost clay-burnt bricks
8 masonry structures externally strengthened in
Load (kN)

6 L/d=12 tension and/ or compression with precast ECC
4 i. The numerical responses obtained using
2 ABAQUS closely capture the experimental
responses of ECC strengthened clay-burnt
0 1 2 3 brick masonry beam.
Mid-Span Deflection (mm) ii. For a given bonding agent of particular
thickness, the load carrying capacity of
Figure 5. Effect of L/d ratio on flexural sandwich beam is higher in comparison to the
responses of sandwich beams (SB) corresponding tension strengthened beam.
The span-to-depth ratios of the beams were iii. The effect of span- to-depth ratio on the
changed from 4.3 to 12 for sandwich beam flexural response of masonry beam depends
and from 5.4 to 12 for tension strengthened on the type of strengthening. The load
beams. While changing the span-to-depth capacity of tension strengthened as well
ratio, the depth of tension strengthened or sandwich beams decreases while deformation
sandwich beams were kept constant while capacity increases with increase in L/d ratio.
length was varied.As observed from Figure. 5
for sandwich beams the peak load is obtained ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
for the smaller span-to-depth (L/d) ratios, i.e.,
for 4.3 and similar response is observed for This project is a part of Department of
tension strengthened beams also (Figure. 6). Science and Technology (DST), Govt. of
However, the maximum deformation India sponsored research project (No.
capacity with reduced load carrying capacity SR/S3/MERC/0051/2012).The financial
is observed for the larger span to depth ratio support of DST is highly appreciated.
for L/d=12.
6 Dassault Systèmes Simulia Corporation
L/d=5.4 2011Abaqus analysis user’s manual 6.11
Load (kN)

L/d=12 ABAQUS Inc. Providence RI.

3 Hamed E and Rabinovitch O 2007 Out-of-
2 plane behavior of unreinforced masonry
1 walls strengthened with FRP strips
Composites Science and Technology
0 2 4 6 67(3-4) 489-500.
Mid-Span Deflection (mm)
Kyriakides M A Hendriks M A N and
Figure6.Effect of L/d ratio on flexural
Billington S L 2012 Simulation of
responses of tension strengthened
beams unreinforced masonry beams retrofitted
with engineered cementitious
CONCLUSION composites in flexure Journal of
The flexural response of tension strengthened Materials in Civil Engineering 24(5)
masonry beam as well as sandwich beam was 506-515.
studied experimentally and numerically.
Based on the above study, the following
Experimental and Numerical Simulation of ECC Strengthened Masonry Structures in Flexure

Lin Y Ingham JandLawley D2010Testing of

unreinforced masonry walls seismically
retrofitted with ECC shotcrete In
Shotcrete: CRC press 191-200.
Singh S B Munjal P and Thammishetti N
2015 Strengthening of masonry beam
with ECC as bed joint Journal of
Engineering Science & Technology829-
Triantafillou TC 1998 Strengthening of
masonry structures using epoxy-bonded
FRP laminates Journal of composites for
construction 2 96-104.

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam, India

Abstract: This paper presents a closed-form analytical method to analyse the

rectangular composite plate with an arbitrary boundary condition at all edges. A mixed
formulation is used to formulate the governing equation. Using the basic equation of
equilibrium and plate constitutive relation, a set of 16 equation are formulated in the
weak form. Two sets of ordinary differential equations are obtained using the extended
Kantorovich method. A single-term (n=1) EKM solution yields reasonably good
results for 2D plate/3D plate problems. In this study, the numerical results are
presented using the single-term solution and its convergence is achieved in two
iterations. The EKM solution is computationally efficient not only for levy-type
boundary condition plate but also show excellent accuracy for the arbitrary boundary
conditions. As the span-to-thickness ratio increases, the percentage error value
Keywords: Laminate composites; Kantorovich method; Analytical, Zigzag

INTRODUCTION boundary conditions can provide a real

Laminated structures are extensively used in picture of corner effect and boundary layer
the field of lightweight construction and effect. In this direction, the solution can be
aerospace engineering. Due to the presence obtained through Ritz/Galerkin methods
of material and geometric discontinuities at [Reddy, 2006] but the solution accuracy and
the boundaries in these laminated structures, convergence depend upon the initial choice
stress concentration occurs near the of the functions. These limitations can be
arbitrarily supported edges [Horgan, 1989]. eliminated by using extended Kantorovich
For practical design, analysis 2D laminate method which was initially proposed by Kerr
theories are preferred due to their simplicity (1966). Kerr and Alexander [1968] proved
and applicability over a wide range. A large it’s efficiency by conducting stress analysis
number of 2D models have been presented of a clamped rectangular plate. Since then it
for analysing the laminated plate structures, a has been applied to bending, vibration and
comprehensive review of which is available buckling of rectangular plates, circular plates,
in [Kapuria et al. 2010]. Recently, Levy-type sector plates and curved panel [Kapuria and
solution for laminated plates using the Kumari, 2011]. Most of the research work are
advanced Zigzag theory is presented by conducted using displacement based
Kumari and Kapuria (2011) under static formulation using CLT, FSDT and TOT
bending. But the analytical solution of theory. The mixed formulation approach
laminated plates with all edges arbitrary ensures the same order of accuracy for all
field variable than displacement based

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 75

Kumari et al.

solutions. As per the author’s knowledge, mid-surface of the plate. The plate is
there is no solution exist for an orthotropic subjected to arbitrary boundary conditions
rectangular plate with arbitrary boundary with all the edges having different types of
condition using zig-zag theory. In this support. Transverse deflection and in-plane
paper, a closed-form analytical solution for displacements u x and u y are expressed as
rectangular composite plate with an arbitrary (Kumari and Kapuria, 2011)
boundary condition at all edges is presented
w( x, y, z)  w0 ( x, y); (1)
u( x, y, z)  u0 ( x, y)  zw 0d ( x, y)  R k ( z) 0 ( x, y)for zk 1  z  zk (2)
Consider a laminated rectangular plate u 0 =[u 0 x u 0 y ]; w0 d =[w 0, x w 0, y ]; 0 =[ 0 x  0 y ]
(Figure 1) of total thickness h, made of L and Rk(z) is 2x2 matrix dependent on
perfectly bonded layers of cross-ply material properties. Using the plate constitute
composite materials. The composite material equation and governing equilibrium equation
is orthotropic with respect to the principal of plate, weak form of governing equations is
material directions x1, x2 and x3, where the expressed as:
plane of symmetry x1-x2 is parallel to the
  [( A
a b
21 0 x , x  A22u0 y , y  A24 w0,xx  A25 w0, yy  A27 0x ,x  A2,10 0 y , y  N y ) N y
( A33 (u0x , y  u0y ,x )  2 A36 w0,xy  A38 0x , y  A39 0 y ,x  N xy ) N xy
( A83 (u0x , y  u0 y ,x )  2 A86 w0,xy  A88 0x , y  A89 0 y ,x  Pyx ) Pyx (w0, y  [w0, y ]) w0, y
( A10,1u0x ,x  A10,2u0 y , y  A10,4 w0,xx  A10,5 w0, yy  A10,7 0x ,x  A10,10 0 y , y  Py ) Py (3)
( A51u0x ,x  A52u0 y , y  A54 w0,xx  A55 w0, yy  A57 0x ,x  A5,10 0 y , y  M y ) M y ( N x, x  N xy , y ) u0x
(M xx, xx  (Vy  M xy , x ), y  pz ) w0 ( Pxy , x  Py , y  Qy ) 0 y (w0,x  [w0,x ]) w0,x ( N xy , x  N y , y ) u0 y
( Px, x  Pyx, y  Qx ) 0x ( A11u0  A12u0  A14 w0,  A15 w0,  A17 0  A1,10 0  N x ) N x
x ,x y,y xx yy x ,x y,y

( A41u0x ,x  A42u0 y , y  A44 w0,xx  A45 w0, yy  A47 0x ,x  A4,10 0 y , y  M x ) M x

( A71u0x ,x  A72u0 y , y  A74 w0,xx  A75 w0, yy  A77 0x ,x  A7,10 0 y , y  Px ) Px ]dydx  0

The additional equations any one of them at time is used for solution as follows:

  (M
a b x, x  (Vx  M xy , y )  2 A63 (u0x , yy  u0 y ,xy )  4 A66 w0,xyy  2 A68 0x , yy  2 A69 0 y ,xy ) (Vx  M xy , y )dydx  0

  (M
a b y, y  (Vy  M xy , x )  2 A63 (u0x ,xy  u0 y ,xx )  4 A66 w0,xxy  2 A68 0x ,xy  2 A69 0 y ,xx ) (Vy  M xy , x )dydx  0

Out of which, one is used as primary variable Depending upon boundary condition, at
and other is calculated after the solution. particular direction (x or y), maximum 6
Total we have 17 equations out of which 16 variables at one edge can be prescribed. For
will be used for obtaining solution. The example along x axis (0, a), maximum 12
boundary variables specified at particular variables can be prescribed, there we can
edge. solve only 12 ODE equation at a time.
u0 n / N n , u0 s / N ns , w0 / (Vn  M ns , s )
w0,n / M n , 0 n / Pn , 0 s / Pns

Two-Dimensional Static Analysis of Composite Plate Subjected to Arbitrary Boundary Conditions using Extended
Kantorovich Method

EXTENDED KANTOROVICH individually. This results in the following set

SOLUTION of 16 differential-algebraic equations for  gl
The solution of the field variables, ˆ ˆ Q
MG,2  AG  AG (7)
Xm  [u0 ,u0 , w0 , w0 , w0 , 0 x , 0 y , N x , N y , N xy ,
x y ,x ,y ˆ  MG  AG where M, A, A
KG ˆ ,K,M, A
,ξ 2
(Vx  M xy , y ) / (Vy  M xy , x )], M x , M y , Px , Py , Pxy ] T

and Q p are 12 12 , 12 12 , 12  4 , 4  4 ,

is assumed in terms of the products of two
separable functions in the two independent 4 12 , 4 12 and 12 1 matrices.
variables 1 and  2 . The solution of the l th These set of equations can be solved by
standard procedure given in (Kapuria and
variable X l of X or the k layer takes the Kumari, 2011)
following form independent variables 1 and
 2 . The solution of the l variable X l of X
Now that gl ( 2 ) have been obtained in the
for the k th layer takes the following form:
previous step, these are considered as known,
X ( ,  )  f ( ) g ( )for l  1, 2,16 (4)
l 1 2 l 1 l 2 and new estimates of fl (1 ) are determined.
wherein fl (1 ) and gl ( 2 ) are unknown
In this case, the variation  X i is obtained as
univariate functions of 1  x / a and
 X l   fl (1 ) gl (2 ), l  1, 2,16 (8)
2  y / b to be determined iteratively, Similarly fl (1 ) are divided into two groups
satisfying all homogenous boundary F which contains 12 variables that appear in
conditions. The repeated index l does not boundary conditions at x= 0, 1 and remaining
mean summation here. The functions are
four variable under F̂ . Substituting equation
valid for all layers.
(9) into the governing equations, integrating
FIRST ITERATION STEP over  2 direction and considering that the

In this step, functions fl (1 ) are assumed, for variations  fl are arbitrary, the coefficients

which the variation  X i is obtained as of  fl (l  1,,16;) are equated to zero

individually. This results in the following set
 X l  fl (1 ) gl , l  1, 2,16 (5)
of 16 differential-algebraic equations for  fl
Functions gl ( 2 ) are partitioned into a
NF,1  BF  BF  Pm ; LF  NF,1  BF (9)
column vector G of those twelve variables
Eq. (9) is solved by same procedure as Eq.
that appear in the boundary conditions
(y=0,b) and a column vector Ĝ consisting of
the remaining four variables:
G  [ g1, g2 , g3 , g5 , g6 , g7 , g9 , g10 , g12 , g14 , g16 , g17 ]
ˆ  [g g ,g ,g ]
G (6)
4, 8 13 15

Substituting Eq. (5) into the governing Eq.

(3), integrating over 1 direction and
considering that the variations  gl are
arbitrary, The coefficients of Figure1. Geometry of laminated plate
 gl (l  1,,16;) are equated to zero

Kumari et al.

NUMERICAL RESULTS of span-to-thickness ratio S=5, 10 and 20.

The obtained results are compared with the
A solution for the plates with all edges
Levy solution (SSFF) and for CCCF 3D FE
having arbitrary boundary conditions are
solution (ABAQUS). It is remarkable that
presented in this section. For study, the
one term solution is in good agreement with
composite plate made of graphite-epoxy
3D FE results. As the span to thickness ratio
(Gr/Ep) with layup (0/90/90/0) is considered
increases the percentage error value
(Kumari and Kapuria, 2011). The results are
decreases. There is more error near the
nondimensionalised with S=a/h and Y0=6.9
clamped support due to boundary layer
GPa as follows: w  100wY0 / p0 hS 4
effect. It has been verified in earlier study
( x ,  y ,  xy )  ( x ,  y ,10 xy ) / p0 S 2 . Typical that two-term solution will capture this
results are obtained for two set of boundary boundary layer effect.
conditions (SSFF and CCCF) for three values

Kumari P and Kapuria S 2011 Boundary

layer effects in rectangular cross-ply
First time, a closed-form analytical solution Levy-type plates using zigzag theory
for all edges arbitrary supported rectangular ZAMM 91(7) 565-580.
composite plate is presented using the Reddy J N 2006 Theory and Analysis of
efficient zig-zag theory. One-term EKM Elastic Plates and Shells CRC press.
results predicts the deflection and stress very Kerr A D 1966 An extension of the
well except at very near to clamped support. Kantorovich method DTIC Document.
This issue can be solved by using multi-term Kerr A D and H Alexander 1968 An
application of the extended Kantorovich
method to the stress analysis of a
clamped rectangular plate Acta
REFERENCES Mechanica 6(2-3) 180-196.
Horgan C O 1989 Recent Developments Kapuria S and Kumari P 2011 Extended
Concerning Saint-Venant’s Principle: An Kantorovich method for three-
Update Applied Mechanics Reviews dimensional elasticity solution of
42(11) 295-303. laminated composite structures in
Kapuria S Kumari P and Nath J K 2010 cylindrical bending Journal of Applied
Efficient modeling of smart piezoelectric Mechanics 78(6) 061004-061004
composite laminates- A Review Acta
Mechanica 214(1-2) 31-48.

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee India.

Abstract: Three-dimensional finite element models have been developed for the
analysis of single-lap single-bolt and double-lap multi-bolt composite joints using
finite element code ABAQUS. Solid brick element has been used to model the joints.
The present finite element model has been validated by comparing the load-
displacement behaviour and the surface strains with numerical and experimental
results available in literatures. The effects of element types and variation in mesh
density have been studied. The effect of including the grip area has also been studied.
A parametric study has been performed considering different values of bolt torque in
each bolt of the double-lap multi-bolt composite joint.

Keywords: Finite element analysis; Laminated composite; Bolted joint; Bolt

tension; Joint stiffness.

INTRODUCTION of bolt-hole clearance on the structural

Bolted joints are used in several fiber behaviour of composite bolted joints
reinforced plastic structures due to it’s McCarthy et al. (2002) presented an
simplicity during installation and ease in experimental study on the effects of variable
maintenance. Joints are very critical part for bolt-hole clearance in highly torqued joints.
any structure, because initial damage Lawlor et al. (2005) performed an
generally starts from these locations which experimental study on multi-bolt, double-lap
may leads to failure of the whole structure. composite joints on load distribution, quasi-
Also, location of the joints represent week static strength and fatigue life.
points for a structure and greatly influence McCarthy et al. (2005b) developed a three
the load carrying capacity of the whole dimensional finite element model to study the
structure. Stresses and strains vary three effects of bolt–hole clearance on the
dimensionally due to several factors like bolt mechanical behaviour of bolted composite
torque, bending and tilting of the bolts etc. joints. McCarthy et al. (2005a) presented a
Therefore, a three dimensional finite element three dimensional finite element progressive
model is essential for analysing these type of damage model of multi-bolt, double-lap
structures. composite joints using ABAQUS. Gray and
In conjunction with experimental McCarthy (2011) presented a user-defined
investigations of the composite bolted joints, finite element model for large scale bolted
analytical models and finite element models structures. The study on effect of bolt torque
are available in literature.Lawlor et al. on multi-bolt composite joints is rare in
(2002)experimentally investigated the effects literature.

*Author for Correspondence: 79

Mandal and Chakrabarti

In this paper, 3D finite element models have have been defined, namely, (1) between
been developed for the analysis of laminated laminated plates, (2) between bolt and plate
composite bolted joints. Solid brick element holes, (3) between bolt and washer holes, (4)
available in finite element code ABAQUS between laminate and washers and (5)
has been used to model the joints. The effects between washers and bolt head/nut.The bolt
of element types and variation in mesh pre-load has been incorporated using the
density have been studied. The effect of BOLT LOAD option available in ABAQUS.
including the grip area has also been studied.
A parametric study has been performed RESULTS
considering different values of bolt torque in Joint stiffness, out-of-plane displacement,
each bolt of the double-lap multi-bolt and surface strains have been calculated for
composite joint. single-lap single-bolt and double-lap multi-
bolt composite joints. The present results are
FORMULATION compared with those obtained by McCarthy
A3D finite element model of the laminated et al. (2005b).The effect due to change in
composite bolted joint is required to model a element types and variation in mesh density
laminated composite bolted joint. Solid brick have been studied. The effect of including the
element available in ABAQUS has been used grip area has also been studied. A parametric
to develop the three dimensional FE model. study has been performed for the double-lap
For the joint portion of the plate near the multi-bolt composite joint considering
bolt-hole, finer meshing is provided as shown different values of bolt torque in each bolt.
in Figure 1.The mesh size has gradually The joint geometry considered for the single-
became coarser away from the hole to match lap single-bolt joint is shown in Figure 2. The
with the remaining parts of the plate, carbon/epoxy material (HTA/6376) with
modelled with coarser mesh size. unidirectional material properties (Table 1)
has been used for the laminated plates as
described in McCarthy et al. (2005b). Two
different lamination schemes have been
considered: (i) quasi-isotropic with [45/0/-
45/90]5s lay-ups, (ii) zero-dominated with
[(45/02/-45/90)345/02/-45/0]s lay-ups.

Figure 1. Finite element model of a

single-lap single-bolt composite joint.

In ABAQUS the contact between different

components have been defined by master- Figure 2. Geometry of the single-lap
slave algorithm. Stiffer materials are defined single-bolt composite joint.
as master surface. Forthesingle-lap single-
bolt joint shown in Figure 1, five contacts
Finite Element Modelling of FRP Composite Joints considering Bolt Torque

Titanium bolts with nominal diameter 8 mm torque which represents a ‘finger-tight’

and steel nuts together with steel washers condition. A bolt pre-stress of magnitude 7.2
have been used. The isotropic material MPa was applied for this 0.5 N-m torque as
properties used for titanium bolt and steel suggested by McCarthy et al. (2005b).
washers are: Eb= 110 GPa, νb= 0.29 for the
bolt and Ew= 210 GPa, νw= 0.3 for the
washers. The bolt was subjected to 0.5 N-m

Table 1. Unidirectional material properties of carbon/epoxy material (HTA/6376).

E11(GPa) E22 (GPa) E33(GPa) G12 (GPa) G13 (GPa) G23 (GPa) ν12 ν13 ν23

140 10 10 5.2 5.2 3.9 0.3 0.3 0.5

The joint stiffness and maximum out-of- The plot of out-of-plane displacements along
plane displacement obtained from the present edge 1 obtained from present analysis and
analysis considering quasi-isotropic layup are available in literature are presented in Figure
compared with the results reported in 3.The results for the validation purpose have
McCarthy et al. (2005b) in Table 2. The been generated using eight nodded C3D8R
results match quite well. elements. The variation in results due to
change in element type will also be reported
Table 2. Joint stiffness (kN/mm) and in full length paper. The effect of modelling
maximum out-of-plane displacement the grip area has also been studied.
(mm)of the composite joint. The joint geometry considered for the
double-lap multi-bolt joint is shown in Figure
Present McCarthy et 4. The double-lap multi-bolt joint consists of
al. (2005b) three bolts with 36 mm center to center
Joint stiffness 31.62 31.5 distance.

Maximum out-of- 0.49 0.47

plane displacement

Figure 4.Geometry of the double-lap multi-

bolt composite joint.

Only one fourth of the joint has been

modelled to save the computational time as
shown in Figure 5. Three type of torques
have been considered in this study as, finger-
Figure 3. Plot of out-of-plane tight torque condition with torque value 0.5
displacement of the composite joint. N-m, torque-tightened with 8 N-m torque and
16 N-m.

Mandal and Chakrabarti

2002 Experimental study on the effects

of clearance on single-bolt, single-shear,
composite bolted joints Journal of
Plastics, Rubber and Composites31
Lawlor V P McCarthy M A and Stanley W F
2005 An experimental study of bolt–
hole clearance effects in double-lap,
multi-bolt composite joints Composite
Structures71 176–190.
Figure 5.Finite element model of the
double-lap multi-bolt composite joint. McCarthy C T McCarthy M A and Lawlor
VP 2005a Progressive damage analysis
The effect of torque on the mechanical
of multi-bolt composite joints with
behaviour of the bolted joint has been studied
variable bolt–hole clearances
considering different torque values. Three
Composites Part B: Engineering36 290–
different torque values have been considered
and total twenty seven combinations have
been studied by applying different torque in McCarthy M A Lawlor V P Stanley W F and
each bolt. McCarthy C T 2002 Bolt-hole clearance
effects and strength criteria in single-
CONCLUSION bolt, single-lap, composite bolted joints
Composites Science and Technology62
In this paper, three-dimensional finite
element models have been developed for the
analysis of single-lap single-bolt and double- McCarthy M A McCarthy C T Lawlor V P
lap multi-bolt composite joints. Solid brick and Stanley W F 2005b Three-
element available in ABAQUS has been used dimensional finite element analysis of
to model the FRP joints. The results obtained single-bolt, single-lap composite bolted
from the present finite element model has joints: part I—model development and
been validated with there results available in validation Composite Structures71 140–
literature. The effects of element types, 158.
variation in mesh density and effect of
including the grip area has been studied. A
parametric study has been performed
considering bolt torque values in each bolt
for the double-lap multi-bolt composite joint.

Gray P J and McCarthy C T 2011 A highly
efficient user-defined finite element for
load distribution analysis of large-scale
bolted composite structures Composites
Science and Technology71 1517–1527.
Lawlor V P McCarthy M A and Stanley W F

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


PUNERA D.1 and KANT T.2*
National Institute of Technology, Uttarakhand, India.
Department of Civil Engineering, Institute of Technology Bombay, India

Abstract: A higher order shear and normal deformation theory (HOSNT) is presented
to study the thermoelastic behaviour of functionally graded (FG) plates and open
cylindrical panels with diaphragm supported ends. Present theory considers the effect
of transverse shear strains as well as thickness stretching of the shell structure. A
refined thickness criterion with consideration of first power term of thickness to
radius of curvature ratio is used to extend the theory to moderately thick shells.
Material volume fraction is assumed to be following simple power law gradation in
thickness direction for elastic modulus while Poisson’s ratio is considered to be
constant throughout the thickness. Analytical solution for one dimensional heat
conduction equation is used to consider the variation of temperature through the
thickness of the shell. Principle of minimum total potential energy is used to derive
the system of equations along with necessary boundary conditions. A trigonometric
variation is assumed for displacement and thermo-mechanical loading terms which
reduces system of partial differential equations (PDEs) to ordinary differential
equations (ODEs) in terms of Fourier amplitudes. The orthogonality condition of
trigonometric functions further generates system of algebraic equations with constant
coefficients. Results for FG isotropic cylindrical panel are presented and compared
with available solutions in the literature. An excellent agreement is met with the
available solutions and present theory qualifies to be the closest to the three
dimensional (3D) solutions. Also, FG plates are considered as a special case of shell
structures and results are compared with available 3D solutions.
Keywords: HOSNT; Functionally Graded (FG) plates and shells; thermo-

INTRODUCTION Deficiency of homogeneous single phase

material to serve all required functions and
Shells have always been considered to be
stress concentrations in laminated
efficient structures compared to plates due to
composites, developed the understanding for
their membrane action in addition to bending
continuously graded material forms. With the
and shear behaviour. Cylindrical shells find
advances in the manufacturing processes and
application in various civil, mechanical and
increasing necessity of function specific
aerospace structures and their analysis has
materials; continuously graded or
also been a fascinating field of study.
functionally graded (FG) materials have

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 83

Punera and Kant

become important to analyse. Functionally can be because of fabrication error causing

graded materials have a continuous variation internal impurity or while using as pressure
of material properties in thickness direction. vessel for volatile liquids. These moisture
Initial developments in the field of FG effects are also very similar to temperature
materials were carried by Japanese effects and they should also be analysed
researchers while studying excellent thermal carefully.
resistance required for outer core of space Present paper extends the higher order shear
structures. and normal deformation theory with through
Mathematical difficulty of three dimensional thickness temperature variation for thermal
(3D) solutions initiated the understanding of stress analysis of FG open cylindrical panels.
two dimensional (2D) shell theories, where The method uses separation of variables
thickness dimension was reduced to a surface approach to describe temperature variation
considering its small magnitude. Classical and applies Fourier coefficient determination
Love shell theory neglected transverse shear form to incorporate temperature field in
and normal strains while Naghdi improved it Navier solutions.
by including the transverse shear strains in a
simplistic manner. Further improvements in PROBLEM FORMULATION
the theory were made by including effects of Present study considers material properties
transverse shear and normal deformations for i.e. elastic moduli, thermal coefficient,
more accurate analysis and these coefficient of heat conductivity to be graded
developments were given the name ‘higher in thickness direction as per simple power
order theories’. Hilderbrand (1949) law. Poisson’s ratio is assumed constant due
were the first to start work in the field of to its small variation for metal and ceramic
higher order theories. They removed all the phases. Material property P(z) at a point, ‘z’
assumptions of Love and Naghdi shell distance away from reference (mid) surface is
theories and took a three-term Taylor series given in terms of material property at top
expansion for displacement field. surface P t and material property at bottom
The effect of temperature on FGMs is further surface of the shell P b .
essential field of study. Functionally Graded
 2z + h 

Materials are manufactured through heating P( z ) =

( Pt − Pb )   + Pb (1)
 2h 
and metallurgical molding methods, so they
generate residual stresses during processing N is power law index.
itself. These stresses can cause initial damage The displacement model adopted in this study
to FGM elements, affect their functioning is similar to the one introduced by Kant and
during lifetime and can also further propagate
Manjunatha (1988), with twelve middle
these damages. Secondly most of the times
surface parameters and considering
these FGMs are used as thermal barrier and
transverse shear and normal strain effects.
other high temperature environments. These
all factors demand for a precise and u ≈ u0 + zθ1 + z 2u0* + z 3θ1*
satisfactory analysis of FGM shells under v ≈ v0 + zθ 2 + z 2 v0* + z 3θ 2* (2)
temperature loadings. Similar to the
w ≈ w0 + zθ3 + z w + z θ
2 * 3 *
temperature conditions, many a times 0 3

functionally graded materials can generate Small strain and small displacement
moisture potential within their structure. This relationship in curvilinear coordinates with
Thermal Stress Analysis of Functionally Graded Plates and Open Cylindrical Shells

NT = { N1T , N 2T , AT , M 1T , M 2T , BT , P1T , P2T , DT , C1T , C2T }

material constitutive relation for isotropic
system, are expressed to further use
The temperature terms can be described as
minimum potential energy principle. System following.
of partial differential equations in terms of
 z
displacement parameters is derived. One of ( N1T=
, M 1T , P1T , C1T ) ∫ (1, z , z 2 , z 3 ) 1 +  Q1 j α j Tdz
 R
the important part of present study is the
relaxed thickness criteria which considers (N T
2 , M 2T , P2T , C2T ) = ∫ (1, z , z 2 , z 3 ) Q2 j α j Tdz
 z
 h 
  << 1 , instead of the conventional ( A=
, B , D ) ∫ (1, z , z ) 1 +  Q

 R
3j α j Tdz
 Rmin 
 h 
approach of taking   << 1 . Where Q ij refers to coefficient of compliance
 Rmin  matrix, α i denote coefficient of thermal
Stress resultants can be expressed in expansion and T is the thermal variation
simplified manner for thermal effect through the thickness.
N   FN 0 0  ε   NT  The set of above thermal stress resultants
  0    
= N ij   FIS 0  γ ij  − 0  (3) contribute to non-homogeneous part of
  FTS  γ iz  0 
Qi   0 0 partial derivative equations with
displacement parameters as dependent
Here N represents all normal stress resultants
variables. Separation of variables approach
and couples, N ij represents in-surface shear
can be applied to convert given PDEs to
stress resultants and couples and Qi ordinary differential equations assuming
represents transverse shear stress resultants double trigonometric series solution for
and couples. Following the similar displacement parameters. With these simply
representation FN denotes rigidity matrix for supported boundary conditions are also
normal stress resultants/ couples; FIS denotes satisfied. Non homogeneous terms i.e.
external loading and temperature change are
in-surface shear stress resultants/couples
also expressed in double trigonometric series
while FTS denotes transverse shear stress
following eigen function expansion approach.
resultants/couples. NT represent contribution ∞ ∞
of thermal change on the constitutive model. T = ∑∑ (T ( z )) mn sin α m x sin β nφ (5)
m 1=
n 1

N = { N1 , N 2 , A, M 1 , M 2 , B, P1 , P2 , D, C1 , C2 }

Temperature distribution through thickness is

ε = {ε10 , ε 20 , ε 30 , κ1 , κ 2 , κ 3 , ε1* , ε 2* , ε 3* , κ1* , κ 2* , κ 3*}

T derived from solving one dimensional heat
conduction equation and is expressed as:
N ij = { N12 , N 21 , M 12 , M 21 , P12 , P21 , C12 , C21}
, h

Tt − Tb dξ
γ ij = {γ 120 , λ120 , χ12 , κ12 , γ 12* , λ12* , χ12* , κ12* }
T 2
T ( z=
) Tt − h ∫ λ (ξ ) (6)
Qi = {Q1 , Q2 , S1 , S 2 , T1 , T2 , J1 , J 2 }
T 2 z
∫ λ ( z)

γ iz = {ε130 , ε 230 , κ13 , κ 23 , ε13* , ε 23* , κ13* , κ 23* }

T h


Punera and Kant

Hereλ (z) denotes coefficient of thermal direction following power law.

conductivity and it is also graded in thickness

Table 1. Thermo-mechanical Analysis of FG Square Plates (N=2)

Pure Thermal u w
L ×10−6 L ×10−6
Bottom Middle Top Bottom Middle Top
L/h= 3D 0.08492 -0.7862 -1.699 5.522 5.635 6.021
Present 0.04813 -0.82684 -1.74455 5.53719 5.65856 6.06212


A functionally graded plate with uniform Hildebrand F B Reissner E Thomas G B 1949
thermal load on the top surface is studied. Note on the foundations of the theory of
Results are compared with 3D solutions small displacements of orthotropic
given by Reddy and Chen and a good shells National Advisory Comm. Aero.
agreement is obtained even for general power (NACA) Tech. Note No 1833.
law gradation instead of Mori-Tanaka Kant T Manjunatha B S 1988 An
gradation used in reference paper. unsymmetric FRC laminate C0 finite
Normalized results are given in table 1. element model with 12 degrees of
freedom per node Engineering
Computations 5(4)300-308.
Love A E H 1888 On the small free
vibrations and deformations of thin
elastic shells Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc.17A
Naghdi P M 1956 A survey of recent
progress in theory of elastic shells
ASME J Applied Mechanics Rev
Figure1. Temperature Distribution
Through Thickness (N=2) Reddy J N Cheng Z Q 2001 Three-
dimensional Thermomechanical
CONCLUSION Deformations of Functionally Graded
Present theory accounts for transverse shear Rectangular Plates Eur. J. Mech
strains and transverse normal strains. The A/Solids 20 841-855.
results obtained from the present formulation
show good agreement with the results
available in literature. The difficulty of 3D
solutions reinforce the requirement of present
solution technique which is easy to apply and
precise in results.
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Aerospace Engineering, IIT, Kharagpur, WB, India.

Abstract: This work presents an efficient technique to enhance the bending and
buckling characteristics of a smart composite plate. This paper discusses about the
employment of piezoelectric fibre composite patches (PFCP) in their optimized
location using unified particle swarm optimization (UPSO) for enhancing the
performance and thereby reducing the effects of internal flaws. A finite element
formulation based on Inverse Hyperbolic Shear Deformation Theory (IHSDT) for
handling bending and buckling analysis of a smart composite plate is used in the
present work. The obtained results are matched with those existing in the literature
and various parametric studies are performed. In addition to the best performance,
reduction in weight of piezoelectric material is obtained as we employ a segmented
piezo patch to overcome the degradation in buckling strength due to damage in a
composite plate, which indeed addresses the design issues.
Keywords: Composite plate; Finite element method; Piezoelectric fibre
composites; Optimization.

INTRODUCTION manufacturing, and physical incorporation

Researchers have a keen interest in the area into structures are currently going on. Some
of smart structures in recent years. The main advantages of AFCs over monolithic ceramic
reasons behind it are limitations in weight, actuators are conformability to curved
space, and positioning in many applications. surfaces, high performance,
Active Fiber Composites (AFCs) was made manufacturability, increased robustness to
from the researches at MIT in 1992. AFCs damage, etc. Specific strength and directional
contain PZT (lead zirconatetitanate) fibers sensitivity of fine ceramic fibers are higher
and epoxy resin. For the purpose of poling than monolithic materials. These
and to direct the electric field along the characteristics of AFCs make them
longitudinally oriented PZT fibers, interesting components for structural control
interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) are used. applications in various fields. A detailed
Understanding the superiorities of PFC study on AFC properties can be seen in
material to existing actuators PFCs became a literature [Bent, 1997].But, some weaknesses
significant focus of a number of researchers. may arise in their application, say, when
Broad elementary research into various composite structure experiences large
aspects of AFCs like modelling, deformation and/or the surface of the

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 87

Maiti and Sreehari

composite structure is geometrically in the above displacement field, u0, v0and w0

unconformable. In such cases fibers may are the midplane displacements while θx, θy
break (because they are thin, brittle and are the shear displacements.
continuous piezoelectric). Subsequently it The electric potential field of the
will affect the actuation capability of piezoelectric patches are assumed to be given
actuator. So an effective method is to use by:
these piezoelectric fibre actuators in the form
of patch instead of complete layer. z  hk (3)
 ( x, y, z, t )  0 ( x, y, t )
hk 1  hk
Currently researchers are applying
The z co-ordinates of laminates
optimization schemes for enhancing the
corresponding to the top and bottom surface
performance of smart structures. [Correia et
of layer k relative to the midplaneare denoted
al. 2003] obtained the optimal location of
by hk and hk+1.
piezoelectric actuators (PZT) and also the
optimal fiber reinforcement angles employing By considering a parameter, the anisotropic
simulated annealing optimization method. damage is parametrically incorporated into
Finite element models using higher order the buckling formulation. This parameter is
shear deformation theories were used. essentially a representation of reduction in
Parsopoulos and Vrahatis (2002) presented a Ai - Ai*
i  (4)
review of recent results concerning the Ai
Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method. effective area and is given by
They concluded that PSO seems to be a very Where Ai* is the effective area (with unit
beneficial method and a worthy substitute in normal) after damage and i denotes the three
cases where other methods fail. Yet more orthogonal directions. For a thin plate, only
exploration is vital to completely understand Γ1 and Γ2 need to be considered. Γ1 represents
the values and limitations of this technique. the damage in the direction of the fibre while
In the present investigation, optimal locations Γ2 refers to orthogonal damage (in same
for PFCPs are found out for a composite plate plane). The effects of a region of damage are
with and without damage. introduced by the use of an idealized model
MATHEMATICALFORMULATION having a reduction in the elastic property in
the damage zone. This method which
Authors had explained the buckling of
parametrically models damage in any
composite structures earlier (Sreehari and
anisotropic material was used recently
Maiti, 2015). The chosen displacement field
[Sreehari et al., 2015] for finding the effects
for structural analysis of the piezo attached
of damage in a smart plate.
laminated composite plate is on the basis of
IHSDT given by:  rz 
 x  w, x ;  y  w, y ; g ( z )  sinh -1  
u ( x, y, z )  u0 ( x, y ) - z x ( x, y )   g ( z )  z  x ( x, y ) (2)
(1)  
v( x, y, z )  v0 ( x, y ) - z y ( x, y )   g ( z )  z  y ( x, y ) 
- 2r 
  
 h r 2  4 
w( x, y, z )  w0 ( x, y )
The maximum thermal buckling load is
where, computed through a Unified Particle Swarm
Optimization method. The PSO is a
population-based computation method. The
concept of bird flocking is used in developing
Bending and Buckling Analyses of Composite Laminates with and without Presence of Damage and its
Passive Control with Optimized Piezoelectric Patch Location

each solution and is referred to as a particle. they are near the fixed end in a cantilever
Mathematically, the positions of ith particle plate. Obviously, once the actuator patches
(xi) in a swarm of S particles is a D- are optimally placed, the effects due to
dimensional search space, provides a damage are suppressed and the bending and
candidate solution for the problem. The buckling capacity of composite laminates are
position and velocity of the particles at tth enhanced. The detailed results are omitted
iteration can be represented by xi(t) = (xi1, xi2, here for sake of brevity.
xi3, ……….., xiD) and vi(t) = (vi1, vi2, vi3…….., viD) 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100
; where i  S. Motion of each particle to new 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90
positions during the search process is based 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80
on the previous best position of itself and the
61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70
best position so far found by any individual
51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60
of the population. Here the population and its
41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50
individuals are referred respectively as
31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
swarm and particles. The swarm is updated
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
by velocity and position update. Algorithm
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
will lead to a converged solution after several
iterations. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Figure 1. Optimal positioning of

piezopatches in a simply supported plate.
Presently, an optimization analyses for
91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100
composite plates using an UPSO algorithm
81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90
have been done. The governing equations are
solved by using Finite element method 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80

(FEM) considering an eight noded, 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70

isoparametric, quadrilateral element. A code 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60

is developed for the computer 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50

implementation of the finite element 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
formulation in MATLAB environment. 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30
11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
A (0/90/90/0) plate with piezopatches on the
top is considered. The size of PFCP is 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

equivalent to size of a single element in the

Figure 2. Optimal positioning of
finite element mesh. Here we have used a piezopatches in a cantilever plate.
10*10 meshing to discretize the whole plate
and the center 4 elements are considered to CONCLUSION
have a mild damage. Figure 1 and Figure 2
For optimum designs, the structures should
show the optimal locations of 8 PFCPs for
be capable of withstanding maximum
simply supported and cantilever boundary
possible forces acting on them. Also the
conditions respectively. Even though there
structure should be able to overcome the
are a lot of locations possible for these PFCPs
effects of small damages occurring in them.
over the substrate, the locations are restricted
To enhance this capability we can use smart
for maximizing the buckling load. The
materials along with structural components in
optimized patch locations are near the central
order to make them withstand more forces
damage in a simply supported plate while
Maiti and Sreehari

than what they are expected to. In addition to Franco Correia V M Mota Soares C M and
other reasons, if we use segmented PFCPs Mota Soares C A 2003 Buckling
over a composite substrate considerable optimization of composite laminated
weight reduction is obtained. The present adaptive structures J Compos Struct 62
work provides the optimal placement of 315–321.
PFCP actuators. Investigations are carried out Parsopoulos K E Vrahatis M N 2002 Recent
on application of optimized piezo locations in approaches to global optimization
strengthening structures, thereby controlling problems through Particle Swarm
the deformations (due to external forces or Optimization Nat Computing 1 235-306.
caused as an effect of a flaw present in the
system) and increasing the critical buckling Sreehari V M Linju Joseph George and Maiti
load. It is observed from this work that UPSO D K 2015 Bending and buckling analysis
is a very promising optimization technique of smart composite plates with and
and can be successfully applied to find the without internal flaw using an inverse
maximized buckling loads of smart hyperbolic shear deformation theory J
structures. ComposStruct.doi:10.1016/j.compstruct.20
REFERENCES Sreehari V M and Maiti D K 2015 Buckling
and post buckling analysis of laminated
Bent A A 1997 Active Fiber Composites for
composite plates in hygrothermal
Structural Actuation Ph. D. Thesis,
environment using an Inverse hyperbolic
Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
shear deformation theory J Compos
Struct 129 250-255.

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Applied Mechanics, MNNIT Allahabad India.

Abstract: The paper presents the static analysis of realistic wind turbine blades. A
modern 9.2m long rotor blade of NPS-100 is modelled with different order of
polynomial variation of twist throughout the span of blade. The variation of aerofoil
(NREL S821, S825 and NACA 2412) is also employed in the present work. The
actual load acting on wind turbine blade is been extracted through Blade Element
Momentum (BEM) theory. The blade models have been generated using NuMAD and
analysis is performed using FE simulation tool ANSYS.
Keywords: Realistic Wind Turbine Blade; Blade Element Momentum (BEM)
Theory; FE Simulation.

INTRODUCTION hybrid composite rotor blade made up of

glass and carbon fiber plies, having a light
The wind energy is a renewable source of
weight and analyzed it with FEM for extreme
energy available in enormous amount with
offshore wind conditions. Lee et, al., (2012)
cost benefit. Wind turbine installation has
developed an iterative procedure for FRP
made a significant technological advancement
wind turbine blades taking into account the
in the recent times with a focus on the choice
aerodynamics due to wind pressure and also
of materials and design of turbines as well as
the fluid structure interaction due to the
in the manufacturing process. Wind turbines
rotation of the aerofoil sections causing
are rotating device which extracts kinetic
changes in the wind load. [Singh et. al.,
energy from the wind and converts it to
2015]observed the effect of aerofoil and taper
useful work (mostly electricity). These
on static and dynamic response of wind
devices use both the drag and lift forces to
turbine blade for the point load acting at tip.
generate torque and subsequently generate
Hamdi et. al., (2014) studied the dynamics of
power. Among wind turbine components,
a HAWT rotor blade by combining the
blades are generally regarded as the most
classical Blade Element Momentum (BEM)
critical component. (Locke and Valencia,
theory with the FEM. Staino et. al., (2012)
2004) developed a structural finite element
used the Blade Element Momentum theory to
model for the determination of static,
find the actual load acting on the rotor and
dynamic and twisting response of a pre-
developed a new control scheme for
twisted blade (ERS-100) and compared the
suppressing the wind induced edgewise
responses of the blade for different
vibrations using actuators/active tendons
reinforcements such as e-glass unidirectional
mounted inside the blade. Koh et. al., (2016)
fibers and carbon hybrid designs. McKittrick
compared the performance of two tidal
et. al., (2001) used finite element analysis to
turbines using the BEM theory by changing
predict the static and dynamic response of the
the lift and drag coefficients for varying
AOC 15/50 blade. [Cardenas et. al., 2012]
Reynold’s numbers and using different
developed thin-walled beam finite element
correction models applied to the BEM theory.
model of a realistic wind turbine rotor blade.
In the present work, static response of wind
Cox and Echtermeyer, (2012) designed a

*Author for Correspondence: 91

Choudhury et al.

Figure 1: Wind turbine blade (a) NuMAD model (b) Meshed rotor blade in ANSYS
turbine blade is obtained by applying the
actual load which is computed through BEM
theory. A realistic 9.2 long rotor blade is 1 root transition body
modelled with different aerofoil and twist

Chord (m)
variation throughout the span of blade.
Sandia National Laboratories has developed a
user friendly preprocessor software NuMAD 0.2
(Numerical Manufacturing and Design Tool),
which is used to model realistic three
0 Blade Length
5 (m) 10
dimensional wind turbine blades as shown in
Figure. 1(a).The external and internal
geometry, material layup and stacking
sequence are provided by NuMAD (Berg &
Resor, 2012).The output file from NuMAD is
an ANSYS code which is imported in
ANSYS to create the FEM model of the rotor
blade. The variation of material properties
along the span is also taken into account. The
material chosen for each segment is taken
from the literature (Locke and Valencia,
2004). The meshing of the rotor blade is Figure 3: Different order polynomial
created using SHELL 281 element (Figure. curves for twist variation along the span
1b). The blade is modelled as cantilever i.e.
blade element theory, the total span is
fixed at root ends and free at the tip end.
discretized into N segments. The rotor is
The realistic load acting on the wind turbine
assumed to have an infinite number of blades.
blade is complicated due to irregular shape of
A correction factor known as the Prandtl’s tip
the aerofoil and varying air pressure
loss factor is taken into account.
throughout the aerofoil along the span. Thus,
to have an estimate of the actual static load The BEM theory provides an iterative
acting on the rotor blade, a simplified theory procedure to determine the axial and
known as the Blade Element Momentum rotational induction factors. Estimation of the
(BEM) theory is implemented. The BEM induction factors allows us to compute the
theory combines the integral momentum aerodynamic forces per unit span which can
theory to the blade element theory. An be integrated throughout the span to find the
actuator disc model is considered in the load distributions. The local lift and drag
momentum theory and the flow is assumed to forces per unit span can be computed as
be steady, incompressible and laminar. In the

Static Response of Wind Turbine Blade under Actual Loading Effect

Figure 4: (a) Actual load acting on the rotor (b) Flap wise deformation after solution
(Hansen, 2008); tangential aerodynamic loads computed from
pL = Cl (α ) * (1 2 ) * ρVrel2 c(r ) (1) the BEM code is linearly distributed
throughout the span. The gravity load is
pD = Cd (α ) * (1 2 ) * ρV c(r )
rel maximum when the rotor is horizontal. The
These forces can be projected along the combination of above loads is applied to the
normal and tangential direction to the rotor rotor blade in ANSYS as shown in Figure.
plane to obtain the flap wise and edgewise 4(a).The actual loading condition causes the
aerodynamic forces. These are; rotor to bend mainly in the flap wise direction
=pN pL cos φ + pD sin φ (2) as shown in Figure. 4(b).Thus, for the design
=pT pL sin φ − pD cos φ (4) of wind turbines, the aerofoils and twist
orders which give the minimum flap wise
Same aerofoil profile and twist variation is deformations are considered to be better.
implemented in BEM code, as used in Maximum deformations for S821 aerofoil
modelling to compute the actual aerodynamic with different order of twist variations is
loads acting on rotor blade. given in Table 2. It has been observed that
the linear twist distribution for the aerofoils
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION showed better results compared to the other
A realistic 9.2 m long NPS-100 rotor blade order of twist variations for S821 profile.
which uses NREL S821 aerofoil with loading Furthermore, the blade having constant twist
at tip is chosen as a case study for validation. throughout the span produces least tangential
The span wise chord variation is shown in force and thus least power. Also, the flap
Figure.2.The results obtained show a good wise deformations for the constant twist are
agreement with the results previously somewhat higher compared to the other twist
reported in literature and are shown in Table order variations.
1.In the present work, three different
aerofoils vizS821, S825 and NACA2412 has CONCULSION
been analyzed for different order of A realistic rotor blade having 9.2m span and
polynomial for twist variations along the span different material layup along the span has
(Figure. 3)subjected to actual loading. The been modelled and analysed in ANSYS.
actual load consists of the aerodynamic (flap Different order of polynomials for twist
wise and edgewise), centrifugal and gravity variation along the span has been
loads. The centrifugal load for each blade implemented. The blades were subjected to
elements is computed from the mass distribution realistic loading computed from the BEM
for each section. The actual normal and theory. The effects of twist variation are

Choudhury et al.

Table 1: Validation of tip displacement

Loading UX (mm) UY (mm)
Conditions (Cardenas et. al., 2012) Present study (Cardenas et. al., 2012) Present study
Flapwise 37.2 37.938 309 311.95
Edgewise 89.6 95.111 37.2 37.714

Table 2: Maximum deformations for S821 aerofoil for different order of twist variations
Twist Variation Flapwise (mm) Edgewise (mm) Axial (mm) Twist (rad)
Constant 408.603 -3.839 4.588 0.018773
Linear 340.194 -33.089 4.231 -0.033069
Quadratic 365.879 -34.022 4.113 -0.031732
Cubic 383.7 -29.839 4.214 -0.030853
Fourth order 416.809 -23.539 4.606 -0.04277
appreciable on the maximum deformations. Koh W X M Ng E Y K 2016 Effects of
The blade with linear order of twist variation Reynolds number and different tip loss
produced lower flap wise and edge wise models on the accuracy of BEM applied to
deflection. The tangential force produced tidal turbines as compared to
with linear twist variation is also higher and experiments Ocean Engineering 111 104-
thus the blade will generate more power. The 115.
constant twist rotor produced the maximum Lee Y J Jhan Y T Chung C H 2012 Fluid–
flap wise deflection and the least tangential structure interaction of FRP wind turbine
force which is not desirable. blades under aerodynamic effect
Composites Part B: Engineering 43(5)
Berg J Resor B 2012 Numerical Locke J Valencia U 2004 Design studies for
manufacturing and design tool (NuMAD twist-coupled wind turbine blades Sandia
V2. 0) for wind turbine blades: User’s Report SAND2004-0522.
guide Sandia National Laboratories
Albuquerque NM Technical Report No. Mc Kittrick L R Cairns D S Mandell J
SAND2012-728. Combs D C Rabern D A Van Luchene D
V 2001 Analysis of a Composite Blade
Cardenas D Escarpita A A Elizalde H Design for the AOC 15/50 Wind Turbine
Aguirre J J Ahuett H Marzocca P Probst O Using a Finite Element Model Sandia
2012 Numerical Validation of a finite Report Sandia National Laboratories
element thin-walled beam model of a SAND 2001–1441.
composite wind turbine blade Wind
Energy 15 203-223. Singh S K Sharma T Murari V Shukla K
K2015 Effect of airfoil shape and taper
Cox K Echtermeyer A 2012 Structural design along the blade span on static and dynamic
and analysis of a 10MW wind turbine behaviour of wind turbine blades
blade Energy Procedia 24 194-201. Proceeding of 2nd Indian Conference on
Hamdi H Mrad C Hamdi A Nasri R 2014 Applied Mechanics (INCAM 2015)230-
Dynamic response of a horizontal axis 235 IIT Delhi India July 2015.
wind turbine blade under aerodynamic Staino A Basu B Nielsen S R 2012 Actuator
gravity and gyroscopic effects Applied control of edgewise vibrations in wind
Acoustics 86 154-164. turbine blades Journal of Sound and
Hansen M O L 2008 Aerodynamics of wind Vibration 331(6) 1233-1256.
turbines Earthscan Book Co 2 45-54.

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Supreme Engicons, Mumbai, India

Abstract: This paper discusses about Composite framing system consisting of steel
beams acting interactively with metal deck-concrete slab and concrete encased
composite columns, which has been as a viable alternative to the conventional steel
or reinforced concrete system in the high-rise construction. It also talks about its
advantages and construction methods. Composite structure is made with the help of
composite beams, composite slabs and composite columns which is different from
the conventional ones. To support this information some images and few examples
have been given.
Keywords: Composite beam; composite slab; composite column.

INTRODUCTION number of storeys can be added and the

Construction time of Composite Structure is
In the old era the design of a building, the
very less as compared to construction time
choice was normally between a concrete
of R.C.C which will result in appreciable
structure and a masonry structure. But the
saving in labour cost.
failure of many multi-storeyed and low-rise
R.C.C. and masonry buildings due to COMPOSITE MATERIALS
earthquake has forced the structural
engineers to look for the alternative method The most upcoming composite material in
of construction. Use of composite or hybrid India is Steel- Concrete. Both the materials
material is of particular interest, due to its are different from one another in all aspects
significant potential in improving the but they also complete one another when
overall performance through rather modest they are used together like concrete is
changes in manufacturing and efficient in compression and steel in tension,
constructional technologies. concrete encasement restrain steel against
buckling, protection against fire and
Composite materials are formed by the corrosion and steel brings ductility into the
combination of two or more materials that structure.
retain their respective characteristics when
combined together to achieve properties ADVANTAGES
(physical, chemical, etc.) that are superior to
those of individual constituents. Steel Concrete Composite structure benefits
in following ways Faster construction for
The composite construction was found to be maximum utilization of rolled and/or
more economical than Reinforced Concrete fabricated components (structural steel
Construction in ways like the total weight of members) and hence quick return of the
super structure was found to be very less for invested capital, Quality assurance of the
Composite Construction than in case of steel material , Ability to cover large
R.C.C which will result in lighter footing column free area in buildings and longer
for same number of stories in Composite span for Bridges/flyovers, better seismic
Structure or in case of equivalent footing as resistance, reduced beam depth reduces the
for Reinforced Concrete Construction, more

* Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 95

Suresh Sahu

story height and consequently the cost of Advantages of constructing in steel: High
cladding in a building and lowers the cost of ratio between bearing capacity and weight,
embankment in a flyover (due to lower prefabrication and high accuracy.
height of embankment). Cost of formwork Its disadvantages are low fire resistance and
is lower compared to RCC construction, need of higher educated personal.
Easy structural repair/ modification/
maintenance. Reductions in overall weight Comparing these two methods a
of structure and thereby reduction in combination of both presents the most
foundation costs. economic way i.e. higher bearing capacity,
higher stiffness and plastic redistribution.
These make the advantages for the
composite structures. In composite
construction the two different materials are
tied together by the use of shear studs at the
interface having lesser depth which saves
the material cost considerably. Thermal
expansion (coefficient of thermal
expansion) of both, concrete and steel being
is nearly same.

Figure 1. Typical Composite Floor

Figure 2. Composite Members

Figure 3. Composite Structure Members
The elements that comprise a composite
Traditionally two counteracting methods of structure are Composite Beam, Composite
construction could be observed both Slab and Composite Column.
connected with special advantages but also
disadvantages worth mentioning. The most common type of composite beam
is one where a composite slab sits on top of
Advantages of Conventional concrete a Downstand beam, connected by the use of
construction method: Freedom of form and a through deck welded shear studs. This
shape, easy to handle and thermal form of construction offers a number of
resistance. advantages - the decking acts as external
Its disadvantages are time consuming reinforcement at the composite stage, and
shuttering and sensitive on tensile forces. during the construction stage as formwork

Steel-Concrete Composite Structure

and a working platform. It may also provide deep, in which case it is known as deep
lateral restraint to the beams during decking. Additional reinforcing bars may be
construction. Another common type of placed in the decking troughs, particularly
composite beam is one where, as with a for deep decking. The profiled decking is
traditional non-composite steel framed often designed to be continuous over two
solution, a precast concrete slab sits on top spans when acting as formwork. Composite
of the top flange of the steel beam. The slabs are normally designed to be simple
effective span range for this type of solution spanning at room temperature, but
is around 6 to 12 m, which therefore makes continuous under fire conditions.
it a competitor to a number of concrete
flooring options.
Advantages of composite beam are:
Keeping the span and loading unaltered, a
more economical steel section (in terms of
depth and weight) is adequate in composite
construction compared with conventional
non-composite construction, reduction in
beam depth and Encased steel beam sections
have improved fire resistance and corrosion. Figure 6. Re-entrant decking

Figure 7. Trapezoidal decking

Figure 4. Conventional & Innovative

composite beam

Figure 5. Types of shear connectors

Figure 8. Types of composite columns
Composite slabs comprise reinforced
concrete cast on top of profiled steel A steel-concrete composite column is a
decking, which acts as formwork during compression member, comprising either a
construction and external reinforcement at concrete encased hot-rolled steel section or
the final stage. The decking may be either a concrete filled hollow section of hot-rolled
re-entrant or trapezoidal, as shown below. steel. It is generally used as a load-bearing
Trapezoidal decking may be over 200 mm member in a composite framed structure.

Suresh Sahu

Advantages of Composite columns are

increased strength for a given cross
sectional dimensions. Increased stiffness
Good fire resistance, Corrosion protection in
encased columns, Erection of high rise
building in an extremely efficient manner.
Formwork is not required for concrete filled
tubular sections.

Figure 10. Final Executed Building

From the above information and supporting
examples it is proved that composite
structures has more advantages in
comparison to the conventional steel or
reinforced concrete system in the high-rise
construction, in ways of economy, architecture,
functionality and service and flexibility.

Panchal D R 2014 Int. Journal of
Figure 9. Final Executed Building Engineering Research and
Applications July 2014 124-138
No. of storey in the building is 55, with a
height of 202m. Ground floor area is www.steel for composite
38000sq.m and a capital expenditure is of structures.
about 145 million euro. Total time taken for Technology Information, Forecasting and
the erection was 8 months having maximum Assessment Council, Department of
speed of 2 to 2.5 storeys per week. Science and Technology website.
Over 45,000 m3 (58,900 cu yd) of concrete,
weighing more than 110,000 tonnes were
used to construct the concrete and steel
foundation, which features 192 piles buried
more than 50 m (164 ft) deep. Burj Khalifa's
construction will have used 330,000 m3
(431,600 cu yd) of concrete and 39,000
tonnes (43,000 ST; 38,000 LT) of steel
rebar, and construction will have taken 22
million man-hours. The amount of rebar
used for the tower is 31,400 metric tons -
laid end to end this would extend over a
quarter of the way around the world.

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore India

Abstract: An improved finite element model (FEM) of orthogonal cutting of

Idealized carbon fiber reinforced plastics (I-CFRP) is presented in this work. I-CFRP
samples captures the heterogeneity of CFRP composites, which are prepared by
embedding carbon fiber tows at different orientations in epoxy matrix with center to
center distance of 5mm. The present numerical model aims to improve the cutting
force predictions during orthogonal cutting by considering a pressure sensitive yield
criteria, Drucker-Prager yield criteria instead of commonly used von Mises yield
criteria for matrix phase and damage model for fiber breakage. For validation, cutting
forces predictions are compared with experimental data from orthogonal experiments.
Keywords: I-CFRP; Drucker-Prager yield criteria; Orthogonal cutting

INTRODUCTION Figure 1. I-CFRP samples with

FRPs are extensively used in engineering different fiber bundle orientations
applications due to their enhanced strength, [Agarwal et al. 2015]
increased stiffness, lower weight, reduction
in production costs among other benefits NUMERICAL MODELING
[Renton, 2004]. Although FRP parts are A symmetric FE model was developed to
made to near net shape, machining, simulate the machining response using the
operations are required during assembly. To commercial FEA software,
ensure fewer part rejections and save ABAQUS/EXPLICIT [Karlsson and
production time, it is required to understand Sorensen, 2002] (see Figure 2.). The
the complex failure mechanisms during symmetry is taken along the thickness
machining and define efficient cutting direction of work piece. The FE mesh for
parameters which eliminate part damage. fiber bundles and matrix is constructed using
Typical machining damage mechanisms eight-noded linear brick elements with
include fiber breakage, matrix cracking, fiber reduced integration (C3D8R). The tool is
pull-outs & interface debonding, assumed to be a rigid surface and is
delamination, etc. constructed using three-dimensional rigid
elements (R3D4) that are constrained to a
reference point to apply tool displacement.

*Author for Correspondence: 99

Kubher and Gururaja

The Quadratic stress-based criteria was used

to model matrix damage initiation in matrix
material [Camanho, 1999, Davila, 1993]. The
damage initiation criteria is given by:
2 2 2
 < t n >   t s   tt 
  +  +  = 1 (4)
 tno   tso   tto 
Figure 2. Orthogonal machining FE The damage evolution was modeled using
model [Agarwal 2014] Benzeggagh - Kenane (BK) law
[Benzeggagh, 1996] with linear softening
response. The fracture energy criteria is given
The matrix material used for FEA is assumed η
G 
to obey Drucker-Prager yield criterion [Chen, Gc =G + (G − G )  s 
n (5)
1988] to behave like elastic- plastic (i.e.,  Gt 
work hardening) with time-independent
response. The yield function is given by:
φ (σ ij ) = σ e + σ m tan α − (1 − tan α )σ c = 0 (1)
such that,
m −1
tan α = 3 (2)where m is expressed in
m +1
terms of yield stress in tension and
compression as:
m= (3) The Drucker- Figure 4. Stress/Strain curves on
compressive tests (neat resins) [Fiedler
Prager material parameters for epoxy were 2001]
evaluated using the uni-axial tension and
compression test data conducted by Fiedler et INTERFACE DEBONDING
al. shown in Figure 3. and 4. respectively. The behavior of fiber-matrix interface is
modeled using Cohesive Zone Modeling
(CZM) [Hillerborg, 1976]. The damage onset
is initiated when the stress at the interface
region reaches a critical value known as the
cohesive strength followed by damage
evolution which is based on fracture
mechanics approach i.e., energy release rate
or displacement criteria. The interface
properties are shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Interface element properties
Figure 3. Stress/Strain curves on [Camanho, 2001]
tensile tests (neat resins) (Fiedler, 2001)
tno tto = tso Gnc Gtc = Gsc

Orthogonal Cutting Process Modeling of Idealised CFRPs


FIBER BREAKAGE In present numerical model, pressure

sensitivity in matrix material is included by
The fiber bundles were modeled as an using Drucker-Prager yield criteria to
orthotropic material. The orthotropic material simulate orthogonal machining . Preliminary
properties are shown in Table 2. The fiber cutting force predictions for matrix cracking
breakage occurring during machining process only, i.e., the tool just in contact with fiber
is modeled using a damage initiation criteria are presented for 900 fiber orientation. Figure
based on ultimate tensile strength of carbon
6.shows the comparison of cutting force
fiber bundles followed by element deletion.
between numerical predictions and
Table 2. Carbon fiber material properties experimental studies. There seems to be some
[Camanho, 2011] improvement in cutting force predictions due
to the use of pressure sensitive yield criteria
E11 E22 = E33 G12 = G13 G23 υ11 = υ13 υ23 as compared to von Mises yield criteria.
Moving ahead, the Drucker-Prager material
235 14 28 5.6 0.2 0.25
parameters will be evaluated for the material
Elastic modulus units in MPa
system used in the experimental studies. In
addition, complete cutting force predictions
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS similar to orthogonal experiments [Agarwal,
For work piece, the bottom face is rigidly 2015] for all fiber bundle orientations i.e., 00
fixed (displacements and rotations are set to , 450 , 900 and 1350 will be presented.
zero). The front and rear face is constrained
along the cutting direction. The tool
displacement along the cutting direction is
specified using the reference point with all
other displacements and rotations
constrained. The boundary conditions
similar to above is used in earlier studies
[Nayak 2004, Rao 2007, Venu 2007].Figure
5.shows the boundary conditions.

Figure 6. Cutting force comparisons

ABAQUS theory manual version 6.3
Pawtucke Hibbitt Karlsson and
Sorensen Inc. 2002.
Agarwal H Amaranath A Jamthe Y Gururaja
S 2015 An Investigation of Cutting
Figure 5. Orthogonal model with Mechanisms and Strain Fields during
boundary condition (Benzeggagh 1996) Orthogonal Cutting in CFRPs

Kubher and Gururaja

Machining Science and Technology 19 In AIP Conference Proceddings 712

416–439. 327-331.
Agarwal H Gururaja S 2014 Modeling of Rao G Mahajan P and Bhatnagar N 2007
orthogonal cutting of Idealized FRP Micro-mechanical modeling of
composites, Proceedings of ASME 2014 machining of FRP composites–cutting
International Mechanical Engineering force analysis Composites Science and
Congress & Exposition (IMECE 2014) Technology 67(3) 579–593.
Montreal Canada 14-20. Renton W Olcott D Roeseler W Batzer R
Benzeggagh M and Kenane M 1996 Baron W and Velicki A 2004 Future of
Measurement of mixed-mode flight vehicle structures Journal of
delamination fracture toughness of Aircraft 41 986–998.
unidirectional glass/epoxy composites Venu Gopala Rao G Mahajan P and
with mixed-mode bending apparatus Bhatnagar N 2007 Machining of UD-15
Composites Science and Technology GFRP composites chip formation
56(4) 439–449. mechanism Composites Science and
Camanho P and de Moura M 2001 Technology 67(11) 2271–2281.
Simulation of interlaminar damage
using decohesion elements NOMENCLATURE
SIMULATION 501 1214.
Gnc Critical Fracture energy in normal
Camanho P and Matthews F 1999 direction (Mode I)
Delamination onset prediction in
Gsc Critical Fracture energy in first shear
mechanically fastened joints in
direction (Mode II)
composite laminates Journal of
Composite Materials 33(10)906–927. Gtc Critical Fracture energy in second
shear direction (ModeII)
Chen W F Han D J 1988 Plasticity for
structural engineers Springer-Verlag tno Normal Interfacial Strength
New York Inc 94-95.
tso Shear Interfacial Strength in 1-
Davila C G and Johnson E R 1993 Analysis direction
of delamination initiation in postbuckled
dropped-ply laminates AIAA journal tto Shear Interfacial Strength in 2-
31(4) 721–727. direction
Fiedler B Hojo M Ochiai S Schulte K and β Cohesive parameter used in B-K law
Ando M 2001 Failure behavior of an
σe von Mises equivalent stress
epoxy matrix under different kinds of
static loading Composites Science and σm Hydrostatic stress
Technology 61(11)1615–1624.
Hillerborg A Mod´eer M and Petersson P-E σc Compressive yield strength
1976 Analysis of crack formation and
σt Tensile yield strength
crack growth in concrete by means of
fracture mechanics and finite elements, α Pressure sensitivity index
Cement and concrete research 6(6)
Nayak D Singh I Bhatnagar N and Mahajan P
2004 An analysis of machining induced
damages in FRP composites: a
micromechnics finite element approach

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of civil engineering, IIT Roorkee, India

Abstract: The inherent high specific strength and stiffness of FRP increased their
application in various engineering fields. Further, the tailoring ability of physical and
mechanical properties helps to meet the specific design requirements. Meantime, the box-
beam applications also have been increased due to their high torsional rigidity. The
combination of FRP and box-beam is ideal for lightweight bridges. But, being a thin-
walled structure, stability is governing the design. In the FRP box-beam two type of
buckling is possible, i.e. Flange and web. To study the flange buckling, a lot of
researchers have applied the uniform compression load over the panel edges. But, when
panels become a part of the beam the state of stress will be changed which finally affect
the buckling behaviour. The number of works carried out for flange buckling behaviour
as a part of beam is meager. In this paper, flange buckling behaviour of simply supported
box-beams subjected to lateral load has been studied with the help of finite element tool
‘ANSYS 15’ by changing geometry and fiber orientation of various elements. Attempts
are made to extract various trends which are affecting the buckling behaviour; it will be
helpful to the designer.
Keywords: Flange-buckling; FRP box-beam; Stability problem.

INTRODUCTION box beam increased the performance of

bridges, but being a thin-walled structure the
Fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) applications
design is often governed by stability.
have been increased in the various engineering
Although, having many advantages, FRP has
fields i.e. civil, aerospace and marine because
an orthotropic nature because it is fabricated
of their high strength, stiffness, corrosion
by stacking a number of lamina with various
resistance and design flexibility. The main
orientations in the thickness direction, and it
advantage of FRP is elastic tailoring; it helps to
make the design very involved. The study
achieve the specific design requirements by
related with buckling of FRP plate and various
selecting appropriate fiber orientation, ply
FRP shapes already attracted many researchers
stacking sequence and blending material.
attention. The proposed mathematical model
While, box beam applications also have
tends to be implicit and computationally
increased in the various engineering fields,
expensive. Some explicit and simple model
especially in civil and aerospace due to their
also proposed by the researchers, but those are
inherent high torsional rigidity and aesthetic
limited to particular loading and boundary
appearance. The combination of both FRP and

*Author for Correspondence: Email: 103

Kasiviswanathan and Upadhyay

The discrete plate method is the simplest As aforementioned many researchers have
approach to find the local buckling strength of studied the buckling of plates with various
various FRP shapes. In that, various element of unloaded edge boundary restraints and
FRP shapes treated as an individual plate and different type of load to understand the
analyzed with idealized and appropriate buckling behaviour of various FRP shapes.
boundary restraints from the adjacent plate. Some of them have studied the flange buckling
Under plate loaded by linearly varying in-plane behaviour of various FRP shapes with
load, Lopatin and Morozov (2011) studied consideration of rotational restraints, but they
with one unloaded edge is free and other is treated flange and web element as an
clamped. Zhong and Gu (2007) studied with individual plate, but when it is a part of
unloaded edges are clamped and others are structure the state of stress will be changed and
simply supported. Qiao and Shan (2005) it will affect the buckling behaviour. In this
studied various boundary restraint of unloaded paper, parametric study based on finite element
edges rotationally restraint (RR) and analysis has been conducted by changing the
rotationally free (RF) under uniform geometry and fiber orientation of various
compression load. Qiao et al. (2001) studied elements. In addition, attempt is made to
various boundary and elastic restraint extract various trends which are affecting the
condition under uniform compression and in- buckling behaviour of beam, it will helpful to
plane shear load. Housner and Stein (1975) the designer.
have studied the simply supported and clamped
plate under shear and compression load. They MODEL GEOMETRY
developed the buckling equation by using In this step, geometry of various element of
newly developed trigonometric finite- box-beam has been defined. The length and
difference method. Stroud and Agranoff (1976) cross section details of box beam as shown in
have studied the hat-stiffened and corrugated Figure 1.
panel subjected to longitudinal compression
and shear loading. Kollar (2003) developed the
explicit closed-form solutions to obtain the
buckling strength of various FRP shapes based
on proposed formula by past researchers under
axial load and bending. Kuehn et al. (2014)
have developed the analytical model to analyze Figure 1. Schematic view of the analyzed
various FRP shapes under compressive load girders
with consideration of shear deformation
effects. The developed model is based on first- NEED FOR STUDY
order shear deformation theory. They
The study of box-beam gives an opportunities
employed classical Reissner-Mindlin plate
to study the buckling behaviour of flange of
theory to analyze various FRP shapes.
the beam under true state of stress of box
Additionally, they used Rayleigh-Ritz method
beams. The simulation of these things is not so
to find the web and flange buckling load. Liu
easy in isolated plate study.
et al. (2014) have developed the analytical
In present study geometry of box-beam as well
model for plate with rotational restraint unload
as fiber orientation in various elements are
edge boundary restraints under combined in-
varied. During these studies geometrical
plane shear and linearly varying load. The
parameters of box-beam i.e. width and
influence of rotational restraint on buckling
thickness are varied along with variation of
load is also shown with the help of parametric
fiber orientation in flange and webs. Three
Numerical Studies on Flange Buckling Behaviour of FRP Box-Beams

fiber orientation 0°, ±45° and 90° are flexural stiffness of the flange. Further, there is
considered to cover extreme cases of a major increase in buckling stress where
orthotrophy. flange fiber orientation kept as constant and
web fiber orientation is increased from 0° to
EFFECT OF FIBER ORIENTATION 90°. This shows the effect of rotational
Fiber orientation plays very significant role in restraint offered by web to flange. Web with
deciding strength and stiffnesses properties of 90° fiber orientation gives better rotational
the laminate. Buckling depends on stiffness restraint and as a result major increase in
parameters so it gets affected substantially by buckling stress can be observed.
change of fiber orientation in flange of box

Web fiber orientation (θw)

Flange buckling stress (σb,f)
] ]
beams. Further, the state of stress in various
elements will also be affected by change in 8.0
fiber orientation in various elements of box- 6.0
beam and buckling stress depends on the state ]
of stress of the element. The variation in the 4.0
state of stress of FRP box-beam with change in 2.0
fiber orientation of flange of the beam is
shown in Figure.2, considerable variation in 0.0 0

state of stress can be observed. In Figure.2, 0 45 90

two extreme fiber orientation i.e. 0° and 90°
are considered in flange. While fiber Flange fiber orientation (θf)
orientation in flange (90°) and over all
geometry are kept as constant Figure.3, shows Figure 3.Flange buckling stress (σ b,f )
the effect of web and flange fiber orientations versus flange fiber orientation (θ f ) for
on buckling stress of flange of FRP box- different web orientation (θ w )
a) b)
θw - 0º
4.50 3.96
Flange buckling stress

3.50 3.30
2.50 3.05

0 45 90
Flange fiber orientation (θf)

Figure 4. Buckling stress (σ b,f ) versus

Figure 2. Contour plot - X axis - flange fiber orientation (θ f ) for different
Bending Stress variation: θ w - a) 0°; b) slenderness ratio of flange by web (δ)
It can be observed that change in fiber EFFECT OF GEOMETRY
orientation of flange from 0° to 90° brings a
substantial increase in buckling stress as the For δ =2.14, change in fiber orientation of
compression buckling load of panels is very flange from 0° to 90°, increases buckling stress
sensitive to both transverse and longitudinal slightly however for δ=3, change in fiber
orientation brings considerable change in

Kasiviswanathan and Upadhyay

buckling stress. Further, it shows that with compression and shear panels NASA TN
increase in δ buckling stress increases due to D-7996.
rotational restraint provided by web to flange. Stroud W J and Agranoff N 1976 Minimum-
Figure. 4, shows the influence of slenderness mass design of filamentary composite
of flange/web ratio (δ). panels under combined loads: design
procedure based on simplified buckling
equations NASA TN D-8257.
In the present work web buckling behaviour of
Kollar LP 2003 Local buckling of fiber
FRP box-beam was studied. Numerical studies
reinforced plastic composite structural
carried out by using ‘ANSYS 15’. True state of
members with open and closed Cross
stress and boundary conditions of web of FRP
Sections Journal of structural
box-beams can be simulated easily by this
engineering 129 1503-1513.
approach. The results clearly brings out the
significance of fiber orientation in various Kuehn T et al 2014 Local buckling of shear-
elements of box-beam as well as the deformable laminated composite beams
significance of rotational restraint provided by with arbitrary cross-sections using
web to flange buckling. discrete plate analysis Composite
Structures 113 236-248.
REFERENCES Liu Q et al 2014 Buckling analysis of
Lopatin A V and Morozov E V 2011 Buckling restrained orthotropic plates under
of the SSCF rectangular orthotropic plate combined in-plane shear and axial loads
subjected to linearly varying in-plane and its application to web local buckling
loading Composite Structures 93 1900- Composite Structures 111 540-552.
Zhong H and Gu C 2007 Buckling of
symmetrical cross-ply composite bf, bw - width of the flange and web
rectangular plates under a linearly
varying in-plane load Composite δ - Slenderness ratio of flange and
Structures 80 42-48. web

Qiao P and Shan L 2005 Explicit local q - Uniform lateral pressure load of
buckling analysis and design of fiber- beam
reinforced plastic composite structural θf, θw - Fiber orientation of flange and
shapes Composite Structures 70 468-483. web
Qiao et al 2001 Local buckling of composite t f ,t w - Thickness of the flange and web
FRP shapes by discrete plate analysis
σ b,f - Flange buckling stress of flange
Journal of structural engineering 127
245-255. E1, E2, - Lamina modulus
G 12
Housner J M and Stein M 1975 Numerical
analysis and parametric studies of the υ 12 , υ 21 - Lamina major and minor poison
buckling of composite orthotropic ratio

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Advanced Material Laboratory, Academy Of Scientific And Innovative Research, CSIR- SERC,
Taramani, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India
Computational Structural Mechanics Group, Academy Of Scientific And innovative Research, CSIR-
SERC, Taramani, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India

Abstract: In this paper, analytical and finite element model has been validated with
experimental study on flexural behaviour of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Composite
(BFRC) sandwich panel subjected to two point loading. The sandwich panel
comprises of top and bottom skin, both composed of BFRC mix and flanges of profile
sheet entwined together to act as composite, whereas the core is constituted by the
web portion of profile sheet. For the analytical study, model has been proposed
adapting relative stiffness as in Euler bending theory. The finite element model has
been created as elasto plastic model along with interaction property using cohesion
and friction. The results from the finite element study and analytical model have been
compared with the experimental results of BFRC sandwich panel and are found to be
in good agreement. The model proposed can be generalised for sandwich panels
pertaining to same configuration and test setup.
Keywords: BFRC; profile sheet; skin; core; composite; bending equation;
relative stiffness; finite element; elasto-plastic model.

INTRODUCTION studied (Toma et al, 1993), (Yu, 2000).

Effect of adhesive joint between the
In the present study, Basalt fiber reinforced honeycomb core and face sheet on the load
composite (BFRC) sandwich panel (1500 × transfer and static response of sandwich panel
650 ×70 mm) was designed to act like a has been investigated through finite element
flexural member having both strength and models (Burton, 1997). Experimental study
ductility. BFRC sandwich panel comprises of has been done for whole shear wall system
top and bottom skin, both composed of subjected to monotonic and cycling loading
BFRC mix (Raj et. al, 2014), and flanges of related with the behaviour of screwed
profile sheet entwined together to act as connection with a self-drilling screw,
composite, whereas the core is constituted by scotched connection using a bi-component
web portion of profile sheet. structural adhesive, bonded connection using
For any composite sandwich panel, a bi-adhesive band, mixed connection with
connection mechanism used to connect skin both screws and the bi-adhesive bands
to the core ensures composite behaviour. (Mattes, 1999).
Different types of fastening techniques In BFRC sandwich panel, connection is
encompassing on mechanical fasteners, achieved as internal bonding (adhesion)in top
welding and adhesive bonding have been skin by cast-in situ concreting and as external

* Address of correspondence: E-mail:

Raj et al.

bonding (shear interaction)in the bottom skin experimental stress strain data of material
by attaching prefabricated segment to profile used in the panel.
sheet (Prabha et. al, 2013) using self-tapping Compositeness in the panel has been
screws(Wei et. al, 2012).The prefabricated modelled in terms of cohesion and friction at
segment is made of BFRC mix (Raj et. al, the interface between of BFRC segment and
2014) reinforced with basalt mesh. profile sheet. The FE model (Top and Bottom
Combination of both prefabrication and cast- partial tied) assuming 70% friction in both
in-situ construction technique has been top and bottom skin was found to depict the
adopted in aiming at reduced construction behaviour as obtained in the experiment. The
cost and time. A detailed and cross sectional deflected profile of the panel is shown in
view of BFRC panel is shown in Figure 1. Figure 2, for load of 36kNand 10 mm
deflection is compared with experimental
behaviour of BFRC sandwich panel (Raj et.
al, 2013) as shown in Figure 3.

Figure1 Detailed View of BFRC Sandwich

Figure 2Deflection Profile
The numerical and analytical studies have ANALYTICAL STUDY
been carried out on the BFRC panel to assess
the efficiency of the connections i.e. external The analytical model is based on relative
connection mechanism (self tapping screws) stiffness concept (IS-456, 2000), where
as well as internal connection mechanism change in flexural stiffness is based on
(adhesion bonding) in ensuring full change in effective area of the panel
composite action of sandwich panel under depending on different strain limit. Till the
flexural behaviour tensile strain limit of BFRC mix (140µstrain),
full section of panel is assumed to be un-
FINITE ELEMENT STUDY cracked (fully composite). For full composite
behaviour, the composite section is converted
For the BFRC panel, finite element (FE)
into equivalent section of stiffness equal to
study was conducted in which 3-Dimensional
the stiffness of the least stiff material i.e
8 noded brick element (C3D8R) was used.
BFRC mix material constituting the panel. In
FE model was created reflecting the flexural
the compressive strain limit of BFRC mix
behaviour under two point loading. Non-
(140 to 2000µstrain), bottom skin of the
linear solution technique based on direct
panel is assumed to be failed making the
method "Full Newton Solution Technique"
panel as partial composite, the composite
has been used to get the desired results. For
section is converted into combination of
this study, a total of 61061 C3D8R elements
equivalent least i.e., BFRC mix and
with aspect ratio in the range of 5 to 10 were
equivalent most stiff material i.e steel, such
created. Material nonlinearity was considered
that depth of the section and strain
in the elastic-plastic model using
compatibility are ensured. After the
Theoretical Method to Predict Flexural Behavior of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Composite (BFRC)
Sandwich Panel under Flexure

compressive limiting strain of BFRC mix d2y

K= = Curvature
(>2000µstrain), steel section in the panel is dx2
assumed to be yielded, and both top, bottom 𝜖 = Strain
skin are assumed to be failed, composite
y = Neutral axis depth
section is assumed to be deboned and panel
shows non-composite behaviour. Y = Deflection corresponding to load P at
any length x
For the equivalent composite section, load
equation has been derived from simple
bending theory (Euler) as given by Eq(1)
𝐾′′ ×𝑓(∈)×𝑓5 (𝐼) The numerical model is found to have better
𝑃= (1) correlation with experimental behaviour of
𝑓4 (𝑦)
′′ 𝐾4 ×𝐾5 the panel as compared in Figure 3, indicating
𝐾 = (2)
𝑓(𝐿) the behaviour of the panel was due to the
P = Load taken by composite section partial frictional interaction of the top and
bottom skin with the core in the elastic
f(𝜖)=Strain value depending on compressive region. In numerical studies, a semi rigid
and tensile strain limit connection was provided which also defines
f5 (I) = Moment of inertia of equivalent connection so opted in making of panel is not
composite section as per the limiting strain sufficient to provide full rigid connection.
value about neutral axis depth In the analytical model, in the elastic tensile
f4 (y) = Neutral axis depth of equivalent strain limit of BFRC mix its corresponding
composite section from tensile /compressive load is computed as 8.10 kN for a deflection
region in tensile/compressive limiting strain of 0.76 mm as denoted by region OB as
respectively shown in Figure 3. In the elastic compressive
strain limit of BFRC mix i.e 140 to 2000
K 4 = Constant depending on loading
microstrains, maximum load taken by the
arrangement and support conditions.
panel at strain of 2000 micro strain is
K 5 = Chord modulus of elasticity of material computed to be 79.5 kN at deflection of
for which strain is being considered 13.95 mm. Corresponding to the
f(L) = Length of composite section experimentally obtained maximum load of
26.33kN (Raj et. al, 2013), at strain of 660
Deflection 'δ' at mid length for equivalent micro strains, load is computed to be 26.29
composite section has been computed kN at deflection of 4.61 mm as marked by
assuming vertical deflection 'Y' as a function region BC as shown in Figure 3.After 660
of length variable 'x' in terms of sinusoidal micro strains itself, both top skin and bottom
function. Corresponding to curvature K, mid- skin (BFRC mix), is assumed to be
deflection δ is computed, as given by Eq (6) debonded. For post peak behaviour of BFRC
sandwich panel, BFRC mix has been
𝑌 = 𝛿𝑠𝑖𝑛 (3) assumed to be completely yielded and the
𝐾= (4) ductility in the panel was contributed by
2 profile sheet alone. At 2000 micro strain,
𝐿 𝑑𝑦 𝜋2
𝐾 �𝑎𝑡 𝑥 = � = =𝛿 (5) load has been calculated as 21.46 kN with its
2 𝑑𝑥 2 𝐿2
𝐾 ×𝐿2 corresponding deflection as 14.64mm marked
𝛿= (6)
𝜋2 by point E in the graph as shown in Figure 3.
After 2000 micro strain, considering elastic
δ = Deflection corresponding to load P at mid
plastic behaviour, stress in the profile sheet is
constant and taken as f y = 279 MPa. At 3500
x = length variables micro strain Load has been calculated as
14.97 kN and its corresponding deflection

Raj et al.

was calculated as 25.63 mm which has been Mechanics Group, Advanced Material Lab.
marked by point F in the graph. For the same This paper is being published with the kind
load of 14.97 kN, deflection was computed to permission of the Director, CSIR-SERC
be 43.94 mm for 6000 micron strain which
has been marked by point G in the graph. REFERENCES
Through analytical model, full composite Burton W S & Noor A K 1997 Structural
behaviour shown by OBCEFG of Figure 3 is analysis of the adhesive bond in a
predicted till the failure of the panel based on honeycomb core sandwich panel Finite
change in effective cross sectional area as per Elements in analysis and design 26(3)
the panel behaviour in the strain limiting 213-227.
I.S 456-2000 Indian Standard Plain And
30 Reinforced Concrete - Code of Practise
(Fourth Revision).
25 Matteis De G & Landolfo R 1999 Structural
behaviour of sandwich panel shear
20 E walls: An experimental analysis
Materials and structures 32 (5)331-341.
Load kN

F G Prabha P Marimuthu V Saravanan M Palani
10 Experimental Values G S Lakshmanan N Senthil R 2013
B Effect of confinement on steel-concrete
5 FE Model (Top and
Bottom partial tied)
composite light-weight load-bearing
Analytical model 2 wall panels under compression Journal
0 O of Constructional Steel Research 81 11-
0 20 40 60
Deflection mm
Raj Smriti 2013 Development of Basalt Fiber
Reinforced Sandwich Panel M. Tech.
Figure 3 Numerical& Analytical Model Thesis Academy of Scientific and
Vs Experiment Innovative Research CSIR-SERC
Raj Smriti Smitha Gopinath Nagesh R Iyer
Through analytical and numerical studies, it 2014 Compressive behavior of basalt
can be concluded that bonding mechanism so fiber reinforced composite International
opted in making of BFRC panel (internal Journal of Structural Analysis & Design
bonding at top skin by cast-in situ and 1(1) 49-53.
external bonding in the bottom skin through Toma A Sedlacek G & Weynand K
self-tapping screws) was not able to ensure 1993Connections in cold-formed steel
full composite behaviour inside the panel. Thin-walled structures 16(1) 219-237.
The connection mechanism has to be
improved to increase the flexural capacity of Wei Lu Zhongcheng Ma Pentti Makelainen
the panel. Although, with the adopted Jyri Outinen 2012 Behaviour of shear
connections and construction methodology connectors in cold-formed steel sheeting
resulted into flexural strength of 26 kN with at ambient and elevated temperature
reduction in construction cost and time. Thin Walled Structures 61229-238.
Yu W W& La Boube R A 2000 Cold-formed
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT steel design John Wiley & Sons.
The author's thank the support rendered by
the staff of Computational Structural

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Aerospace Engineering, IIT Bombay

Abstract: An asymptotically exact cross-sectional model coupled with geometrically

non-linear one-dimensional (1D) theory of modeling delamination in pretwisted,
initially curved and anisotropic strips is proposed. This model is based on the
dimensional reduction of laminated shell theory to nonlinear 1D theory using the
variational asymptotic method. Delamination is included in the model by following
the sublaminate approach. As an application, the ability of the model to capture the
trapeze effect, in healthy and delaminated strip, is demonstrated and the results are
compared with experimental observations. The stiffness terms obtained from the
nonlinear analysis was used in the dynamic analysis. As a first step, only linear
stiffness quantities are used within the 1D linear finite element method to investigate
the modal behavior of the strip. The utility of the model is demonstrated by
determining the natural frequencies and mode shapes for a healthy and delaminated
anisotropic strip with initially curvature and pretwist.
Keywords: composite beam; delamination; dynamic analysis; finite element
method; variational Asymptotic method

INTRODUCTION problem of non-linearity coupled with

material anisotropy increases the complexity
Recent times have witnessed a paradigm shift of the design. Moreover if compounded with
in rotorcraft industry in terms of enhanced damages typical in laminated composites,
use of hingeless and bearingless rotors. The viz. delamination, matrix cracks, etc. the
hinge and bearing assemblies have been design itself turns outto be a herculean task.
replaced by composite material spindle called A delamination or matrix crack may not be
exbeams. Flex beams may be described as the visible or be barely visible to external
pretwisted anisotropic strips that possess
inspection. However, they reduce the
varying stiffness parameters along different stiffness of the structure and consequently
directions. The elastic tailoring properties of affect its load carrying ability and the modal
these composite pretwisted beams offer
behavior. In this work we focus on the effect
potential for creating significant weight of delamination on the modal behavior of a
savings making it an attractive structural pretwisted, initially curved and anisotropic
configuration. The design of such composite
strip. Numerous researchers have studied
flexible structures, however, is challenging various aspects of delamination process
owing to the non-linearity that arises due to analytically and experimentally. Most of
the presence of large displacements and
these studies were focused on either the
moderate rotations they undergo. The initiation or the propagation of delamination

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: Santosh@ 111

Salunkhe and Guruprasad

under in-plane static or fatigue loading. A theory to nonlinear 1D theory using the
considerable amount of analytical models and variational asymptotic method. Delamination
numerical techniques have also been reported is included in the model by following the
on the modal behavior of composite sublaminate approach. The _nal results from
structures with delaminations. A detailed this approach will include linear as well as
review about delamination modeling in nonlinear stiffness terms that account for the
beams and its effects on the structural delamination length and location in closed
dynamics are provided by Della and Shu form. Subsequent to the 1D analysis it is
(2007). Majority of the available possible to completely recover the 3D stress
methods/techniques can be categorized into and strain fields along with the in-plane and
two classes: (a) region approach - the out-of-plane warping fields. As a first step,
delaminated laminate is divided into sub- only linear stiffness quantities are used within
laminates or segments and the continuity the 1D linear finite element method (FEM)
conditions are imposed at the delamination that is adopted to investigate the modal
junctions, each of these sub-laminates is behavior of the strip. The utility of the model
analyzed using the equivalent single layer is demonstrated by determining the natural
theories; (b) layerwise approach - the frequencies and mode shapes of a pretwisted
laminate is modeled using the layer- wise and initially curved delaminated anisotropic
theories, which are based on piecewise, layer- strip and, where possible, compared to full
by-layer approximations of the response 3D FEM and experimental results in order to
quantities in the thickness direction, in this validate the present approach. The approach
approach delamination is modeled as an shows good agreement with experimental and
embedded layer or by introducing 3D FEM results available in the literature.
discontinuity functions in the displacement
fields. Shen and Grady (1992) have RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
performed experiments to investigate the The material and geometric properties of the
modal behavior of delaminated composite composite cantilever beam used for the
beams. They also presented an analytical purpose of validation of the present models
model based on the Timoshenko beam theory are given in the Table 1. The stacking
and the cracked beam theory. These sequence used in the analysis is (0/90) 2s .
experimental and analytical results are widely Experimental, analytical and numerical
used as benchmark values by in literature. results are available in the literature for this
More recently, Kumar et al. (2013) developed type of configuration; hence it is useful .The
a generic model of modeling partial first bending natural frequency of cantilever
delamination in composite beams and delaminated beam for the case of full width
implemented using the finite element method. delamination and for different lengthwise
In the present work, an asymptotically exact delamination at different interfaces are shown
cross- sectional model coupled with in the Figure. 1. It is seen that the bending
geometrically non-linear one-dimensional natural frequency decreases as delamination
(1D) theory of modeling partial delamination size increases, irrespective of the
in composite beams is proposed and delamination location in the composite beam.
implemented using the finite element method. Similar trends are seen from the experimental
This analytical model is based on the and the 3D FEM results shown in Figure. 1.
dimensional reduction of laminated shell It is noted that at small delamination length

Effect of Delamination Size and Location on the Dynamics of Thin Pretwisted Strip

the natural frequency predictions from the

present model and 3D FEM are in close interface 1, 5% and 0.6% for interface 2 as
agreement with the experimental compared to experimental and 3D FEM
observations. However, the predictions of simulations, respectively. The results have
natural frequencies from the present and the been validated for the other cases as well. To
3D FEM results show deviation from the demonstrate the efficacy of the present model
experimental observation for large for prediction of modal behavior of a
delamination lengths. At large delamination delaminated strip, a graphite/epoxy
length even experimental results wide scatter. composite material configuration with
Bending natural frequencies of present model properties given in the Table 1 was
are considered.
approximately within 3% and 1% for
Table 1 : Material properties
Materials E 11 (GPa) E 22 (GPa) G 12 /G 13 (GPa) ʋ 12
134.44 10.34 4.9 0.33
Geometry Length (m) Width(m) Height (m) ρ(Kg/m3)
0:127 0:0127 0:00127(per ply) 1477.46

Table 2 : Numerical results of natural frequency (Hz) along widthwise delamination for
graphite/epoxy without pretwist and initial curvature (B – Bending , T - Torsional , E –
Extensional , Tr - Transverse)

Healthy 50 % delamination 75 % delamination

Mode 3D 3D 3D %
Present % error Present % error Present
1B 11.67 11.66 0.0857 11.64 11.66 0.1718 11.55 11.66 0.9524
2B 73.33 73.13 0.2727 72.67 73.12 0.6192 72.27 73.12 1.1761
3B 206.45 204.75 0.8234 202.60 204.73 1.0513 197.83 204.73 3.4878
1TE 190.66 187.99 1.4004 156.14 154.97 0.7493 132.85 132.70 0.1129
2TE 576.32 564.16 2.1099 470.18 465.08 1.0847 400.75 398.23 0.6288
3TE 974.91 940.90 3.4885 789.57 775.65 1.7630 675.10 664.16 1.6205
1ET 3873.6 3880.3 0.1730 3698.1 3726.4 0.7653 3600.5 3647.6 1.3082
1 Tr 252.27 256.58 1.7085 237.61 238.57 0.4040 236.15 236.22 0.0296

The model was first validated by comparing with dynamic characteristics and the results
the static deformation characteristics of a obtained are compared with the results
delaminated strip made up of Winckler's type computed using 3D FEM. The comparative
study is done for various frequencies and it is
anti-symmetric layup considered in [4] (α 2 /
(α – 90) 4 / α 2 / - α 2 / (90 - α) 4 / -α 2 ). tabulated in Table 2. It is observed that the
This layup exhibits strong extensional-twist present model is able to produce the results
coupling. Later, the same model is computed
Salunkhe and Guruprasad

with fewer errors for various frequencies in delamination on the overall modal behavior
very less time frame compared to 3D FEM. of the pretwisted anisotropic strip with initial
It can be observed that performance of
material drops, and the % elongation
decreases steadily as the elongation rates are

Figure.2 First bending natural frequency

(Hz) of graphite/epoxy for different
lengthwise delamination at interface 2 in
the laminate.
Figure.1 First bending natural frequency
(Hz) of graphite/epoxy for different
lengthwise delamination at interface 1 in
the laminate. C N Della and D Shu 2007 Vibration of
delaminated composite laminates review
SUMMARY Applied Mechanics Reviews 60(1)1-20.
In this work, an attempt was made to analyze E A Armanios A Makeev and D Hooke 1996
the modal behavior of pretwisted, initially Finite-displacement analysis of
curved and anisotropic strips in the presence laminated composite strips with
of delamination. The model development was extension-twist coupling. Journal of
based on the dimensional reduction of a 3D Aerospace Engineering 9(3) 80-91.
strip to a 1D problem based on the M-HH Shen and J E Grady 1992 Free
mathematical framework of VAM. vibrations of delaminated beams AIAA
Delamination was accounted for in the model journal 30(5)1361-1370.
by following the sublaminate approach. S Keshava Kumar R Ganguli and D
Linear and nonlinear stiffness terms for the Harursampath 2013 Partial delamination
strip were derived in closed form with
modeling in composite beams using a
delamination size and location as variables. finite element method. Finite Elements
The results obtained using the framework in Analysis and Design 76 1-12.
were validated by comparing with those
available in the literature; more-over the
results were also compared with those
obtained using a commercial finite element
solver. Model predictions showed good
agreement with in both the cases. It was then
extended to investigate the effect of
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Applied Mechanics, MNNIT Allahabad, India

Abstract: Structural elements made of fibre reinforced composites have caused

considerable impact on different engineering applications. Advent of Carbon Nano
Tubes (CNT) has further increased the possibilities. Such CNT reinforced composites
(CNTRC) have the potential of becoming a good alternative for conventional fibre
reinforced composites. On the other hand, plate / panel type structures that act as
primary load bearing component in many applications, are frequently appended with
ribs / stiffeners. Hence, analysis of such structural systems, known as Stiffened Plates
/ Shells, made of CNTRC, is becoming an important issue for relevant engineering
applications. In this work, static response of different CNTRC stiffened plates is
found out using the finite element method (FEM), based on first-order shear
deformation theory (FSDT).Four types of CNTRCs, made of single-walled CNTs
dispersed into a matrix in four different type of volume fraction distribution varying
across the thickness of the plate, are considered. However, the stiffeners attached at
one side of the plate are considered to be made always of uniformly dispersed CNTs
into the matrix. The formulation developed for the stiffened-plate finite element for
this purpose, is implemented through a computer program developed in-house.
Results are validated first, for bare CNTRC plates. Then the effects of stiffening the
CNTRC plates and the effects of different parameters like CNT volume fraction,
number & dimensions of stiffener(s), plate aspect ratio etc. are brought out through
new results obtained from parametric studies.
Keywords: CNT Reinforced Composite; Stiffened Plate; Finite Element Analysis.

INTRODUCTION stiffened plate / shell structures are very

important for their widespread application as
The concept of stiffening a plate / panel type
primary load bearing components in many
structural element with one or more beam /
engineering applications. The scientific /
rib / stiffeners is quite an old idea. However,
engineering community have become
accurate analysis of such stiffened structures
equipped with some alternatives in recent
is not a trivial issue even today. Analytical
couple of decades, thanks to the development
models for closed-form solution for such
of numerical methods like the FEM. From the
stiffened plates / shells are either non-existent
material point of view, the structural
or quite scanty, to the best of these authors’
engineers are seeing a sea of changes caused
knowledge. This is perhaps due to the
due to the developments of newer advanced
inherent geometric complexity involved with
materials like fibre reinforced laminated
such structures. Analysis of such thin-walled
composites, functionally graded materials etc.

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 115

Bhar and Shakya

The advent of Carbon Nano Tubes (CNT) THEORETICAL FORMULATION

some time back has brought CNT reinforced
composites (CNTRC) as a potential The four different types of CNT distribution
alternative for conventional carbon / glass considered within the plate matrix, as per Zhu
fibre reinforced composites. Hence, finite et al (2012), are shown in Figure-1.One may
element analysis of such stiffened structures, note that amongst those types, the ‘UD’
made of different advanced materials indicates ‘uniform distribution’, whereas the
including the CNTRC, is becoming an other three types of CNT distribution makes
important prerequisite for appropriate design the plate ‘functionally graded’ (FG) through
and fabrication of such structures. the thickness, with the related Letters (V / O /
Regarding analysis of stiffened plates, one X) indicating qualitatively the types of
can find a considerable amount of literature distribution. The middle plane of the plate is
on FE analysis of such structures made of considered as the reference plane of a typical
isotropic homogeneous materials. Even, a stiffened plate system. Other assumptions
reasonable amount of literature on FE related to the formulation can be found in
analysis of fibre reinforced laminated Bhar (2011). It should be mentioned that
stiffened plates has appeared in literature. A CNT is assumed to be uniformly distributed
comprehensive picture on the developments within the stiffener matrix.
in this direction can be found in Bhar
(2011).Regarding analysis of CNTRC plates,
some literature is found to have appeared in
recent times. Zhu et al (2012) presented
bending and free vibration analysis of thin-to-
moderately thick CNTRC plates using FEM
based on FSDT. They have investigated the (a) UD (b) FG-V
static and dynamic behaviour of such
CNTRC plates on a wide range of geometric
and material configurations. Wu and Chang
(2014) presented three-dimensional buckling
analysis of simply-supported, functionally
graded CNTRC plates with surface-bonded
piezoelectric actuator and sensor layers under
(c) FG-O (d) FG-X
bi-axial compression. Zhang et al (2015)
presented nonlinear bending analysis of FG- Figure 1.Different Types of CNT
CNTRC thick plates resting on paste rnak Distribution within Plate Matrix
foundations, using an element-free Ritz
method. Further description of literature on Kinematics of Plate and Stiffener
analysis of CNTRC plates using different The spatial displacement components are
methods is escaped here for brevity. expressed in terms of the reference plane
However, one may note that, though some displacements as per standard FSDT
works on the analysis of bare (un-stiffened) kinematics, within both of the plate as well as
CNTRC plates has been published in attached stiffener domains. These
literature, work on analysis of such stiffened descriptions are escaped here for space
plates are quite scanty in literature. constraint and can be found in Bhar (2011).
In present work, static response of different Description of standard strain-displacement
CNTRC stiffened plates is found out using relations are also escaped here, for the sake
the FEM, based on FSDT. of brevity. Interested reader can found the
same in previous mentioned reference.

Stiffened Plates of CNT Reinforced Composites: Static Response using FEM

Constitutive Relations  2z  *
cnt ( z )
Vcnt ; 1 +  Vcnt ;
The well-known reduced stress-strain  h 
relations for the material behaviour is  2z  * 2 z  *
2 1 −  Vcnt and 2   Vcnt
} [Q ]{ε} (1)
{σ=  h   h 
Where the elements of the [Q] matrix are where Vcnt represents some critical volume
fraction, calculated from the mass fraction of
E11 , E22 , CNT and mass density of CNT & matrix.
Q11 = Q22 =
1 − ν 12ν 21 1 −ν 12ν 21
Finite Element Formulation
ν 21 E11 ,
Q12 = Q44 = G23 , Q55 = G13 , Q66 = G12
1 −ν 12ν 21 The stiffened plate finite element developed
and used in present work consists of the
The standard symbols used at the right hand combination of a nine noded quadrilateral
sides represent the effective material plate element and a three noded beam /
properties of the CNTRC considered. It stiffener element. Further description of the
should be mentioned that these effective same may be found in Bhar (2011).
properties are determined from those of the Finally, the standard form of discretized
constituent CNTs and the matrix used, based system of governing algebraic equations for
on Molecular Dynamics theory. the static analysis of the system may be
derived using Variational procedures as
Effective Properties of CNTRC
[K ]{d } = {F } (4)
Following Zhu et al. (2012), the effective
material properties of the CNTRC are NUMERICAL EVALUATIONS
E11 =η1Vcnt E11cnt + Vm E m
Validation (Bare CNTRC Plate):The
η2 Vcnt Vm
= cnt
+ (2) details of the problems presented here can be
E22 E22 Em found in Zhu et al(2012).The plates clamped
η3 Vcnt Vm at all edges (CCCC) are considered here.
= + Further, the materials properties considered
G12 G12cnt G m *
are for the case of Vcnt =0.11, η1 =0.149 and
whereE 11 cnt, E 22 cnt and G 12 cntindicate the η2 =0.934.The results are obtained in terms
Young’s moduli and Shear modulus of
SWCNT S , respectively. Em and Gm represent of non-dimensional central deflection (w* =
corresponding properties of the isotropic w o /h), where w o is the central deflection of
the plate.
matrix. η j (j= 1, 2, 3) represent CNT
efficiency parameters. Further, Vcnt and Vm 95 CCCC, V*CNT=0.11
Ping Zhu et. al., 2012

are the volume fractions of the CNT and FG-V


matrix, sum of which is unity at every point. Ping Zhu et. al., 2012

It is important to note that because of the Ping Zhu et. al., 2012
different CNT distributions within the matrix, FG-X
Ping Zhu et. al., 2012
as described in Figure 1, both of Vcnt and Vm
vary across the plate thickness. Expressions 0 b/h 50
of Vcnt as function of the thickness coordinate
Figure 2.Non-dimensional central
(z) for the four types of CNT distributions, in deflection (w* = w o /h) of bare CNTRC
same order as in Figure-1, are given by plates

Bhar and Shakya

The non-dimensional central deflections by Zhu et al (2012), as shown in Figure-2. It

obtained for different types of CNT is observed from Figure-2, that the present
distributions and different width to thickness results match quite closely with those from
ratios (b/h = 10, 20, 50) from present Zhu et al (2012).
computation are plotted with those provided
Table 1. Variation of non-dimensional central deflection of CNTRC stiffened platehaving
one stiffener in Y-direction, with varying geometric configurations, keeping the total
mass unchanged
Plate Non-dimensional central deflection(×10-3)
Distribution ness
(mm × mm)
1.600 0.0 × 0.0 3.703 7.257 6.608 6.682
1.562 1.5 × 0.5 3.454 6.837 6.595 7.230
1.450 3.0 × 1.0 3.344 6.339 5.223 9.244
UD 1.262 4.5 × 1.5 3.328 5.753 4.857 14.723
1.000 6.0 × 2.0 3.538 5.477 4.823 33.322
0.662 7.5 × 2.5 4.358 6.099 5.585 152.887
0.250 9.0 × 3.0 8.943 11.768 11.123 6874.083

Parametric Study (Stiffened CNTRC

In this case a square plate with single
eccentric stiffener aligned with centre line
parallel to Y-axis (Figure 3), having Vcnt
=0.11 for both plate and stiffener,is
considered. Different geometric Figure 3.Stiffened CNTRC plate
configurations, obtained varying the plate
thickness and stiffener C/S dimensions,
tokeep the total mass of CNTRC stiffened Bhar A 2011 Finite element analysis of
plates unchanged, are considered as shown in stiffened laminated composite and
Table 1. Material properties of plates and functionally graded plates using a
stiffeners are kept same. From Table-1 it is higher-order shear deformation theory
found that as there is no stiffener present in PhD Thesis IIT Kharagpur India-
the plate, CCCC and SSSS boundary 721302.
condition give minimum and maximum Wu C-P and Chang S-K2014Stability of
value. But in presence of stiffener SFSF and carbon nanotube-reinforced composite
CCCC boundary conditions give maximum plates with surface-bonded piezoelectric
and minimum values, respectively. layers and under bi-axial compression
Composite Structures 111 587–601.
CONCLUSION Zhang LW Song ZG and Liew KM 2015
Further results on the effect of presence of Nonlinear bending analysis of FG-CNT
stiffener for such CNTRC plates are being reinforced composite thick plates resting
omitted for space constraints. The same on Pasternak foundations using the
would be presented in the full paper. element-free IMLS-Ritz method
Composite Structures 128165–175.

Stiffened Plates of CNT Reinforced Composites: Static Response using FEM

Zhu P Lei Z X and Liew K M 2012Static and

free vibration analyses of carbon
nanotube reinforced composite plates
using finite element method with first
order shear deformation plate theory
Composite Structures 94 1450–1460.

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Mining Machinery Engineering, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India.

Abstract: In this paper an analysis is made on internal combustion engine piston by

observing temperature distribution in order to estimate the maximum stresses and
deformation of the piston. Finite Element analysis for thermal behaviour study of
piston is made using ANSYS for aluminium alloy piston as well as on ceramic coated
piston. It is found that the maximum surface temperature of the coated piston increases by
28% and hence thermal barrier coatings (TBC) provided by low thermal conductivity
ceramic materials on the piston head, helps to increase the thermal efficiency of the
engine as well as improves the combustion and reduces the emission.
Keywords: Engine Piston; Thermal Barrier Coating; Temperature Distribution

INTRODUCTION days to provide them suitable environment at

high operating temperature. Combustion
It is important to make an analysis of
chamber of IC engine are coated with TBC in
temperature distribution in a piston of
order to simulate the adiabatic engines as
internal combustion engine in order to
well as for possible reduction of engine
estimate the maximum stresses and
emission and brake specific fuel consumption
deformation. Aluminum alloy is generally
along with the reduction in in-cylinder heat
used for piston due to high thermal
rejection and thermal fatigue protection of
coefficient of expansion, about 80% more
underlying metallic surfaces[Muchai et al.,
than that of cylinder bore which is made up
2002; Poola et al., 1994].
of cast iron. The maximum temperature of
the piston should not exceed 66% of its
melting temperature and this limits the
temperature of the piston to around 3700C. In
real conditions the case is not similar; the
piston temperature may exceed the
permissible limit and causes the deformation
and mechanical failure of the engine.
Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC) are applied Figure 1. Different layers of thermal
on the top surface of metallic body and can barrier coating
operate at high temperature. TBC basically
Figure. 1 shows that TBCs basically
provide the components to operate at higher
comprises of four layers: the base is metal
temperature without any deformation as well
substrate then metallic bond coat, thermally
as improve their life by reducing oxidation
grown oxide, and ceramic as the topcoat. The
and thermal fatigue and hence act as an
ceramic topcoat, desirable for having very
insulator and prevents the components from
low conductivity while remaining stable at
large and prolonged heat loads [Buyukkaya,
nominal operating temperatures. The ceramic
1997; Cerit, 2011].
layer keeps the lower layers at a temperature
Internal combustion engine (IC engine) lower than the surface as it creates the largest
components are coated with TBC now these thermal gradient of the TBC.

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 120

Babu et al.

In the present work, a comparison has been

made for temperature distribution between
uncoated and coated piston. The maximum
temperature of the normal aluminum silicon
(AlSi) piston and ceramic coated piston is
being analyzed. Coating materials used are
partially oxidized zirconia with magnesium
oxide (MgZrO 3 ), mullite (3Al 2 O 3 2SiO 2 ) and
alumina (Al 2 O 3 ). It was observed that the
maximum surface temperature of coated Figure 2. Thermal circuit used for
piston is increased by 28% in comparison to analysis purpose
uncoated piston. Further the stabilized
zirconia coated piston gives the better
thermal performance in comparison to other
coating materials.

Figure 3. Different parts of the piston

In the present work, thermal behavior
investigation was made for functional graded
coatings on AlSi alloy piston material. In
order to make the analysis FEM based
software tool, namely ANSYS is used. Table
1 represent the properties of the base material
and the coating materials properties used for
analysis purpose.
Thermal circuit perspective is used to make
the thermal analysis as shown in Figure 2. R Figure 4. Temperature Distributions: (a)
symbolises the conductive and convective Uncoated Piston (AlSI alloy) and (b)
resistance, while suffix 1, 2, and 3 represents Zirconia coated piston (MgZrO 3 )
ring, oil film and liner respectively. R 4
represents the convective resistance between RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
the liner and water used for engine cooling
purpose. Conductive resistance of oil film is Finite element analysis were performed to
neglected. Top surface temperature and skirt evaluate temperature gradients of the
temperature is taken as 400oC and 110oC uncoated Aluminum alloy piston and ceramic
respectively as an initial condition, while for materials such as partially stabilized zirconia
boundary conditions, the heat transfer with magnesium oxide, Mullite and Alumina
coefficient values for crevice, piston crown coated Aluminum alloy piston. The
and skirt, as shown in Figure. 3, is taken as temperature distributions of an uncoated
230 w/m2k, 672.41 w/m2k and 179.31 w/m2k aluminum alloy piston and zirconia coated
respectively. piston are shown in Figure 4, while Figure 5

Coating Effect on Engine Piston Thermal Behaviour

shows the temperature distribution for mullite A comparative evaluation was made between
and alumina coated piston. the temperature distributions of the uncoated
aluminum alloy piston and the ceramic
coated piston. The maximum surface
temperature of the ceramic coated piston is
improved approximately 28% for zirconia
stabilized with magnesium oxide coating,
22% for mullite coating and 21% for alumina
than the uncoated piston by means of ceramic
coating. It is observed that the use of ceramic
coating for aluminum alloy piston increases
the temperature of the combustion chamber
of the engine and the thermal strength of the
base metal. Finally the combustion chamber
temperature increases the thermal efficiency
of the engine also increases.
Figure 5. Temperature Distribution: (a)
Mullite coated piston (3Al 2 O 3 2SiO 2 ) and CONCLUSION
(b) alumina coated piston (Al 2 O 3 ) From above analysis, we can conclude the
The maximum surface temperature on the following:
piston crown of the Aluminum alloy piston is • With the use of TBC maximum surface
determined as 295.86 °C. The maximum
temperature raised by 28% and hence
surface temperature on the piston crown for
zirconia coated aluminum alloy piston is helps to increase the thermal efficiency of
determined as 377.07 °C, for mullite Coating engine as well as improves combustion
it is 360.6 °C and for Alumina coating it is and reduce the emission.
357.45 °C.
• Zirconia coated piston have maximum
surface temperature in comparison to other
coating. Hence a better choice for TBC for
IC engines.

Buyukkaya E 1997 Effects of thermal barrier
coating on a turbocharged diesel engine
exhaust emissions Sakarya University
Figure 6. Comparison of surface Mechanical Engineering Department
temperature variation for uncoated and Ph. D. thesis Institute of Sciences and
coated piston Technology Turkey.
Figure 6 represents the temperature Cerit M 2011 Thermo mechanical analysis of
distribution comparison curve of uncoated a partially ceramic coated piston used in
Aluminum surface temperature of coated an SI engineSurface & Coatings
pistons is more than that of uncoated piston. Technology 205 3499–3505.
While among the coated piston the zirconia Muchai J G Kelkar A D Klett D E and
coated piston has maximum surface Jagannathan S 2002 Thermal–
temperature. Mechanical Effects of Ceramic Thermal

Babu et al.

Barrier Coatings on Diesel Engine

Piston Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 697.
Poola R B Nagalingam B Gopalakrishnan K
V 1994 Performance of Thin Ceramic
Coated Combustion Chamber with
Gasoline and Methanol as Fuels in a
Two-Stroke S I Engine SAE Paper

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Structural Engineering, Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Mumbai, India

Abstract: Mixed semi-analytical formulation for functionally graded (FG) beam

under simply supported end conditions along with general stress boundary conditions
is presented in this paper. Elastic modulus is varied according to power-law and
Poisson’s ratio is kept constant. Uniformly distributed load for side to depth ratio 5
with material gradation index (k) 0, 1 and 10 is considered for numerical studies and
the effectiveness, simplicity and accuracy of present solutions is presented by
comparing obtained results with available shear deformation theories.

Keywords: FG Beam; Semi-analytical method; Power Law; Boundary value


INTRODUCTION load by assuming variation of material

properties in thickness direction according to
Functionally Graded Material (FGM) belongs
exponential law and power law. Li et al.
to a class of advanced materials with varying
(2010) presented higher-order shear
properties over a changing dimension which
deformation (HOST) theory for FG beam. By
avoids the stress peaks at interfaces and
considering parabolic distribution of the
therefore, the delamination failure which is
transverse shear strains through the thickness
associated with laminated materials can be
of the plate, HOST model is presented by
eliminated. FGM has wide application in
Reddy (1984). Touratier (1991) have
aerospace, mechanical, defence, biomedicine,
considered cosine shear stress distribution in
nuclear, electronics, optics etc. due to their
HOST theory and free boundary conditions
novel thermo-mechanical tailor made
for shear stress upon the top and bottom
surfaces of domain have been satisfied.
Pendhari et al. (2010) have presented mixed In this paper reformulation of mixed semi-
semi analytical formulation for two- analytical model developed by Kant et al.
dimensional (2D) stress analysis of (2007) for FG beam whose elastic modulus
exponentially varied FG beams under plane vary according to power-law is presented.
stress condition of elasticity. Mohanty et al. The available solutions based on shear
(2012) have studied the static and dynamic deformation theories are used during
behaviour of simply supported FG sandwich numerical studies to show the accuracy and
beam for various material distribution laws. effectiveness of the present formulation.
Kadoli et al. (2008) studied the static
deflection and stresses under different FORMULATION
ambient loading conditions of metal ceramic A FGbeam of length ‘L’ and thickness ‘h’
FG beam for power las variation using supported on two opposite edges, x = 0 and L,
HOSDT. Simsek and Kocaturk (2009) is considered as shown in Figure (1). The
investigated free vibration and dynamic beam is assumed to be in a state of 2D plane
responses of a FG simply supported beam stress in x–z plane.
subjected to a concentrated moving harmonic

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 124

Pendhari et al.

The reduced material coefficients, Cij for a

FG beam are,
E( z) E( z)
C11  C22  C33 
(1  2 ) 2 1  
 E( z) 
C12  C21   2 
 1  

The Equations (2)–(5) have a total of eight

Figure 1.3D beam domain under
transverse load unknowns u, w,  x ,  y ,  xz ,  x ,  y , xz in eight
equations. After a simple algebraic
The downward distributed transverse load is manipulation of the above sets of equations, a
applied only at the top beam surface which set of PDEs involving only four primary
can be expressed as, dependent variables u, w, zx ,  z are obtained
m x
p( x)   p0 m sin
as follows,
L u  zx w
 
z C33 x
where, m = 1, 3, 5…,
w 1  u 
From the linear theory of elasticity, the 
z C22  z  C21 x 
general strain-displacement relationships in
2D can be stated as under,  xz   C C    2u C  z
u w u w   C11   12 21   2  12  Bx
x  , z  ,  xz   (2) z   22  
C x C x
x z z x

 z 
and the 2D equations of equilibrium are,   xz  Bz
z x
 zx  z
  Bz  0 The above PDEs defined by Eq. (7) can be
x z reduced to a coupled first-order ODEs by
 x  xz
  Bx  0 using Fourier trigonometric series expansion
x z for primary dependent variables satisfying
Further, it is assumed that the Poisson’s ratio the simple support end conditions at x = 0
is constant through the thickness and and L.
m x
variation of Young’s modulus through the u ( x, z )   um ( z ) cos
beam thickness is given by, m L
 2z  h  m x

E ( z )  EM  ( EC  EM )   (4) w( x, z )   wm ( z )sin
 2h  m L
Where EM and EC are the elastic modulus at Substituting Eq. (8) and its respective
the bottom and top surface of beam, derivatives into Eq.(6) and further, use
respectively. And k is the material gradation orthogonality conditions of trigonometric
index ( k  0 ).Also, it is assumed here that functions, the following ODEs are obtained,
FG material is isotropic at every point.
Therefore, material constitutive relations for
FG beam can be written as,
 x   C11 C12 0   x 
     
 z   C21 C22 0  z  (5)
   0 C33   xz 
 xz   0

Static Analysis of Functionally Graded Beam for Power-Law Variation of Elastic Modulus

dum ( z ) m 1 100 Em h3  L  100h3 Em

u  0, z 
 wm ( z )   xz m ( z ) w w  , z  ; u 
dz L C33 p0 L4 2  L4 q0

dwm ( z ) C21 m h L  h (10)

1 x   x  , z  ;  xz   xz  0, z 
 um ( z )   z m ( z) Lq0  2  Lq0
dz C22 L C22
d xz m ( z )   C C   m 2 2
 C11   12 21   2 um ( z ) (9) Non-dimensional deflections and stresses of
dz   C22   L FG beams under UDL for moderately deep
C m beam (L/h=5.0) and for various volume
 12  z m ( z) fraction exponent (k=0, 1 and 10) have been
C22 L presented in Table 1. Moreover, through
d z m ( z ) m thickness variation of normalized inplane
  xz m ( z )
dz L displacement ( u ) and inplane normal stress (
 x ) for aspect ratio (L/h=5.0) have been
Equation (9) defines the two-point boundary
value problem (BVP) in ODEs through depth depicted in Figure 2. From the table and
of beam with known stress components at the figure, it is shown that present formulation
top and bottom surface of the beam. Fourth- are in good agreement with available
order Runge-Kutta method have been solution. It is observed that increasing power-
adopted for numerical integration after law index helps to reduce the stiffness of FG
transformation of BVP into a set of initial beam and consequently leads to increase in
value problem (IVP). deflection and axial stresses.


Numerical studies have been performed to Static analysis of simply supported FG beams
establish the accuracy and effectiveness of subjected to UDL under plane stress
the developed formulation in the preceding conditions of elasticity have been presented
section. Pure materials with different values by using semi-analytical formulation.
of volume fraction exponent (k) for Excellent correlation of the present numerical
aluminium-alumina FGM is considered for results with the available shear deformation
the analysis. Modulus of elasticity at the top theories solutions validate accuracy and
surface is 380 GPa (alumina) and at bottom effectiveness of semi-analytical model.The
surface is 70 GPa (aluminum). Poisson’s presented semi-analytical model is simple,
ratio for both aluminum and alumina is efficient, accurate and free from any
0.3.Volume fraction exponent (k) have been simplified assumptions through the thickness
varied from 0 to 10. Only moderately deep of plate.
beam (L/h=5) is considered in present
numerical studies. Uniformly distributed load REFERENCES
(UDL) is considered at the top surface of Kadoli R Kashif A and Ganesan N 2008
beam and all other surfaces are free from any Static analysis of functionally graded
loading pattern. beams using higher order shear
Normalizations coefficients expressed in Eq. deformation theory Appl Math Model 32
(10) are used for the uniform comparison of 2509–2525.
the results.The available analytical solutions Kant T Pendhari S S and Desai Y 2007On
based on different beam theories Li et al. accurate stress analysis of composite
(2010),Reddy (1984), Touratier (1991), and sandwich narrow beams Int J
Soldatos (1992), Karama et al. (2003) are Comput Meth Engg Sci Mech 8(3) 165-
used here for comparison purpose. 177.
Li XF Wang B L and Han J C 2010A higher-
order theory for static and dynamic
Pendhari et al.

analyses of functionally graded beams Reddy J N 1984 A simple higher-order

Arch Appl. Mech 80(10) 1197–212. theory for laminated composite plates J
Appl. Mech 51(4)745–52.
Mohanty S C Dash R R and Rout T 2012
Static and dynamic stability analysis of Simsek M Kocaturk T 2009 Free and forced
a functionally graded Timoshenko beam vibration of a functionally graded beam
International Journal of structural subjected to a concentrated moving
stability and dynamics 12 (4). harmonic load Composite Structures 90
Pendhari S S Kant T Desai Y M and Venkata
C2010 Deformation of functionally Touratier M 1991An efficient standard plate
graded narrow beams under transverse theory Int J Eng.Sci 29(8) 901–916.
loads Int J Mech Mater Des 6 269–282.

Table 1Inplane and transverse displacements ( u ) and stresses (  xx ) of FG beam

under uniformly distributed transverse loading for side to depth ratio 5.0
k Variables Present analysis Li et al. (2010) Reddy (1984) Touratier (1991)
w  0 3.1395 3.1657 3.1654 3.1649
0  xx  h 2  3.7855 3.8020 3.8020 3.8053
 xz  0  0.7133 0.7500 0.7332 0.7549
w  0 6.2388 6.2599 6.2594 6.2586
1  xx  h 2  5.8734 5.8837 5.8836 5.8892
 xz  0  0.7104 0.7500 0.7332 0.7549
w  0 10.9183 10.8979 10.9381 10.942
10  xx  h 2  9.6325 9.7063 9.7122 9.7238
 xz  0  0.6436 0.6436 0.6467 0.6708

Figure 2 Through thickness variation of Figure 3 Through thickness variation of

normalized inplane displacement  u  for normalized normal stress  xx  for FG
FG beam with UDL beam with UDL

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee, India.

Abstract: An efficient and robust design methodology is presented for sandwich core
Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bridge decks by integrating finite element analysis
(FEA), design of experiments, response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic
algorithm. The sandwich core bridge deck considered in this study consists of
composite laminated plates at faces and isotropic material as core which is fixed on
two opposite edges whereas other two edges are assumed to be free. The panel is
subjected to self-weight and imposed live load according to IRC loading conditions.
The ply thicknesses of top and bottom face plate, depth of core and fiber orientation
of different layers are considered as basic design parameters for structural
optimization. The most important parameters influencing governing criteria (i.e.,
deflection) are determined using FE analysis results based on D-optimal design of
experiment algorithm and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Optimum dimensions are
finalized using genetic algorithm interfaced with response surface model while
satisfying strength and serviceability criteria.
Keywords: Laminates; Finite element analysis; Statistical properties/methods;
Response surface methodology.

INTRODUCTION components to structural behaviour. Qiao et

al. (2000) presented an analysis and design
FRP laminated composites find increased
approach for single span FRP deck using first
applications in bridge structures both in
order shear deformation theory. Adali et al.
repairs, strengthening and new constructions
(1994) gave optimal design of thick
using all-FRP or hybrid FRP structures.
laminated sandwich plate based on higher
Although high initial construction cost posits
order theory of plates for two design
obstacles in the adoption of FRP in
problems minimum deflection and minimum
construction market. Hence, there is a need
weight design considering fiber volume
for simple and robust methodology for
content and total depth of bridge deck as
optimization of sandwich core FRP panel.
design variables. However, there is paucity of
Studies have been performed to investigate general methodology for material,
the behaviour of FRP laminated sandwich geometrical and structural optimisation of
rib/core composite structures. Aref et al. sandwich core FRP bridge deck. Hence a
(2005) studied structural behaviour of FRP simple and robust methodology is presented
rib core skew super structure in two parts. In in this paper to deal with optimisation for
the first part they presented bridge structural sandwich core bridge deck.
configurations and field test results. In the
second part, using finite element model, a METHODOLOGY
parametric study was also considered to In the present study, a methodology is
evaluate the contributions of the individual proposed for the optimisation of sandwich

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 128

Gangwar et al.

core Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bridge of the panel. Usage of response surface
decks/panels as illustrated in a flowchart in instead of computationally cumbersome finite
Figure 1. The proposed optimization element analysis for optimization engine
methodology is simple, robust and efficient accounts for time saving characteristics of the
due to its time saving characteristics. Nature methodology. Optimum configurations are
of proposed methodology enables to use it for checked against failure and serviceability
material, geometrical and structural criteria.
component optimizations of sandwich core
bridge deck/panels for different boundary and MODELLING
loading conditions. Initial configurations and
The various components of bridge deck i.e.
range of design parameters conforming to the
bottom face plate, sandwich core and top face
design constraint specifications and
plate are generated in the part module of
manufacturing constraints are decided by trial
ABAQUS/CAE and assembled. Elements used
and error using GUI of ABAQUS/CAE.
for face plates and sandwich core foam are
conventional 4 node shell elements (S4R:
Conventional Stress/Displacement Shell, 4-
node linear element geometry) and 8 node
brick elements (C3D8R: standard 3D
stress/Displacement solid element, 8-node
linear brick element) respectively.
The interaction between the adjacent
components is defined using tie constraint
which ensure the perfect bond between the
adjacent components. As model has two
different types of elements i.e. one solid
linear brick element and other is shell
element. Therefore, it is important to define
interaction between the two different element
types. The interaction is defined using shell
to solid coupling in interaction module. The
analysis is done using the general static
loading option. The model is validated with
refined higher order shear deformation theory
(RHSDT) as proposed by Khandelwal et
Figure 1.Flow chart for proposed al.(2012) (Table 1).
optimization methodology Table 1.Model verification
Responses i.e., deflections for design points Case(span 2 m) Deflection(mm)
generated from D-optimal code are obtained
using modified python script of Top ply thick./core ABAQUS RHSDT
ABAQUS/CAE. Non-significant parameters depth/bottom ply
affecting deflection are screened out by thick.
performing Analysis of variance (ANOVA).
18/150/18 2.64 2.53
A predictive model for deflection in terms of
critical design parameters is created using 14/200/14 2.50 2.43
response surface methodology (RSM). The
response surface is coupled with genetic 10/250/10 2.64 2.44
algorithm to find the optimum design 6/300/6 2.67 2.44
parameters corresponding to minimum cost

Optimisation of Sandwich Core FRP bridge Deck

RESULTS addition to self-weight, panels are loaded

with live load according to IRC 70R track
In the present study full scale bridge decks of vehicle loading with an impact factor of 25%.
width 7.5 m with different free spans are In absence of specification for permissible
considered for optimization. The bridge deck deflection in Indian standards, a reasonable
panels consists of FRP laminates at top and permissible deflection limit of span (L)/500 is
bottom faces(𝐸𝐿 =23GPa, 𝐸𝑇 = 18 GPa, 𝐺𝐿𝑇 = adopted in the present study. Out of the initial
9GPa, 𝜈𝐿𝑇 =0.25) and PVC foam as design parameters, significant design
sandwich core (E=130 Mpa, G=35 Mpa, ν parameters are identified based on the results
=0.4). Initially ply thickness of top face plate, obtained from the analysis of variance
ply thickness of bottom face plate, thickness (ANOVA) using the Design Expert.
of foam and fiber orientation of each lamina Screening of non-significant terms enhances
are considered as design variables. Bridge the quality of response surface (as shown in
deck panels are loaded in accordance with Table 2) and reduces the computational
Indian loading conditions as specified in efforts in optimisation process.
Indian Roads Congress (IRC) 6-2010. In

Table 2a. ANOVA for Response Surface Linear Model

Source Sum of Squares DOF Mean Square F Value p-value
Model 52.44 6 8.74 41.89 < 0.0001
A-h 28.20 1 28.20 135.15 < 0.0001
B-t 3.55 1 3.55 17.02 0.0003
C-b 26.02 1 26.02 124.72 < 0.0001
D-theta1 0.006 1 0.006 0.029 0.8647
E-theta2 0.021 1 0.021 0.101 0.7525
F-theta3 0.067 1 0.067 0.322 0.5744

R-Squared0.8902 , Pred- R-Squared0.8256, Adeq Precision23.0189

Table 2b.ANOVA for Response Surface Reduced Quadratic Model

Source Sum of DOF Mean Square F Value p-value
Model 58.38 8 7.30 396.79 < 0.0001
A-h 27.81 1 27.81 1512.36 < 0.0001
B-t 4.90 1 4.90 266.41 < 0.0001
C-b 27.81 1 27.81 1512.08 < 0.0001
AB 1.02 1 1.02 55.43 < 0.0001
AC 3.74 1 3.74 203.39 < 0.0001
BC 0.29 1 0.29 15.89 0.0004
A^2 0.10 1 0.10 5.59 0.0250
B^2 0.84 1 0.84 45.61 < 0.0001

R-Squared 0.9909 , Pred- R-Squared 0.9829, Adeq Precision73.746

Deflection = 17.10415 - 0.07×h - 0.390×t - 0.42×b + 7.23×10-4×h×t + 1.37×10-3×h×b + 2.57×10-3×t×b +
9.14×10-5×h2 +0.01×t2

Gangwar et al.

In the present study, following objective MATLAB and optimisation is performed for
function equation is used: minimum cost incorporating four different cost
weightage parameters i.e. N as 1, 0.25, 0.4, 0.6.
𝐶 = 𝑉𝑓𝑟𝑝 + 𝑁 × 𝑉𝑐𝑜𝑟𝑒 Table 3 summarise the optimum design
configurations for span 2 meter.
Obtained response surface from reduced model is
integrated with genetic algorithm toolbox of

Table 3.Summary of Optimum Design of FRP Sandwich Core Bridge Deck

of Dimensions 2 × 7.5m
Case Cost Depth of Top ply thickness, Bottom ply thickness,
Weightage Foam, h (mm) t(mm) b(mm)
1 1 140 4.8 15
2 0.25 225 4 2
3 0.4 225 4 2
4 0.6 140 5.4 14.6

CONCLUSION polymer web core skew bridge

superstructure Composite Structures
In this paper, an optimisation methodology 69(4) 491–509.
for sandwich core FRP bridge deck by
integrating finite element analysis (FEA), Khandelwal R P Chakrabarti A Bhargava P
statistical design of experiment method, 2012Analysis of Laminated Soft Core
response surface methodology (RSM) and Sandwich Plate Having Interfacial
genetic algorithm is presented. The bridge Imperfections by an Efficient C0 FE
deck is modeled using ABAQUS and the Model Journal of Solid Mechanics 4(4)
model is validated with results available in 355-371.
literature. The bridge deck is optimized for Qiao P Davalos J F Brown B 2000 A
minimum cost considering strength and systematic analysis and design approach
serviceability criteria. The preliminary for single-span FRP deck/stringer
screening of non-significant parameters using bridges Composites: Part B 31593-609.
design of experiments and ANOVA and
usage of approximate model for response
instead of tedious finite element calculations
make the methodology computationally
efficient and robust. A parametric study has
been performed considering different span of
bridge deck and design curves are obtained
which can be used for design of short span
sandwich core FRP bridge deck.

Adali S Summers E B Verijenko V E 1994
Minimum weight and deflection design
of thick sandwich laminates via symbolic
computation Composite Structures 29
Aref A J Alampalli S He Y 2005
Performance of a fiber reinforcement
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Structural Engineering Department, VJTI, Mumbai, India.

Abstract: In construction industry, CFRP composites are widely used for retrofitting
and rehabilitation of columns and bridge piers so as to enhance the service life of
structures. The slenderness of the column largely influences the confining strength of
FRP wraps. The main objective of this paper is to study the slenderness effect on
reinforced concrete circular columns confined with fiber reinforced polymer
composites on strength parameter and compare the results with the variable
slenderness ratio unwrapped RC circular column specimen. The experimental
program included twelve RC circular column specimens which consisted unwrapped
and wrapped columns with slenderness ratio in the range of two to four. The
slenderness effect study was established through the comparison of experimental and
modelling results in terms of the ultimate axial strength, axial and lateral strain. The
experimental results showed that for RC circular concrete specimens, the variation in
slenderness ratio significantly affect on the confinement effectiveness when compare
with unwrapped and wrapped column specimens. The results of experiments and
computational modelling comparison clearly demonstrate that the strength
performance and ductility behaviour of unwrapped and CFRPC wrapped reinforced
circular columns are predominately influenced by change in slenderness ratio.
Keywords: Carbon fiber reinforced polymer; Circular columns; Slenderness
ratio; Rehabilitation

INTRODUCTION structural deficiencies and enhance its

The use of Fiber Reinforced Polymer strength as per expected demand.
Composites (FRPC) for Civil Engineering The slenderness of the column largely
applications, especially in structural influences the confinement action of FRP
upgradation has become increasingly popular wraps. In this present work, the columns of
in construction industry because of its ease variable slenderness ratio were casted and
of application, cost effectiveness, high wrapped with FRPC tested to establish
corrosion resistance, high strength to weight relationship in between strength capacity and
ratio and in addition to this its ability to shape slenderness of column.
to the existing structure, stiffness to weight
ratios and such other salient traits. CFRP MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY
composites are also considered as an Twelve RC circular column specimens were
excellent substitute for retrofitting and cast as per test matrix of concrete grade M20
rehabilitation of columns so as to reduce and Fe415 steel of 200 mm diameter but with

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 132

Narule et al.

different lengths. Out of these, six specimens compression testing machine with loading
were control specimens and remaining were rate of 2.5 KN/sec. Data acquisition (DAQ)
confined with one layer of CFRP sheet. system was used to measure the readings
Strain gauges were pasted to measure strains from the instrumentation. The strain gauge
in steel, concrete and CFRP. To find load and readings were taken and established
deflection, load cell and LPs were installed. relationship between effect of slenderness
All the specimens were tested on a 300T ratio and strength parameters.

Figure 1. Experiential set-up

Table 1. Results of axial loading on RC columns

Avg. max. Avg. max. % increase in load % increase

load (ton) stress (MPa) carrying capacity in strength

U400-2 62.3 19.45
84.54 82.42
W400-2 114.97 35.48
U800-2 58.27 18.19
90.1 90.16
W800-2 110.77 34.59

Slenderness Effect on Behaviour of CFRP Wrapped RC Circular Column

Figure 2. Comparison of 400 mm long Figure 3. Comparison of 800 mm long

test specimens and finite element model test specimens and finite element model

Table 2. Evaluation of ductility

Pmax Δmax
Specimen Py (ton) Δy (mm) μ % increase in μ
(ton) (mm)

U400-1 62.57 -0.396 76.04 -1.56 3.94

U400-2 49.46 -0.372 59.86 -1.97 5.3
W400-1 57.52 -0.258 109.3 -1.91 7.41
W400-2 57.66 -0.345 110.4 -2.37 6.86
U800-1 47.82 -0.659 53.29 -2.05 3.12
U800-2 50 -0.758 59.43 -1.79 2.37
U800-3 50.14 -0.632 62.08 -1.43 2.25
W800-1 77.24 -1.58 125.9 -6.52 4.12
W800-2 70.96 -1.21 104.9 -4.05 3.35
W800-3 67.57 -1.24 101.4 -4.29 3.46

CONCLUSIONS 4. The decrease in ductility due to

increase in slenderness ratio of test
1. For all the wrapped specimens tested,
specimens by two was 14%.
significant increase in strength was
observed as compare to unwrapped 5. To avoid premature failure of
sections. columns rather than wrapping top and
bottom surface of column with double
2. The enhancement in ductility of test
layer of wrap, a single layer is
specimens was significant in case
wrapped RC circular column.
6. Stress-strain curve from FEA of
3. For the test specimens due to increase
unwrapped RC columns was close to
in slenderness ratio by two caused
that of actual test specimens.
decrease in strength by 3 to 4%.

Narule et al.


Chikh N Gahmous M and Benzaid R 2012

Structural performance of high strength
concrete columns confined with CFRP
sheets Proceedings of the World
Congress on Engineering III.
Etman E 2002 Efficiency of strengthening of
RC columns with different slenderness
ratios using CFRP wraps 27th
Conference on OUR WORLD IN
Hadi M N S 2006 Behaviour of FRP wrapped
normal strength concrete columns under
eccentric loading Composite Structures
72 503–511.
Lam L and Teng J G 2003 Design-oriented
stress-strain model for FRP confined
concrete Construction and Building
Materials 17 471-489.
Theriault M and Simon Claude 2004 Fibre-
reinforced polymer-confined circular
concrete columns: investigation of size
and slenderness effects Journal of
Composite for Construction ASCE 8

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


NAWALE H. H.1, ROY S.2* and JAGTAP K.1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sinhgad Institute of Technology and Science, Pune, India.
Composite Research Centre, R&DE(E), Defence Research and Development Organization, Pune, India.

Abstract: Composite materials are very light in weight with higher strength and
stiffness, and are very helpful in applications like aerospace, aircraft, automotive,
energy, infrastructure etc. Though composite materials are strong enough, but
sometimes when subjected high impact loading or shocks, they lacks in the stiffness
which changes the dynamic responses of the structure, which modifies the modal
parameters like natural frequencies, mode shapes, damping etc. So these modal
parameters can be used to judge the variation in stiffness or damage occurrence in the
composite structures. This paper deals with the modal analysis of composite
cantilever beam using ABAQUS (FEA) software. Model of composite cantilever
beam for two different fibre orientations, for quasi isotropic [0/45/-45/90] s and for
unidirectional with all layers of 0⁰orientation has be made in ABAQUS finite element
analysis software and modal analysis of the beam is performed for both the fibre
orientations. Natural frequencies for first five modes of bending from ABAQUS
(FEA) software are compared with natural frequencies by analytical method for
validation of ABAQUS (FEA) results. It is observed that there is good agreement
between the natural frequencies obtained from ABAQUS (FEA) and analytical
Keywords: Composite beam; Modal analysis; ABAQUS (FEA).

INTRODUCTION of structures, based on the concept of

Composite structures get delaminated with
reduction in stiffness, when subjected to high MATERIAL
impact loading or shocks. Due to stiffness
degradation there is change in dynamic Carbon fibre- Unidirectional-T-700
responses of the structures which modifies
the modal parameters like natural frequency, METHODOLGY
mode shapes, damping etc. So these modal Modal analysis of composite cantilever beam
parameters can be used as damage indicator
with 8 plies is performed using ABAQUS
tools for health monitoring of composite
structures. Finite element analysis has wide (FEA) software for two different types of
scope in solving difficult and complex fibre orientations, [0/45/-45/90] s and
engineering problems, which can be used to unidirectional with all layers with 0⁰
perform various types of modal analysis. orientation. Natural frequencies for
Natural frequency results from modal composite cantilever beam are obtained from
analysis can be used to get the idea of failing ABAQUS (FEA) and also calculated using

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 136

Navale et al.

analytical formula with same beam ABAQUS (FEA) results for beam with fibre
dimensions and material properties used in orientation [0/45/-45/90]s for first three
ABAQUS (FEA) modelling. Comparison of modes are shown in Figure.1 to Figure.3
results from both methods i.e. ABAQUS
(FEA) as well as analytical method is done to
check whether the results obtained from
ABAQUS (FEA) are in the range of results
from analytical method. For analytical
calculations of natural frequencies, formula
used is given in equation (1) and value of
modulus of elasticity in equation (1) is taken
as equivalent modulus of elasticity calculated
from nine engineering constants of carbon
fibre using MATLAB code for quasi
isotropic beam.
Figure 1. Mode 1 for [0/45/-45/90]s
𝑐𝑛 𝐸𝐼
𝑓𝑛 = � (1)
2𝜋 𝑚𝐿4
f n = Natural frequency of cantilever beam
n= No of modes, n=1, 2, 3…..
E= Modulus of elasticity
L=Length of cantilever beam
I= Moment of inertia of cantilever beam
m=Mass per unit length of cantilever beam
C n = Constant (changing) for every mode


Natural frequency results for cantilever beam Figure 2. Mode 2 for [0/45/-45/90]s
with fibre orientation [0/45/-45/90] s for first
five modes by both methods are shown in
Table 1. Natural frequencies for [0/45/-
45/90] s
Mode Analytical ABAQUS
No natural (FEA) natural
frequencies(Hz) frequencies(Hz)
1 29.61 29.435
2 185.60 184.25
3 522.021 515.31
4 1018.40 1008.3
Figure 3. Mode 3 for [0/45/-45/90]s
5 1683.51 1663.6
Natural frequency results for cantilever beam
with unidirectional fibre orientation with all

Modal Analysis of Composite Beam Using ABAQUS (FEA)

layers of 0⁰ for first five modes by both

methods are shown in Table 2.
Table 2. Natural frequencies for UD
with all 0⁰
Mode Analytical ABAQUS
No natural (FEA) natural
frequencies (Hz) frequencies (Hz)

1 46.5286 46.048
2 291.58 287.89
3 820.07 803.10
4 1599.86 1565.3
5 2644.73 2569.6 Figure 6. Mode 3 for UD with all 0⁰

ABAQUS (FEA) results for the beam having CONCLUSION

unidirectional orientation with all layers of 0⁰
Modal analysis of composite cantilever beam
for first three modes are shown in Figure.4 to
with 8 plies for two different fibre
orientations, [0/45/-45/90]s and
unidirectional with all layers of 0 is ⁰

performed using ABAQUS (FEA) software

and these FEA results are compared with
analytical results and it is observed that there
is good agreement between both the results.
For more accuracy in ABAQUS (FEA)
results and their good match with analytical
results, more fine mesh is required while
modelling. Also natural frequencies for quasi
isotropic beam [0/45/-45/90]s are smaller
than unidirectional beam with all layers of 0⁰
Figure 4. Mode 1 for UD with all 0⁰
for all modes of bending.


Shahdin A Mezeix L Bouvet C Joseph M and

Gourinat Y 2009 Monitoring the effects
impact damages on modal parameters in
carbon fibre entangled sandwich beams
Engineering Structures 31 2833-2841.
Jamadar N I Kivade S B Dhande K K and
Pedada Sudhakara Rao 2014 Vibration
based damage inspection in composite
Figure 5. Mode 2 for UD with all 0⁰ structures- A critical review
International Journal of Engineering

Navale et al.

Science and Innovative Technology

(IJESIT) 3(5) 201-208.
Tate I V Roy Sajal and Jagtap K R 2014
Delamination detection of composite
cantilever beam coupled with
piezoelectric transducer using natural
frequency deviation Procedia
engineering 97 1293-1304.
Rao Singiresu S 2010 Mechanical Vibrations
5th ed. University of Miami Chennai.
Daniel M. Issac and Ishai Ori
2007Engineering mechanics of
composite materials 2 ed. Oxford
University press New York.

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Deogiri Institute of Engineering and Management Studies, Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract: Due to increase in population, car parking space is major concern. Hence
trend has been set up to use ground floor for parking purpose. Literature shows that,
large number of reinforced concrete (RC) building with soft storey damaged by
earthquake shaking due to many structural deficiencies such as, column with
insufficient confinements, strong beam weak column, formation of plastic hinge at
beam-column joint, opening of 90 degree ties, poor detailing in beam-column
connection joint etc. This paper includes seismic analysis of multistorey frame
structures using steel concrete composite column (SCC) section in soft storey. The
structure with SCC column section is analyzed and compare with general RCC frame
structure by using response spectrum and pushover analysis method. The parameters
compare from analysis are displacement, base shear, plastic hinges, time period of
mode shapes and performance point. Commercial software SAP2000 v16 is used for
analysis. The result shows that plastic hinge formation during earthquake at beam-
column joint can improved performance with use of steel reinforced composite
column section at soft storey.
Keywords: Pushover analysis; Soft storey; Steel reinforced composite column.

INTRODUCTION during earthquake shaking, and hence the

columns in the ground storey and beams are
Now a day increase in the population in the
heavily stressed. In such condition building
population car parking space is major
needs to perform well is the main aim behind
concern hence trend has been set up to use
this analysis. In present study the result of
the ground floor as parking purpose. The
response spectrum and pushover analysis are
presence of infill walls in the entire upper
discussed for building in Zone IV.
storey except for the ground storey makes the
upper storey much stiffer than the open RESPONSE SPECTRUM
ground storey (OGS). From the past
earthquakes it was evident that the major type The representation of the maximum response
of failure that occurred in OGS buildings of idealized single degree freedom systems
included snapping of lateral ties, crushing of having certain period and damping during
core concrete, buckling of longitudinal earthquake shaking. The maximum response
reinforcement bars etc. Almost upper storey’s is plotted against the undamped natural
of building move together as a single block period and for various damping values, and
and most of the horizontal displacement of can be expressed in terms of maximum
the building occurs in the ground storey absolute acceleration, maximum velocity, or
itself. In other words, this type of buildings maximum relative displacement.
sway back and forth like inverted pendulum

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 140

Patil et al.

PUSHOVER ANALYSIS analysis. Target displacement is calculated as

per equation given in fema-356, Equation is
The pushover analysis of structure is static
non-linear analysis under permanent vertical δ t = C 0 C 1 C 2 C 3 S a (T e 2 /4Π2) g …(1)
load and gradually increasing lateral load. Where,
This lateral load represents forces induced by
earthquake. C 0 = Modification factor for SDOF to MDOF.
C 1 = Modification Factor to relate expected
SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT maximum inelastic displacements to
displacements calculated for liner elastic
Buildings G+14 and G+20 with open ground response.
storey are modelled in SAP. The details are C 2 =Modification factor to represent the
shown in table 1. effect of hysteresis shape on the maximum
Table 1. displacement response.
C 3 =Modification Factor.
Description Value S a = Response spectrum acceleration.
Live load 3kN/m2 T e = Characteristic period of the response
Floor finish 1kN/m2
Wall thickness 0.23 m PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
Beam size 0.4m*0.23m FREE VIBRATION ANALYSIS
RC column size 0.6m*0.6m The time period of the idealized SDOF
system is,
Composite column size 0.6m*0.6m
I-sec in composite column ISHB 350,450 𝑇 = 2𝜋�
16 No’s of
20dia 1.2
Grade of concrete M30 1
0.8 G+14 RC col
Grade of reinforcement Fe 500 0.6
G+14 Compo col
Storey height 3m 0.4
0.2 G+20 RC col
0 G+20 Compo col
Mode i Mode ii Mode iii
Time Period

Figure 2. Time period for various model

For Zone IV, medium soil and 0.05% of
Figure 1. Plan of building G+14 and damping response spectrum graph is as,
This models are analysis by response
spectrum method. From this we take time
period for mode shape and calculate target
displacement for each storey given in fema-
356. This displacement is use for pushover

Seismic Analysis of Multistorey Buildings using Steel Concrete Composite Columns at Soft Storey

1 2 0 00






2 0 0..02 0..04 0 ..0 6 0..08
0 0..02 0 ..0 4 0 ..0 6 0..08 0..1

Figure 4. G+20 Base shear v/s

Figure 3. G+14 Base shear v/s Displacement

Table 1. Plastic hinges

General column Composite column General column Composite column


From the response spectrum graph spectral 1. It is seen that from analysis time period
acceleration calculated and from this spectral is reduce for mode shape in composite
acceleration target displacement found for column model which shows the
model are: stiffness has been increases of building.
Model Target displacement 2. From base shear v/s displacement graph
G+14 136 mm for particular displacement base shear
G+20 132 mm resisting capacity has been improved.

Patil et al.

3. Also the ductility at the open ground frames Journal of Structural

storey of column is increases which Engineering 25(2) 95-102 1998-07-01.
improved performance building as soft
storey in earthquake shaking. Lakshmi B and Shanmugam N E 2001 State
of the art report on steel–concrete
4. From pushover analysis shows building
composite columns Journal of
with composite column model are less
susceptible to earthquake as shown in Constructional Steel Research 57 1041–
table 1. 1080.
Murthy C V R Why are Open-Ground Storey
Buildings vulnerable in Earthquakes?
In this study building are analyze by response Earthquake tip 21 Indian Institute of
spectrum method and nonlinear static Technology Kanpur, India.
pushover analysis is done in both cases
structure with composite column which Mwafy A M and Elnashai A S 2001 Static
provided only at open ground storey are less pushover versus dynamic collapse
susceptible to earthquake and perform well. analysis of RC buildings Engineering
Structures 23 407–424.
Nevzat Kirac Mizam Dogan and Hakan
Ari Wibowo John L Wilson Nelson T K
Ozbasaran 2011 Failure of weak-storey
Lamb Emad F Gad 2010 Collapse
during earthquakes Eskisehir Osmangazi
modelling analysis of a precast soft
University Turkey. Engineering Failure
storey building in Australia Engineering
Analysis 18 572–581.
Structures 32 1925-1936.
Óscar Martínez-Ramos, David Hernández-
Ehab M Hanna and Abd El-Moniem M Amin
Figueirido and Ana Piquer 2015
2006 Strength assessment of axially
Analysis of Steel-Encased Composite
loaded partially encased composite
Columns Subjected to Concentric Axial
columns Proceeding 31st Conference on
Load Using Artificial Neural Networks
our world in concrete & structures
Proceedings World Congress on
Engineering London U.K.
Huanjun Jiang Xiaojuan Liu and Junjie Mao
Sezen H Whittaker A S Elwood K J and
2015 Full-scale experimental study on
Mosalam K M 2003 Performance of
masonry infilled RC moment-resisting
reinforced concrete buildings during the
frames under cyclic loads Tongji
August 17, 1999 Kocaeli, Turkey
University Shanghai 200092 China.
earthquake, and seismic design and
Engineering Structures 91 70–84.
construction practise in Turkey
Jaswant N Arlekar Sudhir K Jain and Murty Engineering Structures 25 103–114.
CVR 1997 Seismic Response of RC
ZHAO Gen-tian et al. 2009 Behavior of
Frame Buildings with Soft First Storey’
slender steel concrete composite
proceedings CBRI Golden Jubilee
columns in eccentric loading J Shanghai
Conference on Natural Hazards in
Univ (Engl Ed) 2009 13(6) 481–488.
Urban Habitat New Delhi.
Kodur V K R Erkl M A and Quenneville J H
P 1998 Seismic analysis of infilled

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Civil Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India.

Abstract: In the present work, impact behaviour of laminated GFRP composite plate
has been studied with experimental work as well as FE analysis. Material
characterization of GFRP based on material stress/strain criteria has been carried out
and implemented in the present FE model to study the progressive damage evolution
in composite plate due to ballistic impact. Experimental impact tests on GFRP
laminate is performed by pneumatic gun. Numerical results obtained from the present
FE model in terms of residual velocity and damage pattern in composite plate are
compared with the results from experimental impact tests which show good
agreement. Shock effect due to impact is also considered in the material model of
composite plate. Pressure wave generation in composite plate due to impact is studied
in detail. Results from the present FE model show, delamination is the dominant mode
of damage in laminated composite plate under impact due to matrix failure in tension.
Many new results are presented which should be useful for the researches in this field.
Keywords: GFRP; Material characterization; FE analysis; Ballistic impact.

INTRODUCTION performed by Cantwell and Morton (1989,

1990) and Bilingardi and Vadori (2003).
There is steady demand of FRP composite in
Ballistic impact analysis on composite plate
aircraft, automobiles, marine structures,
to study the penetration behaviour was
defence, military, sports and many structural
conducted by Sabet (2011) and Sevkat
applications where high stiffness and light
weight are the major concerns [Namala et al.
2014]. Fibre reinforced composite beam is Variation of pressure wave in addition to
used as energy absorber in vehicle [Yang progressive damage analysis of laminated
2013] and for fluid transfer laying on the composite plate due to ballistic impact is still
ground or beneath [Perillo et al. 2015]. in queue. In this present work, ballistic
impact behaviour of laminated GFRP
In spite of that, these materials are
composite plate is studied with experimental
susceptible to damage under impact because
work as well as FE analysis. Material
of their low ductility and orthotropic nature.
characterization of GRRP is carried out and
Therefore, the need of impact analysis of
implemented in the present FE model to
FRP materials attracts the researchers in this
study the progressive damage behaviour of
field. Some relevant researches regarding
composite plate due to ballistic impact.
impact behaviour of FRP composite are
discussed here in brief. Dynamic behaviour
of composite plate under low velocity was

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 144

Ansari and Chakrabarti

To study the damage pattern and modes of

damages in laminated composite plate,
material characterization of GFRP is carried Clamped BC
out and implemented in the present FE model
developed in AUTODYN hydro code.
Specimen dimensions, manufacturing and
testing procedure are followed according to
ASTM D3039/D3039M and AUTODYN Fine mesh
manual. Material properties of GFRP
composite as calculated from tensile test are Figure. 1. Numerical model
listed in Table 1. A mesh division of 70 x 70 is used to the
quarter plate after mesh convergence study.
Table 1 Material properties of GFRP.
Equation of state Orthotropic RESULTS AND DISSCUSSIONS
Sub-Equation of State Polynomial Experimental impact tests on laminated
Reference density (gm/cm3) 1.800 GFRP composite plate of size 140 x 140 x
Young’s modulus 11 (kPa) 6.000e+006
3.12 mm3 with blunt impactor of diameter 19
Young’s modulus 22 (kPa) 1.971e+007
Young’s modulus 33 (kPa) 1.971e+007 mm and mass 52 gm is performed under fully
Poisons ratio 12 0.150 clamped condition. Numerical results in
Poisons ratio 23 0.130 terms of residual velocity and damage pattern
Poisons ratio 31 0.492 obtained from the present FE model are
Strength Elastic compared with the results from experimental
Shear modulus (kPa) 1.790e+006 impact tests.
Failure Material
Stress/Strain 500
Tensile failure Stress 22 (kPa) 4.318e+005
Residual velocity (m/s)

Maximum Shear Stress 23 8.0e+004 400

Tensile Failure Strain 11 0.009 300
Tensile Failure Strain 22 0.02
Tensile Failure Strain 33 0.02 Experimental
Post Failure Response Orthotropic 100 FE model

0 200 400 600
Three dimensional numerical models of Incidence velocity (m/s)
composite plate of size 140 x 140 x 3.12 mm3
Figure. 2. Variation of residual velocity
and blunt impactor (steel 4340) of diameter
with incidence velocity
19 mm and mass 52 gm are made in
It is observed that the residual velocity
AUTODYN (Figure. 1). Hexahedron brick
obtained from the present FE model is more
element is assigned to the numerical models
than that obtained from the results of
with Lagrangian process. Interaction between
experimental impact tests (Figure. 2). This
plate and impactor is defined by gap
difference may be due to the frictional loss of
interaction method with gap size of 0.05 mm
energy of impactor. However, frictionless
and frictionless contact.
contact is defined between impactor and plate

Ballistic Impact Response of FRP Composite Plate: Experimental and FE analyses

in the present FE model because of unknown

value of friction coefficient. Time (ms)
Evolution of damages in laminated composite 0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
plate due to ballistic impact at different time -0.2

Acceleration (m/s.s)
frame is presented in Figure. 3. It is observed
that most of the damage occurs due to -0.4
Vi=40 m/s
delamination i.e. failure of matrix in tension. Vi=100 m/s
Due to high incidence velocity, some part of
composite plate flown off with impactor -0.8
(called Plug).
Figure. 4 shows the acceleration-time
histories of impactor at different incidence Figure. 4. Acceleration-time histories of
velocities during penetration in laminate. At impactor
lower incidence velocity (Vi=40 m/s), Figure. 5 shows the pressure wave variation
fluctuation in acceleration of impactor is on the back face of composite plate from
observed which means that the penetration centre to the boundary along x axis at
resistance offered by laminated composite is different time frame. It is observed that as the
more at lower incidence velocity. time passes, magnitude of pressure decreases
but concentration area of pressure increases.
Nature of pressure also changes from positive
t=0.015 ms
to negative during penetration process of
Delamination t=0.04 ms 600
Pressure (MPa)

400 t=0.015 ms
300 t=0.027 ms
Plugs erosion t=0.041 ms
t=0.068 ms 200
-100 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
Distance (mm)
Figure. 3. Progressive damage evolution
in composite plate at Vi= 274.5 m/s
Figure. 5 pressure wave on the back face
Pressure applied by impactor at impact point of composite plate at Vi=274.5 m/s
appears like a wave that travels throughout
the body of composite. This pressure wave
causes the generation of various stresses in

Ansari and Chakrabarti

impactor fluctuates rapidly at lower

(a) incidence velocity.
 Variation of pressure wave near impact
point is more which causes breakage of
ANSYS/AUTODYN 14.5 2012 User’s
Delamination Fibre breakage manual ANSYS Inc. South Pointe.
Bilingardi G and Vadori R 2003 Influence of
(b) the laminate thickness in low velocity
impact behaviour of composite material
plate Composites Structures 61 27–38.
Cantwell W J and Morton J 1989 A
comparison of the low and high velocity
impact response of CFRP Composites
20(6) 545-551.
Cantwell W J and Morton J 1990 Impact
perforation of carbon fibre reinforced
plastic Composite Science and
Figure. 6 Damage pattern on the back Technology 38 119-141.
Namala K K Mahajan P and Bhatnagar N
face of composite plate; (a)
2014 Digital Image Correlation of Low-
Experimental, (b) FE model Velocity Impact on a Glass/Epoxy
This variation in pressure leads to the matrix Composite International Journal for
failure in tension and causes delamination. Computational Methods in Engineering
Science and Mechanics 15 203–217.
Damage pattern in composite plate due to Perillo G Vedivik N P and Echtermeyer A T
impact by blunt impactor at incidence 2015 Numerical and experimental
velocity of 274.5 m/s from both experimental investigation of impact on filament
test and the present FE model are presented wound glass reinforced epoxy pipe
in Figure. 6. Damage occurred mostly due to Journal of Composite Materials 49(6)
delamination; however, breakage of fibre
Sevkat E 2012 Experimental and numerical
appears at the contact point of impactor. approaches for estimating ballistic limit
CONCLUSIONS velocities of woven composite beams
International Journal of Impact
Some important conclusions about ballistic Engineering 45 16-27.
impact behaviour of laminated composite Sabet A Fagih N and Beheshty M H 2011
plate obtained from the present experimental Effect of reinforcement type on high
tests as well as FE model are discussed velocity impact response of GRP plates
below: using a sharp tip projectile International
 Damage in laminated composite plate Journal of Impact Engineering 38 715-
occurs mainly due to matrix failure and
Yang Y Wu X and Hamada H 2013
causes delamination. Application of fibre-reinforced
 Some part of delamination also occurs composites beam as energy absorption
due to in plane shear failure. member in vehicle International
 Due to penetration resistance offered Journal of Crashworthiness 18 103–
by composite plate, retardation of 109.
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Applied Mechanics Department, L. D. College of Engineering, Ahmedabad India.
Structural Engineering Department, Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Mumbai India.

Abstract: 3-D elasticity formulation for simply supported orthotropic laminated

composite plates under bi-directional bending subjected to concentrated load have
been developed. From literature review it has been observed that the available
formulations do not model concentrated load exactly. In most of the formulations
concentrated load has been modelled as distributed load over a small patch area.
Whereas in the present formulations the concentrated load has been modelled
accurately with the help of Fourier transformation. Formulation is applicable to ‘N’
lamina cross-ply rectangular plate subjected to concentrated load at any location
within top surface. Results obtained from the present formulation have been compared
with available results. Accurate3-D response for orthotropic plates subjected to
concentrated loads for different laminate stacking sequence are presented. Present
formulation provides through thickness variation of all stress and displacement
components. A few benchmark solutions developed can be used for validation of
new/refined plate theories and finite element formulations. The response of plate
subjected to uniformly distributed load and concentrated load has also been compared.
Few results for transition from bi-directional bending behaviour to cylindrical bending
behaviour for plates subjected to line load has been investigated. Present study
highlights limitations of CLPT and the aspect ratio range from which CLPT results
converges to elasticity solutions for laminated composite plates under bi-directional
bending subjected to point load.

Keywords: 3-D elasticity solution; bi-directional bending; concentrated load;

laminated composite orthotropic plates;

for laminated composite plates based on

equations of anisotropic elasticity are
Simplified 2-D analysis technique developed
presented here which accounts distributed
for laminated composite plates do not yield
and concentrated load. Simply supported
accurate description of state of stress for
orthotropic laminated plates subjected to
thick plates as well as plates subjected to
concentrated, distributed as well as line load
concentrated loads. Accurate prediction of
has been investigated. Formulation presented
inter-laminar stresses is also very important
here is applicable to laminate with any
to understand de-lamination failure of
number of plies and any position of
laminated composite plates. 3-D formulations
concentrated load.

*Author for Correspondence: 148

Raval and Bambole

Pagano (1969) elasticity solutions for through thickness variations of stresses and
laminate under cylindrical bending under deformations has been presented which can
sinusoidal load were extended for uniformly be considered as benchmark solution.
distributed and line load by Pagano and
Wang (1971) modelling line load as FORMULATION
uniformly distributed load over narrow strip. A laminated composite orthotropic plate
Pagano (1970) elasticity formulation for bi- consists of ‘N’ no. of unidirectional laminae
directional bending under sinusoidal load was with material symmetry axis parallel to the
extended by Savithri S. and Varadan T. plate axes x, y, z as shown in figure-1(a) has
(1992) to bi-directional bending of laminated been considered for formulisation. The plate
composite plates for uniformly distributed is considered to be simply supported as
and concentrated loads (small patch load). shown in figure-1(b). The concentrated load
Savithri and Varadan (1992) used Fourier ‘Q’ is positioned on the top surface of
formulations that simulates concentrated load laminate is also shown in figure-2.
as uniformly distributed loading over a small
square area of width=0.05a. However exact
formulation for concentrated load has not
been presented yet.
In present work 3-D elasticity formulation for
bi-directional bending of simply supported
laminated composite plates subjected to
concentrated load modelled with the help of
double Fourier series is presented. Present
formulation is based on Pagano’s (1970)
formulation for bi-directional bending of
laminated composite plates subjected to
sinusoidal loading.
As the concentrated load could not be
represented by continuous loading function
Savithri and Varadan (1992) has observed
that Fourier series do not converge at the
point of discontinuity. In the present
formulation as the point load has been Figure 1. General laminate plate
modelled as exact point load thereby number
of discontinuity has been reduced to one.
In order to avoid the mathematical
disturbance and get reliable results the
response of the plate is evaluated at a short
distance away from the location of point load.
Since the load has been formulated with
single discontinuity convergence of results is Figure 2. Laminate subjected to
achieved with significantly less no. of concentrated load
harmonics as compared to formulations
presented by Savithri and Varadan (1992). A generic load qz(x ,y) expressed as Fourier’s
Solutions for few problems in detail with series approximation:

Analysis of Laminated Composite Orthotropic Plates Under Bi-directional Bending Subjected to
Concentrated Loads

Graphite-Epoxy Lamina; Pagano [Pagano

and Wang, 1971]
EL = 172.40 GPa;ET = ET = 6.89 GPa
For concentrated load coefficient qmn is
GTT = 1.378 GPa;LT = TT =0.25
evaluated as,
4Q m xo n yo Normalisation factors considered are,
q mn  sin( ) sin( ) , m, n  1, 2,...n
ab a b Z 
Z a
, S  , ( x ,  y ,  xy )
( x ,  y ,  xy )
where, (xo, yo) is location of concentrated on h h qo S 2
z 1
the plate. z  , ( xz ,  yz )  ( xz ,  yz ),
qo qo S
ET u ET v 100 ET w
NUMERICAL STUDY u  ,v  , w
qo h S 3 qo h S 3 qo h S 4
Various numerical examples have been Simply supported symmetric three-ply
solved to investigate: (i)Response of Square (0°/90°/0°) laminated plate with equal
and Rectangular(b=3a) plates subjected to thickness of each layer subjected to central
concentrated load at the centre of the plate concentrated load has been considered for
considering three different laminate  , y
investigation. The normalized stresses x
schemes(0°-single ply, 2 coupled ply-
τ xz ,τ yz
90°/0°,3-ply 0°/90°/0°).(ii)to compare of the and the displacements w , u have
response plate subjected to line load and been compared in Table-1 for aspect ratios
uniformly distributed load. S=4, 10, 20 and 50. Excellent agreement of
Material Properties: results has been observed with Savithri and
Varadan (1992) results as shown in Table-1.

Table 1. Normalized stresses and displacement of 3-layered(0o/90o/0o) orthotropic plate

Aspect Sou x y  xy (0,0,h/2)  xz ( o, b / 2, 0)  yz ( a / 2, 0, 0) w( a / 2, b / 2, 0)

Ratio ‘S’ rce ( a /2, b/2/,-h/2)
4 ♦ -6.0909 -0.8381 -0.1679 0.9056 0.2821 12.8770
(m=n=101) {-12.423} {1.3530} {-.0238}
* {-12.42} {1.3493) {-0.0224} 0.8949
0.8959(0) 0.2821 12.8742
10 ♦ -7.1762 }-0.9561 -0.0875 1.1570 -0.1618 4.8047
(m=n=101) {-11.709} {1.3698) {-0.0225}
* {-11.61} {1.3881} {-0.0236} 1.1575 -0.1717 4.7121
20 ♦ -8.0278 -1.07226 -0.0656 1.1415 -0.2254 2.9266
(m=n=151) {-10.01} {1.3632} {-0.02019}
* {-10.753} {1.3382} {-0.0222} 1.1423 -0.2213 2.9239
50 ♦ -9.122 -1.2263 -0.0575 1.0474 -0.3720 2.2869
CPLT * -2.55 0.3098 -0.0186 -- -- 2.1302
CLPT + -5.00 -0.5322 -0.0559 -- -- 2.1257
{ }-bracket indicates values at (a/2,b/2,h/6) ( )-bracket indicates ‘z’ distance
♦ Present Analysis *Savithri S and VaradanT K (1992) ‘+’ Reddy J N (1997)

Raval and Bambole

S z z

w( a2 , b2 , 0)  x(0.45a,0.45b, z)  y (0.45a, 0.45b, z )

(a) (b) (c)

z z

(d) (e) (f)

 xz (0, 0.45b, z)  yz (0.45a, 0, z) u(0, 0.45b, Z)

Figure 3. Through thickness variation of the stresses and displacements

ratios suggests that a 3-D formulation is

Stresses and deformation values at the bottom
must for analysis of both thick and thin
face as well as the laminate interface have
laminated plates subjected to
been presented in Table-1.Variation of the
concentrated loads. Such variation
stresses  x ,  y , τ xz ,τ yz and displacements
cannot be predicted by the CLPT.
w , u through the thickness of the plate for 2. Formulation allows accurate estimation
aspect ratio S= 4, 10 and 20 at critical of interlaminar stresses and its location
locations has been presented in Figure-3[(a) which are crucially important for de-
to (f)]. lamination study.
CONCLUSIONS 3. 3-D behaviour is governed by not only
the aspect ratio but also by type of
3-D elasticity solution of laminated
loading, plate geometry and stacking
composite plates subjected to concentrated
loads using simple double Fourier
transformation is obtained. 4. Inspection of response of rectangular
(b=3a) laminated plates revealed
1. Non-linear through thickness variation of
significant reduction stresses in y
stress and displacement at lower aspect
ratios and in the zone of stress
direction i.e.  y , xy and  yz in
concentration under the concentrated comparison to square plates and
load for lower as well as higher aspect convergence to CLPT at lower aspect

Analysis of Laminated Composite Orthotropic Plates Under Bi-directional Bending Subjected to
Concentrated Loads

ratios with faster Fourier convergence is

also observed.

Pagano N J 1969 Exact solutions for
composite laminates in cylindrical
bending Journal of Composite Materials
3 398-411.
Pagano N J 1970 Exact solutions for
rectangular bidirectional composites and
sandwich plates Journal of Composite
Materials 4 20-34.
Pagano N J and Wang A S D1971 July
Further study of composite laminates
under cylindrical bending Journal of
Composite Materials 5 521-528.
Reddy JN 1997 Mechanics of Laminated
Composite Plates: Theory and Analysis
CRS Press Florida.
Savithri S and Varadan T K 1992 Laminated
plates under uniformly distributed and
concentrated loads ASME Journal of
Applied Mechanics Brief notes 59(1)

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


SWAIN A. and ROY T.*
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Rourkela, Rourkela, India.

Abstract: The present work proposes a numerical model to evaluate the elastic
properties as well as to analyse dynamic responses of hybrid composite shell
structures which consists of conventional carbon fiber (CF) as reinforcing phase and
multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based polymer as matrix phase. The Mori-
Tanaka based strength of material method has been implemented to determine the
elastic properties of such hybrid composite structures. An eight noded shell element
having five degrees of freedom at each node has been used for modeling and analysis
of such hybrid shell structures. Stress resultant-type Koiter’s shell theory has been
used and no restriction has been imposed on the magnitude of curvature components
to capture the deep and shallow shell cases. Twist curvature component has also been
incorporated to keep the strain equations complete. The transverse shear effect has
also been considered according to the Mindlin’s hypothesis. The Rayleigh damping
model has been implemented in order to study the effect of carbon nanotubes (CNTs)
on damping capacity of such hybrid composite shell structures. Different types of
shell panels (such as cylindrical, spherical, elliptical and doubly curved) have been
analyzed in order to study the time and frequency responses. Results indicate that the
elastic properties as well as damping properties of such hybrid composite structures
improved with the addition of CNTs as compared to conventional carbon fiber
reinforced composites (CFRCs) laminates and effects of some important parameters
on the vibration characteristic of such hybrid composite shell structures have also
been presented.
Keywords: Carbon fibre; Polymer-matrix composites (PMCs); Nano-structures;
Vibration; Finite element analysis (FEA); Numerical analysis

INTRODUCTION the important literatures regarding damping

in composite materials due to inclusion of
Conventional CFRCs laminates are well
nanoparticles and presented that the
known for their use in various industries
dissipation of energy occurs mainly due to
ranging from home appliances to aerospace
the mechanism of frictional sliding between
and defense applications which regularly
nanoparticle (like carbon nanotube) and
experience loading under service conditions.
matrix. Koratkar et al. (2002, 2003, 2005)
Due to the presence of cracks, failure occurs
found that a sublayer of nano-film in a piezo-
as the crack propagates caused by vibrations
silica composite beam can enhance 200%
due to low damping capacity of conventional
damping level and 30% bending stiffness
CFRP structures (Chandra et al. 1999).
without increase in weight of structure
Treviso et al. (2015) encapsulated some of

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 153

Swain and Roy

whereas few studies presented that addition (PMNC) have been obtained by using the
of 2% CNT in matrix phase can lead to Mori-Tanaka method. In second phase,
1000% increase of the loss modulus of a bar effective properties of the hybrid composite
under axial cyclic loading (2005). which is a combination of CNT based
polymer matrix and carbon fiber is
From the literatures review, it is cleared that
determined using strength of material
strength, load bearing as well as wear and
fatigue resistance capacity increases when
CNTs is blended in the polymer matrix phase
in the proper ratio. Research work in this
field is already initiated but detail modelling
and analysis of CNTs based hybrid composite
structures is still unrevealed. So, the present
work focuses the effects of randomly oriented
CNTs, carbon fiber on vibration
characteristics of hybrid composite shell Figure 1. Various constituents of CNT
structures. The Mori–Tanaka method based based hybrid composite.
strength of material method is implemented
to obtain the elastic properties of hybrid FINITE ELEMENT (FE)
composite material which is made up of FORMULATION AND ANALYSES
sixteen layers with stacking sequence of [0 /-
The stress-resultant type Koiter’s shell theory
45/ 45/ 90]2s. An eight noded shell element
has been considered in the present finite
considering shear deformation effect
element formulation of the hybrid composite
according to the Mindlin’s hypothesis has
shell structures. The effect of shear
been formulated for finite element modelling.
deformation to the Koiter Shell theory based
Obtained elastic properties have been used to
on the Midlin’s hypothesis (2010) has also
study the impulse responses of such hybrid
been considered in the present FE
shell structures. The damping characteristics
of such hybrid composite shell structures has
been implemented based on the Rayleigh The shell geometry used for the present
damping model in order to study the effects formulation has been developed using an
of CNTs on the settling time i.e. how fast the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system
system responses reach to steady state under with the mid-plane of the shell assumed to be
impulse loading. Frequency response the reference surface as shown in Figure. 2
analyses have also been carried out to study
the effects of CNTs on the resonance
frequencies and absolute amplitudes of
frequency responses of such various hybrid
shell structures.


A mathematical model has been implemented
to obtain the mechanical properties of this
hybrid nanocomposite based on the strength
of material approach in conjunction with the Figure 2. Geometry of shell structure in
Mori-Tanaka method. Figure. 1 shows the Cartesian coordinates.
various constituents of CNT based hybrid The eight nodes shell element has been used.
composite. In first phase the effective The shell mid-surface in the cartesian
properties of polymer nanocomposite coordinate system has been first mapped into
Vibration Damping Capacity of Carbon Nanotube based Hybrid Composite Spherical Shell Panel

a parametric domain through the suitable to verify the present shell finite element code
exact parameterization. Two independent developed, the static and free vibration
coordinates (1 ,  2 ) in the parametric space analysis has been performed for the
have been considered as the mid-surface laminated spherical composite shell and
curvilinear coordinates of the shell. The validated.
normal direction coordinate to the middle
surface of the shell has been represented by z TRANSIENT RESPONSES OF THE
. The reference surface or the shell mid- HYBRID COMPOSITES DUE TO
surface can be described in the global IMPULSE LOADINGS
cartesian coordinates in terms of the position Various simple supported spherical
vector as composite shell structures on the square base
r (1 ,  2 )  X (1 ,  2 )iˆ  Y (1 ,  2 ) ˆj  Z (1 ,  2 )kˆ (1) (a = b) have been analyzed under the impulse
loading. In all the cases, the shell panel has
Where, iˆ , ĵ and k̂ are unit vectors along the been subjected to an impulse load of 10 N at
X, Y and Z axis, respectively. the center up to 10 time steps and impulse
responses of the panels have been calculated
EQUATION OF MOTION with a time step of  /10 where  the time
The dynamic finite element formulation has period is corresponding to first natural
been derived by using the Hamilton’s frequency of the system. In all the cases, the
principle as follows global responses are calculated considering
t2 first ten modes. The main purpose of this
 [ (T  U )   W ]dt  0 (2) present study is to analyze the effects of
t1 CNTs on the maximum response and settling
time of the shell panel. The settling time is
T is the kinetic energy of the system, U is the calculated as the time required to reach the
elastic strain energy and W is the external amplitude of vibration to 5% of maximum
work done by the force on the structure. After amplitude. The Figure. 3 shows the transient
putting the energy expressions in Equation responses of such shell panel for R/a = 5 and
(2) and taking first variation, the equation of a/h = 10.
motion can be written as

 
 M uue  d e   Kuue  d e   F e  (3)


The damping in large systems can be
modeled using the Rayleigh damping or
proportional damping model. Calculating
Rayleigh damping coefficients for large
degree of freedom system has been provided
with detail in Chowdhury and Dasgupta
Figure 3. Transient responses of the
composite shell panel for R/a = 5 and a/h
= 10 for a particular vcf with variation of
Based on the above formulations, a complete
It is observed from the Figure. 3 that the
MATLAB code has been developed. After
settling and maximum amplitude of response
validation of present developed FE code,
decreases with the more inclusion of CNTs in
various results have been presented.In order
the hybrid composite shell structures and
Swain and Roy

these are more in case of conventional influenced by CNT. Maximum absolute

composites (without CNTs) than that of displacement of the said structure is more
hybrid composites. decreased by CNTs than that of carbon fiber
volume fractions. Resonance frequencies of
FREQUENCY RESPONSES the said structure is more increased by
ANALYSIS OF VARIOUS HYBRID inclusion of MWCNTs that implies that such
COMPOSITE SPHERICAL SHELL hybrid structures can be used under more
STRUCTURES excitation frequency or can be operated at
higher excitation frequency than that of
For frequency response analysis magnitude conventional laminated composites.
of applied load is considered as 10 N to
obtain frequency responses of hybrid shell REFERENCES
structures considering different %age CNTs. Chandra R Singh S P and Gupta K 1999
The Figure. 17 depicts that the frequency Damping studies in fiber-reinforced
responses of hybrid composite spherical shell composites – a review Composite
structures considering 25% vfwith different % Structures 46 41–51.
age of CNTs for a/h = 10. Chowdhury I Dasgupta S P 2003
Computation of Rayleigh damping
coefficients for large systems. Electronic
Journal of Geotechnical Engineering 8
Bundle 8C.
Koratkar N A Suhr J Joshi A Kane R S
Schadler L S Ajayanand P M Bartolucci
S 2005 Characterizing energy
dissipation in single-walled carbon
nanotube polycarbonate composites
Applied Physics Letters 87 063102.
Figure 4. Frequency responses of hybrid Koratkar N A Wei B Q Ajayan P M 2002
shell structures considering 25% vcf with Carbon nanotube films for damping
different % age of CNTs applications Advanced Materials14 997-
Figure. 4 depicts that the inclusions of CNTs
Koratkar N A Wei B Q Ajayan P M2003
in the conventional composites significantly
Multifunctional structural reinforcement
increases the resonance frequencies as well as
featuring carbon nanotube films
decreases amplitude of responses of the
Composites Science and Technology63
hybrid composite spherical shell structures.
CONCLUSIONS Roy T Manikandan P Chakraborty D 2010
Improved shell finite element for
A mathematical model has been proposed to
piezothermoelastic analysis of smart
obtain the effective elastic properties of a
fiber reinforced composite structures
MWCNTs reinforced hybrid composite
Finite Elements in Analysis and
laminates using the Mori-Tanaka based
Design46 710-720.
mechanics of material method. Studies on the
Treviso A Genechten B V D Mundo M
impulse and frequency responses of the
Tournour2015 Damping in composite
various hybrid composite shell structures
materials: Properties and models
have also been carried out. Settling time of
Composites Part B78 144-152.
the said structure is influenced by CNTs than
that of carbon fiber volume fractions that
implies that the damping in such hybrid
composite is dominated by MWCNTs. It has
also observed that stability of the system is
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Civil Engineering, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, India.

Abstract: Tapered composite plates are increasingly being used in various

engineering applications. In variable-thickness laminate, the material and geometric
discontinuities at ply drop-off locations leads to significant discontinuities in stress
distributions. Elastic stability of variable-thickness composite laminated skew plate
subjected to biaxial in-plane compressive forces has been studied. The buckling
analysis of the skew laminate plates of variable thickness are carried out by the
bifurcation buckling implemented in finite element program ANSYS. A parametric
study on tapered composite skew plate is conducted, considering the effects of skew
angles, laminate layups, taper angles, boundary conditions on the buckling resistance
of skew composite laminate plates are presented.
Keywords: buckling; finite element method; skew plate; variable thickness;

INTRODUCTION includes staircase arrangement as in figure 1.

As a rule of thumb, the taper angle varies
The laminated plates with variable thickness with the change of ply drop ratio, Th/L
are increasingly being used in engineering (where, Th is total thickness of ply drops and
applications, such as turbine blades, L is the total length of ply drop-off). So the
helicopter blades and yokes, robot arms and three ply drop ratio are considered (1/16,
satellite antennas where in the stiffness of the 1/18, 1/20).Element SHELL181 is used for
structure needs to be varied along the length the analysis. SHELL181 is a four-noded
of the beam or plate. Such tapered structures element with six degrees of freedom at each
can be made by terminating some plies at node: translations in the x, y, and z
discrete locations so as to change the directions, and rotations about the x, y, and z
stiffness of the plate. In the present work, a axes’ making total of 48 degrees of freedom
finite element formulation that includes the per element with element edge length of 5
buckling response of laminated composite mm was selected based on convergence test
skew tapered plate with staircase-dispersed and used throughout the study. Mapped
type taper configurations arrangement is meshing is used for all cases, so that more
considered. A parametric study on tapered elements are employed near the junction of
composite plate with ply drop-off has been thick-taper and taper-thin section, where
conducted using ANSYS software. plies are dropped. The laminates are made up
of NCT /301 graphite-epoxy composite
MATERIAL AND METHODS material with following mechanical
To study the buckling response of composite properties: E 1 is 113.9 GPa, E 2 is 7.985 GPa,
laminated skew plates with ply drop off ν 21 is 0.0178, ν 21 is 0.288, G 12 is 3.137 GPa.
under in-plane biaxial compression load, a The mechanical properties of epoxy resin
rectangular fibrous composite plate is are: E is 3.930 GPa, G is 1.034 GPa, ν is
modelled with five layers and two plies 0.37. Geometry of laminated skew composite
dropped internally. The taper configuration plate with ply drop-off is shown in figure 1.
Priyanka Dhurvey

Simply supported and clamped supported of these plies are different along the
boundary conditions are considered for the laminate’s axis. When theses plies are
analysis. dropped at different locations in a laminate,
the rise of out of plane stresses at each drop-
off may be different to the stiffness of the
dropped plies. The global-local approach has
been used for analyzing the laminates with
variable thickness. So, the location of the ply
drop-off was kept away from both load and
constraint locations to avoid their
interference. The laminate is assumed to be
linearly elastic until the point of delamination
[Varughese et al., 2001]. A five layer
composite laminated plate 120mm long and
100mm wide with two ply drops has been
Figure 1 Geometry of Laminated Skew
analyzed under biaxial in-plane compression
Composite Plate with Ply Drop
load as shown in figure 1. The thickness of
So for the analysis five different layup each lamina is taken as 0.75 mm. Detail of
configurations are selected including 00, 450 five different layup configurations
and 900 fibres as they are most commonly considered for analysis are given in Table-1.
used practically. The stiffness contributions
Table 1. Layup Configurations
Stacking sequence and Lengths for the laminated composite with ply
Layup drop-off (mm)
configurations Thick Taper section Thin
Thick section Thin section
section (1/20 ply ratio) section
LC 1 [(0/90] 2 /0] [0/90/0] 60 15 60
LC 2 [(90/0] 2 /0] [90/0/0] 60 15 60
LC 3 [(-45/45] 2 /0] [-45/45/0] 60 15 60
LC 4 [-45/45/0/90/0] [-45/90/0] 60 15 60
LC 5 [-45/45/90/0/0] [-45/0/0] 60 15 60

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION the laminate undergoes positive (upward)

deflection. In both boundary conditions it is
INFLUENCE OF SKEW ANGLE ON being observed that LC4 layup configuration
BUCKLING LOAD is the strongest of all and LC2 layup
The effect of variation of buckling load with configuration is the weakest. In simply
skew angle for different layup configuration supported, LC4 is followed by LC5, LC3 and
for simply supported and clamped supported LC1 and in clamped support LC4 is followed
boundary conditions under in-plane bi-axial by LC5, LC1 and LC3. The buckling load of
compression loading are shown in figure 2. layup configuration LC4 is 7 (ave.) times
In both boundary conditions, it can be than the buckling load LC2, in simply
observed that, the buckling load decrease supported boundary condition. But for
with decrease of skew angle from 900 to 500. clamped condition, the buckling load of
The associated transverse displacement also layup configuration LC4 is 3 (ave.) times
decreases with decrease of skew angle and it than the buckling load LC2.
occurs at thin section. It is also observed that

Buckling Analysis of Composite Laminated Skew Plate of Variable Thickness Under Biaxial


Figure 2- Variation of buckling load with
skew angle for different layup
configuration for simply supported and
(b) clamped supported

Figure 3- Variation of buckling load with
skew angle for different ply drop ratio for
(a)LC1, (b)LC2, (c)LC3, (d)LC4 and(e)
LC5 layup configuration
The effect of taper angle on buckling load is
investigated by considering three different
ply drop ratio (Th/L) for analysis as 1/20,
1/18 and 1/16 for simply supported boundary
condition for different layup configurations
are shown in figure 3. It is observed that as
ply drop-off ratio changes from 1/20 to 1/16,
the buckling load increases for all layup
configuration, it is because the laminate
Priyanka Dhurvey

become stiff as the length of stagger II: Parametric study Composite

distance/tapered section reduces, due to Structures 306-318.
increase of taper angle.
He K Hoa SV Ganesan R 2000 The study of
CONCLUSION tapered laminated composite structures:
a review Compos Sci Technology 60(14)
In the present work, buckling analysis of
laminated composite skew plate of variable 2643–57.
thickness is investigated. Modelling process Hu H T Lin B H 1995 Buckling optimization
and solutions were done with FEM using of symmetrically laminated plates with
ANSYS software. Internally-tapered various geometries and end conditions
composite plates with different layup
Composites Science and Technology 55
configurations have been considered. A
parametric study on tapered composite skew 277-285.
plate is conducted, considering the effects of Hu HT Tzeng WL Buckling 2000 Analysis
skew angles, laminate layups, taper angles, of skew laminate plates subjected to
boundary conditions on the buckling
uniaxial in-plane loads J. Thin-Walled
rsistance. It is being observed under biaxial
compressive loading that with decrease of Structures 38 53–77.
skew angle from 900 to 500 the buckling Mukhejee A Varghese B 1999 Developed of
angle also decreases. For bi-axial a specified finite element for the
compression LC4 layup configuration
analysis of composite structures with
laminate is the strongest of all and LC2 layup
configuration laminate is the weakest. In ply drop-off. Composite Structures 46
simply supported, LC4 is followed by LC5, 1-16.
LC3 and LC1 and in clamped support LC4 is Reddy JN 2003 Mechanics of Laminated
followed by LC5, LC1 and LC3. The Composite Plates and Shells: Theory
buckling load of layup configuration LC4 is
and Analysis Book 2003.
7(ave.) times than the buckling load LC2 in
simply supported condition. Varughese B Mukherjee A 2001 Design
guidelines for ply drop-off in laminated
REFERENCES composite structure Composite
ANSYS Mechanical User's Guide. structures
Ganesan R Liu DY 2008 Progressive failure Varugheses B Mukherjee A1997 A ply drop-
and buckling response of tapered off element for analysis of tapered
composite plates under uniaxial laminated composites composite
compression Composite Structures 159- structures 39 123-144.
Vidyashankar B R Murty AV 2001 Analysis
Ganesan R Zabihollah 2007 A Vibration of laminates with ply drops, Composite
analysis of tapered composite beams Science and Technology 749-758.
using a higher-order finite element Part
I: Formulation Composite Structures
Ganesan R Zabihollah 2007 A Vibration
analysis of tapered composite beams
using a higher-order finite element Part

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


SHAH D. B.*, PATEL K. M., JOSHI S. J. and LAV K.
Mechanical Engg. Department, Nirma University, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India

Abstract: Composite materials are extensively used in Aerospace and Space

application for their high specific strength and stiffness. Composite of low void
content which offers good mechanical properties are manufactured using Autoclave.
After completion of process composite part is recovered from the mould, due to
relaxation of residual stress, part experience a spring back. In this paper, spring-in
deformation of L-shape Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) component is
determined using analytical and numerical approach. The analytical equation for
calculation of spring-in has been considered from various literature study. The Hexcel
AS4/8552 prepreg system as part material and aluminium as mould (tool) material is
selected to predict spring-in using both approach. The geometry modelling and finite
element (FE) analysis has been carried out using ABAQUS software. FE simulation
of curing process for 2D L-shaped laminate with layup sequence [0/90]6s is performed
using COMPRO plug-in with ABAQUS software. The lay-up sequence, thickness and
geometry for the L-shaped part as well as tool material has been considered as fixed
parameter for this study. The thermo-chemical, flow compaction and stress
deformation analysis have been. Thermochemical and stress deformation analysis has
been performed to obtain deformed shape of the laminate. Both analytical and
numerical results are found in good agreement with each other.
Keywords: CFRP; Spring-in; Finite Element Analysis; Residual stress

INTRODUCTION component as compared with other out of

Composite materials are widely used in autoclave processes. But, the major issue
industries for their various advantages over with the autoclave processing is that the
conventional metal. Among all composite manufactured component does not exactly
materials, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer resembles with the desired shape. The
(CFRP) composites are extensively used in deformation in the manufactured component
aerospace, automobile, sports and space is due to various intrinsic and extrinsic
applications because of very high specific process parameters such as resin shrinkage,
strength and stiffness properties. Autoclave mould (tool) and composite part interaction
processing is preferred for obtaining high condition, autoclave curing cycle, coefficient
quality CFRP components from available of thermal expansion (CTE) of mould
various processing of composite material, lay-up sequence, etc. These process
manufacturing. Autoclave process gives least induced deformations are broadly classified
void content in manufactured CFRP into spring-in and warpage. The warpage is

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 161

Shah et al.

defined as the deformation caused on the flat Using Eq. (1), spring-in has been calculated
parts due to tool-part interaction whereas for the considered CFRP part with predefined
spring-in is the difference in angle caused lay-up sequence, thickness and geometrical
during process in angled components such as dimension as 0.57° analytically.
in L and C shaped components. Various
studies have been conducted so far to NUMERICAL APPROACH
determine the effect of various parameters on The geometry modelling and finite element
deformation of the composite part during the simulation has been carried out using
autoclave processing. In cured thermoset ABAQUS software. Various analysis like
composite part, enclosed angle is changed thermo-chemical, flow compaction and stress
from original angle due to material deformation have been performed for L-
anisotropy. During curing process in shaped 2D laminate to predict spring-in
autoclave machine, chemical shrinkage takes deformation using COMPRO plug-in with
place due to polymerization. Extrinsic factors ABAQUS. The AS4/8552 Hexcel prepreg
such as tool-part interaction condition, tool system considered as a composite part
material used may also have major impact on material with symmetric lay-up sequence
spring-in [Fernlund et al., 2002]. [0/90]6s and aluminum as a tool material used
in simulation. The composite part and
ANALYTICAL APPROACH metallic tool is meshed with 420 and 527
The spring-in deformation has been elements using 3D-stress hex elements with
determined for L-shaped CFRP component quadratic geometric order. Tool part
using analytical approach by considering interaction properties are assigned in which
various assumptions. The lay-up sequence, coefficient of friction is kept as 0.15 and
thickness and geometry for the L-shaped part limiting shear stress as 40000 N/m2. The
as well as for the aluminum tool has been methodology adopted for the numerical
considered as fixed parameter for the approach as a flow chart format as shown in
calculation for spring-in deformation. Figure 1.
An analytical model as given in Eq. (1) have In the thermo-chemical module, heat transfer
been developed for determining spring-in of coefficient of 80 W/m2 K on top of composite
L shape laminate [Radford and Diefendorf, and 20 W/m2 K on bottom of the tool is
1993]. The anisotropy components such as applied as boundary conditions. The degree
longitudinal coefficient of thermal expansion of cure vs. time plot is obtained for the given
can be determined using laminate plate curing cycle of the composite part as shown
theory [Albert, 1997] and transverse in Figure 2. The deformed shape of L-shape
coefficient of thermal expansion can be composite part is gained from stress-
calculated from lamina properties using the deformation analysis. During tool removal
methods described by Pagano [Pagano, step, symmetric boundary conditions are
1974]. applied on the composite part which results
into spring-in deformation. The deformed and
un-deformed shape for the L-shaped part is
shown in Figure 3. From that, spring-in angle
is calculated as 0.66° using simple
mathematical calculations.

Prediction of Spring-in Deformation for L-shaped CFRP Components

Figure 1. Methodology for Numerical Simulation using ABAQUS with COMPRO plug-in

Figure 2. Degree of Cure vs. Time Plot Figure 3. Deformed and Undeformed
Shape of Composite L-shaped Part

Shah et al.

CONCLUSIONS geometry and layup on the dimensional

The spring-in deformation for L-shaped fidelity of autoclave-processed
CFRP components have been predicted using composite parts Composites: Part A 33
analytical and numerical approach. The layup 341-351.
sequence, thickness and geometry for Twigg G Poursartip A and Fernlund G 2004
composite part has been considered as fixed Tool–part interaction in composites
parameters. The hexcel AS4/8552 as processing. Part II: numerical modelling
composite part material and aluminum as tool Composites: Part A 35 135–141
material has been taken because of large
Zhu Q and Geubelle P H 2001 Dimensional
difference in CTE value. The spring-in
Accuracy of Thermoset Composites:
deformation has been found 0.57° using
Simulation of Process-Induced Residual
analytical approach. The FE simulation has
Stresses Journal of Composite Materials
been carried out using ABAQUS software
35 No. 24/2001.
with COMPRO plug-in. The spring-in
deformation has been predicted as 0.66° by Kappel E Stefaniak D and Fernlund G 2015
performing thermo chemical and stress Predicting process-induced distortions in
deformation analysis. The measured spring-in composite manufacturing – A pheno-
using analytical and numerical approach has numerical simulation strategy Composite
been compared and found as good agreement Structures 120 98–106.
with each other. Roozbehjavan P Tavakol B Ahmed A
Koushyar H Das R Joven R and Minaie
B 2014 Experimental and Numerical
The authors express their deep gratitude to Study of Distortion in Flat, L- shaped,
the Convergent Manufacturing Technologies, and U- shaped Carbon Fiber- Epoxy
CANADA for their technical support and Composite Parts. Journal of Applied
guidance. Polymer Science.
Mezeix L Seman A Nasir M N M Aminanda
Y Rivai A Castanie B Olivier P and Ali
Johnston A 1999 An Integrated Model Of K M 2015 Spring-back simulation of
The Development Of Process-Induced unidirectional carbon/epoxy flat laminate
Deformation In Autoclave Processing Of composite manufactured through
Composite Structures Ph. D. Thesis autoclave process Composite Structures
Graduate School -The University Of 124 196–205.
British Columbia.
Johnston A Vaziri R and Poursartip A 2001
A Plane Strain Model for Process-
Induced Deformation of Laminated
Composite Structures Journal of
Composite Materials 35.
Fernlund G Rahman N Courdji R Bresslauer
M Poursartip A and Nelson K 2002
Experimental and numerical study of the
effect of cure cycle, tool surface,
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Applied Mechanics, MNNIT Allahabad, India

Abstract: Transverse shear and normal stresses play important role in causing
delamination of laminated and sandwich plate / panel structures. Conventionally, in
the post-processing phase of a displacement based finite element analysis (FEA), the
transverse shear stresses are recovered by integrating the first two of the stress
equilibrium equations and then the transverse normal stress is recovered from these
transverse shear stresses, by integrating the third stress equilibrium equation.
However, a new method for transverse shear stress recovery using a least square of
error (LSE) method and a semi refined higher-order shear deformation theory
(SRHSDT7), based on simple equivalent single layer approach, was developed earlier
by the second author. The present work is an extension of the same, for recovery of
transverse normal stresses in such laminated plates. The novelty of the method lies
with the fact that, instead of recovering transverse normal stress from transverse shear
stresses, it is obtained directly from the primary displacement solutions obtained from
the FEA, by using the LSE method and the third stress equilibrium equation. The
present method is found to yield very accurate results, when compared to elasticity
solutions due to Pagano, as well as FE or other numerical solutions based on
computationally costly layerwise theory or complex mixed Variational theorems. Due
to the simplicity and robustness of the method, it can be used for accurate transverse
normal stress recovery in any arbitrary laminate configuration, including in sandwich
plates, for which it is an important factor.
Keywords: Laminated Composite, Transverse Normal Stress Recovery, Least
Square of Error Method, Semi Refined HSDT, Finite Element
INTRODUCTION delamination failure. Hence, delamination
FRP laminated composites, due to their failure analysis of such laminated composites
advantages like high strength-to-weight ratio, is an essential part of their proper analysis
design flexibility, ease of replacement etc.; and design processes. The transverse stresses
have found widespread application in are known to have considerable influence on
different engineering industry, especially for the delamination failure and hence accurate
weight-critical structural applications. Such evaluation of the transverse stresses is
laminated composite plate/panels frequently important for delamination analysis of such
act as important load bearing components. composites.
However, because of inherent weakness of Generally, for laminated composites,
laminae interfaces, such laminated displacement based analyses are more
composites are highly susceptible to popular over the stress based mixed analysis

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 165

Deshmukh and Bhar

procedures, due to relative simplicity of the method of transverse shear stress recovery at
former. Within these displacement based the post-processing phase, using a least
procedures, the two-step approach of using a square of error (LSE) method applied to the
simple two dimensional ‘equivalent single stress equilibrium equations based on the
layer theory’ (FSDT or some HSDT) to semi refined HSDT (SRHSDT7), also
obtain the primary displacement solution and proposed by them.
inplane stresses and then recovering the
This work extends the last mentioned work,
transverse stress components applying the
particularly for computation of transverse
stress equilibrium equations is quite common.
normal stress using the LSE method
For this purpose, superiority of the HSDTs presented therein, along with the same
over the FSDT and simplicity of such HSDTs SRHSDT7. However, since the formulations
over layerwise and zigzag theories is well here are little bit different than those used for
known. Naturally, a number of different the transverse shear stress recovery, they
HSDTs have been put forward by the deserve to be presented separately. In this
research community over the years, on which work, the transverse normal stress field
a comprehensive review can be found in Bhar
through the thickness at a point of the
(2011), wherein a semi refined HSDT
laminate is considered as a cubic polynomial.
(SRHSDT7) was also proposed.
Then it is computed through the thickness
The approach of recovering the transverse somewhat similarly as in Bhar and Satsangi
stresses at the post-processing phase of a (2011), as briefed in next section.
displacement based analysis, using the three
dimensional stress equilibrium equations, THEORETICAL FORMULATION
was discussed perhaps for the first time in Since the same HSDT (SRHSDT7) is used
open literature by Pryor and Barker (1971) for describing the plate kinematics, as can be
and then by Lo et al. (1978). Later, some found in Bhar (2011) or Bhar and Satsangi
other variants of such approach were also (2011), the process of obtaining the primary
presented by Chaudhuri (1986) and some displacement solution remains the same. So
others. The important similarity amongst all here we start directly with discussion on
these works, and many at later times, is that recovery process particularly for the
the second stage solution for the transverse transverse normal stress ( ). Notations for
stresses are obtained by through the thickness symbols used, are those used conventionally,
integration of the 3D stress equilibrium unless mentioned otherwise.
equations, performed layer by layer.
The well-known third stress equilibrium
Towards some new developments, Kant and equation, using which is to be recovered,
Menon (1991) developed a finite difference is given by
based method applied to the 3D equilibrium
equations, for obtaining the transverse (1)
stresses at the post processing phase. After Here we assume the to be recovered
more than a decade, Hossain et al. (2004) through the thickness of an arbitrary point
briefly presented a transverse stress recovery P(x,y) at the reference plane, as a cubic
technique from the equilibrium equations polynomial of the thickness coordinate (z)
based on a weighted residual method, for corresponding to p-th layer, as
laminated shell panels. More recently, Bhar
and Satsangi (2011) formulated a new (2)

A Method for Accurate Transverse Normal Stress Evaluation in Laminated Composites Using Simple

where are some unknown obtainable for transverse normal stress

constants associated to the p-th layer and are computation using the present formulation.
evaluated using the least square method, Problem-2: This problem is taken from
similarly as indicated in Bhar and Satsangi Manjunatha and Kant (1992), wherein a
(2011). Accordingly, a set of four equations, simply supported (0/90/0) square plate under
consisting of four unknowns can be formed sinusoidal transverse load is considered. The
laminate is again considered to be of very
in matrix form as
high thickness aspect ratio ( ).
[ ]{ } { } (3) Through the thickness distribution of ( )
at plate centre has been computed by them
These can be assembled for all the layers, using direct integration of the third
analogous to an one dimensional finite equilibrium equation. Results have been
element assemblage, and eventually obtained by them using an HSDT with six
degrees of freedom per node, for finite
expressed for the whole laminate as
element analysis. Further details of the
[ ]{ } { } (4) problem may be found therein. The results
obtained from present computation along
Solution of these set of linear algebraic with those from Manjunatha and Kant (1992)
equations is used to obtain the desired and elasticity results computed following
distribution of through the thickness. Pagano (1970), are presented in Figure 2.
Further detail of theoretical formulation is Results due to Wu and Kuo (1993), who used
skipped here for brevity required due to space mixed FE analysis, are also included. Careful
constraint. perusal of Figure 2 further confirms the
ability of the present formulation for accurate
NUMERICAL EVALUATIONS evaluation of transverse normal stress, even
for very thick laminate.
Formulations presented in previous section
are implemented into an FE analysis
computer program written in FORTRAN.
The developed program is evaluated for
computation of through the thickness
distribution of transverse normal stress ( ),
from problems published previously.
Problem-1: A simply supported square
(0/90/0/90) laminate of thickness aspect ratio
Figure 1. Through the Thickness
( ) subjected to transverse sinusoidal Distribution of Non-dimensional
load is considered. Through the thickness Transverse Normal Stress in (0/90/0/90)
distribution of non-dimensional transverse Laminate
normal stress ( ), where is the load
intensity at plate centre, is computed. Present
results are plotted along with those from
elasticity solutions, obtained following
Pagano (1970), in graph shown in Figure 1.
Material properties and other details can be
found therein and omitted here for space
constraint. It is clearly observed from Figure
1, that the present results obtained even for
this very thick laminate are in very close Figure 2. Through the Thickness
conformity to the elasticity solutions. This Distribution of Transverse Normal Stress
strongly indicates the high level of accuracy in (0/90/0) Laminate
Deshmukh and Bhar

Problem-3: To further investigate the solutions based on mixed FEM / layer-wise

capability of the present approach, a theorem are found to indicate little difference
symmetric square sandwich plate (0/core/0), at some places along the thickness, for the
simply supported on all the four sides and problems considered herein. These cases
subjected to bi-sinusoidal load is considered
deserve further investigation in future. But
from Ramtekkar et al. (2003), who presented
mixed FE analysis. The material properties overall, it can be concluded that the present
and boundary conditions are considered as approach allow quite accurate evaluation of
given therein. The comparison of present transverse normal stress for all type of
results with theirs is as shown in Figure 3. laminate configuration, using simple
displacement based HSDTs.


Bhar A 2011 Finite element analysis of

stiffened laminated composite and
functionally graded plates using a
higher-order shear deformation theory
PhD Thesis IIT Kharagpur India-
Figure 3. Through the Thickness Bhar A and Satsangi S K 2011 Accurate
Distribution of in (0/core/0) Laminate transverse stress evaluation in
composite/sandwich thick laminates
Problem-4: Another (0/90/0) laminate of using a C0 HSDT and a novel post-
rectangular shape (b=3a) is considered, processing technique European Journal
boundary conditions and material properties of Mechanics A/Solids 30 46-53.
for which can be found in Carrera (2000). Carrera E 2000 A priori vs. a posteriori
Comparison of present results with those evaluation of transverse stresses in
from Carrera (2000), who presented FE multilayered orthotropic plates
analysis using layer-wise theorem, is shown Composite Structures 48 245-260.
in Figure-4. Manjunatha B S and Kant T 1992 A
comparison of 9 and 16 node
quadrilateral elements based on higher-
order laminate theories for estimation of
transverse stresses J. Reinforced Plastics
and Composites 11 968-1002.
Pagano N J 1970 Exact solutions for
rectangular bidirectional composites and
sandwich plates Journal of Composite
Materials 4 20-34.
Figure 4. Through the Thickness Ramtekkar G S Desai Y M and Shah A H
Distribution of Transverse Normal Stress 2003 Application of a three-dimensional
in (0/90/0) Laminate mixed finite element model to the
CONCLUSION flexure of sandwich plate Computers
and Structures 81 2183–2198.
The present formulation is found to produce Wu Chih-Ping and Kuo Hsi-Ching 1993 An
through the thickness distribution of interlaminar stress mixed finite element
transverse normal stress, very close to method for the analysis of thick
elasticity solutions, as evident from Figures 1 laminated composite plates Composite
and 2. However, comparison with some FE Structures 24 29-42.
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, Mumbai, India.
Department of Civil Engineering, B.M.S College of Engineering, Bengaluru, India.
Sahyadri College of Engineering and Management, Mangalore, India.

Abstract: The vibration and buckling characteristics of stiffened laminated composite

panels subjected to in-plane compressive or tensile edge loading are studied using
finite element analysis. Towards this, a nine-node heterosis plate element with four
degrees of freedom at interior node and five degrees of freedom at all exterior nodes
has been used to model the panel and the three-node isoparametric beam element with
four degrees of freedom at each node has been used to model the stiffener. The plate
and the stiffener elements are modelled separately and then the displacement
compatibility between them is maintained by using transformation matrix. The tensile
and compressive buckling loads and vibration frequencies are determined for different
edge load length, position of load, ply-orientations, and stiffener parameters.
Keywords: Stiffened panel; Stability; Vibration; heterosis element; Laminates.

INTRODUCTION 2016]. In many situations, these partial edge

Stiffened laminated panels are structural loads are tensile in nature. However, upon the
components consisting of panels reinforced action of such loads, the nature of stress
by a system of ribs, widely used in aircraft, distribution need not be only tensile, but also
ship, bridge, building, and some other compressive in nature over a certain region
engineering activities. These structural away from the application of loads. These
components subjected to in-plane loads many compressive stresses may cause local tensile
a time during their service life. The panel buckling, thereby exhibiting wrinkles on
with in-plane load is susceptible to buckle at certain region of the panel. This phenomenon
low stress levels, and hence is the subject of is generally termed as local buckling. Leissa
interest for researchers for many years. The and Ayoub (1988) studied the buckling
buckling of stiffened or unstiffened panels behaviour of plate subjected to a pair of
under the action of uniformly distributed tensile concentrated forces acting opposite to
edge loading has been the subject of each other. Kumar et al. (2003) have
extensive investigations [Satish Kumar and published some results on tensile buckling
Mukhopadhyay 2000]. However, in many and vibration behaviour of laminated
practical stability problems, particularly in composite plates and shells subjected to
aircraft structures, the applied edge load is localised patch load and concentrated loads.
partial in nature. For this class of problems, As seen from the literature, it has been
the internal stress field is non-uniform in observed that a large number of references
nature throughout the panel which has not deals with the vibration and buckling
received much attention [Rajanna et al. behaviour of rectangular stiffened/unstiffened

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 169

Rajanna et al.

plates subjected to in-plane uniform edge matrix form by considering either tension or
loading. A relatively less number of papers compression in-plane edge loads (Kumar et al.
deal with the vibration and stability problems 2003):
under the action of non-uniform in-plane
edge compressive loads. However, the tensile
 M q   K   P  KG  q  0 (1)

buckling characteristics of a panel are where [K], [KG] and [M] are assembled
sparsely treated in the literature. It is worth system stiffness, geometric stiffness and mass
mentioning that to the best of the authors’ matrices respectively.
knowledge, no comprehensive work has been The governing equations for the buckling and
carried out on the tension buckling of vibration problems can be obtained by
stiffened laminated composite plates reducing Eq. (1) as follows:
subjected to partial edge loading. In this Static Buckling problem: When {𝑞̈ } = {0}
work, the tensile and compressive buckling Eq. (1) reduces to a static case as
of laminated stiffened panels are investigated
with the influences of various parameters like  K q  Pcr  KG q  0 (2)
partial edge load length and its position, ply- Vibration problem: When the plate vibrates
orientations and stiffener parameters. under the action of in-plane compression or
tension edge loads, Eq. (1) reduces to
 K q  P  KG q -  2  M q  0 (3)
In the above Eq. (3), if P is equal to zero, the
equation represents a free vibration problem
without in-plane load. If the in-plane load
exists, then for a particular value of P, the
square of the frequency (ω2) becomes zero
Figure 1. Geometry of the stiffened and then the corresponding load represents
panel. the critical buckling load.
P/2 P/2 c/2
(a) (b) (c)
In this study, a 9-node heterosis plate element
Figure 2. (a) Partial edge load from one is employed with five degrees of freedom
edge;(b) Partial edge load from two (DOFs) u, v, w, θx, and θy at all edge nodes
adjacent edges.
and four DOFs such as u, v, θx, and θy at the
The stiffened laminated composite panel interior node. In order to develop heterosis
considered in this work is simply supported element, the serendipity shape functions are
on all four sides. The geometry of the used for transverse displacement w, and
stiffened panel of length a, width b, thickness Lagrange shape functions for remaining
h along x, y and z axes respectively is shown DOFs that includes u, v, θx, and θy as shown
in Fig.1. The typical loading cases considered in Fig. 3. This type of element exhibits
in this study are shown in Fig. 2. improved characteristics as compared to 8-
node serendipity and 9-node Lagrange
GOVERNING EQUATIONS elements (Butalia et al. 1990). A computer
The governing differential equation of motion code is developed using FORTRAN language
for a discretized structure can be written in to perform all the necessary computations.
Tensile and Compressive Buckling Analyses of Stiffened Laminated Composite Panels

8-N Serendipity 9-N Heterosis 9-N Lagrange and attains minimum γcr at c/b = 0.5 and θ =
(±90o)2. The similar phenomena is again
observed at c/b = 0.0. It may be due to the
higher restraints at c/b = 0.0 and 0.5.
Node with u, v, w, θx, θy degrees of freedom
Node with u, v, θx, θy degrees of freedom 140
130 c/b
Figure 3. Different types of plate 120 bp p

Buckling load parameter cr )

110 c 0.1

Buckling load parameter cr )

100 0.2
90 0.3
80 0.4
The stiffener dimensions are decided 50
according to the non-dimensional parameters 30
( δ = nAs /bh ), where n is the number of 10
stiffeners and As is the cross-sectional area of 0 15 30 45 60 75 90
Ply orientation (+/+/-)
each stiffener; similarly, β = nE2Is /bD, where
Is is the moment of inertia of the stiffener Figure 4. Variation of γcr for different c/b
about the plate centroidal axis and D is the and ply-oriented simply supported
flexural rigidity of the plate. The stiffener stiffened panels
parameters, δ = 0.1 and β = 10 are considered 14000
13000 c/b
for all problems unless otherwise specified. 12000 b 0.0
Buckling load parameter cr )

11000 P c
P 0.2
The ratio of thickness of plate to the width of 10000
the plate (h/b) is considered as 0.01, the 8000 0.5
length to breadth ratio (a/b) is 1.0 and the 6000
material properties E11/E22 = 25, G12/E22 = 4000

G13/E22 = 0.5, G23/E22 = 0.2, υ12 = 0.25 are 3000

considered, unless otherwise stated. The 1000
buckling loads and frequencies are presented 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Ply orientation (+/+/-)
in the following non-dimensional forms:
 
Non-dimensional frequency,   abs b 2 

(9) γcr for
Figure 5. Variation of tensile
 E22 h  different edge load length from one end
Pcr b 2 and ply-orientations.
Non-dimensional load,  cr 
E22 h3

where, Pcr and ωabs are the absolute critical 9000

8500 P/2 P/2 c/2
loads and frequencies respectively. 7500
P/2 P/2 c/2
Buckling load parameter cr )

6500 simply supported panel 0.3

6000 0.4
5500 0.5
The effect of concentrated edge load from 2500

one end and ply-angles on γcr is shown in Fig. 1500

4. It is observed that as the position of point 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

load changes towards the centre of panel, the Ply orientation (+/+/-)

value of γcr generally increases and attains Figure 6. Variation of tensile γcr for
maximum γcr at c/b = 0.5 and θ = (±0o)2. different edge load length from both ends
However, the value of γcr continuously and ply-orientations.
decreases with the further increased ply-angle

Rajanna et al.

P/2 P/2 c/2
F formation of compressive zone at some
Non-dimensional frequency (  ) 65
simply supported panel
P/2 c/2 E locations of panel.
55 D
c/b In case of tensile load, the frequency initially
A 0.0
B 0.1
20 C
C 0.2
increases with the load and starts decreasing
D 0.3
B E 0.4 at certain values of load. But, when the load
A F 0.5
0 300 600 900 1200 1500 1800 2100 2400
is compressive, the natural frequency keeps
Non-dimensional load (  decreasing. As expected, the fundamental
Figure 7. Variation of (ω
̅ ) vs. tensile load frequency becomes zero at respective
for (15/-15)2 layup stiffened panel. buckling load. The compressive buckling
load is more pronounced at θ = (±0)2 for c/b
TENSILE BUCKLING OF STIFFENED = 0.0 and 0.5 and θ = (±30)2 to (±45)2 for c/b
PANELS = 0.1 to 0.4. In case of tensile load, the γcr is
It is observed from Fig. 5 that the tensile significant at (±0)2 layup and it is keep on
buckling load γcr increases with the increased decreasing with the increased ply-angles.
c/b and found to be significant at higher c/b
(= 0.5) and insignificant at c/b = 0.0. It may REFERENCES
be due to the fact that the buckling load Butalia T S Kant T and Dixit V D 1990
depends on the strength and area of Performance of heterosis element for
compressive zone. This compressive zone bending of skew rhombic plates
rapidly decreases with the increased tensile Computers and Structures 34(1) 23-49.
zone at higher c/b ratio and resulting rapidly Kumar L R Datta P K and Prabhakara D L
increase of tensile buckling loads. 2003 Tension buckling and dynamic
stability behaviour of laminated
The same phenomenon can also be observed
composite doubly curved panels
for the stiffened plate with edge load from subjected to partial edge loading
both ends as shown in Fig. 6. In this case, the Composite structures 60(2) 171-181.
tensile buckling loads are comparatively less
Leissa A W and Ayoub E F 1988 Vibration
as compared to that of the previous case and buckling of a simply supported
(tensile load from one edge). It may be rectangular plate subjected to a pair of
attributed to the formation of compressive in-plane concentrated forces Journal of
zone nearer to the weaker portion of the panel Sound and Vibration 127(1) 155-171.
i.e., central zone of the panel. It is also Rajanna T Banerjee S Desai Y M and
observed from Figs 5 and 6 that there is no Prabhakara D L 2016 Effect of partial
appreciable variation in the buckling load edge loading on vibration and buckling
beyond (30o)2 ply-orientation. characteristics of stiffened composite
plates Latin American Journal of Solids
and Structures, an ABCM Journal
It is observed from Fig. 7 that the natural Satish Kumar Y V and Mukhopadhyay M
frequency initially increases with the load. As 2000 A new triangular stiffened plate
the load further increases, the frequency element for laminate analysis
starts decreasing and becomes zero at the Composites Science and Technology
onset of tensile buckling load. The deceasing 60(6) 935-943.
nature of frequency is mainly due to the
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (Deemed
University), Pune, Maharastra, India.

Abstract: The present work deals with three-dimensional geometrically non-linear

finite element analyses of functionally graded adhesively bonded tubular socket joint
made of laminated Fiber Reinforced Polymeric (FRP) composites. The out-of-plane
stress components have been computed along the various interfacial surfaces of bond
layer of tubular socket joint. Based on detailed stress analyses, critical location for
damage/failure onset is identified. It has been observed that free edges of the coupling
region of the socket joint are vulnerable for failure initiation. Further, efforts have
been made to reduce peel and out-of-plane shear stress concentration by implementing
functionally graded adhesive (FGA) with appropriate smooth and continuous
gradation function profile. Further, effects of graded joint with varied modulus ratios
on out-of-plane stresses are observed along the interfacial surfaces. Series of
simulation results indicate potential reduction in peak values of stress levels. This
situation leads to increase in strength and will delay the failure initiation by which
structural integrity of tubular socket joint will get improved.
Keywords: Functionally Graded Adhesive; Tubular Socket Joint; FRP

INTRODUCTION corrosion free as compared to mechanical

fasteners. Drawbacks associated with the
Adhesively bonded composite pipe joints are
mechanical joining of composite tubes lead to
widely used to mate various structural
the present research towards adhesive
components in aerospace and oil-and-gas
bonding of tubular sections.
industries due to their ease of construction
and superior mechanical performance. Pipe In view of review of literature, it is observed
structures play a vital role for energy and that almost all the bonded joints present
construction industries. The complex layout stress peaks or stress singularities at the
of industrial piping systems, along with edges of the bond line, due to elastic
limitations associated with composite pipe mismatch or due to peel stresses in all kinds
manufacturing, demands repeatable and of tubular joints. Several approaches were
durable joining mechanisms. Mechanical proposed in literature to mitigate and
joining methods of composite tubes such as decrease the degree of singularity of these
trimming, bolting and fastening enhance peaks, such as relief grooves [Cognard J Y,
stress raisers in the joint structure. In 2008] scarf joints or rounding edges [Zhao X
addition, adhesive bonds are generally et al. 2011]. Even though these approaches

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail; 173

Panigrahi and Nimje

can be exploited for testing purposes, their The geometry and configuration of bonded
applicability in an industrial context is not tubular socket joint analyzed is shown in
straightforward. The recent development of Figure 1. The socket and both the tubes of
nanotechnologies and their applications in the tubular socket joint are made of Gr/E
adhesives lead to strong improvements in laminated FRP composites (T300/934) with
terms of mechanical properties of the ply configuration [0/90] s. The material
polymer and of the joint. It is possible to vary properties along with their strength values
continuously the elastic modulus of the for tubes/socket and adhesive are shown in
adhesive by controlling the percentage of Table 1 and 2. The adhesive thickness (δ =
reinforcement, obtaining so called 0.1 mm), total length of the structure (2L =
functionally graded adhesives (FGA) 178 mm), outer radius of tube (r1 = 14.4
[Spaggiari A et al. & Stapleton S et al. 2012]. mm), outer radius of socket (r2 = 16 mm),
Kumar and Scanlan (2010) also provided an tube thickness (t1 = 1 mm), coupling
analytical framework study for stress analysis thickness (t2 =1.5 mm), coupling length (2c
of a shaft-tube bonded joint using a = 26 mm) and gap between the tubes (g =
variational technique. Functionally modulus 0.2 mm) have been adopted from literature
graded bond line (FMGB) adhesives were [Das and Pradhan, 2011]. The adhesively
employed in order to reduce peak peel and bonded tubular socket joint structure
shear stress levels. Those investigators found subjected to axial loading of 10 MPa is
that there was a significant decrease in peak considered for stress analysis. Two types of
peel and shear stress levels in FMGB adhesives namely mono-modulus and
compared to those of mono-modulus functionally graded adhesives are used to
adhesive materials. However, their research bond both the tubes with socket. The
was limited to tubular joint made of isotropic material gradation profile for functionally
adherends. graded bond line is expressed as:


for ( 0 ≤ z ≤ ± c/2 )

for (± c/2 ≤ z ≤ ± c)
and modulus ratio ‘R’ is expressed as


where E1 and E2 are lower bound and upper

bound Young Moduli of adhesives,
respectively. ‘z’ is the distance measured
Figure 1. Geometry and configuration of along the bond length ‘2c’. The detail
functionally graded adhesively bonded distribution of gradation properties with
socket joint of laminated FRP composite varied modulus ratios for bond line (2c) is
tubes. exhibited in Figure 2.

Stress and Failure Analysis of Functionally Graded Adhesively Bonded Tubular Socket Joint of Laminated
FRP Composites

Based on the detailed FE analyses, it is

observed that free edges of the coupling
region are more vulnerable zones for failure
initiation. It is important to note that the peel
stress at the interface of tube and adhesive
attains maximum value as compared to other
two critical regions. Further, efforts have
been made in order to reduce peak levels of
out-of-plane normal and shear stresses by
implementing functionally graded adhesive
along the bond layer. Series of numerical
Figure 2. Gradation of elastic simulations are carried out in tubular socket
modulus (E) along bond length of the
joint with FGA with varied modulus ratios
tubular socket joint for different modulus
ratio ‘R’. (R= 1, 2, 5, 8).

Table 1. Layer wise orthotropic

material properties of Gr/E (T300/934)
composite plates
Elastic properties Value

Ez 127.50 (GPa)
Er 4.80 (GPa)
Eθ 9.00 (GPa)
Gzr= Gzθ 4.80 (GPa)
Gθr 2.55 (GPa)
υzr = υzθ 0.28
υθr 0.41
Figure 3. Peel stress (σrr) distribution
along the interface of tube and adhesive
Table 2. Elastic properties of epoxy
with varied modulus ratios 'R' for graded
tubular socket joint.
E 2.8 (GPa)
υ 0.4 The peel and shear stress distributions at the
interface of tube and adhesive are shown in
Figures 3 and 4. Modulus ratio 'R=1' refers
to mono-modulus adhesive. Figures 3 and 4
show that peel and shear stress magnitudes
Adhesively bonded tubular socket joint are maximum at both the free edges of
experiences two vital modes of mechanical coupling region and at the centre of the
failure; failure onset at the tube/socket- joint. However, highest magnitude of
adhesive interfaces due to excessive peel stresses are observed at both the free ends of
and shear stresses and cohesive failure coupling region. Further, effects of graded
within adhesive bond layer. Such failure adhesive on magnitudes of peel and shear
occurs/propagates from the stress singularity stresses are clearly reflected from Figures 3
points which are called interfacial failures. and 4. Results indicate that when there is

Panigrahi and Nimje

increase in modulus ratios, peak values of assemblies application to the

peel (σrr) and out-of-plane shear (τrz) determination of the adhesive
decrease significantly. Figures 3 and 4 behaviour Computers and Structures
exhibits 20-60% reduction in peel and shear 86 1704–1717
stresss levels at both the free edges of Zhao X Adams R D da Silva L F M 2011
coupling region and also at the centre of the Single lap joints with rounded adherend
joint. Above discussed results are in corners: stress and strain analysis
Journal of Adhesion Science and
qualitative agreement with numerical
Technology 25 819–836
evidences found by Kumar [Kumar and
Scanlan, 2010; 2013]. Overall, the above Spaggiari A Dragoni E 2014 Regularization
results indicate that stress concentrations can of torsional stresses in tubular lap
bonded joints by means of functionally
be reduced by employing graded adhesive
graded adhesives International Journal
along the bond layer of tubular socket joint. of Adhesion and Adhesives 53 23–28
It leads to improve the strength of tubular
Stapleton S E Waas A M Arnold S M 2012
joint structure.
Functionally graded adhesives for
composite joints International Journal
of Adhesion and Adhesives 35 36-49
Kumar S Scanlan J P 2010 Stress analysis of
shaft-tube bonded joints using a
variational method Journal of Adhesion
86 369-394
Das R R and Pradhan B 2011 Finite element
based design and adhesion failure
analysis of bonded tubular socket joints
made with laminated FRP Composites
Journal of Adhesion Science and
Technology 25 41-67
Kumar S Scanlan J P 2013 On axisymmetric
Figure 4. Out-of-plane shear stress (τrz) adhesive joints with graded interface
distribution along the interface of tube stiffness International Journal of
and adhesive with varied modulus ratios Adhesion and Adhesives 41 57-72
'R' for graded tubular socket joint.

Tubular socket joint with functionally
graded adhesive will retard the possibility of
failure initiation by reducing peak levels of
out-of-plane stresses by which structural
integrity of joint can be improved

Cognard J Y 2008 Numerical analysis of
edge effects in adhesively-bonded

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Defence Institute of Advanced Technology, Pune, India

Abstract: Conventional metallic structural joints with mechanical fasteners and weld
joints are rapidly being replaced with composite bonded joints for the last few decades
in the aerospace industry. This is because of their high strength to weight ratio, lesser
cost and low stress concentrations. Slowly, such joints are getting adapted in various
industries including automotive sector. Experimental evaluations require specialized
equipment and skilled technicians which are time consuming and costly. Analytical
methods are too idealistic as various assumptions are involved. Finite Element
Method overcomes these limitations and evaluates precise results. Accurate modeling
of adhesively bonded joints remains a challenging task. In this paper geometrically
non-linear 3D models are used for both the adherend (CFRP) and the adhesive
(epoxy) in the lap joint which is subjected to tensile loads to analyse the de-bonding
behaviour, loads and stresses. The results are compared with the experimental data
Keywords: FEA; CFRP; lap joint; geometric non-linearity.

determined stresses in adhesive lap-joints. He

assumed that the two lap-joint plates act like
Since a few decades adhesively bonded joints simple beam and the more elastic adhesive
are playing a crucial role in aerospace and layer is an infinite number of shear and
automotive applications. These joints offer tension springs. In Hart-Smith’s (1973)
advantages over mechanical and welded model, the most important breakthrough was
joints like less time and cost consumption, the important milestone was the
higher strength to weight ratio, corrosion and simplification of the complicated stress–
fatigue resistance, lesser residual stresses, etc. strain behavior by bilinear or elasto-plastic
Boeing 787 and Airbus A350 contain more curve. This method has been proven as an
than 50% bonded structure. Evaluating stress effective tool in the joint design of
fields in the bond line is still a challenging aeroplanes. Banea and da Silva (2009) et al.
task. Analytically, the adhesive joints are provided a detailed review on the bond
studied by Volkersen (1938) which says that strength and analytical models of adhesively
adhesives deform in shear and adherend in bonded CFRP joints. Khalili (2008) et al.
tension. Then Goland and Reissner (1944) established a 3D FE model of the single lap
took into consideration the rotation of joint, and found that the largest values of
adherend as well. They assumed that the peel shear and peel stresses occur near the ends of
and shear stresses remain constant. Cornell the adhesive region. Hoang-Ngoc and
(1953) carried their work forward and Paroissien (2010) studied the single-lap and

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 177

Singh et al.

hybrid (bolted/bonded) joints with flexible bonded joints are being included in the global
adhesives. They did 2D plane strain and 3D models where adhesive layer is discretised
analyses, and used the hyper-elastic Mooney– with very fine meshes resulting in high
Rivlin potentials to model flexible adhesives. degree of freedom model.
Campilho (2012) et al. developed a FE model In this paper finite element model of a single
of single-lap joint based on cohesive zone lap bonded joint with composite adherend is
model (CZM), and discussed the influence of modeled with the aim of establishing the
the cohesive law parameters of a triangular model as accurately as possible. The model
CZM. and properties are referred from the work of
Nowadays, as we have achieved a good Jianfeng Li et al. (2015).
progress in computational capabilities, the

Table 1. Properties
CFRP (T300 /QY8911) J116B
E 1 =135 GPa, E 2 =8.8 GPa, E=1 GPa
E3=8.8 GPa, G 12 = 4.5 GPa, G=0.38 GPa
G 23 = 4 GPa, G 13 = 4.5 GPa, ν=0.3, σ =14 MPa
ν 12 =0.33, ν 23 =0.35, ν 31 =0.0216 τ =14 MPa
ρ = 1414 kg/m3 ρ = 600 kg/m3

load is applied at 0.5mm/min at the end cross

section of the lower adherend (Figure 1).
The lap joint configuration is shown in
The boundary conditions at the loaded end(B)
Figure 1 which is based on ASTM standard
restrict all the degrees of freedom, except for
D5868-01. The composite material of the
the longitudinal displacements, while at the
adherend is carbon/BMI unidirectional
unloaded end(A), none of the displacements
prepreg (T300 /QY8911, nominal thickness
or rotations are allowed. It is strongly
0.12 mm). The adhesive thickness of the joint
recommended to use symmetry conditions in
is 0.15 mm (J116B, epoxy film), produced by
order to reduce the time of data preparation
Institute of Petrochemistry Heilongjiang
and computer runs. For this specimen, half of
Academy Sciences. Material properties at
the specimen in the longitudinal direction
room temperature are listed in Table 1.
could be modeled by defining appropriate
It should be pointed out that in Table 1, σ and boundary conditions
τ represent the peel strength and the shear
The analysis was done in ABAQUS/Standard
strength of the adhesive film respectively.
using a solid model having eight node linear
The layup is [45/0/-45/90]s and the overlap
brick elements with incompatible modes and
length is 10 mm. Adherend width is 25 mm
three degrees of freedom per node have been
and length is 90 mm. The properties of each
material are presented in Table 1. The tensile

Non-linear 3D Finite Element Analysis of Adhesively Bonded CFRP Lap Joint

The adhesive layer was meshed using 10 Figure 3 shows the load vs. displacement
elements through its thickness to capture the curve from finite element analysis which
stresses and deformations accurately. The shows that the failure load is 7.5 kN. Curves
meshing in the adherends in the joint region for different adherend thicknesses are not
was same as that of adhesive layer in loading shown here.
direction and width wise. Figure 2 shows the
meshing in x and y axis in which area in
contact with the adhesive layer is densely
meshed. Since the most important effects
occur at the overlap ends, refinement of the
mesh in this region would improve the
accuracy of the model. In this example a
uniform mesh models the whole overlap;
however, the use of finer meshes in those
regions where stress concentrations are
expected is recommended.

Figure 3. Load-Displacement curve

Shear stress curves and peel stress curves
along the adhesive length from the finite
element model are not shown here.

The finite element model of the joint is
established. We can see that the behaviour of
the graph is non-linear and this non-linearity
increases with increase in adherend thickness.
We can easily plot shear stress curve and peel
stress curve along the adhesive length of the
Figure 1. Lap Joint joint.

Banea M D da Silva L F M 2009 P I Mech
Eng L-J Mater 223(1) 1.
Campilho R D S G Banea M D Neto J A B P
da Silva L F M 2012 Modelling of
single lap joints using cohesive zone
models: effect of the cohesive
parameters on the output of the
Figure 2. FE mesh of the joint simulations Journal of Adhesion Science
and Technology 88 513–33.

Singh et al.

Cornell R W 1953 Determination of stresses

in cemented lamp joints. J Appl Mech
20 355-364
Goland M and Reissner E 1944 The Stresses
in Cemented Joints ASME Trans
Journal of Applied Mechanics 11 17–27.
Hart-Smith L J 1973 Adhesive-Bonded
Single Lap Joints NASA-CR-112236.
Hoang-Ngoc C T Paroissien E 2010
Simulation of single-lap bonded and
hybrid (bolted/bonded) joints with
flexible adhesive. Int Journal of
Adhesion and Adhesives 30 117–29.
Khalili S M R, Khalili S, Pirouzhashemi MR,
Shokuhfar A Mittal R K 2008
Numerical study of lap joints with
composite adhesives and composite
adherends subjected to in-plane and
transverse loads. Int. Journal of
Adhesion and Adhesives 28(8) 411–8.
L Jianfeng Y Ying Z Taotao and L Zudian
2015 Experimental study of adhesively
bonded CFRP joints subjected to tensile
loads International Journal of Adhesion
and Adhesives 57 95.
Volkersen O 1938 Die Niektratve-rteilung in
Zugbeanspruchten mit Konstanten
Luftfahrtforschung 15 41–47

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


National Institute of Technology Silchar, India.
Swansea University, United Kingdom.
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India.
Jadavpur University, India
Leibniz-Institut für Polymer for schung Dresden e. V., (IPF), Germany

Abstract: In this paper, the stochastic natural frequency for laminated composite
plates is mapped by using Kriging model. The Kriging model is employed as
surrogate and is trained by using Latin hypercube sampling. Subsequently the
stochastic first three natural frequencies are quantified with Kriging based uncertainty
quantification algorithm. The convergence of the proposed algorithm for stochastic
natural frequency analysis of composite plates is verified and validated with original
finite element method (FEM). The sample size and computational cost are reduced by
employing the present approach compared to traditional Monte Carlo simulation
Keywords: Composite plate; Kriging; uncertainty quantification; stochastic
natural frequency

INTRODUCTION coupled with finite element formulation of

Composite materials are extensively composite plates for the proposed analysis.
employed in aerospace, civil, naval and other Due to the involvement of large number of
engineering applications because of their uncertain input parameters in complex
light weight, high specific strength, high production and fabrication processes of
stiffness-to-weight ratios, excellent fatigue laminated composite plate, the system
strength and tailoring of properties. Hence properties can be random in nature resulting
this subject has attracted ample attention in in uncertainty in the response of the
last couple of decades [Qatu and Leissa, laminated composite plate. Therefore, to well
1991a, 1991b]. Recently researchers have define the original problems and enable a
shown profound interest to quantify the better understanding and characterization of
material and geometric uncertainties the actual behaviour of the laminated
associated with different responses of composite structures, it is of prime
laminated composites [Dey et al., 2015a, importance that the inherent randomness in
2015b, 2016a and 2016b]. This article system parameters is incorporated in the
presents a computationally efficient analysis. Application of historical
framework for uncertainty quantification in uneconomic uncertainty factors may not be
natural frequencies of composite plates based sufficient to provide adequate safety.
on Kriging model. The Kriging model is Conversely, the trend to design for all

*Author for Correspondence: 181

Dey et al.

possible unfavourable events occurring authors’ knowledge, there is no literature

simultaneously could produce an covering the uncertainty quantification of
unacceptable dynamic response. Moreover, natural frequencies in laminated composite
composite materials have more intrinsic structures using the artificial neural network
variables than metals due to their model considering both individual and
heterogeneity and are subjected to more combined variation of random input
manufacturing process sources of variation. parameters.

A laminated composite cantilever plates is
considered as shown in Figure 1. An eight
noded isoparametric quadratic element is
considered in finite element formulation.
Using Hamilton’s principle and Lagrange’s
equation, the dynamic equilibrium equation Figure 1. Laminated composite plate
for the equation of motion of free vibration
system can be expressed as KRIGING MODEL
[ M (ω )] [δ] + [ K (ω )] {δ } = 0 The Kriging model [Cressie, 1990] postulates
In the above equation, M( ω ) and [K( ω )] are a combination of a known function employed
the mass and stiffness matrix, respectively for simulation of required output (natural
and {δ} is the vector of generalized frequency) is expressed as,
coordinates. The governing equations are (3)
y ( x) = y0 ( x) + Z ( x)
derived based on Mindlin’s theory
incorporating transverse shear deformation. where y(x) is the unknown function of
For free vibration, the random natural interest, x is an m dimensional vector (m
frequencies [ω n (ω ) ] are determined from the design variables), y0 ( x) is the known
standard eigenvalue problem using QR approximation (usually polynomial) function
iteration algorithm. For the composite plate, and Z(x) represents is the realization of a
the natural frequencies of are obtained as: stochastic process with mean zero, variance,
1 (2) and nonzero covariance. The covariance
ω 2j (ω ) =
λ j (ω ) matrix of Z(x) is given as
Cov[ Z ( x ) , Z ( x )] = σ R [ R ( x , x )]
i j 2 i j

where j = 1, 2, 3, . . . . . . . . , nmod e
where R is a (p × p) correlation matrix and
Here λ j (ω ) is the j -th eigenvalue of matrix
R(xi, xj) is the correlation function between
A = K −1 (ω ) M (ω ) and nr indicates the any two of the p-sampled data points xi and
number of modes retained in this analysis. xj. R is an (p x p) symmetric matrix with ones
along the diagonal. The correlation function
To implement the effects of material and
R(xi, xj) is specified by the user, and a variety
manufacturing uncertainties, a set of random
of correlation functions exist. Using Gaussian
variables representing laminate mechanical
correlation function
properties, density and orientation angles is
 n 2
chosen. The randomness in these variables R( x , x ) = exp − ∑ θ k xki − xkj 
i j
can be quantified either experimentally or  k =1 
using simulation codes. To the best of the

Stochastic Natural Frequency of Composite Plates using Kriging Model

where n is the number of design variables, θ k considered in the present analysis are as
is the unknown correlation parameters used to follows:
fit the model, and xki and xkj are the k-th (a) Variation of ply-orientation angle only:
components of the sample points x i and x j ,
θ (ω ) = {θ1 θ 2 θ 3 ........θ i ......θ l }
respectively. The predicted estimates, ŷ of (b) Combined variation of ply orientation
the response y (x) at random values of x are angle, elastic and shear modulus and mass
defined as Kriging predictor
g {θ (ω ), E1 (ω ), E 2 (ω ), G12 (ω ), G23 (ω ),
yˆ ( x) = βˆ + r T ( x) R −1 [ y − f βˆ ] (6) µ12 (ω ), ρ (ω )} = { Φ 1 (θ1 ..θ l ), Φ 2 ( E1(1) ..E1(l ) ),...
.....Φ 3 ( E 2 (1) ..E 2 (l ) ) ,Φ 4 (G12 (1) ..G12 (l ) ),
The estimate of variance between underlying ......Φ 5 (G23(1) ..G23(l ) ), Φ 6 ( µ12 (1) ..µ12 (l ) ),
global model β̂ and y is estimated by
.......Φ 7 ( ρ1 ..ρ l )}
where θ i , E 1(i) , E 2(i) , G 12i , G 23(i) , μ 12(i) and
σˆ 2 = ( y − f βˆ ) T R −1 ( y − f βˆ ) (7) ρ i are the ply orientation angle, elastic
p moduli, shear moduli, Poisson ratio and mass
where y is the column vector of length p that density, respectively and ‘l’ denotes the
contains the sample values of the frequency number of layer in the laminate. In present
responses and f is a column vector and study, three layered graphite-epoxy
βˆ = ( f T R −1 f ) −1 f T R −1 y and symmetric angle-ply laminated composite
r T ( x) = [ R( x, x1 ), R( x, x 2 ),....R( x, x p ) ]T with cantilever shallow plate is considered with
deterministic length, width and thickness of
the sample data points {x1 , x 2 ,...............x p } .
1 m, 1 m and 5 mm, respectively. Material
Now the model fitting is accomplished by properties of graphite–epoxy composite [Qatu
maximum likelihood (i.e., best guesses) for and Leissa, 1991a] considered with
θ k . The maximum likelihood estimates (i.e., deterministic mean value as E 1 = 138.0 GPa,
“best guesses”) for the θ k in Eq. (5) used to E 2 = 8.96 GPa, G 12 = 7.1 GPa, G 13 = 7.1
fit a Kriging model are obtained as GPa, G 23 = 2.84 GPa, μ = 0.3, ρ=1600 kg/m3.
Max. Γ (θ k ) = −
p ln(σˆ 2 ) + ln R ]
(8) Table 1 presents the finite element mesh
convergence study for non-dimensional
where the variance σ2 and |R| are both fundamental natural frequencies validated
functions of θ k , is solved for positive values with results obtained by Qatu and Leissa
of θ k as optimization variables. After (1991b). Figure 2 represents the probability
obtaining Kriging based surrogate, the density plot for validation of results obtained
random process Z(x) provides the by Kriging model with traditional Monte
approximation error that can be used for Carlo simulation (MCS). Figure 3 shows the
improving the surrogate model. scatter plot for validation of Kriging model
with original finite element model.
The layer-wise stochasticity in material and This presents a Kriging based approach for
geometric properties are considered as input uncertainty quantification in natural
parameters. The individual and combined frequencies of laminated composite plates.
cases of layer-wise random variations The computational cost is reduced by using
Kriging compared to MCS. The results are
Dey et al.

presented for fundamental natural frequency geometric properties to illustrate the proposed
considering individual and combined approach.
stochasticity in ply orientation, material and

Figure 2. Probability density function plot Figure 3. Scatter plot

Table 1 Convergence study for non-dimensional fundamental natural frequencies

[ω=ω n L2 √(ρ/E 1 t2)] of three layered (θ°/-θ°/θ°) graphite-epoxy untwisted composite
plates, a/b=1, b/t=100, considering E 1 = 138 GPa, E 2 = 8.96 GPa, G 12 = 7.1 GPa, ν 12 =
Present Present Present Present Qatu and
Ply angle, FEM FEM FEM FEM Leissa
(4 × 4) (6 × 6) (8 × 8) (10 × 10) (1991b)
0° 1.0112 1.0133 1.0107 1.004 1.0175
90° 0.2553 0.2567 0.2547 0.2542 0.2590

REFERENCES Kriging model approach Composites

Part B: Engineering 70 99–112.
Qatu M S Leissa A W 1991a Natural
frequencies for cantilevered doubly Dey S Mukhopadhyay T Spickenheuer A
curved laminated composite shallow Adhikari S Heinrich G 2016b Bottom up
shells Composite Structures 17 227–255. surrogate based approach for stochastic
frequency response analysis of laminated
Qatu M S Leissa A W 1991b Vibration
composite plates Composite Structures
studies for laminated composite twisted
140 712-727.
cantilever plates Int. J. of Mechanical
Sciences 33(11) 927–940. Dey S Mukhopadhyay T Sahu S K Li G
Rabitz H Adhikari S 2015b Thermal
Dey S Naskar S Mukhopadhyay T Gohs U.
uncertainty quantification in frequency
Spickenheuer A Bittrich L Sriramula S
responses of laminated composite plates
Adhikari S Heinrich G 2016a
Composites Part B: Engineering 80 186-
Uncertainty natural frequency analysis of
composite plates including effect of
noise - A polynomial neural network Cressie N A C 1990 The origins of Kriging
approach Composite Structures 143 130- Math Geol 22 239–252.
Dey S Mukhopadhyay T Adhikari S 2015a
Stochastic free vibration analyses of
composite doubly curved shells - A

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Civil Engineering Department, IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India

Abstract: A three-dimensional numerical simulation model ANSYS FLUENT is used

to model the flow field around a uniform cylindrical bridge pier as well as a
cylindrical pier with an elliptical pile cap attached to its base. The motive behind
modelling the two pier shapes is to analyse the effect of using elliptical pile cap in
controlling the vortex formation leading to reduction of excessive sediment scour
around the pier. The computations are done using standard and realizable 𝑘 − 𝜀 model
to simulate three dimensional flow around the piers. From the results obtained, it is
seen that the inclusion of elliptical pile cap in the pier structure reduced the strength of
vortices near the bed. The results obtained from FLUENT are compared with
experimental results and found to be in good agreement.
Keywords: Flow simulation; Turbulence; Complex piers; FLUENT.

INTRODUCTION are presented here, viz, cylinder without pile

Bridges have contributed to the development cap and cylinder with elliptical pile cap
of civilization since ages. But constructing a attached to it. Both the models were solved
bridge on river (Column Bridge) changes the for same flow conditions and flow domain.
flow pattern of river or stream around it. The The experiments were conducted in
three-dimensional flow field around a pier is Hydraulics Laboratory, IIT Bombay, India.
extremely complex due to separation and
generation of multiple vortices (Salaheldin et
al., 2004). The action of this generated vortex The flow domain and pier models were
system causes scour around the pier which developed using Design Modeler and
may weaken its foundation. Thus, it becomes meshing was done using Ansys Fluent itself.
very important to understand the change in Table 1 below gives the flow domain
flow around such structures in rivers dimensions adopted for both the cases. They
(Beheshti and Ataie, 2010). Cylindrical pier were selected in conjunction with the
is the most commonly used shape of pier experimental setup in the laboratory for
(Ali, 2002). But these days, pile caps are quantitative comparison of results. The
constructed to support the main pier for dimensions of the pier with and without pile
structural safety and geotechnical reasons. cap were also taken same as those taken in
experimental study, as given in Table 2.
The objective of the present study is to
Figures 1 and 2 show the flow domain and
understand the change in flow pattern around
generated grid for cylinderical pier model
a cylindrical pier in rigid bed by three-
with and without pile cap, respectively.
dimensional numerical simulation in ANSYS
Single phase domain of water was designed
FLUENT (Fluent Manual, 2012). Two cases
for both the models. Fine mesh was

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 185

Gautam et al.

developed with high smoothing and atleast

15 cells across each gap.
Table 1. Flow Domain dimensions
Length Breadth Depth
3m 0.3 m 0.2 m

Table 2. Pier Model dimensions

Pier without Figure 2. (a) Isometric view of
Diameter of pier: 0.03 m
pile cap computational domain for cylinder with pile
Diameter of pier: 0.03 m cap; (b). Zoomed in view of mesh.
Pier with
Length of pile cap: 0.12 m
elliptical pile
Breadth of pile cap: 0.04 m BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
Depth of pile cap: 0.05 m
Appropriate and same boundary conditions
were specified for both the cases. The inlet
was specified as velocity inlet with an
average uniform velocity of 0.33 m/s. The
outlet was specified as pressure outlet. The
side walls and the bottom of the domain were
set to “wall” condition, meaning ‘no slip’ at
(a) the solid boundaries. The top surface was set
to symmetry. The pier surface was also set as
“wall”. The inlet to pier distance was
carefully chosen to ensure fully developed
flow in the domain.

Steady state and pressure-based solution for
absolute velocity formulation was done for
(b) both the cases.
Figure 1. (a) Isometric view of The turbulence models solved for the domain
computational domain for uniform cylinder; were viscous standard and realizable 𝑘 − 𝜀
(b) Zoomed in view of mesh
models. In general, 𝑘 − 𝜀 turbulence model is
the most commonly used two-equation model
for the simulation of turbulent characteristics
of flow. It gives the description of turbulence
by solving two partial difference ‘transport’
The simulation for all the cases were done for
an average velocity 0.33 m/s applied on the
inlet boundary. For pressure-velocity
coupling, SIMPLE scheme was adopted.
Numerical Modelling of Flow Around Cylindrical Bridge Piers with and Without Pile Cap

Figure 3. Velocity contour at the center

Figure 4. Velocity contour at the level of
of the piers in the lateral (z-) direction
pile cap top around the pier without and
for pier without and with pile cap,
with pile cap, respectively
Figure 3 and 4 show the average velocity
Second-order Upwinding Scheme was done
contour for both the cases (in z- and x-
for spatial discretization of pressure,
direction, respectively). As can be seen from
momentum, and turbulent kinetic energy and
the contour figures, for the case without cap,
turbulent dissipation rate as well.
the velocity values and variations around the
Corresponding to the both cases discussed
pier is more predominant. For the case with
above, physical model experiments were
pile cap, the velocity values at the bottom of
carried out at Hydraulics Laboratory, IIT
the pier is reduced. The inclusion of pile cap
Bombay in a flume 7.5m long, 0.3m wide
in the pier seemed to reduce the strength of
and 0.6m deep, by placing the pier at the
vortices near the bed, as can be seen in fig. 3
center of the test section in the flume. The
and 4.
flow depth was set at 20 cm for a discharge
of 0.21 m3/s. For the defined flow conditions CONCLUSION
in the flume, the velocities were measured at
As observed, for the case without cap, the
various locations surrounding the pier using
velocity values and variations around the pier
Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry (ADV).
is more predominant. For the case with pile
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS cap, the velocity values at the bottom of the
pier were reduced. The inclusion of pile cap
In the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in the pier seemed to reduce the strength of
analysis, model results were obtained using vortices near the bed. The velocity around the
standard 𝑘 − 𝜀 model as well as realizable pile cap is also observed to be unchanged as
𝑘 − 𝜀 model. While standard 𝑘 − 𝜀 model compared to that around cylindrical pier case.
converges faster than realizable 𝑘 − 𝜀 model, The velocity values obtained in the CFD
the latter gives more agreeable results in both analyses were compared with the
the cases and are presented in this paper.
Gautam et al.

experimental results at few locations and dimensional flow field around circular
found to be in reasonable agreement. piers Journal of Hydraulic Engineering
130 91-100
Beheshti A A and Ataie-Ashtiani B 2010
Experimental study of 3-dimensional
flow field around a complex bridge pier
Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 136
Fluent Manual 2012 Manual of FLUENT


Figure 5. Comparison of Stream-wise
velocity profiles obtained in Numerical
Simulation and Experiments: (a) For
Uniform Cylinder; (b) For Cylinder with
Pile Cap.

Ali K H M 2002 Simulation of flow around
piers Journal of Hydraulic Research 40
Salaheldin T M, Imran J and Chaudhry M H
2004 Numerical modeling of three-
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.

Abstract: Kinetic Streamlined-Upwind Petrov Galerkin (KSUPG) method is a robust

method developed for solving hyperbolic PDEs like Burgers equation and Euler
equations. Due to the presence of computationally expensive error and exponential
functions this scheme becomes less efficient. In this paper, the modified KSUPG
scheme is proposed for Euler equations which is less computationally expensive than
its predecessor KSUPG. The efficiency of the proposed scheme is shown by solving
various test cases.
Keywords: KSUPG method; Euler equations; modified KSUPG method.

INTRODUCTION KSUPG over SUPG method is, it does not

require additional diffusion terms in multi-
Finite element method is a powerful
dimensional Burgers equation. Also, the
mathematical tool to solve partial differential
expression for intrinsic time scale for vector
equations (PDEs). It can optimally solve the
equations is obtained directly from weak
self adjoint differential equations where the
formulation of scalar equation. The diffusion
differential operator is symmetric. Standard
terms in KSUPG scheme involves
finite element method produces oscillations
exponential and error function which makes
while solving non-self adjoint differential
it computationally very expensive. In this
equations like Euler equations of fluid
paper, a modified KSUPG (m-KSUPG)
dynamics which are the governing equations
scheme is formulated which removes
of high speed flows. Stabilized finite element
computationally expensive exponential and
methods like SUPG, Taylor Galerkin,
error functions from the diffusion terms.
Discontinuous Galerkin etc. are used to solve
Various test cases are solved and compared
such equations which gives stable results.
with KSUPG scheme for Euler equations
Among all methods, SUPG is a famous
which shows the robustness, accuracy and
stabilized method. In SUPG scheme there is
efficiency of the proposed scheme.
no unique way to define intrinsic time scale
(stabilization parameter), especially, for In m-KSUPG method the velocity space is
multidimensional vector equations. On the divided as v>0 and v<0, and v = 0 has no
other hand, kinetic schemes are attractive physical meaning which is assumed to be a
alternative which exploits the connection preferential rest frame. One can also take any
between Boltzmann equation and Euler arbitrary value as origin. Considering u
equations [Deshpande, 1986; Mandal et. al., which is the fluid velocity at origin, the
1994]. The main advantage of kinetic velocity space is then divided as v>u and
schemes is, instead of dealing with nonlinear v<u. Thus, defining c = v - u which is the
PDEs one needs to deal with linear PDEs. velocity of the molecule relative to the fluid
Kinetic scheme is developed in SUPG which is also called as thermal velocity.
framework called as Kinetic SUPG or Consider the advection part of one
KSUPG [Jagtap, 2015] for hyperbolic partial dimensional Boltzmann equation
differential equations. The advantage of

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 189

Jagtap Ameya

respectively, where ‘h’ is element length.

Using thermal velocity c = v - u one can Basis function .
rewrite the above equation as In matrix form,

Upon taking moments with suitable moment Taking moments with suitable moment
function vector one can recover the Euler
equations of gas dynamics. function and using the
linearity property of moment operator one

The governing 1D Euler equations in

conservation form are given as


are solution and flux vectors and

are density, velocity, pressure and
Assuming which is the Maxwellian
total energy.
distribution written in terms of the thermal
The standard Galerkin finite element
approximation for molecular velocity where and are the internal energy
distribution function is variable and average internal energy variable
corresponding to the non-translational
degrees of freedom given by

where the domain is divided into

the moments are evaluated as
elements. and
Defining the test and trial functions spaces as

The intrinsic time scale and are

defined as

Modified Kinetic Streamlined-Upwind Petrov Galerkin Method for Euler Equations of Gas Dynamics

Finally, the semi-discretized equations are temporal discretization.

fully discretized by using forward difference

Figure 1. Sod’s shock tube problem Figure 2. Lax’s shock tube problem

Jagtap Ameya

NUMERICAL EXPERIMENTS the accuracy and robustness of the proposed

scheme is demonstrated by solving various
test cases of Euler equations involving shock,
(LANEY, 1998)
contact and expansion waves.
Sod's shock tube problem consists of a right
shock wave, a left rarefaction and a contact REFERENCES
discontinuity which separates the shock wave Deshpande S M 1986 Kinetic theory based
and rarefaction. The number of node points
are 100 and CFL number is 0.15. Final time new upwind methods for inviscid
is t = 0.01. Figure 1 shows density, velocity, compressible flows AIAA-86-0275 24th
pressure and Mach number plots for both Aerospace Science Meeting Neveda
KSUPG and m-KSUPG schemes. m-KSUPG USA 6-9 Jan. 1986.
scheme can resolve all the essential features
Jagtap Ameya D 2015 Kinetic Streamlined-
of the flow accurately.
Upwind Petrov Galerkin methods for
SHOCK TUBE PROBLEM OF LAX Hyperbolic Partial Differential
(TORO, 1999)
Equations, PhD thesis Indian Institute of
The number of node points are 100 and CFL Science Bangalore.
number is 0.1. Final time is t = 0.13. Figure 2
shows density, velocity, pressure and internal Laney C B 1998 Computational Gas
energy plots for both KSUPG and m-KSUPG Dynamics Cambridge University Press.
schemes. The accuracy of m-KSUPG scheme Mandal J C Deshpande S M 1994 Kinetic
is as good as KSUPG scheme.
Flux Vector Splitting for Euler
COMPARISON OF COMPUTATIONAL Equations Comput. Fluids 23(2) 447-
COST 478.
Table 1 shows the comparison of Toro E F 1999 Riemann Solvers and
computational cost for KSUPG diffusive flux Numerical Methods for Fluid Dynamics
and m-KSUPG diffusive flux. The Springer-Verlag.
computational cost required for m-KSUPG is
much lesser than that of KSUPG scheme.
Table 1: Computational Cost in ‘sec’
h KSUPG Modified
200 0.002411 0.000035
400 0.004780 0.000063
800 0.009988 0.000130
1600 0.019307 0.000239
3200 0.039285 0.000506
6400 0.077437 0.000954
12800 0.154049 0.001943

In this paper a modified KSUPG (m-KSUPG)
scheme based on thermal velocity is
proposed. Proposed scheme is free from
computationally expensive error and
exponential functions and hence it is more
efficient than the KSUPG scheme. Moreover,
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Guwahati, Guwahati, Assam, India.
Department of Aerospace Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.

Abstract: Shock wave boundary layer interaction (SWBLI) along with real gas
effects is studied numerically in the present work. Both the phenomena have
potential to influence strongly the aerothermodynamics of the flow. For present
numerical investigations, a finite volume unstructured solver is employed to solve
coupled Navier Stokes and species continuity equations. Convective fluxes are
calculated using well known AUSM scheme and tested in high enthalpy ramp
induced SWBLI case. All flow features like separation shock, reattachment shock,
separation region, plateau pressure etc. were found very well captured by present
solver. In present study, the effects of wall condition and leading edge bluntness on
SWBLI are also examined. Adiabatic wall condition is found to show more
upstream influence, separation bubble size and high plateau pressure and hence,
strong interaction is observed in comparison with isothermal wall condition. Efforts
are made herein to verify mitigation of SWBLI by providing leading edge
bluntness. For present free stream conditions, leading edge bluntness made SWBLI
strong rather than weak. Therefore, prior study is required for effective
implementation of blunt leading edge SWBLI mitigation technique.
Keywords: Real gas effects; Shock wave boundary layer interaction; blunt
leading edge

INTRODUCTION to flow separation due to adverse pressure

gradient offered by the ramp. This adverse
Hypersonic aerodynamics offers many gradient leads to boundary layer thickening
challenging issues due to high temperature which in turn generates separation and
effects. Initially, change in specific heat of reattachment shocks. A slip line emanates
the air and onwards endothermic chemical from interaction point of separation and re-
reactions are among those effects which attachment shocks. These shocks and
bear potential to change the aerodynamics. extreme viscous dissipation adjacent to wall
Existence of chemical non-equilibrium may cause molecular collisions in the gas
further complicates the dynamics of fluid and can chemically excite them to initiate
flow. Therefore, shock wave boundary layer chemical reactions. This phenomenon may
interaction (SWBLI), a widely studied topic affect boundary layer thickness, heat flux,
of high speed flows, is undertaken here to surface pressure, entropy layer and various
analyse in the presence of high temperature other design parameters. Therefore, whole
effects. aerothermodynamics can be different from
Ramp induced SWBLI is one the most perfect gas flow assumptions. Hence, to
studied geometric configuration in this area, make more reliable aerodynamic design
as it resembles various separated flow structure, essence of real gas effects is vital
regions of hypersonic vehicle. It may lead in SWBLI studies.

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 193

Desai et al.

Some of the earlier findings in SWBLI deal real gas effects in SWBLI cases.
with perfect gas assumption [John et al.,
2014; Marini, 1998; Coët and Chanetz, RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
1993] wherein various flow features like To assess SWBLI with real gas effects,
upstream influence location, separation freestream Mach number M ∞ =7, static
bubble size, peak pressure and peak heat temperature T ∞= 600 K and pressure
transfer rate are predicted with assumption P ∞= 1600 Pa are considered. For present
of ideal gas flow. Later few studies are laminar conditions, a sharp leading edge
concentrated on high enthalpy effects in flat-plate geometry of length 50 mm
their SWBLI investigations [Tchuen et al. followed by a 15o inclined compression
2008; Davis and Sturtevant, 2000] and ramp is taken for investigations. This
various other cases [Desai et al., 2016]. freestream and geometry conditions are
Some of the studies verified the earlier tested in various cases for different gas
literature reported co-relations for the models.
upstream influence location, separation
bubble size, peak heat flux and plateau EFFECT OF WALL CONDITION
pressure by the numerical simulation based
results [John and Kulkarni, 2014]. In present studies, adiabatic and isothermal l
(T w - 500K) wall conditions are tested for
In view of such limited findings for SWBLI earlier described conditions. A Mach
at high enthalpy conditions, present contour obtained from numerical simulation
investigations are planned to analyse the is shown in Figure. 1 for adiabatic wall
proposed interaction for 15° ramp attached conditions. In this figure, all flow features
to a flat plate. Reacting flow version of in are found very well captured. Wall skin
house developed solver USHAS friction coefficient and pressure distribution
(Unstructured Solver For Hypersonic are plotted in Figure. 2 (a) and Figure. 2 (b)
Aerodthermodynamic Applications) has for both cases. More upstream influence,
been employed herein. This version of the high plateau pressure and high re-
solver accounts for five species (N 2 , O 2 , attachment shock are evident from Figure. 2
NO, O and N) with temperature dependent (b) for adiabatic wall condition. Here, skin
properties and eleven prominent friction coefficient plot is used for accurate
dissociation-recombination reactions among estimation of separation bubble size. The
them. There is a provision in this version of stream wise negative region length of skin
USHAS by which reaction part of the solver friction coefficient gives idea of separation
can be made silent to simulate the frozen bubble size. The obtained separation bubble
flow condition. For present simulations, sizes are tabulated for all gas models in
AUSM scheme is used for inviscid flux Table 1. It was noticed that adiabatic wall
computations. Studies with perfect, frozen condition shows much larger separation
and non-equilibrium flow solvers are region in comparison to isothermal wall
conducted to evaluate the prominence condition which is consistent in all gas
between thermal and chemical non- models. Higher upstream influence, thicker
equilibrium in this SWBLI. Such hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layer,
investigations are found essential in case of larger wall gradients are the main reasons
SWBLI in the presence of high temperature for the same.
real gas.
NUMERICAL METHODOLOGY SWBLI with high enthalpy free stream
Governing equation of two dimensional conditions have been demonstrated in
(2D) N-S equations and species continuity present study. It was found that frozen and
equations are solved for investigation of non-equilibrium flow shows almost same

High Enthalpy Simulations for Shock Wave Boundary Layer Interaction

trend whereas differences have been upstream influence, large separation bubble
observed with respect to perfect gas flow. It size, high plateau pressure are noticed in
is noticed that the real gas tend to reduce the adiabatic wall case in comparison to
size of the separation bubble. High isothermal case.

Figure 1. Mach number contour for SWBLI simulations for reacting gas flow
with adiabatic wall condition.

Figure 2. Effect of wall conditions on distribution of wall parameters (Reacting
gas model). a).Surface skin friction coefficient & b). Surface pressure.

Table1. Separation bubble size (m) for various conditions

Wall condition Perfect gas Frozen gas Reacting gas
0.0125 0.0083 0.0083
(T w = 500 K)
Adiabatic 0.0514 0.0373 0.037

Desai et al.

hypersonic flow with artificially

upstream flux vector splitting (AUFS)
Blazek J 2001 Computational Fluid schemes International Journal of
Dynamics: Principles and Applications Computational Fluid Dynamics 22(4)
Elsevier Chapter 5. 209–220.
Coët M and Chanetz B 1993 Experiments Venkatakrishanan V 1995 Convergence to
on shock wave/boundary layer steady state solutions of the Euler
interaction in hypersonic flow Rech. equations on unstructured grids with
Aerosp. (English edition) 1 61-74. limiters Journal of Computational
Davis J P and Sturtevant B 2000 Separation Physics 118(1) 120-130.
length in high-enthalpy
shock/boundary layer interaction
Physics of Fluids 12(10) 2661–2687.
Desai S Kulkarni V and Gadgil H 2016
Delusive influence of nondimensional
numbers in canonical hypersonic
nonequilibrium flows Journal of
Aerospace Engineering 04016030 1-
Dunn M G and Kung S W 1973 Theoretical
and experimental studies of re-entry
plasmas NASA CR-2232.
Gordon S and Mcbride B 1994 Computer
program of calculation of complex
chemical equilibrium composition and
applications NASA.
John B and Kulkarni V 2014 Numerical
assessment of correlations for shock
wave boundary layer interaction
Computers and Fluids 90 42-50.
John B Kulkarni V and Natarajan G 2014
Shock wave boundary layer
interactions in hypersonic flows
International Journal of Heat and
Mass Transfer 70 81-90.
Marini M 1998 Effects of flow and
geometry parameters on shock-wave
boundary-layer interaction phenomena
AIAA 98-1570.
Tchuen G Burtschell Y and Zeitoun D E
2008 Computation of non-equilibrium

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


CAD/CAM, Vellore Institute of Technology Chennai
CFD, Altair Engineering India
School of Mechanical and Building, Science, VIT University, Chennai

Abstract: This project aims to establish the correlation between test results and CFD
simulation. Also sensitivity of different turbulence models has been studied. To
establish comparative results (±10% test result) exact modelling of wind tunnel is
must. Experimental test has been performed in Air flow performance tester and CFD
simulation is carried out with FEM based CFD solver ‘Acusolve’. The inputs for the
axial fan are volumetric flow rate (m3/hr) and speed (rpm). Final answer is pressure
difference between outlet and inlet. By changing volume flow rate and rpm the graph
between pressure difference (Pa) and rpm is drawn. Different cases by changing mesh
and zone refinement are compared and also different turbulence model such as Spalart
Allmaras (SA), SST model are discussed. Modelling of fan done by using solid
works, for surface meshing ‘Hypermesh’ had been used.
Keywords: CFD; Sensitivity; FEM; Volumetric flow rate; Zone refinement;
Volume meshing; Boundary condition.

INTRODUCTION increasing efficiency of axial fan for this

Axial fans are used for active cooling of
machines and systems. Axial fans mostly OBJECTIVES
used in radiator fans, factory assembled
cooling tower, field erected cooling tower, To improve CFD analysis methodology for
evaporative condenser, closed circuit cooling, radiator Axial Fans. To establish a correlation
air cooled heat exchanger, air cooled between test results and simulation results
condenser, industrial ventilation etc. the (range of 10%). Also to compare different
frequent use of axial fan is in automobile turbulence model and finalizing best model
cooling in radiator. In recent years the for this particular application.
competition in the automobile industry has
spurred the industries to increase the METHODOLOGY
efficiencies of their products. A correlation EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
between test results and simulation results are
to be made. Different models of fan are to be The Experiment setup is called Air Flow
tested so that the common method of Performance tester which has a blower
simulation for axial fan is to be established connected to the 4.8m test chamber at the one
for this particular air flow performance tester. end and at the other end the fan model which
If test and simulation results are not matching is to be tested is mounted. The airflow from
then different parameters need to be changed the blower in to the test chamber is controlled
for getting better results. Also different by opening and partial closing of some
turbulence equations are used for nozzles which can be controlled by the knobs
comparison. CFD simulation can be used for in the control panel and the air flow rate and

*Author for correspondence: Email: 197


the pressure inside the chamber can be

monitored at the monitor.

Figure 3 Axial fan with back mount

Figure 1 Experimental Setup

Figure 2 Air Performance tester Figure 4 CAD model for simulation

Table1 Test results with relative pressure DISCRETIZATION (GRID
Since fan has fillets and curves surfaces it is
sr no speed Volume Mass Flow Pressure Torque
laborious to do the mapped meshing so the
flow rate (ῤair=1kg/m3) (Relative) (Relative) free meshing is preferred in this project.
Unit RPM m3/hr Kg/sec Pa Nm Volume meshing is created at Inlet Outlet region
1 3370 4010.35 1.2254 1 1 and MRF region. Boundary layers are created
2 3326 3737.56 1.142 3.045 1.5858 around fan blades. 4 number of boundary layers
3 3273 3431.19 1.0484 5.005 1.6462 are created around fan blade for capturing the
4 3236 3114.31 0.9516 7.04 1.71 flow.
5 3211 2791.08 0.8528 9.02 1.902
6 3100 2008.75 0.6138 13.52 2.3298
Table 2 Boundary conditions
Exact dimensions of blade, hub and blade Inlet Outlet MRF Wall
angle is considered. Also outlet sides and fan Mass flux Pressure Rotating domain
back mount represents exact replica of test No slip
(kg/sec) 0 Pa around fan
setup. Multiple reference frame (MRF)
introduced around fan which is used as NUMERICAL METHODOLOGY
rotating domain. MRF cylinder should have
10 mm more diameter and 2 mm more The governing equations are solved in FEM
thickness on each side of the fan. MRF does based CFD AcuConsole. In this solver
not affect the actual flow around fan. The Galerkin/ Least squares (GLS) is used. This
inlet and the outlet also should be bigger solver provides fast and efficient solution for
enough to facilitate the simulation. Figures steady and transient state solution. The
show CAD geometry and actual fan model following Navier-Stokes equation is solved
by AcuConsole for solution of axial fans.
+ ∇ (ῤu)=0
ῤ + ῤu. ∇u + ∇p = ∇. τ + ῤb

Design and Testing of Axial Fans for Cooling Engines

Where: ῤ-density, u-velocity vector, p- introduced. This case uses SA as turbulence

pressure, τ -viscous stress tensor, b- equation.
momentum source vector. Table 3 Mesh sizes
The Spalart-Allmaras model (Spalart and Coarse mesh Fine mesh
Allmaras, 1992) involves one additional Nodes=2338960 Nodes=5379411
transport equation for the turbulent kinematic Elements=12585211 Elements=28948255
viscosity, v ̃. The (dynamic) turbulent Time=7hr13mins for 84 Time=18hr26mins for 100
viscosity is defined as time steps with 5 CPU’s ts with 5 CPU’s

u t =ῤ ῠf v1
f v1= The main aim of this work is to match test
x3+ Cv13
results with CFD simulation results by

x= changing parameters like rpm and flow rate
and getting results in the form of pressure
The wall-damping function, fv 1 , is a damping difference at inlet and outlet. From figure6 it
factor between zero and one. At high is clear that with refinement of mesh around
Reynolds numbers the function tends to unity fan and also because of adding zone mesh at
and is equal to the kinematic turbulent downstream for SA answers are within 10%
viscosity. The viscosity affected region of the range to test results. But still for higher rpm
boundary layer must be solved, which at 3370 and 3326 answers are not acceptable.
requires a y+-value of approximately one. So for this reason SST is used for finer mesh
by keeping all other conditions same.
Because of changing turbulence equation
The k-ω SST turbulence model, proposed by from SA to SST answers are within range of
Menter (1993), combines the stable 10% of actual test results (see figure7). From
performance of the k turbulence model in the this is understood that by SA is predicting a
free stream region with the k-ω model which flow for lower rpm and for higher rpm SA is
is characterized by the simplistic yet accurate not as accurate as SST. So to validate this
prediction of the near-wall region. These two point rpm kept constant at 3150 only mass
models are added together by a blending flux is changed and this is solved by using
function which activates the appropriate SA as turbulance equation (see graph
model in the separate regions. It also allows figure8). For rpms lower than 3250 SA is
for smooth transition between the two giving answers which are within 10% of the
models. Furthermore, performance in flows actual test results. But for rpms more than
with adverse pressure gradients and wake 3250 SA is not as accurate as SST. From this
regions are improved by limiting turbulent it is clear that for CFD analysis of axial fan
viscosity. This model proves to be reliable for this air performance tester actual
and accurate for a wide variety of flows. modelling of test setup, with proper meshing
at critical regions and selection of turbulence
SOLUTION PROCEDURE equation creates big impact on final
Actual modelling of fan is to be done by simulation answer.
considering inlet same as that of tunnel From figure6 it is clear that SA is giving
dimensions and outlet to replicate same test predicting good results except for two rpms
conditions. Also in actual case fan is tested that is at 3370 and 3326rpm. So for these two
with back mount (shroud) which is also to be cases velocity magnitudes are generated to
added in geometry. First grid independence compare the flow capture around fan in SA
study is to be done with two different types and SST. For convergence the solution is run
of mesh, coarse and fine. In finer mesh, zone for 100 iterations at 20 CPU’s for 2hrs. SST
mesh and finer mesh around fan is

is combination of Kw and K it is more accurate than SA. Upto certain rpm range SA
accurate for higher speeds than the SA predicts well but after that limit it is difficult
model. From following figure it is clear that to get accurate solution, so SST can be used
SA is not capturing the flow seperation which above those levels. Here pressure drop is
is occuring at the back mount, which is easily increases as mass flux is decreasing, this is
capturable by the SST. If rpm is below 3250 because of vaccum effect created by fan.
SA is predicting good flow and giving
answers within range of 10% of actual test
10 ts
Pressure difference


0 h

3000 3100 3200 3300 3400 Figure 9 Velocity magnitude comparison

-10 RPM
between SST and SA for 3326 rpm
Figure 6 Graph rpm vs pressure for finer
and coarse mesh by using SA

15 Error band


10 Finemesh_SA

5 Finemesh_SST
Figure 10 Velocity magnitude comparison
0 between SST and SA for 3370 rpm
3000 3100 3200 3300 3400
Figure 7 Graph rpm vs pressure Jain S and Deshpande Y 2009 CFD
difference for finer mesh by using SA and modelling of a Radiator Axial Fan for
SST Air Flow Distribution International
12 Journal of Mechanical, Aerospace,
Industrial, Mechatronic and
Manufacturing Engineering 6.
Pressure difference

6 Dushyant D. Devendra Singh D. 2013 CFD
4 SA Analysis of Axial Flow Fans with
Skewed Blades International Journal of
Emerging Technology and Advanced
0 0.5 Mass_flux 1 1.5 Engineering 3(10).
Mohd Yusoff S Azraai S B Wan Mokhtar
Figure 8 Graph mass flux vs pressure Wan Abdullah 2009 CFD Modelling of
difference at constant rpm by using SA Air Flow Distribution from a Fan
International Conference on
CONCLUSION Applications and Design in Mechanical
The flow of axial fan around region is studied Engineering 11 – 13
numerically and through simulation. By using Tushar C A Shivprakash B 2014 Design and
AcuSolve it is easy to match test results with Analysis of Engine Cooling Fan
simulation results. Also efficiency of International Journal of Current Engg
simulation can be controlled within range of and Technology ISSN 2277 INPRESSO.
10% efficiency. From work it is clear that for
such type of applications SST is more
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Founder and Principal Developer at Aakalan India.

Abstract: Aakalan is a new numerical solver for applications that require high
accuracy. It has been designed to work with structured, unstructured or polyhedral
meshes. Aakalan maintains high accuracy of the numerical solutions by using
quadratic interpolations for spatial reconstruction of all variables and their gradients.
Numerical problems involving incompressible and compressible fluid flow and heat
transfer are solved using a segregated pressure based finite volume method.
Additionally, a series of new higher order limiters have been developed to solve
problems involving discontinuities and extremely high gradients. Aakalan can thus
become a very effective tool for engineers, designers and researchers working in
many different areas like aerodynamics, multiphase reacting flows, aero-acoustics,
electro-magnetics etc.
Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics; CFD; Unstructured mesh; High accuracy;
Higher order scheme; Quadratic interpolation;Higher order limiters.

INTRODUCTION eg. [Harten et al. 1987, Leer, 1979, Barth and

Most of the engineering simulations are Frederickson, 1990; Shu, 2003] among many
performed using lower order schemes others.
(second order or less). However, there is a In spite of the large amount of research in
growing realization that these schemes are developing higher order schemes, these
not able to simulate many problems in methods have not found widespread
aerodynamics, aero-acoustics, electro- acceptance in commercial CFD environment.
magnetics etc. with sufficient accuracy. It is generally believed that these methods
Therefore, there has been an increasing require a lot of computing power and
amount of interest in higher order and high memory and they do not work well with
accuracy numerical schemes over the last few meshes made up of many different types of
years. Many different kinds of high accuracy cells (hexahedra, tetrahedra, triangular
schemes have been developed over this prisms, triangles, quadrilaterals etc.). It is
period. The spectral method [Gottlieb and also believed that it is difficult to get a
Orszag, 1977] is generally considered to be converged solution using these methods.
the most accurate. Numerical methods based Aakalan was developed to address these
on finite volume, finite difference, finite problems so that the wider engineering and
element and discontinuous Galerkin research community is able to gainfully use a
techniques were also developed for structured higher order CFD solver.
and unstructured meshes by many researchers

*Author for Correspondence: 201

Bapat C.


Aakalan uses quadratic interpolation for Majority of the higher order schemes were
spatial reconstruction of all the variables and developed by researchers working on
their gradients. The quadratic interpolation complex problems in aerodynamics, interface
for a variable in three dimensions involves tracking, wave propagation etc. Most of these
determination of ten coefficients. These schemes use coupled solution of all the
coefficients can be easily related to the variables as a part of their solution technique.
spatial derivatives of the variable by using In general, higher order schemes require
the Taylor series expansion. Aakalan uses more memory for their operation than lower
face centered interpolations for all the order schemes. Using a coupled solution
variables. Additionally, the numerical scheme techniquefor all variables increases the
used in Aakalan (see Section 4) provides the memory requirements even further. Aakalan
solution at the centers of all the cells in a uses a segregated pressure based scheme
mesh. In order to determine the coefficients (Patankar 1980) with co-located variable
of the interpolation, approximately fourteen arrangement for the solution of balance
to fifteen cells closest to the center of the face equations. Using a segregated solution
are selected. A distance weighted least technique reduces the memory required by
squared curve fit is then used to determine the solver as compared to the coupled
the coefficients of the quadratic polynomial. solution of all variables.
Also, quadrature formulae are used to
determine higher order face and volume
integrals whenever they are required. This It is generally believed that a segregated
method of determining the quadratic solution method similar to the one employed
reconstruction does not depend on the type of in Aakalan does not work well for supersonic
cell or the aspect ratio of the cells the mesh. flows. The numerical solution for the flow of
air over a bump at an inlet Mach number of
HIGHER ORDER LIMITERS 1.65 is presented in Fig. 1. A grid of size 160
A higher order numerical scheme generates x 80 made of quadrilaterals was used for the
spurious oscillations and can even diverge if simulation. It can be seen that all shocks are
the solution includes sharp discontinuities or resolved pretty well. This shows that the
extremely high gradients of the variables. In segregated solution scheme and the flux
order to solve this problem, a special class of limiters used in Aakalan can effectively
mathematical functions called flux limiters capture the discontinuities in a compressible
were developed which reduce the order of the flow.
numerical scheme near a discontinuity or
high gradient region (Leer 1979). Flux
limiters reduce the order of the scheme near a
discontinuity and hence reduce the spurious
oscillations. Aakalan provides a series of six
flux limiters that can be used to get
converged solutions for problems involving Figure 1.Mach 1.65 flow over a bump.
discontinuities and high gradients. The solution for the flow of air at an inlet
Mach number of 2.0 over a 15° wedge is
shown in Fig. 2. The computational mesh is

AAKALAN- A Third Order Finite Volume Solver for Unstructured Meshes

made of triangles only. The solver is able to The next problem is chosen to demonstrate
resolve the shock very well. This problem the performance of the solver on a
shows that the flux limiters used in Aakalan computational mesh made of different cell
work equally well with unstructured meshes. types. Figure 4 shows contours of x-direction
velocity for flow over a sphere with Reynolds
number of one hundred. The computational
mesh used for solution of this problem is
made of triangular non-uniform prisms near
the solid boundary and non-uniform
tetrahedra away from the boundary. Some of
the cells in this mesh are highly non-
orthogonal and skewed. The drag coefficient
due to the flow around the sphere is
calculated to be 1.2 using this mesh. This
Figure 2.Mach 2.0 flow over a wedge. value is slightly higher than the
experimentally determined value of
The next problem is chosen to test the
approximately 1.0 (Munson et al. 1990).
working of the solver with high aspect ratio
However, the error in the drag coefficient can
cells. The variation of skin friction
be reduced by using a computational grid
coefficient (c f ) with Reynolds number for

with higher orthogonality and lower

incompressible turbulent flow of a fluid over
a flat plate is shown in Fig. 3. The
computational mesh is made of quadrilaterals
with a maximum aspect ratio of
approximately one thousand. The standard k-
ω model is used to model turbulence. The y+ P P

value for the first cell near the wall is

maintained at one to resolve the boundary
layer properly. The predicted variation of the
skin friction coefficient closely matches the
experimentally determined values (Kulfman

Figure 4. Contours of x-direction velocity

for Re D = 100.

Figure 3.Variation of skin friction A new third order finite volume solver for
coefficient (c f ) with Reynolds number for
generic unstructured meshes has been
turbulent flow over a flat plate. developed. All variables and gradients are

Bapat C.

reconstructed using a consistent quadratic Shu C W 2003 High-order finite difference

interpolation technique. A series of new and finite volume WENO schemes and
higher order flux limiters have also been discontinuous Gakerkin methods for
developed. These flux limiters can be used to CFD Int. J. Comput. Fluid Dyn.17 107-
resolve sharp discontinuities correctly.
Unlike many other higher order
computational solvers, Aakalan can also
work well with non-orthogonal and skewed
meshes. Thus, Aakalan can be an effective
tool in the hands of engineers and researchers
for their high accuracy computational

Barth T and Frederickson P 1990 High-order

solution of the Euler equations on
unstructured grids using quadratic
reconstruction Proceedings of 28th
Aerospace Sciences Meeting Reno
Nevada USA January 1990 (AIAA
Paper 90-0013)
Gottlieb S and Orszag A 1977 Numerical
Analysis of Spectral Methods: Theory
and Applications SIAM Philadelphia.
Harten A Engquist B Osher S and
Chakravarthy S 1997 Uniformly high
order essentially non-oscillatory
schemes III Journal of Computational
Physics 131 2-47.
Kulfan R M 1998 Historic background on flat
plate turbulent flow skin friction and
boundary layer growth HSR Airframe
Technical Review Los Angeles
California February 1998.
Leer B V 1979 Towards the ultimate
conservative difference scheme V A
second order sequel to Godunov’s
method Journal of Computational
Physics 32 101-136.
Munson B R Young D F and Okiishi T H
1990Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics
Wiley N Y.
Patankar S V 1980 Numerical Heat Transfer
and Fluid Flow Hemisphere Publishing
Corporation USA.

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Mechanical Engineering, BPUT, Rourkela, Odisha, India, Aerospace Engineering, IIT Kharagpur,
WB, India

Abstract: The numerical solution for the unsteady incompressible viscous flow in a
rectangular cavity [Dalai, 2014] is obtained by solving the time dependent

incompressible Navier-Stokes equation. The stream function (ψ ) -vorticity (ω ) form of

the Navier-Stokes equation is discretised using backward in time and central in space
method [Roache, 1987] in a finite difference grid mesh. The solution at successive
grid points is advanced using Gauss-Seidel iteration techniques with relaxation
parameter. The solutions are computed up to the Reynolds number 20,000 in the
aspect ratio range 0.1 to 0.9. The flow properties are studied using stream function
and vorticity contour plots at different Reynolds numbers.
Keywords: Rectangular cavity; Aspect ratio; BTCS; Reynolds number

INTRODUCTION components along x and y-directions

respectively. The non-dimensional boundary
The rectangular cavity is a derived cavity
conditions for the Eq.(1) and (2) are:
from the lid-driven square cavity where the
aspect ratio that cavity is less than one. The ψ = u = v = 0 for x = 0,1 & 0 < y < 1;
aspect ratio of the rectangular cavity is ψ = u = v = 0 for y = 0 ; ....................(3)
defined as the ratio of the height of the cavity
and u = 1, v = 0 for y = A
to the width of the cavity. The fluid flow in
the cavity is set up due to the motion of the
Where A is the aspect ratio of the cavity. The
lid in the rightward direction.
aspect ratio A is defined as the ratio of height
FORMULATION OF THE to width of the cavity. The aspect ratio of the
cavity is taken from 0.1 to 0.9 in the interval
of 0.1. Using the boundary condition Eq.(3),
The non-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation the equations for the vorticity along the
is represented by: boundary walls are computed as:
∂ω ∂ω ∂ω 1 ∂ ω ∂ ω
2 2
∂ 2ψ
+u +v =  2 + .(1)For x = 0,1 & 0 < y < A ; ω = −
∂t ∂x ∂y Re  ∂x ∂y 2  ∂x 2
and is coupled with stream function by: ∂ 2ψ
For y = 0 , A & 0 ≤ x ≤ 1; ω = − ....(4)
∂ 2ψ ∂ 2ψ ∂y 2
+ = −ω.................(2)
∂x 2 ∂y 2 The Eq.(1) and (2) are discretised using
1 second order accurate central differencing
Where Re = is the Reynolds number, ν is scheme in a finite difference mesh. The
ν vorticity and stream function value after
the kinematic viscosity of the fluid and
discretisation of Eq.(1) and (2) are:
 ∂ψ   ∂ψ 
u  =  and v  = -  are the velocity
 ∂y   ∂x 

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 205

Dalai and Laha

ω n +1
(d x ) ( )
− c xij ω ijn++11 + d x + c xij ω ijn−+11 solution is obtained when
1 + 2d x + 2d y ψ ij − ψ ij ≤ 10 and ω ij − ω ij ≤ 10 .
n +1 n −10 n +1 n −10

(d y ) ( )
− c yij ω in++11j + d y + c yij ω in−+11j + ω ijn
First the results are obtained in the lid-
driven square cavity for validation purpose.
1 + 2d x + 2d y These results are validated with Erturk et al.
(2005). The Figure 1 shows that the
and computed u and v-velocity profiles along the
ψ ijn+1 + ψ ijn−1 ψ in+1 j + ψ in−1 j center of the cavity match very well with
+ + ω ijn Erturk et al. (2005) velocity profiles at
∆x 2
∆y 2
Reynolds numbers 1000 and 20,000. The
ψ ijn +1 = ..(6)
2 2 present result is computed using grid sizes
+ 2
∆x 2
∆y 1002x1002 whereas the Erturk et al. (2005)
result is computed in the grid sizes 601x601.
∆t ∆t
Where d x = , c x ij = , The number of grid points for the rectangular
Re ∆x 2
Re ∆y 2 cavity along x-direction is 257, 513 and 1002;
∆t ∆t and the number of grid points along y-
c xij = u ijn , c yij = v ijn and Δx and Δy are
2∆x 2∆y direction is computed by multiplying the
the grid sizes along the x and y-directions aspect ratio (A) with the corresponding grid
respectively. points along the abscissa. Using these grid
sizes, the solutions were computed up to
The vorticity value along the boundary walls maximum Reynolds number 20,000. The
are evaluated from Eq.(4) using Taylor series results have been computed for aspect ratio
expansion. The coupled Eq.(1) and (2) along range 0.1 to 0.9. The study of flow properties
with boundary conditions, Eq.(3) & (4) are includes the observation of stream function
solved using Gauss-Seidel iteration and vorticity contours in the cavity and
techniques in a single loop. The time step thorough visualization of location of main
chosen for the solution is the CFL time step. sub-eddies in the first primary eddy and
Though the discretised Eq.(1) is implicit in counter rotating primary eddy.
nature but the time step chosen for that
scheme is explicit in nature. The steady state

Figure 1(a) u-
Figure 1 (b) v-
Figure 1©u- Figure 1(d) v-
velocity, Re=1000
velocity, Re=1000.
velocity, velocity, Re=20000
Figure.1 Validation of u and v-velocity profiles at Reynolds number 1000 and 20,000.

Unsteady Flow in A Rectangular Lid-Driven Cavity

Figure 2(a) stream function contour at Figure 2(b) Stream function contour at
Re=100. Re=20,000.

Figure 3(a) The stream function contours Figure 3(b) The stream function contours
at Re=100. at Re=5000`

Figure 4 (a) The stream function contours Figure 4(b) The stream function contours
at Re=1000. at Re=15000.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION wall of the cavity. This counter rotating

primary eddy also contains a separatrix. This
There is a thin closed structure named as
separatrix vanishes with increase of Reynolds
separatrix in the middle of the cavity of
number. At Reynolds number 20,000, the
aspect ratio 0.1 at Reynolds number 100 as
right sub-eddy become primary eddy which
shown in Figure 2(a) which contains two sub-
is located near the right vertical wall of the
eddies. With gradual increment of Reynolds
cavity as shown in Figure ure 2(b) and the
number, the right sub-eddy in the separatrix
counter rotating primary eddy becomes full
grows to bigger size and the left sub-eddy
grown primary eddy. This type of flow
diminishes gradually. At Reynolds number
patterns are continued in the cavity up to
10000, there is a development of counter
aspect ratio 0.3. This type of development of
rotating primary eddy due to merger of the
secondary eddies along the lower horizontal
Dalai and Laha

counter rotating primary eddy can be said as downstream corner eddies with increase of
first type. Reynolds number in a particular aspect ratio
which shows the reverse trend to that of lid-
The Figure 3(a) shows a cavity of aspect ratio
driven square cavity.
0.4 in which the primary eddy does not
contain separatrix up to Reynolds number REFERENCE
1000. At Reynolds number 1000, the counter
Jagadish B S 1977 Numerical study of
rotating primary eddy is developed due to the
transient and steady induced symmetric
growth of left corner eddy along the lower
flows in rectangular cavities Journals of
horizontal wall of the cavity. This second
Fluids Engineering 526-530.
primary eddy is located near the left vertical
wall of the cavity. This counter rotating Dalai B Laha M K 2014 Chapter 4
primary eddy does not contain separatrix and Incompressible viscous flows in two and
it becomes full grown primary eddy at three dimensional lid-driven cavity PhD
Reynolds number 5000 as shown in Figure 3 thesis, Indian Institute of Technology
(b). This type of flow patterns are continued Kharagpur.
up to aspect ratio 0.6. This type of Erturk E Corke T C and Gockol C 2005
development of counter rotating primary Numerical solutions of 2-D steady
eddy can be said as second type. incompressible driven cavity flow at
From the Figure 4(a) and (b), the separatrix is high Reynolds numbers International
totally absent in the primary eddies in the Journal of Numerical Methods in Fluids
cavity of aspect ratio 0.7. Here the counter 48 747-774
rotating primary eddy is formed due to the Roache P J 1987 Chapter 8: Semidirect
growth of the left corner eddy and the methods for nonlinear equations of
secondary eddy along the left vertical wall of fluidynamics114 - 115 in Elliptic
the cavity. The number of counter rotating Marching Methods and Domain
primary eddies become two at Reynolds Decomposition CRC Press New York
number 15000. By that time the first primary
eddy has grown to a big circular primary
eddy as shown in Figure 4(b). It is also
observed that the appearance of the number
of counter rotating primary eddy increases as
the aspect ratio of the cavity is increased up
to 0.7 and that decreases suddenly when the
cavity reaches the aspect ratio 0.8. This type
of development of counter-rotating primary
eddy can be said as third type.

From the above discussion, it is clear that
there are essentially three types of
development of counter rotating primary
eddies within the aspect ratio range 0.1 to 0.9
and their appearance in aspect ratio ranges
are: (1) 0.1-0.3 for first type, (2) 0.4-0.6 for
second type and (3) 0.7-0.9 for third type.
Their location also varies for three ranges of
aspect ratios. Another close observation will
also ensure that the growth of the upstream
corner eddies become faster than the right
IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016


Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
Department of Mechanical Engineering, MCKV Institute of Engineering, Howrah, West Bengal, India

Abstract: Heat transfer behaviour in centre-cleared ribs swirl generator inserted in

circular channels are investigated numerically. This work presents the configuration
optimization of a typical centre-cleared rib in a circular tube for turbulent heat transfer
in air using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling. In the present paper,
transition - SST model which can predict the change of flow regime from laminar
through intermittent to turbulent has been used for numerical simulations. The
configuration parameters include the, rib angle (α) and non-dimensional clearance
ratio (C). The computational results are in good agreement with experimental data.
The results indicate that the larger angle yields a higher heat transfer value and a
greater flow resistance of Reynolds. The computations based on the finite volume
method with the SIMPLE algorithm have been carried out with Reynolds number
ranging from 10,000 to 1,00,000. The using of centre-cleared ribs supplies
considerable increase on heat transfer and pressure drop when compared with the
literature. The Nusselt number increases with the increase of Reynolds number. This
result is useful for the design of solar thermal heaters and heat exchangers.
Keywords: Turbulent flow, forced convection, heat transfer enhancement, swirl

INTRODUCTION transition which is also viable for purely

laminar and purely turbulent flow.
Heat transfer characteristics under
transitional flow conditions in most of Three-dimensional geometry of the channel
thermal problems are of considerable interest. with centre-cleared ribs insert was used as
Predicting transition of laminar regime to computational model. At the inlet of the
turbulent in heat transfer augmentation channel, uniform velocity profile was used.
techniques will be highly useful to design any Uniform wall temperature boundary
heat transfer equipment. There is constant
condition is considered with no slip. The
thrive in the studies on transition from
laminar to turbulent flow. Abraham et al. range of Reynolds number employed is
(2009), studies the theory which is capable of 10,000 to 80,000. The governing equations
providing quantitative results for the heat are discretized on a non-uniform structured
transfer coefficients in round pipes for the grid using finite volume method and
three possible flow regimes: laminar, transition - SST model has been used from
transitional, and turbulent. The theory is Menter et al. (2002), and it predicts the
based on a model of laminar-to-turbulent

*Author for Correspondence: E-mail: 209

Bhattacharyya et al.

change of flow regime from laminar through In the present investigation, at constant
intermittent to turbulent. angular ribs of Ɵ = 60⁰ with six different
centre clearances were considered, i.e. C = 0,
0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6. The geometrical
configuration of the circular tube with centre
cleared angular ribs discussed in the present
work is shown in Figure 1. Air enters the
channel at an inlet temperature, T in of 300 K
and wall temperature, T wall of 500 K.
Uniform wall temperature boundary
condition is considered with no slip. The
range of Reynolds number employed is
Figure 1 Schematic diagram of 10,000 to 1,00,000. At inlet, a uniform profile
computational domain is used with a level of turbulent intensity of
Varun et al. (2007) reviewed the geometry of 5% even in the laminar regime following
roughness used in heat exchangers and Abraham et al. (2009).
reported the optimum geometry of roughness The governing equations are discretized on a
that is adapted in case of solar air collectors. non-uniform structured grid using finite
Hans et al. (2009) studied the basic geometry volume method and transition - SST model
of roughness element employed by various has been used which predicts the change of
researchers to enhance the thermal efficiency flow regime from laminar through intermittent
of solar air heaters. In view of the search for to turbulent. The velocities and pressures
optimal roughness pattern, few decent were predicted using semi implicit pressure
roughness geometries have been compared linked equations (SIMPLE) scheme. The
on the basis of thermo-hydraulic interpolation of the gradients of velocities
performance. Bhushan et al. (2010) presented and temperature used the third-order accurate
their attempt to classify and examine the scheme. While the gradients for intermittency
geometry of artificial roughness used in the (γ), turbulent kinetic energy, specific
ducts of solar air collectors. Chandra et al. dissipation rate, and momentum thickness
(2003) explained the thermal characteristics used second order accurate upwind scheme.
in a square channel with continuous ribs on The discretized equations are then linearized
one, two, three, and four walls and found that using an implicit scheme and solved
the heat transfer and pressure drop increase iteratively using Ansys Fluent 15, 3d double
with the rise in the number of ribbed walls. precision solver. The convergence criteria for
It is evident from the review above the continuity, momentum and energy are set at
arrangement of inclined ribs inside a circular 10-4, 10-5, and 10-7 respectively.
duct provide better mixing; this new type of
ribs with holes could provide even better RESULT AND DISCUSSION
enhanced heat transfer from the wall. The
By doing computations, the result obtained
aim of this work will be to put forth the
findings of heat transfer and thermal for heat transfer and friction factor
performance of this novel inclined ribs characteristics in the plain channel are
attachment. verified in terms of Nusselt number and
friction factor. The predicted results from the
MATHEMATICAL MODEL proposed correlations are shown in Figure 2-
Numerical Simulation of the Turbulent Air Flow in the Narrow Circular Channel with Centre-Cleared
Rib Vortex Generator

3. According to this figures, the present heat transfer enhancement with similar trend
results are in good agreement with the Dittus pattern in comparison with the plain channel
Bolter correlation for Nusselt number and and thus, the Nu increases with the rise of
Blasius correlation for friction factor with Reynolds number. One can see from the
tolerances of ± 1.3 % and ± 1.5%, Figure 4 that the small centre cleared ribs
respectively. shows some promising result in terms of
Nusselt number. The rib with no centre
clearance gives the best result.

Figure 2. Validation of wavy channel

model: Heat transfer as a function of
Reynolds number Figure 4. Variation of Nusselt Number with
Reynolds Number

Figure 3. Validation of wavy channel model:

Fluid friction as a function of Reynolds
Figure 5. Variation of friction factor with
The present results on the heat transfer and Reynolds Number
pressure drop in a circular channel fitted with
centre cleared angular ribs, presented in It is visible in Figure 5 that the use of the
terms of Nusselt number (Nu) and friction circular channel fitted with centre cleared
factor (f) against Reynolds number as angular ribs leads to a substantial increase in
depicted in Figure 4 and Figure 5. In Figure friction factor above the plain channel and
4, the circular channel fitted with centre the friction factor shows the decreasing
cleared angular ribs yields the considerable tendency with the increment of Reynolds
number. Presence of ribs in the channel,
Bhattacharyya et al.

results in a swirl of the flow. The flow trough solar collector used in environmentally
blockage due to the presence of the ribs is a sound and increasingly cost effective solar
vital factor to cause a high pressure drop. The thermal electric power plants. Expecting that at
ribs nature causes a regular boundary layer higher Reynolds number the performance will
separation and re-attachment. be better also.

Abraham J P Sparrow E M Tong J C K 2009
Heat transfer in all pipe flow regimes:
laminar, transitional/intermittent, and
turbulent International Journal of Heat
and Mass Transfer 52557–563.
Menter F Esch T Kubacki S 2002 Transition
modelling based on local variables
Proceediing of Fifth International
Symposium on Engineering Turbulence
Figure 6. Variation of Turbulence Modeling and Measurements Mallorca
Intensity with Reynolds number for Spain.
different centre clearance Varun S R P Singal S K 2007 A review on
Turbulent Intensity at the exit of the channel roughness geometry used in solar air
is shown in Figure 6. Turbulent dies out for heaters Solar Energy 81 1340–50.
low Reynolds number (Re = 1000) and
Hans V S Saini R P Saini J S 2009
increases with increasing Reynolds number.
At the entry of the tube the turbulent intensity Performance of artificially roughened
is given 5%. From the Figure 6, it can be seen solar air heaters—A review Renewable
that the highest level of turbulent intensity is and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13
about 15% at Reynolds number of 80,000 – 1854–1869.
Bhushan B Singh R 2010 A review on
CONCLUSION methodology of artificial roughness used
in duct of solar air heaters Energy 35
The numerical friction factor and Nusselt 202–212
number data for turbulent flow through a
circular channel fitted with centre cleared ribs Chandra P R Alexander V R Han J C 2003
have been presented. The heat transfer in term Heat transfer and friction behaviour in
of Nusselt number has been evaluated. Centre rectangular channels with varying number
cleared ribs performs significantly better than of ribbed walls International Journal of
the plain channel. This research finding is Heat and Mass Transfer 46 481–495.
useful in designing tubes carrying solar
thermal air preheater mass of air in parabolic

IIT Bombay, Mumbai, India, June 27-July 1, 2016