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Chapter# 02 Biology- XI
Theory &Question Answers Section11-unityOfLife


The branch of biology which explains the biochemical basis of life is called biochemistry.
Importance Of Biochemistry:
► It provides information about all the processes carried out inthe living organism.
► It helps us to understand abnormal mechanism which lead to disease and development of
medicines and equipment for treatment of diseases.
► It also provides information of cell differentiation.
It also explains about growth of cells.
► It has enabled us to understand mechanism of memory.


All living organisms are composed of cells and living cell contains a living material called
protoplasm which chemically contains 70 to 900/4of water. Beside water organic molecules and
biochemical's are main constituent of protoplasm.

The compound produced by living organisms are called biochemicals. Onlysix elements carbon,
hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen. Phosphorus, sulphurform98% of the biochemical and bodyweight
of organism.
Types Of Biochemical's:
► Proteins
► Carbohydrates
► Lipids
► Nucleic acids
► Conjugated molecules

Water is most abundant component of organisms. It's amount in living cell varies from 70% to
90%, Water provides the medium in which all biochemical reactions take place and has played a
major role in the evolution of biological system. Water is a polar molecule. The oxygen part of
the molecule has a net negative charge and the hydrogen part a net positive charge. Thus the
molecule as a whole showspolarity.
Biologically Important Properties Of Water:
Some biologically important properties of water are given below:
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Behave As Best Solvent:

Water properties as a solvent depend on the fact that it
is a polar molecule. Water effectively weakens the
attraction between ions of opposite charge. Water is
therefore a good solvent, ionic solids and polar
molecules readily dissolving in it. It also acts as a solvent
to many non-polar substances. This is of great biological
importance because all the chemical reactions that take
place incell do so in aqueous solution. Polar Covalent bond in a wattr molecule

Slow To Absorb And Release Heat (High Specific Heat capacity):

Water has a very high heat capacity. This means that water is good at maintaining its
temperature. This thermal stability makes it most suitable medium for cell.

High Heat Of Vaporization And low Freezing Point:

It is also important thermal properties of water. Water requires higher amount of heat
energy to change into vapors and also requires to lose a lot of heat to be freeze. Thus in the
presence of water, protoplasm is not at the risk of boiling or freezing except drastic

An Amphoteric Molecule:
Water molecule is amphoteric because it acts both as an acid and a base. Therefore it is a
perfect medium for the biochemical reactions occurring in the cells. It acts as buffer and helps
to prevent changes in the pH of cells which reduces chance of any interference in the
metabolism of the cell.

Cohesive Force In Water Molecules:

Due to cohesive force water molecules do not break a part which helps it to flow freely. The
strong cohesion forces which exist between water molecules play an important part in the
movement of water up the capillary like vessels and tracheids inthe stems of plants.

Organic Molecules:
The modern definition of organic molecules is modified as the molecules containing carbon as
basic element bond covalently with hydrogen atom.

Synthesis Of large Molecules By Condensation:

Large molecules or macromolecules are huge and highly organized molecules which form the
structure and carry out activities of the cells. Macromolecules are constructed from monomers
by a process condensation. This type of condensation is called dehydration synthesis because
two monomers join together when water is removed and a bond is made.

Breaking Of large Molecules By Hydrolysis:

A process during which polymers are broken down into their subunits (monomers) by the
addition of H20 is called hydrolysis. During this process a water molecule breaks into H' and OH'
ions. -OHgroup attached to one monomer and Hattaches to other.
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Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon of living world. Carbon very widely in their
properties and adaptations. Carbon is a tetravalent element. It forms four covalent bonds with
other atoms.

Proteins play a vital role in the formation of structure in organism. The dry weight of cell
contains about 50% of proteins. The name protein was suggested by Berzelius in 1838 and in
1883 G.J. Murlder recognized the importance of protein.

Proteins can be defined as the polymers of amino acid, where specific amino acids link together
in a definite manner to perform a particular function of protein.

Structure Composition Of Protein:

Proteins are the complex organic compounds having C, H, 0 and N as elements but sometimes
they contain P and S also.

Synthesis Of Protein Molecule:

Amino acid as a building block of protein. Proteins are macromolecules or polymers of amino
acid monomers. These amino acids are linked together by specialized bond or linkage called
peptide linkage.

During protein synthesis through condensation each amino acid becomes joined to other amino
acids forming a long continuous unbranched polymer called polypeptide. The sequence of amino
acids in the peptide chain is specific for each protein.

Structure Of Protein:
These are four basic structural levels of proteins.
► Primary Structure:
Polypeptide chain containing linear sequence of amino acids e.g. insulin.

► Secondary Structure:
Polypeptide chains twisted or spirally coiled e.g. keratin.

► TertiaryStructure:
The arrangement of secondary structure into the three dimensional (fold or super fold)
structure having peptide, hydrogen, ionic and disulphide bond e.g. Lysozyme.

► Quaternary Structure:
It is the arrangement formed by the union of two or more polypeptide chains e.g.

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Functions Of Protein:
► Proteins are rich source of energy.
► Proteins along with lipids are used in the formation of plasma membrane and other
membranes of the cell.
► Muscles are made up of two contractile proteins named Actin and Myosin.
► Contraction and relaxation of these muscle proteins is responsible for locomotion.
► The shape of protein molecule is directly related to its function in general proteins fall into
two groups.
► Globular And Fibrous:
Keratinisa fibrous protein, itis used inthe formation of hairs, nails and also found inskin.
► Hemoglobin is the protein present in red blood cells and is responsible for the transport and
supply of oxygen to body cells.
► All the enzymes present in the body cells of animals and plants are protein in nature. These
enzymes control all types of biochemical reactions going in the cells.
► Proteins are the store food substance in plants. Store food in seeds are used in the
germination and development of seeds into young plants.

Carbohydrates are organic compounds present in all living organisms. Thegroup having carbon,
oxygen and hydrogen. Carbohydrates are hydrated carbons because the hydrogen and oxygen
are mostly found in the same ratio as in water i.e. 2: 1. Examples are sugar, starch, glycogen and
cellulose. Carbohydrates are divided into three classes.
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They are simple sugar which cannot be hydrolyzed further into simple sugar. Their general
formula is C.,H,.o •. They are sweet in taste white crystalline solids, easily soluble in water.
They may be triose, tetrose, pentose or hexose according to the number of carbon atoms.
They are present in various fruits and vegetables e.g. glucose, glactose, fructose. Glucose
found in ripe fruit, sweet corn and honey. In sugar cane it is associated with fructose.
Fructose most abundant hexose, called fruit sugar Galactose found in combined state in
lactose (milk) disaccharide.

They contain 2 to 10 monosaccharides. Most abundant are disaccharides (contains two
monosaccharides). The oligosaccharide which contain 3 to 10 monosaccharides are
commonly called Dextrin.

Disaccharides sugar are formed when two hexose sugar molecules unite by condensation.
Glucose and fructose unite to form sucrose. Sucrose is found in sugarcane and beet root.
Glucose and Galactose unite to form lactose. Lactose is milk sugar. Glucose and glucose
combine to form maltose. It can be extracted from malt, which is prepared from sprouting

These are formed by the condensation of hundreds or thousands of monosaccharides units
which link up through glycosidic bond. E.g. starch, glycogen and cellulose. The general
formula is (C6H100S)n.

Starch is the storage carbohydrate of plant. Itconsists of long chain of x - glucose molecules with
branches in places. It made up of many glucose molecules joined together in straight chain,
amylose and a branched chain amylopectin. It is reserve food material found in cereals, legumes,
potato and other vegetables. It is insoluble in water.

Cellulose is found in plant cell walls. Cellulose is a polysaccharide consisting a long straight chain
of a-glucose molecules linked by glycosidic bond, cellulose hydrophilic in nature.

It is the storage carbohydrate of animals, commonly called animal starch. It consists of long
profusely branched chains of a-glucose molecules linked by 1 - 4 or 1 - 6 glycosidic links. It is
insoluble in water and is stored in granular form. It is mainly found in bacteria, fungi, liver and

Functions Of Carbohydrate:
Source Of Energy:
Carbohydrates are the potential source of energy. This energy is utilized in body metabolism.

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Storage Food Molecules:

Carbohydrates act as storage food molecules in plants excess glucose is converted into starch
and in animals into glycogen.

As Building, Protective And Supporting Structure:

Carbohydrates also work as an excellent building, protective and supporting structure e.g.
cellulose is the major component of cell wall. In animals chitin form, the exoskeleton of

Complex Conjugated Molecules:

They also form complex conjugated molecules e.g. glucolipids and glycoproteins.

lipids are those organic compounds which are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvent
like Benzene, Acetone, and Alcohol. Bloor in 1943 proposed the term lipid. These compounds
also contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen but oxygen ratio is much lesser than carbohydrates.
They are found in both animals and plants. Fatty acids and glycerol are the sub units of a lipid.

Classes Or Types Of Lipids:

Following are the important groups of lipids.
Acylglycerol (Fats and oil)

Acylglycerol (Fats And Oil):

Natural fats and oils are compounds of glycerol and fatty acids. These are found in animals and
plants, provide energy for different metabolic activities. An average size person contains i6 Kg of
fat, which is equivalent to 144000 Kcal of energy. Acyiglycerol further divided in two types:
Saturated Acylglvcerol (Fats):
They are consisting of saturated fatty acids. They are mostly found in animals. They do not
contain double bond between carbon atoms. At ordinary temperature they are in solid form
e.g. Stearin (C57 H1100 6) found in beef and mutton.

Unsaturated Acylglvcerol (Oils):

They are consisting of unsaturated fatty acids. They are found in plants in oil form. They
contain one or more double bond between carbon atoms. They are liquid in ordinary
temperature e.g. linolin (C57 H10406) found in cotton seed contains linoleic acid.

waxes are simple lipids. When one fatty acid and a long chain of alcohol attached them through
ester bond form waxes. Waxes are water repellant and non - reactive e.g. Bee's wax
CH,(CH,),COO(CH,) ,. CH,
They form protective coating on stem, stalks, leaves, petals, fruit skins, animal skins, fur and
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Phospholipids is the biologically important molecule of lipids. It is similar to the triacyiglycerol
except that one fatty acid is replaced by phosphate. Phospholipids contain one hydrophobic end
and other hydrophilic end. They are associated with biological membranes. They are related to
vital functions such as regulation of cell permeability and transport properties.

These are the lipids containing repeated isoprenoids (CsH,) units. Steroids, carotenoids and
terpens are the important classes of it.
This group based only on isoprenoid unit (C5H8). Small size terpens are volatile having special
fragrance. They help in oxidation reduction process. These are components of essential oils of
plants e.g. menthol, camphor and mint.

These polycyclic compounds containing three 6 carbon rings and one five carbon rings.
Cholesterol is an important steroid.

Carotenoids consist of fatty acid like carbon chain, which are conjugated by double bonds
carrying 6 - membered carbon ring at each end. Plant pigments like carotene, xanthophyll are
important carotenoids.

Friedrich Miescher isolated a substance from the nuclei of pus cells and named it as nuclein.
Later it was found that nuclein is acidic in nature hence renamed as nucleic acid. The nucleic
acids are the long chain of polynucleotides in which mononucleotides are linked to each other.
They are divided in two types.
►DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) confined in nucleus.
►RNA (Ribose nucleic acid) found mainly but not exclusively in the cytoplasm.

Nucleotide& ItsStructure:
Nucleic acid is a polymer of nucleotides. Nucleotide is a molecule which consists of following
three parts.
►Pentose sugar (S carbon)
►Phosphoric acid (H3PO. )
►Nitrogenous base (Organic base)

Pentose Sugar:(SCarbon)
Five carbon pentose sugar is either Ribose (C5 H100 5 ) or deoxyribose (CsH 100 4) . Ribose is found in
RNA nucleotides while Deoxyribose sugar found in DNA nucleotides. i carbon is attached with
nitrogen base. 5th carbon is attached with phosphoric acid.

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Phosphoric Acid: (H3P04)

Phosphoric acid is common in all nucleotides. It is attached with 5th carbon of pentose sugar
through ester bond.

Nitrogen Base:
Nitrogen containing compound in nucleic acids are of two types.
► Purine:
Purines are double ring nitrogenous base. It joins with first carbon of ribose sugar. Purine
includes two nitrogenous bases named Adenine (A) and Guanine (G).

► Pyramidine:
Pyramidine is single ring nitrogenous base. Pyramidine includes three nitrogenous bases
cytosine (C), thymine (T)and Uracil (U).

Formation Of Nucleotide:
Nucleotide formation is two steps process.
,. First Step (Nucleosideformation):
At first step nitrogenous base joins with pentose sugar at its first carbon to form a nucleoside.

► Second Step (Nucleotideformation):

At this step the phosphoric acid joins with the 5th carbon of pentose sugar to form a

Difference Between DNA & RNA:

Deoxyribo nucleic acid (DNA) Ribose nucleic acid (RNA)
DNA contains deoxyribose sugar (C5H1004) RNA contains ribose sugar (C5H100 5 )
DNA has Adenine, Guanine, cytosine and RNA has Adenine, Guanine, cytosine and Uracil
thymine containin2 nucleotides. containin2 nucleotides.
DNA double stranded helical structure. RNA is mainly a single stranded structure
except rRNA.
DNA is of just one kind. RNA is of three kinds rRNA, tRNA and mRNk

Types Of Nucleotides:
These are single nucleotide occurring freely or part of other molecules. These are not the part of
DNA or RNA. ATP is a mononucleotide interconvertible with ADP. During conversion of ATP into
ADP, the free energy releases in about 31.81 kg/mol (73 Kcalf mol)

Those compounds in which two nucleotide are covalently bounded together are called
dinucleotide Nicotineamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). They are constituent of vitamins. This
works as electron receptor.

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Polvnucleotide (Nucleic Acid As Informational Macromolecules):

Nucleic acids are the polynucleotides. DNA and RNA are two nucleic acid. DNA are involved to
transfer genetic information encoded in a nucleic acid molecule in a particular and simple
fashion. RNA takes part in protein synthesis.


Transformation of one type of bacteria into another type and infection of bacteria by
bacteriophage provides first evidence that DNA is the hereditary material. Griffith's
transformation discovery was further concluded by A very that genes responsible for
transformation were composed of DNA. Hershey and Chase experimentally confirmed that DNA
must be the genetic material. ONA ha specific sequences of nitrogenous bases. These sequences
of bases in DNA can encoded vast amount of information.
RNA As A Carrier Of Information:
ONA is located in the nucleus. Ribonucleic acids (RNA's) are intermediate molecules that carry
information's from ONA to the cytoplasm. Protein synthesis is best example. Genetic information
flows in a cell from DNA to mRNAthen to cytoplasm in two steps.
In this step the information in DNA is coded on mRNA, it flows to cytoplasm and reaches
In this step tRNA and rRNAtranslates the information contained in the mRNAinto specific
sequence of amino acids.

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A closer look ct transcrip t ion
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Conjugated molecules are formed when biomolecules of two different groups combine with
each other acting as unit molecule.

Types Of Conjugated Molecule:

Glycolipids Or Cerebrosides:
When carbohydrate combines with lipid produce glycolipid. Glycolipid also known as
cereberosides because they are important constituent of brain. These include the galactolipids
and sulfolipids found commonly in chloroplast.

Glvcoproteins Or Mucoids:
If the protein is conjugated with a carbohydrate the resulting compound is called a glycoprotein.
Usually the protein forms the core of the molecule and the carbohydrate consists of a branched
polysaccharide chain projecting from it. Mucus and synovial fluid are glycoproteins with
lubricative properties. Glycoproteins also occur in the matrix of connective tissue and in the
eukaryotic cell membrane. Egg albumin and gonadotrophic hormones also contain glycoprotein.

Nucleic acids are usually found combined with a protein as nucleoprotein. These are found in the
nucleus. These are weakly acidic and soluble in water.

They are conjugates of lipids and proteins. They help in the transportation of lipid in the blood
plasma. They are found in cell membrane, bacterial cell membrane. They are found in the
membrane of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum and nucleus.



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