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INTRODUCTION – Summary of the course

• Basic concepts about quality

• Exigencies, Performance, Quality in construction

• Quality system in construction

• Duties and responsibilities of those involved in construction projects

• Importance categories of constructions - starting point in applying quality


• Checking the quality of projects, Technical report of the: projects,

constructed facilities, construction works, Checking the quality of
construction works

• Construction handover

• Checking the construction quality during the Operation and maintenance


• Basic principles of the Construction quality management

Basic concepts about quality

1.1 Meaning of Quality

Quality is a concept that is used in all areas of

economic and social life and has special
significance for specific areas or sectors.

Quality is a general term and has been defined in

different ways by various experts or
consultants in quality (having various

Etymologically, the word derives from the Latin as

"QUALITAS" which means "way of being".
Quality (noun or adjective) means :
1. „All features and aspects that make a thing to be what it is, differing
from other things ;
2. „An essential or distinctive characteristic, property, or attribute (good
or bad)”;
3. „Social status, position, or title that gives you a specific right”
4. “A personality or character trait: kindness is one of her many good
qualities” etc.
Joseph Moses Juran (american engineer, born in Romania, 1904-
2008) - „Quality = Fitness for intended use“. That means "meeting or
exceeding customer expectations" ;
Philip Bazard Crosby (1926-2001) - „Quality = conformance to
requirements (requirements meaning both the product and the
customer's requirements) " ;
American Society for Quality – “Quality is the totality of features and
characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy
given needs”.
Other meanings:
- Doing the right thing right;
- Degree or grade of excellence
SR ISO 8402:1995 – Quality management and quality
assurance vocabulary - „Quality = the totality of features
and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability
to satisfy stated or implied needs ;

SR ISO 9000:2006 – Quality management systems.

Fundamentals and vocabulary - „Quality = Degree to
which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements."
The standard defines requirement as need or expectation.

1 “Quality” as noun may be associated with adjectives as “bad”,
“good” or “Excelent”;
2 “Inherent - means something that exists as a permanent
3 “Requirement - need or expectation that is stated, generally
implied, or obligatory ”
The concept of quality has a dual
character (subjective and objective)

American Society for Quality:"Quality is a

subjective term because each person or
sector has its own definition or

On the other hand, quality has an

objective feature in that most attributes /
performances of a product or service can
be measured.
The notion of quality is a relative one

Quality = the extent to which an entity (product / service)

through its features satisfy a set of requirements.

- If the requirements are high, it is expected that the

quality level to be also high.
- On the other hand, the requirements are formulated
taking into account a "user/customer". What is a good
quality product for a customer can be as bad for another

Basicaly, the concept of quality can not be determined "in a


1.2. Quality approach stages

The concept of "quality" - a notion that

people have operated since ancient times.

Ultimately, it is a philosophical concept

closely linked to other fundamental
concepts, such as “good”, “beautiful” and

Holy Bible/Old Testament/Genesis – tells
about the creation of the world in six days .

“1:31 And God saw every thing that he had

made, and, behold, it was very good. And
the evening and the morning were the
sixth day.”

“Apocrypha" comment - At the end of

each day, once God had finished the work
He has verified that it was well done.
Code of Hammurabi/ Hammurapi

The Babylonian law code is dating back to about 1772 BC

during the rain of the sixth Babylonian king Hammurabi.
The Code consist of 282 laws, carved on a stone stele,
hosted today by the Louvre Museum in Paris.

• “If someone is careless with a dam when watering his

fields, and he floods someone else's by accident, he will
pay for the grain he has ruined ”;

• “If a builder builds a house, and that house collapses and

kills the owner's son, the builder's son will be put to death” ;

• “If a builder builds a house, and that house collapses and

kills the owner, the builder will be put to death”.
• România
One of the first documents related to construction quality
assurance in our country is the "Memorandum on the work
done by the Department of Public Works", issued in Iasi, in
1856. This document enabled the “Police of private walls”
to require the following:

• “All masons/buiders are not allowed to work untill they get a licence to proof their skill
from the Department of Public Works";
• "In future, the walls should be build using briks placed “on wide”, and those allready made
with brick on edge should be repaired" .

Then, in 1862, by Decree no. 629, prince Alecsandru Ioan

Cuza established in the Department of Public Works an
Inspection body composed of up to five General Inspectors,
to "inspect and control the construction works of all

Contemporary period

In the last millennium, the evolution of the concept of quality was

closely related to the evolution of mankind, especially in case of
industries. This became particularly prominent in the last 50 years of
20th century.
Organizing for Inspection
Implies the establishment in the company of a distinct and
specialized department, focusing on the identification and control of

This way of approaching quality aims not to act on the components

of the manufacturing process but operates in the reception stage, on
the final product.
This type of organization appeared in end of the 19th century.
Organizing for control

A specific department whose responsibilities cover all stages

of production. Unlike previous approach, the inspection and
the control is performed during the production stage by the
workers, who enable skills of self-controlling their work.

This transfer of competence is accompanied by the transfer

of equipment and methods, previously owned by inspectors.

During this period, in 1951, there are two reference books in

this field, namely: Armand Feigenbaum: "Quality control:
principles, practice and administration" and Joseph Juran:
"Guide to quality control."

Quality assurance and control - Quality
management systems
This new approach considers quality as a problem of all members of the
organization, not just one department of it.

Quality assurance (QA) is a broad concept that focuses on the entire

quality flow including suppliers and ultimate consumers of the product or
service. QA reffers to all those planned or systematic actions necessary to
provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy given
needs of the customer.
Quality control (QC) has a narrower focus than quality assurance. Quality
control reffers to the use of operational techniques and activities which
sustain the process of producing the product or service with the intent of
eliminating problems that might result in defects or nonconformities.
Quality management includes quality assurance and quality control. It
reffers to the totality of functions involved in the determination and
achievement of quality. Quality is addressed in a complete manner (all life
stages of the product / service and all parts of the organization in a systemic
manner) by implementing qoality management into the broad management
of organization.

Inspection and quality control is based on the existence of nonconformities,

which is to be eliminated on the flow or final, while quality management
assimilates everything that reffers to quality with explicit focus on preventing
nonconformities and planning improvements as necessary. 14
1.3 Significant moments in the evolution of
quality management
• 1958: MIL-Q-9858 “Quality Program Requirements ”

This document has been approved by the U.S. Department of Defense.

This specification was meant to be applied to all supplies or services used
by the Department (apox. 18000 in 1974).
This standard requires the establishment of a quality program by the
contractor to assure compliance with the requirements of the contract.
According to it, the program and procedures used to implement the
standard will be developed by the contractor. The quality program,
including the procedures, processes and product will be documented and
will be subject to review by the Government Representative. The quality
program is subject to disapproval of the Government Representative
whenever the contractor's procedures do not accomplish their objectives.

This delegation of responsibility allowed the U.S. government to stop

direct inspection that requires a lot of inspectors paid by the government.

The principles of this standard can be found in ISO 9001/1987.

• 1960: MIL-I-45208 “Inspection System Requirements”

This specification establishes requirements for

contractors' inspection systems.
These requirements pertain to the inspections and
tests necessary to substantiate product conformance
to drawings, specifications and contract
requirements and to all inspection and tests required
by the contract.

In U.S. this Quality management standard is still very

popular because it is the least time consuming to
implement (comparasing to ISO 9001)

• 1961: “Total Quality Control” - Armand
A. Feigenbaum (american expert and businessman, born
1922) developed the concept Total Quality Control (TQC),
later known as Total Quality Management (TQM).
- “TQC is an effective system for integrating the quality development,
quality maintenance, and quality improvement efforts of the various
groups in an organization so as to enable production and service at the
most economical levels which allow full customer satisfaction” .
- He advocated that “Because quality is everybody's job, it may
become nobody's job, therefore quality must be actively managed
and have visibility at the highest levels of management”.
- He also developed the concept of Quality Costs

• 1979 -1981 – U.K.: B.S. 5750 “British
Standard on Quality Systems”
Acording to this standard, any quality management
system should be recorded and documented and must
provide premises for preparing a Quality manual, which
must become a description of how the organization
conducts its business.

Quality manual contains procedures and interfaces

between functional departments. It must be sufficiently
detailed to be used to audit the system to check if it
works and is fit for purpose.

Such a quality system must include a methodology for

eliminating the causes that generate nonconformities in
products / services by applying appropriate corrective
• 1987 – ISO quality standards
• ISO is a Greek word that means equal

• ISO comes from International Organisation for Standardization, a voluntary

body headquartered in Geneva whose purpose is to set international
standards (it has representation from more than 100 countries)

• ISO was formed in 1946 in Geneva, Switzerland. The ISO’s intention was
to promote the development of international standards and related activities
so as to encourage the increased trade of products and services between

• ISO purpose :
- Harmonise standards at international level
- Ensure consistency of output
- Make organisations more competitive by reducing wastage at various
places in the company

• ISO 9000 Standards - a set of harmonised standards on Quality. The ISO

9000 series of standards are process oriented and not written "down to the
working level". The standard does not say anywhere "how" to do anything.
All it says is "what" needs to be done. It is up to the organization itself to
determine "how" the "what" requirements of the standard are to be
addressed. 19
Evolution of ISO 9000 standards

At the beginning, in 1987, ISO 9000:1987 had a very similar structure as the UK
Standard BS 5750 ( with three 'models' for quality management systems) and as the
U.S. Defence Standards .

The ISO 9000 standard is continually being revised by standing technical committees
and advisory groups, who receive feedback from those professionals who are
implementing the standard. The 2000 version made a radical change in thinking by
actually placing the concept of process management.

In Romania, ISO 9000 standards are known as SR EN ISO ----.

The basic standards of this kind are:

- SR EN ISO 9000/2005: Quality management systems. Fundamentals and
- SR EN ISO 9001/2008: Quality Management System – Requirements
- SR EN ISO 9004/2009: Managing for the sustained success of an organization. A
quality management approach" Quality Management System – Guidance for
performance improvement.
- SR EN ISO 19011/2011:Guidelines for quality management systems auditing and
environmental management systems auditing

1.4 Quality management premises

Quality management methods are based on American

ideas during the "boom" industry from the early 1920s.
Quality management has evolved in a growing economic
Quality management does not bring prosperity to a
bankrupt organization, but assures an advantage in a
highly competitive environment where there is virtually no
quality problems.

On the other hand, in terms of methods, a quality

management approach can not evolve unless the earlier
approaches (inspection / control and quality assurance)
have not been assimilated before.
Experience reveals that over 85% of quality
problems are caused by defects in the
system (organization).

Responsibility for the organization, efficient

operation and improvement is the
responibility of the General Manager, who
must ensure the development of following

• Changing employee approach about quality - prevention is
less costly than repair. Every employee has to be able to
prove that they are involved up to the level of their
responsibility, and that they know their role in making their
particular work area successful;
• Design of an efficient Organization structure and proper
functioning of the quality system. This implies that the
general manager should clearly define the objectives, ensure
the preparation of plans, programs and procedures to achieve
the objectives, assign tasks, delegate authority and resources
and factual approach to decision making;
• General manager should inform about he quality objectives
and policies;
• Periodic review of documentation
• Provide sound information, specification and
requirements for all the sequences of the work;
• Evaluation and selection of suppliers ;
• Performing manufacturing operations under
controlled conditions;
• Production department to be consulted by the
marketing department about the ability to meet
the quality requirements;
• Keeping under control the system’s documents
and records;
• Ongoing analysis of customer complaints and
rejected products to determine the causes that
generated them;
• Revision and evaluation of the system through
system audits.

1.5 Factors influencing quality

• Design and development – set the basis for identifying the

customer’s needs and for continual improvement;

• Resources (human resource, equipment, materials, soft products) –

determines the quality of future products/services;

• Technology – processes, and documents together with required

verification, validation, monitoring, measurement, inspection and test
activities specific to the product and the criteria for product

• Management – create an environment where people are fully involved

and in which a quality management system can operate effectively.

1.5. Terms and definitions about quality
(based on ISO 9000)
• Quality: degree to which a set of inherent (permanent)
charecteristics fulfils requirements;
• Requirement: need or expectation that is stated, generally
implied or obligatory.

- Requirements for products/services can be specified by customers or
by the organization in anticipation of customer requirements, or by
regulation (technical specifications, product standards, process
standards, contractual agreements and regulatory requirements).
- Because customer needs and expectations are changing, and
because of competitive pressures and technical advances, organizations
are driven to improve continually their products and processes.
- Requirements for quality management systems are specified in ISO
9001. Requirements for quality management systems are generic and
applicable to organizations in any industry or economic sector
regardless of the offered product category. ISO 9001 itself does not
establish requirements for products.
• Management: coordinated activities to direct
and control an organization;

- Management is the process of achieving an organization’s
goals as efficiently as possible, through the coordinated
performance of five specific functions: planning, organizing,
staffing, directing and controlling.

• Quality management: component of

management responsible with the directing
and controlling the organization with regard
to quality;
• System: set of interrelated or interacting elements;
• Management system: system to establish policy and
objectives and to achieve those objectives.
- A management system of an organization incloudes differend
sub-systems such: quality management system, financial
management system, project management system, etc;

• Quality management system: management system to

direct and control an organization with regard to quality;
- The quality management system approach encourages
organizations to analyse customer requirements, define the
processes that contribute to the achievement of a product which
is acceptable to the customer, and keep these processes under
control. A quality management system can provide the framework
for continual improvement to increase the probability of
enhancing customer satisfaction and the satisfaction of other
interested parties. It provides confidence to the organization and
its customers that it is able to provide products that consistently28
fulfil requirements.
• Quality policy: overall intentions and direction
of an organization related to quality and formally
expressed by top management.
• Quality planning: part of quality management
focused on setting quality objectives and
specifying necessary operational processes and
related resources to fulfill the quality objectives;
• Quality control: part of quality management
focused on fulfilling quality requirements;
• Quality assurance: part of quality management
focused on providing confidence that quality
requirements will be fulfilled;
• Quality improvement: part of quality
management focused on increasing the ability to
fulfill quality requirements.
- Quality requirements can be related to aspects such as
effectiveness, efficiency or traceability.
• Effectiveness: extend to which planned
activities are realized and planned results
• Efficiency: relationship between the result
achieved and resources used.
• Traceability: ability to trace the history,
application or location of that which is under
• Inspection: conformity evaluation by
observation and judgment accompanied as
appropriate by measurement, testing or
• Verification: confirmation, through the
provision of objective evidence, that specified
requirements have been fulfilled.
• Validation: confirmation, through the
provision of objective evidence, that the
requirements for a specific intended use
have been fulfilled.
• Organization: group of people and facilities with
an arrangement of resposibilities, authorities and
relationships. EXAMPLE: company, firm,
enterprise, institution, charity, association, sole
• Organizational structure: arrangement of
resposibilities, authorities and relationships
between people.
- Examples of formal expression of the organizational
structure are: organizational chart, quality manual or a
quality plan for a project.
- Organizational chart (often called organigram(me)) is a
diagram that shows the structure of an organization and
the relationships and relative ranks of its parts and
Medium or large construction company
- Functional Structure -

Divisional/Product/Project Structure

• Process: set of interrelated or interacting activities
which transforms inputs into outputs;

- Any activity, or set of activities, that uses
resources to transform inputs to outputs can be
considered as a process. For organizations to
function effectively, they have to identify and
manage numerous interrelated and interacting
processes. Often, the output from one process will
directly form the input into the next process. The
systematic identification and management of the
processes employed within an organization and
particularly the interactions between such
processes is referred to as the “process
approach”. 36
Model of a process-based QMS (ISO 9000)

• Product: result of a process.
Product means:
- Hardware: construction (parts);
- Services;
- Software;
- Processed materials.

• Project: unique process consisting of a set of

coordinated and controlled activities with start and
finish dates, undertaken to achieve an objective
conforming to specific requirements, including
various constrains (time, cost, resource, legal,
etc). The result of a project may be one or several
units of products.
• Procedure: specified way to carry out an
activity or a process. Procedures can be
documented (written) or not.

• Conformity: fulfillment of a requirement;

• Nonconformity: non-fulfillment of a

• Defect: non-fulfillment of a requirement

related to an intended or specified use.

• Preventive action: action to eliminate the
cause of a potential noncoformity or other
undesirable potential situations.
• Corrective action: action to eliminate the
cause of a detected noncoformity or other
undesirable situations.
- There can be more than one cause for a
(potential) nonconformity;
- Preventive action is taken to prevent occurance
whereas corrective action is taken to prevent
• Correction: action to eliminate a detected

A correction may consist in: rework, regrade or repair.
- Rework: action on a nonconforming product to make it
conform to the requirements;
- Regrade: alteration of the grade (level of quality
requirements) of a nonconforming product in order to
make it conform to a new set of requirements, differing
from the initial ones;
- Repair: action on a nonconforming product to make it
acceptable for the intended use. Repair reffers to a
previously conforming product to restore it for use (ex.
As a part of maintenance). Unlike rework, repair can
affect or change parts of the nonconforming product.
• Specification: document (information and its
supporting medium) stating requirements.
A specification can be related to:
- Activities: procedure document, process/test
- Products: product/performance specification, drawings.

• Quality manual: document specifying the

quality management system of an organization.
• Quality plan: document specifying which
procedures and associated resources shall be
applied, by whom and when to a specific project,
product, process or contract.
• Record: document stating results achieved or providing
evidence of activities performed. Records may be used
to document traceability and to provide evidence of
verification, preventive action and corrective action.
• Audit: systematic, independent and documented
process for obtaining audit evidence (information such
as records or statements of facts) and evaluating it
objectively to determine the extend to which audit criteria
(policies, procedures or requirements) are fulfilled.

Audits may be:
- Internal (first party) audits: are conducted by the organization itself
for internal purposes;
- External – second party audits: are conducted by parties having
an interest in the organization (costumers);
- External – third party audits: are conducted by external
independent organizations to provide certification of conformity with
the provision of a standard (ex. ISO 9001).
- The concept of "quality" = a notion that people have
operated since ancient times:
Genesis: “1:31 And God saw every thing that he had made,
and, behold, it was very good.”
Hammurapi: “If a builder builds a house, and that house
collapses and kills the owner, the builder will be put to death”
- ISO 9000 standards:
Quality: degree to which a set of inherent (permanent)
charecteristics fulfils requirements;
Requirement: need or expectation that is stated, generally
implied or obligatory.
Quality management: component of management
responsible with the directing and controlling the organization
with regard to quality;
2. Construction Quality
2.1. Construction industry and
Sustainable development
Construction facilities occur as a result of
various fundamental motivations/needs:
- need for safety (shelter);
- need to provide adequate conditions
for various activities (production,
business, education, culture, ....);
- spiritual and aesthetic needs;
- protection of environment, etc.
Construction industry change and sometimes
damage environment:

* The concept of “sustainable development”

– Lester Brown 1984 and U.N. Brundtland
Commision 1987:
“sustainable development is development
that meets the needs of the present
without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their own needs ”.

For humans, sustainability is the potential for
long-term maintenance of well being, which has
environmental, economic, and social dimensions

The definition reffers to the unitary approach of

following principles:

• Present needs for developement;

• Reducing negative human impact on the
environment and ecosystems;
• Equity and poverty alleviation;
• Preserve the capacity of future generations to
meet their needs
In the context of equity principle – construction
facilities should satisfy the following three
classes of requirements related to:
* Direct user (client);
* Indirect users (other stakeholders: statutory
authorities, rest of comunity);
* Environment and future generations.

2.2. The Construction Performance Approach:
Requirements, Performances, Quality

The Performance Approach - is a new (1970’) practice

which focuses on a construction asset in order to
prescribe desired results instead of the way and the
method to get things done.

It is concerned with what a construction facility (product)

is required to do, and not with prescribing how it is to be
constructed (as The Prescription approach does).

The Performance Approach applies to:

- different levels of aggregation of a built facility (whole
building, building elements, building
- different life-stages of the project (design, construction,
occupancy, demolition).
The Performance Approach main steps

– Identifying and formulating the relevant User

– Transforming the User Requirements
identified into Performance Requirements
and quantitative performance criteria,
– Using reliable design and evaluation tools to
assess whether proposed solutions meet the
stated criteria at a satisfactory level.

User Requirements (Statement of Requirements)
– need or expectation related to the intended product;
– based on client’s needs and specific activities;
– document prepared by clients, or in the verbal
– initially are vaguely defined, mainly as general
descriptions of the intended facility;
– are converted/“translated” into Performance
Requirements (explicit or implicit) by Architect and
– represent the Demand;
– the Required performance should fulfill the
– An important part of a continuous process of
communication between clients (demand) and their
project team (supply). 51
• Related to needs • What should have the
M • Related to own activities “product” facilitate – to meet
A (intended use) the intended use
N • Based on technical
D language and concepts
U • Related to technical LANGUAGE
• Predicted and/or measured
P solutions properties of the solutions
• How can the requirements
L be met offered QUALITY
Y • Specific to supply chain PERFORMANCE
of the BUILDING 52
Performance requirements - translate user
requirements in more precise quantitative measurable
and technical terms, usually for a specific purpose.

Performance indicators – give details about the way

it can be measured the results against explicit
requirements, whether qualitative or quantitative.

Performance specifications can come from:

– client;
– construction codes and legislation.

Target of Performance based approach: matching
of user requirements and performance
(specifications) of built assets.

Building performance evaluation is the process of

systematically comparing and matching the
performance in use of building assets with
explicitly documented or implicitly criteria for their
expected performance.

Performance in use assessment – building

performance validation can be done by:
- measurement,
- calculation,
- expert witnesses.
The report between Performance in use
and Requirements gives Quality.

Quality (according to ISO 9000) = degree to which a
set of inherent (permanent) charecteristics (of a
product/service) fulfils requirements.

Construction Quality (according to Law 10/1995) =

represents the total set of performance in use
characteristics of a built facility in order to fulfill the
direct and indirect user requirements, through the
entire life cycle of that facility.
EXAMPLE of “requirement translation”

User requirement Performance requirements

Have meetings with max. - Required space: 3 mp/person;

25 people sitting round - Space shape: L/l ≤ 1,5/1;
table - Ventilation: min. 30 mc fresh air
per person and per hour;
- Air temperature: t = 19 …22 C;
- Noise (due to ext.): max 35 dB;
- Lighting level: min 500 lux.

Romanian STANDARD about User Requirements
STAS 12400/1-1985, Table 2, Anex A – define the fallowing requirements:
• Mechanical resistance and stability;
• Safety in case of fire;
• Safety in use;
• Leak protection;
• Hygrothermal requirements;
• Air quality;
• Acoustic requirements;
• Visual/Aesthetic requirements;
• Tactile requirements;
• Accessibility;
• Hygiene;
• Space functionality and adaptability;
• Durability;
• Value for many (cost effectiveness).
Romanian CODE NC 001-1999 regarding
explication of User Requirements
Performance requirements - translate user
requirements in more precise quantitative measurable and
technical terms, by the use of a lot/set of Performance

User Requirement – Performance Requirement = Quality


Quality Requirement = qualitative expresion of the

building characteristics (whole building or building
subsystems/elements) to be achieved in order to meet the
user requirements, taking into account a speciffic (for that
particular buiding and location) set of influencing
agents/factors. 58

- Law 10/1995 regardind construction quality

identifies 6 Essential Requirements for
construction activity.

- COUNCIL DIRECTIVE of 21 December 1988

on the approximation of laws, regulations
and administrative provisions of the Member
States relating to construction products
(89/106/EEC) – THE SAME 6 Essential
The products must be suitable for construction
works which (as a whole and in their separate
parts) are fit for their intended use, account
being taken of economy, and in this connection
satisfy the following essential requirements
where the works are subject to regulations
containing such requirements.

Such requirements must, subject to normal

maintenance, be satisfied for an economically
reasonable working life (Table 1).

Law 10
1995 - 2007 2007- present
Mechanical resistance and
A Resistance and stability
B Safety in use Safety in case of fire
Hygiene, health and the
C Safety in case of fire
Hygiene and health of man
(workers, occupants or
D neighbours) and environment
Safety in use
protection and rehabilitation
Heat retention, Waterproof
E insulation and Energy Protection against noise
Energy economy and heat
F Protection against noise
retention 61
A. Mechanical resistance and stability

The construction works must be designed and built in

such a way that the loadings that are liable to act on
them during their construction and use stages will not
lead to any of the following:
(a) collapse of the whole or part of the work;
(b) major deformation to an inadmissible degree;
(c) damage to other parts of the construction works or
to fittings or installed equipment as a result of major
deformation of the load- bearing construction;
(d) damage by an event to an extent disproportionate to
the original cause.
B. Safety in case of fire

The construction works must be designed and built

in such a way that in the event of an outbreak of
(a) the load-bearing capacity of the construction can
be assumed for a specific period of time;
(b) the generation and spread of fire and smoke
within the construction works are limited;
(c) the spread of fire to neighboring construction
works is limited;
(d) occupants can leave the construction works or
be rescued by other means;
(e) the safety of rescue teams is taken into
consideration. 63
C. Hygiene, health and the environment
The construction works must be designed and built in such a way that
they will, throughout their life cycle, not be a threat to the hygiene or
health and safety of workers, occupants or neighbors, nor have an
exceedingly high impact on the environment quality or on the climate
during their construction, use and demolition, in particular as a result of
any of the following:
(a) the giving-off of toxic gas;
(b) the emissions of dangerous substances, volatile organic compounds,
greenhouse gases or dangerous particles into indoor or outdoor air;
(c) the emission of dangerous radiation;
(d) the release of dangerous substances into ground water, marine waters,
surface waters or soil;
(e) the release of dangerous substances into drinking water or substances
which have an otherwise negative impact on drinking water;
(f) faulty discharge of waste water, emission of flue gases or faulty disposal
of solid or liquid waste;
(g) dampness in parts of the construction works or on surfaces within the
construction works.
D. Safety (and accessibility) in use

The construction works must be designed and built

in such a way that they do not present
unacceptable risks of accidents or damage in
service or in operation such as slipping, falling,
collision, burns, electrocution, injury from
explosion and burglaries.

In particular, construction works must be designed

and built taking into consideration accessibility and
use for disabled persons.

E. Protection against noise

The construction works must be designed

and built in such a way that noise perceived
by the occupants or people nearby is kept to
a level that will not threaten their health and
will allow them to sleep, rest and work in
satisfactory conditions.

F. Energy economy and heat retention
The construction works and their heating,
cooling, lighting and ventilation installations
must be designed and built in such a way that
the amount of energy they require in use shall
be low, when account is taken of the occupants
and of the climatic conditions of the location.

Construction works must also be energy-

efficient, using as little energy as possible
during their construction and dismantling.
Produce speciffic aproaches to procurement system
♦ “Working place” (site) is temporary,
continously changing;
♦ “Product” (built facility) is unique, immobile–
Processes are mobile;
♦ Production process – mainly outdoor;
♦ Production process – continuously
changing. Variety of construction
technology, and structure of industry;
♦ Requires other industries to support it;
♦ Complex and expensive; 68
♦ Long lastind life-cycle;
♦ Many people/organizations involved in
promotion, construct and use;
♦ High incidence of risk and uncertainty in
demand pattern and technical conditions;
♦ The product is usually commisioned and
not bought; Complex and expensive;
♦ Demand is fluctuant, depending largelly
by government;
♦ Requires large and various ammount of
materials, equipment and workforce
(seldom highly qualified), etc.
2.4. Construction Quality System
Participants to Construction Industry - form a
heterogeneous set of persons and / or organizations
among which are created, by law and various ad hoc
relationships, multiple and diverse connections and
conditions. The quality of construction is the result of this
heterogeneous set of factors, namely: :
– Client;
– Consultant/Engineer/Designer;
– Contractor;
– Suppliers;
– Other consultants and service supliers: expert
witnesses, design verifiers, technical advisors,
laboratories etc.;
– Local and central authorities;
– State Inspectorate in Construction, etc. 70
All these direct and indirect participants
create ad-hoc a complex system, whose
final result is the development of
“anthropogenic environment”.
Law 10/1995 defines the Construction
Quality System as a set of organizational
structures, resposibilities, and instruments
which are involved in obtaining quality of
the built asset throughout its entire lyfe -
cycle (promotion, design, construction, use
and demolition).
Construction Quality System (CQS)
a) Codes and regulations;
b) Materials, Products, Components;
c) Technical approvals (agremente tehnice) for “new”
products and technologies;
d) Design verification (quality control), Quality control of
the works and Expert witnesses of the designs, works
and built facilities;
e) Quality management ;
f) Laboratory approval and testing;
g) Construction metrology;
h) Commissioning (handing-over);
i) In use construction behavior and interventions;
j) Demolition and disposal;
k) State control of construction quality.
Construction Quality System (CQS) may be
considered as a Cybernetic open systen

• System = a set of interacting or interdependent
components and rules forming an integrated whole (ex :
organizational structures, laws, responsibilities,
construction codes etc with various conexions in
Input = customer and community needs and
System behavior = it contains processes that transform
inputs into outputs (material, money, energy or data);
Output = design, built facility, construction works.
• Cybernetic System = are capable of receiving, storing
and processing information so as to use it for self –
control, using “feed-back”.
• Open Cybernetic System = exchanges matter and
energy with its surroundings/environment (competitors,
suppliers, local/central authorities, banks, etc).
Usually, “environment” induces restrictions
Comments about Q. system behavior
• Each person and/or organization within the
system has speciffic interests, which can be
even opposite.
• Inside organizations importance approach
regarding various objectives can outline a
speciffic objective affecting another (ex.
Quantity/Profit more important than Quality,
Time reduction more important than Quality
improvement, etc);
• Partizan attitude within the departments affecting
the company global objectives.
• The more components of the system, the higher
incidence of failers occurs.
Construction quality is not only a matter related
to client’s requirements and preferences.

Construction Quality is also a consequence of

applying various provisions of building codes,
and other legal regulations.

In Romania, the main law regarding

Construction Quality is “Law nr. 10/1995 on
Construction Quality”.
It refers to obligations specific to:

-All parties involved in construction and

alteration (repair, maintenance,
consolidation, etc.) works;
-All stages of a construction project (design,
construction, operation, post-operation
A large number of other legal and technical
provision orbit around this Law.
The provisions of the law

-Refers to any type of new construction

facilities and building services, regardless
the property form (private or public), as well
as alteration works.
-Does not refer to small buildings (Ground
floor, Ground floor + First floor) and their
annexes located in rural areas or villages.
Temporary works and constructions are
also excepted.

All the participants involved in

construction and/or alteration works
(including building services works) are
legally responsible to meet the provisions
of the Quality Law, and other
requirements related to this law (building
codes, quality specifications, etc.),
through the whole life cycle of the
As a general rule (art.7), engineering
and construction contracts cannot refer
(or impose) to requirements that are
inferior to regulations in force, with
reference to the provisions regarding the
essential requirements.
Consequences due to un-fulfillment of
legal requirements on construction

- lost of time and resources (including

money) to correct the defects;
- supplementary expenses for laboratory
tests and technical expertise (witnesses);
- loss of reputation;
- fines (civil or penal);
- detention.
Obligations and duties span over a
long period of time.
The parties involved in construction projects, such as:
- Engineer (Designer);
- Certified Design Verifier (V.P.);
- Materials Suppliers;
- Contractor;
- Contractor’s Certified Technical Inspector (R.T.E.);
- Client’s Construction/Site Inspector (D.Ş.);
- Technical Expert Witness (Forensic Engineers)
are legally bond (according to their specific contribution
to the project), with regard to hidden defects of the
construction that may arise within 10 years from
handing-over, as well as during the whole life-cycle, for
defects regarding the construction structure due to
unfulfillment of provisions of the construction codes and
regulations in force at the time of its execution (art. 29).
A. According to Law (art. 31) - the following actions:
• Design,
• Technical Review,
• Expert Witness,
• Performing of construction works (new facilities and/or
altering works),
WITHOUT consideration of the provisions of construction
codes and regulation regarding structural resistance and
stability, are considered as law infringement
IF these will result in one of the following consequences:
• Casualties,
• Bad injuries to one or more persons,
• Partial or total damage to the construction and its services
and equipment, and other significant consequences,
AND SHAL BE PUNISHED with prison from 5 to 10 years
and cancellation of certain rights.
B. IF the previous actions have produced:

• Casualties,
• Bad injuries to one or more persons,
• Partial or total damage to the construction and its
services and equipment, and other significant

THEN the punishment shall be prison from 10 to

20 years and cancellation of certain rights.
C. An important accent is related to discipline
of participants to construction projects.

Thus, any continuance of the works that have

not been carried out technically correct and have
been stopped by a statutory authority, in all
cases in which such action would affect
construction’s stability and resistance, shall be
regarded as offence and punished with prison
from 3 months to 2 years or with penal fine
(art. 32).
The Client is the most important figure in the project and is in a position to lead by
commitment and through the right approach to the project. So, in terms of quality, he
must therefore:

• Establish the quality level to be accomplished during design and

construction stages according to the technical regulations (construction
codes, etc.) as well as actual state of art (studies and researches) in this

This refers to:

- Clearly and fully define his needs and expectations - since late changes of mind can prove expensive
in terms of timescale, cost and quality;
- Ensure that the appropriate team is appointed (either collectively or individually) to provide advice
and to represent the Client's interests - they must be suitably resourced, qualified, experienced and
able to work together as a team;
- Analyse the risks attached to the project, quantify them, ensure they are managed and make
appropriate financial and time provision for them;
- Establish time, cost and quality levels and benchmarks before the construction phase commences,
and then against which the project can be monitored as it proceeds;
- Obtain external professional advice and support if this is not available in-house. This may involve
the appointment of a client adviser who will give guidance on the preparation of the technical and
economic appraisal and options to meet his needs including possibly a non-build option;
- Ensures that the statutory requirements (quality, health and safety matters, etc) have been
resolved by design documents and site access is available prior to commencing construction;
• Obtain all the approvals and licenses, including
the Construction permit, required by the law;

• Ensure that the Design Documents are getting

the Certification of compliance with building
The client should engage an Approved Certifier of Design
to provide a certificate confirming compliance of the design
work with building regulations (concerning the fulfilment of
the 6 Essential requirements). This is carried out by suitably
qualified and experienced construction professionals
(Approved Certifier of Design) who are members of
certification schemes approved by the Government –
Ministry of Development;
• Ensure the review of correct execution of the
construction works during the contract
period by engaging a Construction/Site
The client should engage an adviser/consultant to
control the quality of the works and to provide records in
order to confirm compliance of the works with building
regulations. This is carried out by suitably qualified and
experienced construction professionals
(Construction/Site Inspector also known as Approved
Certifier of Construction works) who are members of
certification schemes approved by the Government –
State Inspectorate in Construction.

The site inspector will assist the client also to regular

monitoring and reporting, to analyse all aspects of the
project as construction progresses;
• Taking corrective action to solve non-
conformities that may arise during design
and construction stages;
• Organize the commissioning/handing over
of the completed project (at Completion of
the works and at the end of the Guaranty
This might include:
- Enable the organisation and resources needed to execute both the pre-
start up testing and the commissioning of the completed project;
- Review the handover documentation and operating instructions
requirements of the client organisation and ensure these are prepared
and delivered on schedule;
- Ensure the production of all post completion reports analysing the
procurement process and the end product, noting whether the project
has met the brief and all users' requirements. All lessons learnt
should be shared among interested parties in order to inform future
project planning.
• Draw up the Construction Diary/Log Book
and hand it over to the owner;

• Enable construction expert witnesses in

those cases required by law (alteration
works, consolidation works, intervention
works due to catastrophic events).

Potrivit Art. 18 din Lege, lucrarile de intervenţie la

construcţiile existente se referă la lucrări de reconstruire,
consolidare, transformare, extindere, desfiinţare parţială,
precum şi la lucrări de reparaţii, care se fac numai pe
baza unui proiect avizat de proiectantul iniţial al clădirii
sau a unei expertize tehnice întocmite de un expert
tehnic atestat, şi se consemnează obligatoriu în cartea
tehnică a construcţiei.
• Define the Construction (Building/Structure)
Category of Importance;

• Develop design work (in all stages – including

details) to meet the client quality
requirements stated in the contract, in
respect with construction codes and

• Present the design to the selected (by the

Client) Certified Design Verifier(s) and solve
non-conformities and inconcistancies
revealed by him (them);
• Develop within their design work of:
Specifications and Technical
Instructions related to the contract
stage, occupancy, alteration and
• On the basis of demand, develop:
- the design for monitoring the
construction behavior during
occupancy stage;
- the design for post-occupancy stage
(dismantling stage);
• Set the Critical Control Points (F.D.) for
construction stage (with respect to Essential
requirements) and participate to their quality
control on site;
• When required by Client - Establish the
method to correct the defects detected at
time of construction stage, as a result of
designer sub-standard work, as well as
monitor the implementation on site of the
correcting solutions, after their previous
approval from Certified Design Verifier(s);
• Participate to drawing up of the Construction
Diary/Log Book an to the Handing – over
• Review the Design documents and inform the
Client about nonconformities and inconsistences
of the design to be resolved;

• Begin construction works only on the basis of a

Construction permit and Verified Design
documents (where required by law);

• Assurance of the required level of quality by the

use of a quality system and Certified Technical
• Call all the factors (persons/institutions)
required to participate to quality control of the
works that have reached the critical control
points and assure the necessary conditions to
perform the inspection in order to obtain the
approval (certification) to carry on the
construction works;

• Solve the non-conformities, defects and

inconsistences that may occur during the
construction stage of the project only on the
basis of the solutions provided by the Designer
and accepted by the Client;
• Perform the construction works using only the
provisions of the design documents (in terms of:
construction materials, products and methods –
having quality certification on the basis of
standards or technical approvals) in order to
meet the required quality level;

• Administer witness-evidences;

• Replace the products and methods stipulated in

the design documents only if allowed by the
Designer and accepted by the Client;
• Notify within 24 hours the State Inspectorate in
Constructions in case of technical accidents
occurred during the performance of the
construction works;

• Submit for reception (handing-over) only

facilities that meet the quality requirements and
for which the contractor has already submitted to
the client the documents necessary to complete
the Construction log book;

• Fulfill the provisions of the control documents or

handing – over documents, at the stipulated
• Remedy, at his own expense, the quality
defects that may arise from his own fault, both
during the construction stage and occupancy

• De-allocate lands temporarily occupied, upon

the completion of the works;

• Determine the duties and liabilities of the

participants to the construction works on his
behalf (own staff, partners, subcontractors), in
accordance with the provision of his quality
system and applicable law.
3.5 OBLIGATIONS of Certified Design Verifier (V.P.),
Certified Technical Inspector (R.T.E.) and
Technical Expert Witness

• Certified Design Verifiers (V.P.) – are liable, together

with the designer, for the quality of the design documents.

• Certified Technical Inspectors (R.T.E.) – are liable,

accordind to their duties, for the accomplishment of
required quality level of the works they are supervising.

• Technical Experts – are liable for their analises and

solutions in case of designs, construction works or
constructed facilities.

Details of these obligations are provided by HGR 925/1995 pentru

aprobarea Regulamentului de verificare si expertizare tehnica de
calitate a proiectelor, a executiei lucrarilor si a constructiilor.
Obligatii si raspunderi ale proprietarilor

• Efectuarea la timp a lucrarilor de intretinere si de reparatii care le revin,

prevazute conform normelor legale in cartea tehnica a constructiei si
rezultate din activitatea de urmarire a comportarii in timp a constructiilor;
• Pastrarea si completarea la zi a cartii tehnice a constructiei si predarea
acesteia, la instrainarea constructiei, noului proprietar;
• Asigurarea urmaririi comportarii in timp a constructiilor, conform
prevederilor din cartea tehnica si reglementarilor tehnice;
• Efectuarea, dupa caz, de lucrari de reconstruire, consolidare, transformare,
extindere, desfiintare partiala, precum si de lucrari de reparatii ale
constructiei numai pe baza de proiecte intocmite de catre persoane fizice
sau persoane juridice autorizate si verificate potrivit legii;
• Asigurarea realizarii lucrarilor de interventii asupra constructiilor, impuse
prin reglementarile legale;
• Asigurarea efectuarii lucrarilor din etapa de postutilizare a constructiilor, cu
respectarea prevederilor legale in vigoare.
Obligatii si raspunderi ale administratorilor
si ale utilizatorilor constructiilor
• Folosirea constructiilor conform instructiunilor de
exploatare prevazute in cartea tehnica a constructiei;
• Efectuarea la timp a lucrarilor de intretinere si de
reparatii care le revin, conform contractului;
• Efectuarea de lucrari de interventie la constructia
existenta (lucrări de reconstruire, consolidare,
transformare, extindere, desfiinţare parţială, precum şi
la lucrări de reparaţii), numai cu acordul proprietarului
si cu respectarea prevederilor legale;
• Efectuarea urmaririi comportarii in timpa constructiilor
conform cartii tehnice a constructiei si contractului
incheiat cu proprietarul;
• Sesizarea, in termen de 24 de ore, a Inspectoratului de
stat in constructii, in cazul unor accidente tehnice la
constructiile in exploatare. (Art.26-L10/1995).
- Lei-

a) Executarea de modificari la constructii ori demolarea acestora cu incalcarea

prevederilor la autorizarea si executarea acestora;
1,550 – 9,300
b) Neexecutarea obligatiilor privind urmarirea comportarii in timp a constructiilor de
complexitate si importanta deosebita, referitoare la stabilitate si rezistenta;
a) Realizarea de constructii fara proiecte sau pe baza unor proiecte neverificate de
specialisti atestati;
b) Neexecutarea obligatiilor privind urmarirea comportarii in timp a constructiilor, a
lucrarilor de intretinere, reparatii, consolidari;
c) modif., transf., modern., consolidari care pot afecta cerintele, fara proiect 1,550 – 7,700
verificat de specialisti atestati;
d) Organizarea necorespunzatoare si neaplicarea sistemului de conducere si asigurare a
calitatii, inclusive realizarea de constructii fara responsabili tehnici cu executia atestati,
coresp. Art. 14;
a) Elab. de proiecte incompl., cu neconcord. ce pot det. nerealiz. niv. de calit. si insus.
acestora de catre verificatori;
b) Incalcarea prevederilor din reglementarile tehnice referitoare la cerintele constructiei;
c) Receptia constructiilor cu incalcarea prevederilor legale;
d) Necompletarea si nepastrarea cartii tehnice a constructiei conf. prevederilor legale;
e) Stabilirea in cadrul expertizei a unor proiecte de executie/solutii ce pot determina
nerealizarea cerintelor; 770 – 4,650
f) Neamenajarea terenurilor ocupate temporar pentru aducerea la starea initiala, la
terminarea lucrarilor;
g) Neasigurarea verificarii executarii lucr. de constructii prin diriginti de specialitate/firme
de consult. (cf. art. 21d);
h) Interzicerea/obstructionarea efectuarii controlului calitatii, neprezentarea documentelor
solicitate de inspectori.
a) Neaprecierea in proiect a categoriei de importanta a constructiei si
nestabilirea fazelor determinante;
b) Prevederea in proiect/utilizarea unor produse necertificate, fara agrement;
c) Nerespectarea prin proiecte a niv. de calitate si a celorlalte clauze
contractuale ref. la cerinte; 300 – 1,250
d) Neexecutarea obligatiilor de intretinere si reparatii care revin proprietarilor
potrivit legii, care afect. niv. de Q ;
e) Neconvocarea factorilor care trebuie sa participe la fazele determinante.

a) Lipsa nemotivata la verificarea lucr. ascunse la faze determ. (urmare a

convoc. facuta de exec.); convoc. nejustif.;
b) Nesolic. de catre investitor sau executant a solut. de remed. a defectelor
aparute in dec. exec., ref. la cerinte;
c) Neindepl. oblig. proiectantului de a stabili solutiile pentru remedierea
defectelor sesizate …. 150 - 300
d) Neaplicarea de catre executant a solutiilor stabilite de proiectant sau exp. pt.
rezolv. neconf./defectelor …
e) Nesesizarea IJC la aparitia accidentelor tehnice la constructii in executie sau
in exploatare;
f) Neindeplinirea la termen a masurilor stabilite in actele de control.
Construction facilities may classified in various
categories and classes according to different
criteria. The most significant one is by their
- Categories of importance – are based on global
criteria, describing the construction facility as a
whole, taking into account various aspects;
- Classes of importance – are based on narrow
(specific) describing the construction facility as a
whole or its sub-systems, taking into account
specific features (ex. Seismic behavior, Fire
resistance, etc.). 104
For a given facility, the category of importance should
be correlated with the classes of importance, by:

- Designer – in case of new construction facilities;

- Designer or Technical Expert – existing constr. facilities.

The ultimate goal is to determine an appropriate quality

system in order to satisfy the client and statutory/legal

The higher the category of importance:

- The higher the classes of importance;
- The higher the requirements for quality systems
within the participant organizations on the
procurement chain.
4.1 Categories of importance
Categories of importance for building facilities should
be established according to the provisions of:

- H.G.R. 766/1997 pentru aprobarea unor regulamente

privind calitatea în construcţii, Art.1, pct. c) -
Stabilirea categoriei de importanţă a construcţiilor;

- Ordinul 31/N din 1995 - Regulament privind stabilirea

categoriei de importanta a constructiilor. Metodologie
de stabilire a categoriei de importanta a constructiilor)

The goal of classifying buildings by their
categories of importance should refer to:

• Obtain an appropriate quality level by fulfillment of the

stated requirements;

• Determine the specific duties and liabilities of

individuals and organizations with regard to the
following aspects:

• Risk degree induced by safety and health

requirements – reflects the building impact on
society and environment;
• Destination and use pattern of the building;
• Building Complexity and Financial efforts.

Constructions are listed in one of the four following
categories of importance:

- Constructions of exceptional importance (A);

- Constructions of special importance (B);
- Constructions of normal importance (C);
- Constructions of low importance (D).

Every construction facility is established a particular

category of importance, that should be specified in various
documents describing that construction, such as: construction
permit, technical report, construction log book, etc.

The Category of importance induces differentiation in
approaching quality meters, as follows :

- Differentiation of quality requirements related to the

* correlation with construction classes of importance;
* correlation with quality system complexity of the
parties involved (designer, contractor);
* degree of awareness in assesing/verifying the design
documents according to essential requirements;
* degree of awareness in rewiewing the construction
performances when handing-over;
* degree of awareness in monitoring the construction
Principles for establishing the
Category of importance

a) Construction is considered in a global approach,

tacking into consideration:
- its functions and characteristics;
- the complexity of works related to its design, execution
and operation;
b) Construction impact upon the social, economic,
cultural and landscape environment;
c) Risk prevention – by selecting a proper category of
importance which will lead to proper levels of quality
requirements for the project.
Categories of importance are established for
new constructions and for existing one, as
well, on the basis of the same principles.
A particular care should be taken in case of
existing buildings, in terms of:

– The significance in Romanian history,

architecture, archaeology and culture;
– The way in which the initial local conditions
(soil, environment) have influenced the
construction behavior on time and the
extend of the works to be done to meet
actual quality and functional requirements;
Determinant factors and associated criteria

In order to establish the Category of

importance for a construction should be considered:

- 6 determinant factors;
- 3 associated criteria for each determinant

No Determinant factors Associated criteria

i) People directly affected in case of construction dysfunctions ;

1 VITAL IMPORTANCE ii) People indirectly affected in case of construction dysfunctions;
iii) Dangerous evolution of dysfunctions effects.

I) Dimension of community addressing the construction functions/services or its

SOCIAL, ECONOMIC values/goods hosted inside;
2 AND CULTURAL II) Degree in which construction functions influence community;
IMPORTANCE III) Type and degree of construction functions.

I) Degree in which the construction and operation of the facility influence the natural
and built environment;
3 II) Degree of alteration of the natural and built environment;
iii) Degree of positive influence in protection and restoration of the natural and built
I) Intended use duration;
II) Degree in which the structural performances of the construction subsystems
depend on knowledge of future evolution of stresses affecting the construction
during operation stage;
III) Degree in which functional performances depend on evolution of owners future
I) Degree in which structural solutions depend on local conditions;
NECESSITY LOCAL II) Degree in which local conditions are expected to change over time;
CONDITIONS III) Degree in which local conditions determine special care in construction operation
CONSIDERATION and maintenance.
(soil, environment, neighbors)

I) Labor and materials required in construction the facility;

RESOURCES II) Complexity of the activities required to maintain the construction performances over
6 the life span;
III) Special requirements to operate the facility due to its particular functions. 113
Metodology to establish the
Category of importance
• The Design of construction should ensure meeting the
minimum level of building performances stipulated by
codes and regulations, at the time of design,
regardless the construction category of importance;

• The extend and degree of Performance requirements,

considered by design, will depend on the Category of
importance of the facility and the Client expectations:
The higher the Category of importance and/or Client
requirements - The higher the degree of Performance
• The actual (in use) Performances (Actual
quality) should meet the initial (desired)
Requirements, as efficiently as possible.
1. Analyze the construction characteristics based
on the Determinant factors and their associated
2. Establish the score for each associated criterion
and then calculate the final total score of each
Determinant factor;
3. Preliminary set of Category of Importance;
4. Final review and set of Category of importance.
1. Analyze the construction characteristics :

a) Review the input data with refer to: functions; capacity; use
duration; technical solutions, materials and products to be used;
estimate resource, cost and construction duration, etc.
b) Estimate the possible consequences on the project due to local
conditions, and their evolution in time.
c) Estimate the possible consequences of the project (especially
industrial buildings) on the environment and neighbors, related to:
- special loads/effects induced by facility: vibrations, shocks;
temperature, noise, corrosive agents, etc.;

The above Estimation is based on:

- New constructions: Client requirements brief, contract clauses,
legal provisions, etc;
- Existing facilities: Construction log book, other related technical
2. Establish the score for each associated criterion and then
calculate the final total score of each Determinant factor

The score for each Determinant factor is established using the formula bellow

∑ ki ⋅ pi
Pm = i =1

m = Contor for determinant factors; m =1÷6;
Pm = Determinant factor “m” score;
ki = Criterion importance coefficient (reflects the unicity feature of the construction) .
Usually = 1, but may be increased up to maximum 2, in case of particular or listed or
unique constructions;
pi = Score of each associated criterion (i = 1 ÷ n = 3) - according to criterion influence
see Tabel 2);
n = Number of associated criteria for each determinant factor (n = 3);

Note: The determinant factor’ s score is rounded to the following natural number.
Tabel 2: Associate criteria scoring
Estimated level of criterion influence Criterion score “pi”
Unexistent 0
Reduced 1
Medium 2
Consistent 4
Considerable 6________

Construction Total Score (PT) is determined using

formula (1.2)

PT = ∑P
m =1

3. Preliminary set of Category of Importance

Preliminary set of the Construction Category of Importance is

undertaken tacking into consideration the standard scale of importance
scores provided by Table 3.

Table 3: Standard scale of importance scores

Category of importance Total score

Exceptional I. - (A) ≥ 30
Special I. - (B) 18 – 29
Normal I. - (C) 6 – 17
Low I. - (D) ≤5

4. Final review and set of Category of importance

A final review is required in order to check whether the

category of importance established reflects the total
features of the facility.
If variations are considered, then the degree of
importance may be changed on the basis of a solid

IMPORTANT: Once the Category of Importance has

been set, it will be mentioned/written in the design
documents (technical reports and drawings), in an
explicit way.

4.2 Classes of importance
A construction may be classified in various “Classes of
importance” according specific consideration provided by
Construction Regulations, Codes and Standards such as:
Seismic Design Code P 100/1-2006, Fire Design Code
P118/1999, SR EN 1990/2004 – Basis of structural design,
For example, P 100/1-2006 classifies constructions in 4 classes of
importance according to their expected behavior in case of
seismic action (Table 4) by the use of an “Importance factor -
γI” that will influence the dimension of the Seismic force.

”gama I”, in calculul rezultantei incarcarilor seismice orizontale (forta

taietoare de baza)

Class of
Description γI
Buildings having essential functions, whose integrity
during earthquake is vital for comunity:
- Fire stations, Police stations;
I - Hospitals, Resque headquarters; 1,4
- Buildings hosting institutions with major contribution in
management of desasters, national security, etc;
- Power stations and related facilities.
Buildings whose seismic behavior is important for
comunity and occupants:
- Public buildings, Block of flats with more than 400
people exposed;
- Hospitals and related facilities, other than those
mentioned in Class I, having more then 150 people
II exposed; 1,2
- Penitentiaries;
- Old people hostels, Nurseries;
- Schools, , having more then 200 people exposed;
- Conference halls, Concert halls, theatres, and others,
having more then 200 people exposed;
- Listed buildings, Museums, etc.
III Current buildings, other then those listed in Classes I, II, 1,0
and IV.

Low importance buildings for public safety,

having low occupancy degree/little economic
IV 0,8
importance, single family facilities, agricultural
buildings. 122



Soluţia de restaurare şi refuncţionalizare a clădirii s-a întocmit urmărind
refuncţionalizarea imobilului pentru a deservi Centrul pentru Acţiuni de Salvare
şi Prevenire a Dezastrelor Bacău.

Din analiza efectuată conform TEMEI DE PROIECTARE, soluţia propune

restaurarea şi reabilitarea celor două corpuri de clădiri existente.

Amplasamentul propus în temă se află în zona centrală a municipiului Bacău, învecinându-se de

asemenea cu un frumos parc de-a lungul căruia se află dispuse mai multe obiective administrative
ale municipiului .

Corpul A, are o vechime de peste 150 de ani, fiind modificat şi înfrumuseţat în 1890, iar al doilea
corp, adiacent primului a fost construit în 1896.



∑k i ⋅ pi
m=1-6 (p = 0/1/2/4/6)
Pm = i =1
k(i) P(m) p(i ) p(ii) p(iii)
1=Import. Vitala 1 4 2 4 6
2=Import. Soc – Ec si Cult 1 4 4 1 ??? 6
3=Import. Ecologică 1 3 1 ?? 1 ?? 6
4=Neces luarii in cons a Dur. 1 2 2 2 2
5=Adapt la cond locale 1 2 4 1 1
6=Volumul de resurse impl. 1 2 2 2 2

TOTAL PUNCTAJ : PT= 17 - Cat. Imp. = Normala (C ) = (6 – 17) ??

Daca macar p(2,ii) – “Degree in which construction functions influence community” ar fi fost
apreciata corect cu 4 sau 6 puncte, atunci P2 = 5, deci PT = 18 si Cat. Imp. = Speciala (B)

* Design Review/Verification of Design,

* Technical Expert Witnessing of Design,
Construction works and Construction facilities,
* Quality control of construction works
Are construction quality services required by Law 10/1995,
and are part of the Construction Quality System.
These activities are performed by certified specialists
(engineers and architects).
Certification system is based on Essential Requirements.
Main legal provisions:

* HGR 925/1995 pentru aprobarea Regulamentului de

verificare si expertizare tehnica de calitate a proiectelor, a
executiei lucrarilor si a constructiilor;
* Ordinul nr. 777/2003 al Ministerului Lucrărilor Publice,
Transporturilor şi Locuinţei pentru aprobarea reglementării
tehnice "Îndrumător pentru atestarea tehnico-profesională
a specialiştilor cu activitate în construcţii", modificat si
completat de Ordinul nr. 575/2006 si Ordinul nr. 357/2009;
* Ordinul ministrului lucrărilor publice şi amenajării
teritoriului nr. 77/N/1996 pentru aprobarea "Îndrumătorului
privind aplicarea prevederilor Regulamentului de verificare
şi expertizare de calitate a proiectelor, execuţiei lucrărilor
şi construcţiilor", Partea I „Verificarea tehnica de calitate a

The legal provisions are mandatory for all those
involved in all the aspects of construction procurement
in Romania.

Design verification and Technical witnessing are

compulsory as required by the Law.

Temporary site facilities may be used after handing-

over after they have been reviewed as previously

5.1. Verification of Design

• Design quality verification is performed by

Design Certified Verifiers.

• The goal is to ensure meeting the minimum

required level of quality, as stipulated in the
Law, by correctly considering the provision of
the codes and regulations.

• The Design verifier consultants are certified by

Romanian Ministry of Development.
Acording to Essential Requirements (Tab. 1):

1995 - 2007 2007- prezent
1 2 3

Mechanical resistance and

A Resistance and stability
B Safety in use Safety in case of fire
Hygiene, health and the
C Safety in case of fire
Hygiene and health of men
(workers, occupants or neighbours)
D and environment protection and
Safety in use
Heat retention, Waterproof
E insulation and Energy economy
Protection against noise

Energy economy and heat

F Protection against noise
The extend of Verification of Design (number of
Essential requirements to be considered) depends on
the Construction Category of importance (see Table 2).

The Designer should specify correctly what Essential

requirements will be reviewed so that the Client may
approach the proper Consultants (Verifiers). If not, they
are subject to fines and other legal consequences.

Verification of Design pattern
(According to Ordinul M.L.P.A.T. nr. 77/N/1996, partea I, Anexa 1)

Table 2
Design Category of To be reviewed
Section importance A B C D E F

Exceptional (A) ● ● ● ● ● ●

Special (B) ● ● ● ● ● ●
Normal (C) ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

Low (D) ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

Exceptional (A) ● ● ● ● ● ●

Special (B) ● ● ● ● ● ●
Normal (C) ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

Low (D) ● ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

* Verification of design in order to check the compliance of the
design documents with Essential Requirement A –
Mechanical resistance and stability (MRS) is compulsory in
any cases provided by the Law.

* Verification of design is compulsory for each of the 6

Essential requirements in the following situations:
- Dwelling buildings having more than 1 Floor (> P+1E);
- School facilities, Hoapitals and related, Turism facilities
– hosting many people;
- Industrial facilities – with possible negative impact on
surroundings and environment.
• Soil Reports and Special foundation
solutions/conditions (PSU, PUCM, Special foundations -
should be verified to Af – Foundation/Soil MRS
(Normativ privind documentatiile geotehnice pentru
constructii indicativ NP 074 din 2007);

• Design of projects with impact on environment - should

be verified to D - "Hygiene, health and environment”
(Art. 7, pct. 21 din Legea 50/1991, cu completari si
modificari ulterioare, privind autorizarea lucrarilor de

• Design of projects regarding thermic rehabilitation -

should be verified to E - "Henergy economy” (Art. 7, pct.
23 din Legea 50/1991, cu completari si modificari
ulterioare, privind autorizarea lucrarilor de constructii);
* In situatia in care o constructie este depistata a fi
realizata fara autorizatie de construire dar intruneste
conditiile urbanistice de integrare in cadrul construit
preexistent, autoritatea administratiei publice locale
competente poate proceda la emiterea unei autorizatii
de construire in vederea intrarii in legalitate, in
coroborare cu luarea masurilor legale care se impun,
numai in baza concluziilor unui referat de expertiza
tehnica pentru cerinta esentiala de calitate A
"rezistenta mecanica si stabilitate" privind starea
structurii de rezistenta in stadiul fizic in care se afla
constructia, precum si pentru cerinta esentiala de
calitate C "securitatea la incendiu" (Art. 56, alin. 3,
din Norme Metodologice de aplicare a Legii 50/1991
privind autorizarea lucrarilor de constructii).

Simbol Domenii/subdomenii de constructii
cerinta Simb Denumire
1 2 3
Rezistenta si stabilitate pentru constructii civile, industriale, agrozoo;
A1 energetice; telecomunicatii; miniere; edilitare si de gospodarie comunala
cu structura din beton, beton armat, zidarie, lemn
Rezistenta si stabilitate pentru constructii civile, industriale, agrozoo;
A2 energetice; telecomunicatii; miniere; edilitare si de gospodarie comunala
cu structura de rezistenta din metal, lemn
Rezistenta si stabilitate pentru constructii rutiere, drumuri, piste de
A A4
aviatie; poduri; tunele
A5 Rezistenta si stabilitate pentru constructii de cai ferate
Rezistenta si stabilitate pentru constructii de porturi si platforme marine
A7 Rezistenta si stabilitate pentru constructii si amenajari hidrotehnice
A9 Rezistenta si stabilitate la constructii pentru imbunatatiri funciare
Rezistenta si stabilitatea terenului de fundare a constructiilor si a
masivelor de pamant
Siguranta in exploatare pentru constructii civile, industriale, agrozoo,
energetice; telecomunicatii; miniere
Siguranta in exploatare pentru constructii rutiere, drumuri, piste de aviatie;
poduri; tunele
B3 Siguranta in exploatare pentru constructii de cai ferate
B B4 Siguranta in exploatare pentru constructii de porturi si platforme marine
B5 Siguranta in exploatare pentru constructii si amenajari hidrotehnice
B7 Siguranta in exploatare la constructii pentru imbunatatiri funciare
B9 Siguranta in exploatare la constructii edilitare si de gospodarie comunala
C Siguranta la foc in constructii pentru toate domeniile
D Igiena, sanatatea oamenilor, refacerea si protectia mediului - toate domeniile
E Izolatie termica, hidrofuga si economia de energie - pentru toate domeniile
F Protectie impotriva zgomotului in constructii pentru toate domeniile

Pentru toate cerintele si domeniile
Simbol Denumire Cuprins specialitate
1 2 3
• instalatii sanitare interioare
• instalatii exterioare de alimentare cu apa
Is Instalatii sanitare
• instalatii exterioare de canalizare
• instalatii de stingere a incendiilor
• instalatii de incalzire
• instalatii de ventilare
It Instalatii termice
• instalatii de climatizare si frig
• instalatii de prevenire a incendiilor
• instalatii interioare de gaze naturale
• instalatii exterioare de gaze naturale
Ig Instalatii de gaze • instalatii de gaze lichefiate
• instalatii exterioare de gaze naturale cu
conducte din mase plastice
• instalatii electrice, inclusiv pentru curenti slabi
• instalatii de protectie la descarcari atmosferice
• instalatii de automatizare si semnalizare pentru
Ie Instalatii electrice instalatii termice si de gaze
• instalatii de avertizare si de prevenire a incendiilor
• instalatii de telecomunicatii si de transmitere a

(Design Performance Requirements)
E.R. “A” – Mech. Resist. and Stability: Minimal Check list

Design documents Performance requirements (aspects to be reviewed)

1. Seismic zone – correctly locate;
2. Category of importance;
3. Classes of importance;
4. Considering the information provided by Soil report;
5. Fondation and infrastructure technical solution;
6. Technical solutions regarding soil and environment
aggression on the structural elements;
Structure design 7. Analise the structure assembly and the stability of
non-bearing elements;
8. Calculation of structural frame and elements;
9. Materials and products considered;
10. Details review;
11. Completness of written documents and drawings;
12. Other requirements.

E.R. “B” – Safety in use : Minimal Check list

Design Performance requirements (aspects to be reviewed)

1. Provisions to avoid sliding and falling ......;
2. Prevent accidents from falling on stairs, ramps, oscillation
of levels;
3. Separation of trafic (people and vehicles);
4. Propper gauges (gabarit) for people and vehicles,
inclouding people whith special needs (disabilities);
5. Lightning (natural and artificial/ interior and exterior);
6. Protection measures against burglary;
7. Protection measures against protuberant elements;
Structure and 8. Protection measures against burning due to hot surfaces,
Architecture design steem, hot or corrosive liquides, explosions;
9. Protection measures against electric accidets;
10. Avoid structural or architectural elements obstructing
circulation of people whith special needs (disabilities);
11. Completness of written documents and drowings;
12. Monitoring, maintenance and operation instructions;

E.R. “C” – Safety in case of fire : Minimal Check list
Design documents Performance requirements (aspects to be reviewed)
1. Fire protection from vicinities;
2. Define the fire category of the technological processes;
3. Define: Building fire degree resistence and behavior;
4. Limitation of fire emision within the building and its
facades; Smoke evacuation;
5. Provision of evacuation routes and their protection in case
Structure and of fire;
Architecture design 6. Equipe the building with specialised devices against fire;
7. Acees routes (interior and exterior) to facilitate rescue
intervention in case of fire;
8. Management plan in case of fire;
9. Completness of documentation;
10. Other provisions.

E.R. “D” –Hygiene and health, Environment: Minimal Check list
Design documents Performance requirements (aspects to be reviewed)
1. Protection against external emissions;
2. Ensure air quality – depending of room
destination, type of occupants, type of activities,
ventilation systems, etc;
3. Consider finishing works without volatile
4. Provision of facilities to ensure a proper
maintenance and hygiene;
Structure and 5. Wastewater disposal without infesting
Architecture design environment or people;
6. Household waste disposal without infesting
environment or people;
7. Prevent environment polution due to activities
performed inside construction facility;
8. Proper lightening;
9. Completness of written documents and drawings;
10. Other.

E.R “E” – Heat retention, Waterproof insulation and Energy economy:
Minimal Check list
Design documents Performance requirements (aspects to be reviewed)
1. Climate conditions;
2. Interior confort according to occupants and their
3. Minimise functioning cost (heating, cooling)
considering the anvelope performance;
4. Avoid water vapor condensation;
Structure and
5. Avoid water lickeage through anvelope and
Architecture design
construction subsystems;
6. Avoid water infiltration from soil;
7. Completness of written documents and drawings;
8. Others.

E.R. “F” – Protection against noise: Minimal Check list

Design documents Performance requirements (aspects to be reviewed)

1. Conformance to environment requirements;
2. Provisions to reduce exterior noise level on the
building users;
3. Provisions to reduce exterior exterior impact
Structure and
Architecture design
4. Provisions to reduce interior noise spreading,
affecting users’ confort;
5. Completness of written documents and drawings;
6. Others.

Design documents subject to Verification

• Soil Report – according to the provisions of NP 074 Code;

• Technical documentation for obtaining the

Construction permit (D.T.A.C.) - drawings, technical

• Technical documentation needed to

execute the construction works (P.Th.) and
Details (D.D.E.) - drawings, calculation, specifications.

• Design changes during construction stage

(As built changes/modifications)

The following aspects/attributes of
the Design are not subject to

• Architectural concept,

• Shapes, and other principles of space


• Aestethic concept, volumetry and other

alike, based on the agreement between
architect and engineer.
Legal obligations of Design Certified Verifiers

• Verifier should verfy designs according to his/her

certification (Domain and Essential Requirement).

• The correlation between different parts of the design is

not required to Verifier, excepting Resistance and
Stability Requirement (“A”), where:
- consider Architecture plans in terms of loads
evaluation for non- structural elements;
- consider the loads provided by service engineers,
influencing loads evaluation and calculation for the

• Verifier should sign and stamp only design

documentation that are developed according to technical
regulations in force.
• Verifier is forbidden to sign and stamp design work
provided by himself or with contribution.

• He/She may sign and stamp design work provided by

the company where he works, but he/she didn’t

• Design verification is witnessed by:

- Technical Review – signed and stamped;
- Sign and stamp Calculation Notes;
- Sign and stamp – Drawings and Technical

In case of conflicts between Designer and Verifier – the

final decicion holds on the Technical Expert Witness
(appointed by the Client).
Verifiers of design Certification
• Verifiers of design are certified by Ministry of Development;

• Specialists that might be certified are: Construction engineers,

Building services engineers, Architects, Geological engineers, Oil
and Gas engineers – according to their speciality;

• Architects are not entitled to be certified for «A» Essential

Requirement – Resistance and Stability;

• Geological engineers may be certified only for «Af» Essential


• Engineers/Architects should have relevant competence and

experience: - minimul 8 years as designer after graduation;
• - minimum 4 years as designer and other 8 years as inspector in a
state control agency;

5.2 Technical Expert Witnessing of Design,
Construction works and Constructions
Technical Expert Witnessing is a complex activity referring to:
- Research works;
- Experimental and testing works;
- Studies and surveying;
necessary to evaluate actual/real performance/technical
characteristics of:
- Design works;
- Construction works;
- Existing construction facilities,

In order to provide solutions to alter/improve/correct them.

Situations that maight require Technical
Expert Witnessing:

a) Existing construction facilities:

• In case of natural desasters or accidents produced by
human activities;
• Determine the actual performance of a constructed
facility and compare it with the required levels of
performance provided by the construction codes and
• In case of intention of altering an existing facility:
consolidation, rehabilitation, adding suplimentary
floors, etc;
b) Resolution of conflicts between parties involved in
design and construction works.

Aspects considered by expert:
• Local conditions: soil, environment, use conditions;
• Actual state of construction: degradations, accidents;
• Construction log book;
• Provisions of construction codes at the date of initial
design and at present time.

On the basis of the above information and knowledge,

the technical expert issue a Report – comprising
solutions and provisions to solve the « problem ». This is
the basis for further Design work.

When Design work is completed it must be checked

by Expert
in order to confirm the compliance of the project
with the provisions of technical expert report.
Technical Experts Certification

• Technical Experts are certified by Ministry of

• Specialists that might be certified are: Construction
engineers, Building services engineers, Architects,
Geological engineers, Oil and Gas engineers –
according to their speciality;
• Architects are not entitled to be certified for «A»
Essential Requirement – Resistance and Stability;
• Geological engineers may be certified only for «Af»
Essential Requirement;

• Engineers/Architects should have relevant

competence and experience: - minimul 14 years after
graduation, from which 4 years as designer; 151
5.3. Quality assurance and control
by Contractor

According to the provision of Law 10/1995,

the Contractor shall be responsible for quality
assurance and control, by the use of:

- Own employee;
- Contractor’s Certified Technical Inspector
- Self quality management system.

Tabel ..... Certification domains for R.T.E.

Domenii de constructii
Simbol Denumire
1 2
Building, Industrial, Agricultural, Energetic and
Telecomunication, Mining Construction works
II Roads, Bridges, Tunnels, Airoport platforms
III Railway construction works
IV Marine construction works
V Hydrotechnical construction works
VII Landscape improvement construction works
IX Urban services construction works
XI Special foundation construction works

Obligations of Certified Technical Inspector
- Allow construction works only on the basis of
verified design documentation;
- Verify technical procedures for construction works,
quality assurance and controll programmes,
construction programmes (Gant charts);
-Stop construction works where deviations from quality
requirements or design provisions have been observed;
-Allow these works to proceed only if correction
measures have been taken;
- Develop and maintain a Register of works under
his/her supervision;
- Present to statutory inspectors all the necessary
documents for quality assesment.
Certified Technical Inspector Certification

• Graduate of Construction Engineerind Faculty or

Architecture Faculty;

• Experience: minimum 8 years in construction

works, or 4 years in construction works and
other 8 years in quality control works;

• Demonstrate competence in knowing

construction codes and regulation related to
quality assurance and control in the construction
stage of the projects.
5.4. Quality assurance and control by the

• The Client/Promot is responsable to quality

assurance and control of the project through a
specilaised consultant called Construction/Site
Inspector (D.Ş.)

• Site Inspectors are certified according “Ordinul

nr. 154/2010 al Inspectorului General de Stat al
I.S.C. pentru aprobarea Procedurii de autorizare a
diriginţilor de şantier”.
Tabel .... Domenii si conditii de autorizare a Dirigintilor de santier
Cod Domeniu/Subdomeniu Experienta
domeniu de autorizare profesionala
1 2 3
1 Consolidari constructii 10 ani
2 Constructii civile, industriale si agricole:
2.1 C.C.I.A. - categoria de importanta D 3 ani
2.2 C.C.I.A. - categoria de importanta C 5 ani
2.3 C.C.I.A. - categoria de importanta B 5 ani
2.4 C.C.I.A. - categoria de importanta A 10 ani
3 Drumuri, poduri, tunele, piste de aviatie, transport pe cablu
Drumuri, poduri, tunele, piste de aviatie, transport pe cablu - de
3.1 8 ani
interes national
Drumuri, poduri, tunele, piste de aviatie, transport pe cablu - de
3.2 5 ani
interes judetean
Drumuri, poduri, tunele, piste de aviatie, transport pe cablu - de
3.3 5 ani
interes local
4 Cai ferate, metrou, tramvai
5 Lucrari hidrotehnice
5.1 Lucrari hidrotehnice - categoria de importanta D 3 ani
5.2 Lucrari hidrotehnice - categoria de importanta C 5 ani
5.3 Lucrari hidrotehnice - categoria de importanta B 5 ani
5.4 Lucrari hidrotehnice - categoria de importanta A 10 ani
6 Constructii edilitare si de gospodarie comunala 5 ani
7 Lucrari de imbunatatiri funciare 5 ani
8 Instalatii aferente constructiilor (categoriile de importanta A, B, C si D)
8.1 Instalatii electrice 5 ani
8.2 Instalatii sanitare, termoventilatii 5 ani
8.3 Instalatii gaze naturale 5 ani
9 Retele
9.1 Retele electrice 5 ani
9.2 Retele termice si sanitare 5 ani
9.3 Retele de telecomunicatii 5 ani
9.4 Retele de gaze naturale 5 ani
9.5 Retele pentru transportul produselor petroliere 5 ani 157
Obligations of Site Inspectors
A. Before starting the Construction works
- Verify the existance of Construction permit and it’s

- Verify the compliance of the Design documents to the

provisions of the Construction permit;

- Define together with the client (assisted by land surveyor)

the site boundaries and landmarks and transmit to the

– Participate together with the Designer and
Contractor to fixing general landmarks of the
construction facility;

– Provide to Contractor the necessary area for site


– Study the Design documents and the Works

procedures and check their compliance to the
quality requirements of the project;

– Verify if the Design documents are made and
verified according to the legal provisions;

– Verify the existance of the Quality controll plan,

registred to I.S.C.;

– Verify the existance of the required permits, and the

way in which the design documents respect the
conditions mentioned by the permits;

– Verify the Contractor’s Quality assurance Plan and

Procedures for the project;

B. During execution of construction works

– Verify quality certification documents for the

products/materials used in the project and the
correspondence with the provisions of the design

– Do not alow the use of materials/products in the

absence of quality certification documents
(Declaration of conformity,Technical approvals);

– Monitor the execution of the construction works and

verify if the works are performed according to the
provisions of Design documents and Technical

– Verify the correct performance of construction
works in respect of methods and technologies;

– Do not allow workers that are not qualified in

the necessary trades;

– Participate to quality controll of the works that

have reached to determinant stages, hidden
works, and other controll documents
required by technical regulations/codes;

– Assist to sampling of materials and products;

– Transmit to Designer any complain or
request that might come from any part
involved in the project in order to prevent or
to correct non-conformities;

– Inform the Client about non-conformities in

order to be solved;

– Check whether the Contractor has applied

the solutions/decisiond provided by
Designer or Statutory Agencies;

– Collect all the required documents in order
to assembly the Construction Diary
according to the legal requirements;

– Supervize the dismantling of site facilities

after handing-over;

C. During Handover stage

– Assist the Client during the handover procedures,

complete the speciffic documents;

– Check if unfinished work or non-conformities

mentioned in the handover documents have been
solved properly;

– Deliver the Handover documents and the

Construction Log Book to the Client, after the Final

The above obligations may be supplimented
according to the contract clauses.

Site inspectors are legally responsible for

unfulfillment of their duties and lack of quality of
the works they are inspecting.


Commissioning, Completion and Handover

6.1. Commissioning = verify that the construction Works:

- are built as designed (in terms of both quantity and

quality) and specified in the contract, according to
the provisions of technical regulations;
- materials and products are tested and certified;
- are fit for the intended purpose;
- the required controls have been performed and
proved by qualified staff;
Commissioning takes place during the construction of the Works,
before Completion.
Commissioning should be planned in
design documents (specifications):

Designers are responsible for specifying

detailed commissioning requirements and
acceptance criteria for achieving design
intent, and for transferring the information
to the Construction Contractor for the
development of the Commissioning and
Handover plan.
„Receptie” = “Commissioning, Completion
and Handover” :

a) during the execution of construction

b) initial handover;
c) final handover.
Basic regulations :

Normativ pentru verificarea calitatii si receptia

lucrarilor de constructii, Indicativ C 56 - 1985;

HGR 273/1994 privind receptia lucrarilor de

constructii si instalatii aferente acestora;

Legea 50/1991 privind autorizarea executarii

lucrarilor de constructii, republicata in 2004, cu
modificarile si completarile ulterioare, precum si
Normele metodologice ale acesteia.
Inspection and Commissioning Methods
a) Elements will be checked and compared to the
requirements set forth in the Design (measure
dimensions, positions, placing);
b) Prior to the material arriving on the Project
Site/embedded into construction works, testing
information will be forwarded demonstrating the material
meets requirements (Declaration of conformity, Quality
c) Additional testing (imposed by Construction
regulations and Design) to assure that materials are
meeting the Contract/Codes requirements will be tested
on different laboratory equipment;
d) Examine existence of testing/inspection reports
(including Critical Activities Points Records);
Frequency of testing and inspections is
provided by Construction Regulations (C 56/1985,
and other specific regulations).

In any case that a test will reveal poor

performances, the decision to proceed shall be
hold by Client on the basis of Designer advice.

It is forbidden to cover hidden defects of

structural elements or to obstruct their
Critical Activity Points will be established in
order to ensure that the proper inspection and
testing has been performed prior to starting, or
before proceeding to the next activity or next
stage of that particular construction activity.

Critical Activity Points will be signed off by:

- Contractor (Foreman in charge of the operation,
or his superior + Construction Inspector RTE);
- Site Inspector (DS);
- Designer;
- Inspector from ISC.
Critical Activity Points – examples
Excavation and Embankment
Test Rolling: The Contractor shall not proceed with placement of
Select Granular Borrow, aggregate base, or any other material on
top of the subgrade or grading level that requires test rolling until
“Test Roll Report” has been signed off.

Structural Concrete, Bridges and Walls

• Foundation and Footing Excavation: Prior to backfilling any pipe,
drainage or utility excavation, the Contractor shall complete Form
“Excavation and Embankment Report”.
• Following the Setting of Structural Concrete Forms Prior to Casting
Concrete: Form “Concrete Placement Inspection” will be completed
prior to the placement of concrete. If the structural concrete is for a
spread footing, Form “Foundations - Spread Footing Report” will be
completed prior to any placement of concrete.
• Superstructure Reinforcement Placement: After placement of the
superstructure reinforcement and prior to the placement of structural
6.2 Completion and Handover

Handover = the stage when the work has been completed in

accordance with the contract and all relevant statutory
requirements either without any omissions or defects, or with only
minor omissions and / or minor defects and the facility is
reasonably suitable for use. From now on, the responsibility for the
Works is basically passed from the Contractor back to the Client.

Normally, Handover takes after the time of Completion of the

(There may be minor defects or omissions in the Works but these
do not prevent the Works from being reasonably capable of being
used for the intended purpose, and can be corrected without
prejudicing the convenient use of the Works);
Handover is a component of the Construction Quality
System, as defined by the Romanian Law 10/1995.

The construction works based on Construction Permits

are considered completed if:
- all the works provided by Design and Construction
Permit have been finished;
- handover process has been performed.
• Construcţiile executate fără autorizaţie de
construire sau cu nerespectarea prevederilor
acesteia, precum şi cele care nu au efectuată
recepţia la terminarea lucrărilor, nu se consideră
finalizate şi nu pot fi intabulate în cartea
funciară. În această situaţie se aplică în
continuare sancţiunile prevăzute de lege.

• Recepţia se poate face prin acordul părţilor sau,

în cazul când părţile nu ajung la un acord pentru
rezolvarea neînţelegerilor ivite cu ocazia
încheierii procesului-verbal de recepţie, ele se
pot adresa instanţei judecătoreşti competente
Recepţia la terminarea lucrărilor
Metodologia Receptiei la Terminarea Lucrarilor
• Executantul trebuie să comunice investitorului data terminării tuturor
lucrărilor prevăzute în contract, printr-un document scris confirmat de
investitor. O copie a comunicării va fi transmisă de executant şi
reprezentantului investitorului pe şantier (dirigintele de santier).

Componenta Comisiei de receptie si a Listei cu invitati la receptie

• Comisiile de recepţie pentru construcţii şi pentru instalaţiile aferente

acestora se vor numi de către investitor şi vor fi alcătuite din cel puţin 5
membri. Dintre aceştia, obligatoriu vor face parte un reprezentant al
investitorului (altul dacat Dirigintele de santier) şi un reprezentant al
administraţiei publice locale pe teritoriul căreia este situată construcţia,
iar ceilalţi vor fi specialişti în domeniu.

• Pentru construcţiile de importanţă excepţională (categoria A de

importanta), având în vedere gradul de risc sub aspectul siguranţei,
destinaţia, modul de utilizare, complexitatea şi volumul lucrărilor care fac
obiectul recepţiei, comisiile de recepţie vor fi alcătuite din cel puţin 7
membri, numărul de specialişti fiind de minimum 5.
La recepţia clădirilor cu înălţimea de peste 28 m, cu săli
aglomerate, cu capacitate pentru mai mult de 150 persoane, a
hotelurilor, a spitalelor, căminelor pentru copii şi bătrâni sau a
altor clădiri destinate persoanelor ce nu se pot evacua singure,
investitorii sunt obligaţi ca în comisiile de recepţie să includă şi o
persoană desemnată de inspecţiile teritoriale din cadrul
Comandamentului trupelor de pompieri şi care va fi solicitată
în scris de către investitor.

Comisiile de recepţie pentru construcţii de locuinţe parter, parter

şi un etaj, cu înălţimea la cornişă de maximum 8 metri, cu cel mult
4 apartamente, cu suprafaţă desfăşurată de maximum 150 m2,
pentru anexele gospodăreşti ale acestora, precum şi pentru
construcţiile provizorii, vor fi alcătuite din 2 membri: investitorul
sau proprietarul şi delegatul administraţiei publice locale.

La recepţia clădirilor cuprinse în listele de monumente istorice,

investitorii sunt obligaţi ca în comisiile de recepţie să includă şi o
persoană desemnată de către comisiile zonale pentru
monumente, ansambluri şi situri istorice.
Proiectantul, în calitate de autor al proiectului construcţiei, va întocmi şi va
prezenta în faţa comisiei de recepţie punctul său de vedere privind execuţia

• Comisia de recepţie se întruneşte la data, ora şi locul fixate, iar

preşedintele acesteia, numit de investitor, stabileşte programul după
care va fi făcută recepţia.
• Comisia de recepţie poate funcţiona numai în prezenţa a cel puţin 2/3
din membrii numiţi ai acesteia. Hotărârile comisiei se iau cu majoritate
• În cazul în care comisia nu se întruneşte în totalitatea ei, preşedintele
poate fixa, pentru categoriile de lucrări pentru care nu s-au prezentat
membrii comisiei, un nou termen în vederea efectuării recepţiei, termen ce
nu va depăşi 4 zile lucrătoare de la data fixată iniţial.

• În vederea desfăşurării în bune condiţii a recepţiei, investitorul are

obligaţia de a pune la dispoziţia comisiei de recepţie documentaţia de
execuţie, precum şi documentele şi explicaţiile care îi sunt necesare.
Comisia de recepţie examinează obligatoriu:

a) respectarea prevederilor din autorizaţia de construire, precum şi avizele şi

condiţiile de execuţie impuse de autorităţile competente;
b) executarea lucrărilor în conformitate cu prevederile contractului, ale
documentaţiei de execuţie şi ale reglementărilor specifice, cu respectarea
exigenţelor esenţiale, conform legii;
c) referatul de prezentare întocmit de proiectant cu privire la modul în care a
fost executată lucrarea. Investitorul va urmări ca această activitate să fie
cuprinsă în contractul de proiectare;
d) terminarea tuturor lucrărilor prevăzute în contractul încheiat între investitor şi
executant şi în documentaţia anexă la contract. În cazurile în care există
dubii asupra înscrisurilor din documentele cărţii tehnice a construcţiei,
comisia poate cere expertize, alte documente, încercări suplimentare, probe
şi alte teste;
e) valoarea declarată a investiţiei.

Examinarea se efectuează în toate cazurile prin cercetarea vizuală a

construcţiei şi analizarea documentelor conţinute în cartea tehnică a
La terminarea examinării, comisia va consemna observaţiile şi
concluziile în procesul-verbal de recepţie, care va cuprinde
obligatoriu valoarea declarată a investiţiei, al cărui model este
prezentat în anexa nr. 1 la regulament, şi îl va înainta în termen de
3 zile lucrătoare investitorului împreună cu recomandarea de
admitere, cu sau fără obiecţii, a recepţiei, amânarea sau
respingerea ei.

Comisia de recepţie recomandă admiterea recepţiei în cazul în

care nu există obiecţii sau cele care s-au consemnat nu sunt de

natură să afecteze utilizarea lucrării conform destinaţiei sale.

Comisia de recepţie recomandă amânarea recepţiei când:

- se constată lipsa sau neterminarea unor lucrări ce afectează

siguranţa în exploatare a construcţiei din punct de vedere al
exigenţelor esenţiale;
- construcţia prezintă vicii a căror remediere este de durată şi care,
dacă nu ar fi făcute, ar diminua considerabil utilitatea lucrării;
- există în mod justificat dubii cu privire la calitatea lucrărilor şi
este nevoie de încercări de orice fel pentru a le clarifica.

Comisia de recepţie recomandă respingerea recepţiei dacă se

constată vicii care nu pot fi înlăturate şi care prin natura lor împiedică
realizarea uneia sau a mai multor exigenţe esenţiale, caz în care se
impun expertize, reproiectări, refaceri de lucrări etc.
• Absenţa executantului de la recepţie nu constituie motiv pentru
amânarea şi/sau anularea actului de recepţie. În cazul în care
executantul nu se prezintă la recepţie, investitorul poate
solicita asistenţă pentru recepţie unui expert tehnic neutru
atestat, care să consemneze, separat de procesul-verbal, starea
de fapt constatată.
• Situaţiile de absenţă a unor persoane sau delegaţi convocaţi vor fi
consemnate în procesul-verbal de recepţie.

• Preşedintele comisiei de recepţie va prezenta investitorului

procesul-verbal de recepţie cu observaţiile participanţilor şi cu
recomandarea comisiei. Pe baza procesului-verbal de recepţie,
investitorul hotărăşte admiterea, amânarea sau respingerea
recepţiei şi notifică hotărârea sa în interval de 3 zile lucrătoare
executantului, împreună cu un exemplar din procesul-verbal.
• În cazul în care admiterea recepţiei se face cu obiecţii, în procesul-
verbal de recepţie se vor indica în mod expres acele lipsuri care
trebuie să fie remediate. Termenele de remediere se vor conveni
cu executantul, dar ele nu vor depăşi, de regulă, 90 de zile
calendaristice de la data recepţiei dacă, datorită condiţiilor
climatice, nu trebuie fixat alt termen.
• Dacă executantul nu-şi îndeplineşte obligaţiile după trecerea
termenului de remediere convenit, investitorul îl va soma în acest
sens, iar dacă executantul nu dă curs somaţiei, investitorul este în
drept să execute remedierile pe cheltuiala şi riscul executantului în
culpă şi să pretindă plata prejudiciului produs.
• Refuzul executantului de a semna procesul-verbal de recepţie se
consemnează în cadrul acestuia.
• După executarea remedierilor, executantul va cere în scris
investitorului anularea obiecţiilor. Dacă, în decurs de 30 de zile
calendaristice de la data cererii executantului, investitorul nu
anulează obiecţiile, se recurge la procedura de arbitraj, dacă ea a
fost prevăzută în contract şi, în cazul rămânerii în dezacord, poate
să-l acţioneze la instanţa judecătorească competentă.
• Data recepţiei este cea a încheierii de către comisia
de recepţie a procesului-verbal de recepţie a
lucrărilor, cu sau fără obiecţii, dupa care investitorul
preia lucrarea, în afara cazului în care recepţia este
amânată sau respinsă.

• După acceptarea recepţiei de către investitor cu sau

fără obiecţii, acesta nu mai poate emite alte solicitări de
remedieri de lucrări, penalizări, diminuări de valori şi
altele asemenea, decât cele consemnate în procesul-
verbal de recepţie. Fac excepţie viciile ascunse
descoperite în termenul stabilit conform legii.
În cazul în care investitorul solicită preluarea unei
părţi din lucrare înainte de terminarea întregii lucrări
prevăzute în contract, se va încheia un proces-
verbal de predare-primire între executant şi
investitor, în care se va consemna starea părţii de
lucrare în cauză, măsurile de conservare, precum şi
cele de protecţie reciprocă a desfăşurării activităţii
celor două părţi.

Toate riscurile şi pericolele pentru partea preluată

trec temporar asupra investitorului, cu excepţia
viciilor ascunse şi a celor decurgând din executarea
Recepţia finală

Recepţia finală este convocată de investitor în cel mult 15 zile după

expirarea perioadei de garanţie. Perioada de garanţie este cea prevăzută
în contract.

La recepţia finală participă:

a) investitorul;
b) comisia de recepţie numită de investitor;
c) proiectantul lucrării;
d) executantul.

Comisia de recepţie finală se întruneşte la data, ora şi locul fixate şi

examinează următoarele:

a) procesele-verbale de recepţie la terminarea lucrărilor;

b) finalizarea lucrărilor cerute de "recepţia de la terminarea lucrărilor";
c) referatul investitorului privind comportarea construcţiilor şi instalaţiilor
aferente în exploatare pe perioada de garanţie, inclusiv viciile aferente şi
remedierea lor.
• Comisia de recepţie poate cere, în cazuri foarte bine
justificate şi/sau în cazul apariţiei unor vicii, efectuarea
de încercări şi expertize.

• La terminarea recepţiei comisia de recepţie finală îşi

va consemna observaţiile şi concluziile în procesul-
verbal de recepţie finală, pe care-l va înainta
investitorului, în termen de 3 zile lucrătoare împreună cu
recomandarea de admitere, cu sau fără obiecţii, a
recepţiei, de amânare sau de respingere a ei.

• În cazul în care comisia de recepţie finală recomandă

admiterea cu obiecţii, amânarea sau respingerea
recepţiei, ea va trebui să propună măsuri pentru
înlăturarea neregulilor semnalate.
• Comisia de recepţie finală recomandă respingerea recepţiei finale
în cazul în care nu se respectă una sau mai multe dintre exigenţele
• Lucrarea a cărei recepţie finală a fost respinsă va fi pusă în
stare de conservare prin grija şi pe cheltuială investitorului, iar
utilizarea ei va fi interzisă.
• Investitorul se va putea îndrepta pentru recuperarea pagubelor
împotriva factorilor implicaţi în executarea construcţiei, vinovaţi de
viciile constatate cu ocazia recepţiei, cât şi pentru nefuncţionarea
construcţiilor şi/sau a instalaţiilor aferente acestora.

• Investitorul hotărăşte admiterea recepţiei pe baza recomandării

comisiei de recepţie finală şi notifică executantului hotărârea sa în
termen de 3 zile de la primirea propunerilor comisiei din procesul-
verbal de recepţie finală.

• Data recepţiei finale este data notificării de către investitor a hotărârii

Procesele-verbale de recepţie la terminarea
lucrărilor se difuzează prin grija
a) executantului;
b) proiectantului;
c) organului administraţiei publice locale, emitent
al autorizaţiei de construire;
d) organului administraţiei financiare locale.

Procesele-verbale de recepţie finală se

difuzează prin grija investitorului:
a) organului administraţiei publice locale, emitent
al autorizaţiei de construire;
b) executantului.
Cartea tehnică a construcţiei,se păstrează de investitor pe
toată durata existenţei construcţiei.


pieselor cuprinse în cartea tehnică a construcţiei

1. Fişa de date sintetice.

2. Capitolul A*): Documentaţia privind proiectarea.
3. Capitolul B*): Documentaţia privind execuţia.
4. Capitolul C*): Documentaţia privind recepţia.
5. Capitolul D*): Documentaţia privind exploatarea, repararea,
întreţinerea şi urmărirea comportării în timp.
6. Jurnalul evenimentelor.
Dispoziţii generale

1. Cartea tehnică a construcţiei se compune din ansamblul de

documente referitoare la proiectarea, execuţia, recepţia,
exploatarea, întreţinerea, repararea şi urmărirea în timp a
2. Cartea tehnică se definitivează înainte de recepţia finală.
3. Cartea tehnică, după întocmire, se completează şi se păstrează
pentru fiecare obiect de construcţii de către investitor sau, după
caz, de către proprietar.
4. Cartea tehnică a construcţiei se întocmeşte de către investitor
pentru toate obiectele de construcţii definitive, supuse regimului de
autorizare a construcţiilor, indiferent de natura fondurilor din care
sunt finanţate sau de natura proprietăţii asupra lor.
Documentaţia privind proiectarea (cap. A) va cuprinde:

a) acte referitoare la tema de proiectare, amplasarea construcţiei şi

avize de specialitate care au stat la baza întocmirii proiectului;
b) documentaţia tehnică care se referă la construcţia respectivă
(caracteristici, detalii de execuţie pentru elementele structurii de
rezistenţă ca şi pentru celelalte părţi de construcţie care asigură
funcţionalitatea şi siguranţa în exploatare, precum şi schemele de
instalaţii efectiv realizate, cu toate modificările aduse de
proiectant, executant sau proprietar pe parcursul execuţiei
c) breviarele de calcul pe specialităţi (acţiuni, ipoteze de calcul,
rezultatele calculelor de dimensionare şi verificare etc.);
d) indicarea distinctă a diferenţelor faţă de detaliile de execuţie
iniţiale, cu precizarea cauzelor care au condus la aceste diferenţe;
e) caietele de sarcini privind execuţia lucrărilor.
Documentaţia tehnică privind execuţia (cap. B) va cuprinde:

a) autorizaţia de executare a construcţiei;

b) procesul-verbal de predare a amplasamentului şi reperului de nivelment
c) înregistrările de calitate cu caracter permanent efectuate pe parcursul
execuţiei lucrărilor, precum şi celelalte documentaţii întocmite conform
prescripţiilor tehnice, prin care se atestă calitatea lucrărilor (rezultatul
încercărilor efectuate, certificatele de calitate, condica de betoane, registrul
proceselor-verbale de lucrări ascunse, notele de constatare ale organelor
de control, registrul unic de comunicări şi dispoziţii de şantier, procesele-
verbale de probe specifice şi speciale etc.);
d) procesele-verbale de recepţie a terenului de fundare, a fundaţiilor şi structurii
de rezistenţă, procesele-verbale, de admitere a fazelor determinante;
e) procesele-verbale privind montarea instalaţiilor de măsurare prevăzute prin
proiectul de urmărire specială a construcţiilor, dacă este cazul, precum şi
consemnarea citirilor iniţiale de la care încep măsurătorile;
f) expertize tehnice, verificări în teren sau cercetări suplimentare efectuate în
afara celor prevăzute de prescripţiile tehnice sau caietele de sarcini,
rezultate ca necesare, ca urmare a unor accidente tehnice produse în
cursul execuţiei sau ca urmare a unor greşeli de execuţie;
g) caietele de ataşamente
Documentaţia tehnică privind recepţia (cap. C) va cuprinde:
• a) procesele-verbale de recepţie (la terminarea lucrărilor şi cel final), precum şi alte
acte anexate acestora - pe care comisia de recepţie finală le consideră necesare a fi
păstrate în cartea tehnică a construcţiei;
• b) alte acte încheiate ca urmare a cererii comisiilor de recepţie, prin care se prevăd
verificări sau cercetări suplimentare, cu indicarea rezultatelor obţinute şi a modului de

Documentaţia tehnică privind urmărirea comportării în exploatare şi intervenţii în

timp (cap. D) va cuprinde:
• a) prevederile scrise ale proiectantului privind urmărirea comportării construcţiei,
instrucţiunile de exploatare şi întreţinere şi lista prescripţiilor de bază care trebuie
respectate pe timpul exploatării construcţiei, documentaţia de interpretare a urmăririi
comportării construcţiei în timpul execuţiei şi al exploatării;
• b) proiectele în baza cărora s-au efectuat, după recepţia finală a lucrărilor,
modificări ale construcţiei faţă de proiectul iniţial efectiv realizat;
• c) actele de constatare a unor deficienţe apărute după recepţia executării lucrărilor
şi măsurile de intervenţie luate (procese-verbale de remediere a defectelor);
• d) proiectul de urmărire specială a construcţiei (încercare prin încărcare, urmărire
în timp), dacă este cazul;
• e) procesul-verbal de predare-primire a Instalaţiilor de măsurare prevăzute prin
proiectul de urmărire specială a construcţiei încheiat între executant şi beneficiar,
dacă este cazul;
• f) referatul cu concluziile anuale şi finale asupra rezultatelor urmăririi speciale, dacă
este cazul;
• g) procesele-verbale de predare-primire a construcţiei în cazul schimbării
• h) jurnalul evenimentelor, întocmit conform modelului de formular cuprins în
anexa nr. 1 la prezentele norme.
7. Construction Condition Assessment,
Alteration and Demolition

Construction Condition Assessment, Alteration

and Demolition are components of the
Construction Quality System.

These activities fall in the responsibility of the

Owner, Administrator (Property Manager) and
User, according to the provisions of Law 10/1995
regarding quality in construction.
Basic Legal Provisions:

• Legea 10/1995 a calitatii in constructii;

• Hotărârea Guvernului nr. 766/1997 din

21/11/1997 pentru aprobarea unor
regulamente privind calitatea în construcţii –
Regulament privind urmărirea comportării
în exploatare, intervenţiile în timp şi
postutilizarea construcţiilor;

• Normativ privind urmarirea comportarii in timp a

constructiilor, Indicativ P 130 – 1999.
Construction Condition Assessment = Monitoring
Construction Alteration = Maintenance + Upgrade
Purposes of Condition Assessment and
-Provide information about the condition of the building (actual
performances of the building components);
-Provide information for scheduling preventing maintenance;
-Show accomplishment (elimination of previously identified
maintenance work);
- Identify future work needs, serving as a sort of periodic
“reconnaissance” of the asset.
- Serve as an additional opportunity to note critical health
and safety, environmental degradation or other similar
conditions which need to be addressed immediately.
Maintenance is “the act of keeping fixed assets in
acceptable condition.” It includes Preventive maintenance,
Repairs, Cyclical maintenance (component replacement)
and addressing of statutory requirements needed to assure
that the asset achieves its expected life.

The useable life of buildings and structures are

prolonged through cost-effective maintenance and

Maintenance excludes upgrade activities aimed at

expanding capacity or changing function.
Maintenance purpose: to minimize breakdowns and
excessive depreciation. In its simplest form, preventive
maintenance can be compared to the service schedule for
an automobile.

A preventive maintenance program should include:

• Non-destructive testing
• Periodic inspection
• Preplanned maintenance activities
• Maintenance to correct deficiencies found through
testing or inspections.
Construction Monitoring regards to:

• Usually - Operation stage = U.C.E. - see Legea

10/1995, HGR 766/1997;
• Starting with Construction stage = U.C.T. - see
Normativul privind urmarirea comportarii in timp a
constructiilor, Indicativ P 130 – 1999.

7.1. Construction Monitoring (Construction

Condition Assessment)

Systematic activity of collecting information (by

observation, measurement, testing) related to
construction behavior during its existence in inter-
relation with environment and occupancy
- facilitate normal intended use of facility;
- prevent accidents and lack of performance;
- decrease Construction Life Cycle Cost;
- create feed-back for improvement of further
construction projects;

Types of Condition Assessment

- Current assessment;
- Special assessment.
Categoria de urmărire, perioadele la care se realizează ,
parametrii urmăriţi precum şi metodologia de efectuare a
acestora se stabilesc de către proiectant sau expert, în
funcţie de categoria de importanţă a construcţiilor şi de
alte caracteristici ale acestora (precizate si in diferite
reglemantari tehnice) şi se consemnează în Jurnalul
Evenimentelor care va fi păstrat în Cartea Tehnică a
construcţiei, (care va cuprinde, de asemenea, şi rezultatele
consemnate ale acestor activităţi).
7.1.1. Urmarirea curenta

Prevederi generale privind urmarirea curenta a

comportarii constructiilor

Urmărirea curentă - observarea şi înregistrarea unor

aspecte, fenomene şi parametri ce pot semnala
modificări ale capacităţii construcţiei de a îndeplini
cerinţele esentiale stabilite prin proiecte.
Urmărirea curentă a construcţiilor se aplică
construcţiilor care fac obiectul L 10/1995 şi are un
caracter permanent, durata ei coincide cu durata de
existenţă fizică a construcţiei respective.

Urmărirea curentă a comportării construcţiilor se

efectuează prin examinare vizuală directă şi dacă este
cazul (de regula atunci cand o reglementare tehnica o
impune) cu mijloace de măsurare de uz curent
permanent sau temporare.
Urmărirea curentă a comportării construcţiilor se efectuează în
conformitate cu instrucţiunile de urmărire curentă a construcţiilor
prevăzute în proiectele de execuţie. În cazul construcţiilor vechi, care nu
au instrucţiuni de urmărire curentă, acestea pot fi comandate unei firme de
Instrucţiunile de urmărire curentă a comportării vor
cuprinde, în mod obligatoriu, următoarele:
a. fenomene urmărite prin observaţii vizuale sau cu dispozitive simple;
b. zonele de observaţie şi punctele de măsurare;
c. amenajările necesare pentru dispozitivele de măsurare sau observaţii
(nişe, scări de acces, balustrade, platforme etc);
d. programul de măsurători, prelucrări, interpretări;
e. modul de înregistrare şi păstrare a datelor;
f. modul de prelucrare primara;
g. modalităţi de transmitere a datelor;
h. responsabilitatea luării de decizii de intervenţie;
i. procedura de atenţionare şi alarmare a populaţiei susceptibilă de alertată
în cazul constatării posibilităţii sau iminenţei producerii unei avarii.
• Urmărirea curentă se va efectua la intervale de
timp prevăzute prin instrucţiunile de urmărire
curentă, dar nu mai rar de o dată pe an şi în
mod obligatoriu după producerea de
evenimente deosebite (seism, inundaţii,
incendii, explozii, alunecări de teren etc.)

• Personalul însărcinat cu efectuarea activităţii

de urmărire curentă, va întocmi rapoarte ce vor
fi menţionate în Jurnalul evenimentelor şi vor fi
incluse în Cartea Tehnică a construcţiei. În
cadrul urmăririi curente a construcţiilor, la
apariţia unor deteriorări ce se consideră că pot
afecta rezistenţa, stabilitatea şi durabilitatea
construcţiei proprietarul sau utilizatorul va
comanda o inspectare extinsă asupra
construcţiei respective urmată dacă este cazul
de o expertiză tehnică.
Prevederi generale privind inspectarea extinsa a unei

Inspectarea extinsă are ca obiect o examinare detaliată, din

punct de vedere al rezistenţei, stabilităţii şi durabilităţii, a tuturor
elementelor structurale şi nestructurale, a îmbinărilor construcţiei,
a zonelor reparate şi consolidate anterior, precum şi în cazuri
speciale a terenului şi zonelor adiacente.

Această activitate se efectuează în cazuri deosebite privind

siguranţa şi durabilitatea construcţiilor cum ar fi:

a. deteriorări semnificative semnalate în cadrul activităţii de

urmărire curentă, sau ca masura dispusa de I.S.C.;
b. după evenimente excepţionale asupra construcţiilor (cutremur,
foc, explozii, alunecări de teren etc) şi care afectează utilizarea
construcţiilor în condiţii de siguranţă;
c. schimbarea destinaţiei sau a condiţiilor de exploatare a
construcţiei respective.
În cadrul inspectării extinse se utilizează dispozitive,
aparatură, instrumente, echipamente şi metode de
încercare nedistructive şi/sau parţial distructive.

Inspectarea extinsă se încheie cu un raport scris în

care se cuprind, separat observaţiile privind degradările
constatate (tip, cauze, gradul şi efectul acestora),
măsurile necesare a fi luate pentru înlăturarea efectelor
acestor degradări, precum şi, dacă este cazul,
extinderea măsurilor curente (anterioare) de urmărire a
comportării in timp. Raportul se include în Cartea
Tehnică a construcţiei şi se vor lua toate măsurile pentru
execuţia eventualelor intervenţii, reparaţii sau consolidări
înscrise în acest raport
C Lista de fenomene care trebuie avute in vedere in cursul urmaririi

a) Schimbări în poziţia obiectelor de construcţie în raport cu

mediul de implantare al acestora manifestate direct, prin deplasări
vizibile (orizontale, verticale sau înclinări) sau prin efecte secundare
vizibile (desprinderea trotuarelor, scărilor, ghenelor şi altor elemente
anexă, de soclul sau corpul clădirilor şi apariţia de rosturi, crăpături,
smulgeri); apariţia de fisuri şi crăpături în zonele de continuitate
ale drumurilor şi podurilor în dreptul rostului tablierelor sau
clementelor caii; deschiderea sau închiderea rosturilor de diferite
tipuri dintre elementele de construcţie, tronsoane de clădiri, ploturi
de baraje, umflarea sau crăparea terenului ca urmare a
alunecărilor în versanţii diferitelor amenajări, ramblee, pe lângă
clădirile şi construcţiile speciale; obturarea progresivă a orificiilor
aflate în dreptul nivelului terenului prin scufundarea obiectului de
construcţie; dereglarea sau blocarea funcţionării unor utilaje
condiţionate de poziţia lor (lifturi, utilaje ş.a.);
b) Schimbări în forma obiectelor de
construcţii manifestate direct prin deformaţii
vizibile verticale sau orizontale şi rotiri sau prin
efecte secundare ca înţepenirea uşilor sau
ferestrelor, greutăţi sau blocare în funcţionarea
utilajelor, distorsionarea traseului conductelor de
instalaţii sau tehnologice, îndoirea barelor sau
altor elemente constructive, apariţia unor
defecte în funcţionarea îmbinărilor ca forfecarea
sau smulgerea niturilor şi şuruburilor, fisurarea
sudurilor, slăbirea legăturilor ş.a.;
c) Schimbări în gradul de protecţie şi confort
oferite de construcţie sub aspectul etanşeităţii, al
izolaţiilor fonice, termice, hidrofuge, antivibratorii,
antifoc, antiradiante sau sub aspect estetic,
manifestate prin umezirea suprafeţelor, infiltraţii de
apă, apariţia izvoarelor în versanţii barajelor şi
digurilor, înmuierea materialelor constructive,
lichefieri ale pământului după cutremure, exfolierea
sau crăparea straturilor de protecţie, schimbarea
culorii suprafeţelor, apariţia condensului,
ciupercilor, mucegaiurilor neplăcute, efectele
nocive ale vibraţiilor şi zgomotului asupra
oamenilor şi vieţuitoarelor manifestate prin stări
mergând până la îmbolnăvire etc;
d) Defecte şi degradări cu implicaţii asupra
funcţionabilităţii obiectelor de construcţie:
înfundarea scurgerilor (burlane, jgheaburi,
drenuri, canale); porozitate, fisuri şi crăpături în
elementele şi construcţiile etanşe prin destinaţie
(rezervoare, bazine, conducte); dereglări în
poziţia şi stabilitatea căilor de rulare ale
mijloacelor de circulaţie, pe roţi (cale ferată, linii
tramvai şi metrou, poduri rulante); denivelări,
şanţuri, gropi în îmbrăcămintea drumurilor,
curăţenia şi mobilitatea elementelor de rezemarc
ale podurilor, deschiderea rosturilor funcţionale
e) Defecte şi degradări în structura de
rezistenţă cu implicaţii asupra siguranţei
obiectelor de construcţie; fisuri şi crăpături,
coroziunea elementelor metalice şi a armăturilor
la cele de beton armat şi precomprimat, defecte
manifestate prin pete, fisuri, exfolieri, eroziuni
etc; flambajul unor elemente componente
comprimate sau ruperea altora întinse; slăbirea
îmbinărilor sau distrugerea lor; afuieri la pilele
podurilor; scăpări de pe aparatele de reazem;
putrezirea sau slăbirea elementelor din lemn sau
din mase plastice în urma atacului biologic etc.
Pentru a preveni eventuale degradari viitoare se va acorda
atentie si urmatoarelor fenomene posibile:

a) Oricăror semne de umezire a terenurilor de fundaţie

loessoide din jurul obiectelor de construcţie şi tuturor
măsurilor de îndepărtare a apelor de la fundaţia
obiectelor de construcţie amplasate în terenuri loessoide
(pante spre exterior pe cel puţin 10 m, etanşeitatea
rostului trotuar-clădire, scurgerea apelor spre
canalizarea exterioară, integritatea şi etanşeitatea
conductelor ce transportă lichide de orice fel etc);
b) Încăperilor în care există condiţii de mediu deosebit de
agresiv în raport cu materialele din care sunt alcătuite
construcţiile (umiditate ridicată, mediu acid sau bazic,
uleiuri, ape moi, degajări mari de temperatură sau emulsii
de soluţii fierbinţi, metale topite, regim criogenie ş.a.);
c) Elementele de construcţie supuse unor solicitări deosebite
din partea factorilor de mediu natural sau tehnologic; terase
însorite; mediu marin; căi de rulare funcţionând cu poduri
rulante în regim greu; zone de construcţie supuse variaţiilor
de umiditate - uscăciune; locuri în care se pot acumula
murdărie, apă soluţii agresive ş.a.
d) Modificărilor în acţiunea factorilor de mediu natural şi
tehnologic care pot afecta comportarea construcţiilor
7.1.2. Urmarirea speciala a comportarii constructiilor

Urmărirea specială - constă din măsurarea, înregistrarea, prelucrarea şi

interpretarea sistematică a valorilor unor parametri ce definesc
măsura in care construcţiile, sau anumite părţi ale lor, îşi menţin
cerinţele esentiale stabilite prin proiecte sau în urma unei
expertizări tehnice.

Urmărirea specială a comportării construcţiilor se instituie la:

a) construcţii noi de importanţă deosebită (B) sau excepţională
(A), stabilită prin proiect, sau in alte situatii deosebite prevazute in
reglementari tehnice (ex. Normativ privind cerinţele de proiectare
şi execuţie a excavaţiilor adânci în zone urbane - Indicativ NP
b) construcţii în exploatare cu evoluţie periculoasă, recomandată
de rezultatele unei expertize tehnice sau a unei inspectări extinse;
c) cererea proprietarului, a Inspectoratului de Stat în Construcţii,
sau a organismelor recunoscute de acesta pe domenii de

În momentul instituirii urmăririi speciale a comportării construcţiilor

aceasta va îngloba şi urmărirea curentă.
• Organizarea urmăririi speciale este sarcina

• Activitatea de urmărire specială are un caracter

permanent sau temporar, durata ei stabilindu-se de la
caz la caz, în conformitate cu prevederile proiectului prin
care a fost instituita urmărirea specială a comportării
construcţiilor. Urmărirea specială a comportării
construcţiilor poate fi de scurtă durată sau de lungă

• Instituirea urmăririi speciale asupra unei construcţii se

comunică de către investitor, proprietar sau utilizator
Inspectoratului de Stat în Construcţii
Obiectivele urmăririi speciale a comportării
construcţiilor sunt:

a) asigurarea siguranţei şi durabilităţii construcţiei, prin

depistarea la timp a fenomenelor şi a zonele unde apar;
b) supravegherea evoluţiei unor fenomene previzibile, cu
posibile efecte nefavorabile asupra aptitudinii în
c) semnalarea operativă a atingerii criteriilor de
avertizare sau a valorilor limită date de aparatura de
măsură şi control;
d) verificarea eficienţei tuturor măsurilor de intervenţie
e) verificarea impactului construcţiei asupra mediului
f) asigurarea unui volum mare de date sigure şi
prelucrabile statistic
Selectarea construcţiilor supuse urmăririi speciale se va face
după criterii obiective, ţinând seama de riscul potenţial pe care
construcţia îl reprezintă atât în sine, de prevederile reglementarilor
tehnice specifice, cat şi pentru mediul înconjurător.

Se vor lua în considerare următorii factori :

• - importanţa construcţiei;
• - zona seismică (conform P 100/2006);
• - gradul de asigurare seismică;
• - repetabilitatea construcţiei (gradul de risc fiind amplificat, în cazul
în care un anumit tip de construcţie are răspândire mare);
• - caracteristici ale infrastructurii;
• - caracteristici ale suprastructurii;
• - factori de mediu exteriori;
• - factori de mediu interiori, etc
Urmărirea specială se efectuează pe baza unui proiect de urmărire
specială care va cuprinde următoarele:

• a) denumirea şi amplasarea obiectului de construcţie;

• b) motivele instituirii urmăririi speciale;
• c) descrierea lucrării pe scurt (tip de construcţie, caracteristici
generale ale structurii, materiale folosite, dimensiuni, caracteristici ale
condiţiilor de fundaţie şi ale mediului etc);
• d) obiectivele urmăririi speciale (proprietăţi), fenomene, mărimi, criterii
de apreciere, condiţii de calitate, limite de atenţionare, avertizare şi
alannare etc);
• e) metode de măsurare/detenninare şi aparatura necesară;
• f) stabilirea concretă a punctelor de măsură, respectiv locul de montaj
al aparatelor, plan de amplasare cu cotele de montaj;
• g) condiţii de recepţie, verificare, depozitare a aparaturii;
• h) stabilirea modului de arhivare a datelor (tabele tip, programe
calculator etc.) acordându-se mare importanţă păstrării şi accesibilităţii
• i) indicarea modului de prelucrare primară şi de comparare cu valori
prestabile (normale, de atenţie, avertizare, alarmare) cât şi
responsabilităţile în luarea de decizii în aceste cazuri;
• j) programul măsurărilor, corelat cu fazele de execuţie sau exploatare,
cât şi măsurile recomandate, la apariţia unor evenimente legate de
factori de risc; grafice de eşalonare a operaţiilor de montaj al
aparatelor, corelat cu graficul general de execuţie al construcţiei.
• În cazul construcţiilor noi elaborarea
proiectelor de urmărire specială se execută
concomitent cu proiectul de execuţie, de către
proiectant în baza unei comenzi emise de
investitor sau proprietar.

• În cazul construcţiilor în exploatare la care s-

a hotărât urmărirea specială în baza unei
inspectări extinse sau a unei expertize,
proprietarul sau utilizatorul va comanda unei
firme specializate elaborarea unui proiect de
urmărire specială.
7.2. Intervenţiile în timp asupra construcţiilor
Intervenţiile în timp asupra construcţiilor au ca scop:
- menţinerea fondului construit la nivelul necesar al cerinţelor;
- asigurarea funcţiunilor construcţiilor, inclusiv prin extinderea sau
modificarea funcţiunilor iniţiale ca urmare a modernizării.

7.2.1. Clasificarea Lucrărilor de intervenţie

a) lucrări de întreţinere, determinate de uzura sau de degradarea

normală şi care au ca scop menţinerea stării tehnice a
b) lucrări de refacere, determinate de producerea unor degradări
importante şi care au ca scop menţinerea sau îmbunătăţirea stării
tehnice a construcţiilor;
c) lucrări de modernizare, inclusiv extinderi, determinate de
schimbarea cerinţelor faţă de construcţii sau a funcţiunilor
acestora şi care se pot realiza cu menţinerea sau îmbunătăţirea
stării tehnice a construcţiilor.
Expertul tehnic de calitate, atestat, va analiza, după caz:

• condiţiile de amplasament şi de exploatare a construcţiei;

• starea construcţiei care se supune expertizei tehnice de calitate;
• documentele care au stat la baza realizării construcţiei în fazele de
proiectare, execuţie şi exploatare;
• prevederile din reglementările tehnice care au stat la baza realizării
construcţiei ori a lucrarilor de constructii şi cele în vigoare la data
efectuării expertizei tehnice de calitate.

Pe baza informatiilor la care face apel, expertul tehnic atestat

elaborează raportul de expertiză tehnică de calitate cuprinzând
soluţii şi măsuri care se impun pentru fundamentarea tehnică şi
economică a deciziei de intervenţie ce se însuşeşte de către
proprietarii sau administratorii construcţiilor şi, după caz, de către

Proiectul întocmit pe baza raportului de expertiză tehnică de calitate

trebuie însuşit de către autorul acestuia (expertul tehnic), din punct
de vedere al respectării soluţiilor şi a măsurilor propuse.
Interventiile in timp asupra constructiilor se fac cu respectarea
prevederilor Legii 50/1991 si a Legii 10/1995.
In acest sens Proprietarul/Investitorul va trebui sa obtina si Acordul I.S.C.:

* în cazul intervenţiilor asupra construcţiilor care au suferit degradări

determinate de acţiuni accidentale: incendii, explozii, inundaţii, uragane,
alunecări, prăbuşiri, cutremure sau alte astfel de accidente

* în cazul intervenţiilor asupra construcţiilor determinate de acţiuni ale

investitorului, respectiv pentru:
a) lucrări de reconstruire, consolidare, modificare, extindere, schimbare de
destinaţie sau de reparare a construcţiilor de orice fel, precum şi a
instalaţiilor aferente acestora, cu excepţia celor prevăzute la art. 11 din
Legea nr. 50/1991, republicată, cu modificările şi completările ulterioare;
b) lucrări de reconstruire, extindere, reparare, consolidare, protejare,
restaurare, conservare, precum şi orice alte lucrări, indiferent de valoarea
lor, care urmează să fie efectuate la construcţii reprezentând monumente
istorice, inclusiv la cele din zonele lor de protecţie;
c) lucrări de reconstruire, modificare, extindere, reparare, modernizare şi
reabilitare privind căi de comunicaţie, inclusiv lucrări de artă, reţele şi dotări
tehnico-edilitare, lucrări hidrotehnice, amenajări de albii, lucrări de
îmbunătăţiri funciare;
d) alte intervenţii.
7.3. Postutilizarea constructiilor

Declanşarea activităţilor din etapa de postutilizare a unei construcţii

începe o dată cu iniţierea acţiunii pentru desfiinţarea acelei
construcţii, care se face:
a) la cererea proprietarului;
b) la cererea administratorului construcţiei, cu acordul proprietarului;
c) la cererea autorităţilor administraţiei publice locale, în cazurile în
- construcţia a fost executată fără autorizaţie de construire;
- construcţia nu prezintă siguranţă în exploatare şi nu poate fi
reabilitată din acest punct de vedere;
- construcţia prezintă pericol pentru mediul înconjurător şi nu
poate fi reabilitată pentru a se elimina acest pericol;
- cerinţele de sistematizare pentru utilitate publică impun
necesitatea desfiinţării construcţiei.

La construcţiile proprietate publică, decizia de declanşare a

activităţilor din etapa de postutilizare va fi luată în baza unui
studiu de fezabilitate, din care să rezulte necesitatea,
oportunitatea şi eficienţa economică a acţiunii. Studiul respectiv
va trebui să fie aprobat potrivit legii.
Desfăşurarea activităţilor şi lucrărilor din
etapa de postutilizare a construcţiilor se
efectuează pe baza unei documentaţii
tehnice (D.T.A.D.) şi a unei autorizaţii de
desfiinţare, eliberată de autorităţile
competente, conform legii.

Documentaţia tehnică pentru lucrările

de postutilizare a construcţiilor trebuie
verificată de specialiştii verificatori de
proiecte atestaţi. De asemenea, vor fi
expertizate din punctul de vedere al
rezistenţei şi stabilităţii clădirile învecinate
care pot fi afectate de demolare.
Dezafectarea construcţiei - faze:

- încetarea activităţilor din interiorul construcţiei;

- suspendarea utilităţilor;
- asigurarea continuităţii instalaţiilor tehnico-edilitare pentru vecinătăţi;
- evacuarea din construcţie a inventarului mobil: obiecte de inventar,
mobilier, echipamente.

Demontarea şi demolarea construcţiei - faze:

- dezechiparea construcţiei prin desfacerea şi demontarea elementelor

de instalaţii funcţionale, de finisaj şi izolaţii;
- demontarea părţilor şi a elementelor de construcţie;
- demolarea părţilor de construcţie nedemontabile - zidării, structuri de
rezistenţă -, inclusiv a fundaţiei construcţiei;
- dezmembrarea părţilor şi elementelor de construcţie şi a instalaţiilor
demontate, recuperarea componentelor şi a produselor refolosibile
şi sortarea lor pe categorii;
- transportul deşeurilor nefolosibile şi nereciclabile în zonele destinate
pentru utilizarea ca materii brute sau pentru reintegrarea în natură.
Recondiţionarea, reciclarea şi refolosirea produselor şi
materialelor de construcţie, rezultate din demontarea şi demolarea
construcţiilor proprietate publică - faze:

- recondiţionarea produselor de construcţie recuperate din demontare,

în vederea refolosirii, prin operaţiuni simple, executate în ateliere;
- reciclarea materialelor rezultate din demolare, în secţii de producţie
specializate, prin folosirea acestor materiale ca materii prime în
vederea producerii de materiale de construcţii;
- pregătirea refolosirii produselor şi materialelor de construcţii,
rezultate din recuperare, recondiţionare şi reciclare, prin verificarea
calităţii acestora şi prin organizarea desfacerii lor în depozite de
materiale de construcţii.

Reintegrarea în natură a deşeurilor nefolosibile şi nereciclabile:

- utilizarea deşeurilor de materiale brute pentru umpluturi;

- refacerea peisajului natural în zonele de folosire a deşeurilor, prin
taluzări adecvate şi lucrări de protecţie aferente, inclusiv refacerea
stratului vegetal şi a plantaţiilor.