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Chapter 1: Atoms

1. Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass. Matter is made of
elements.

2. Elements are substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
by chemical methods.

3. An atom is the smallest particle of an element.

- All atoms of an element are identical.

-Atoms are extremely small and it cannot be seen by our naked eye.

-Circles are used to represent atoms. We use small circles for smaller atoms. We
use big circles for bigger atoms.

-Ball and stick models are used to show the structure of atoms in an element.
Each ball is used to represent each atom of an element. Different colors and
sizes are used to represent them as well.

-Chemical Symbols of each element are also used to represent the atom.

4. An atom is made of smaller particles known as sub-atomic particles. They


consist of 3 types: Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons.

Fixed orbits Nucleus Electrons

-Symbol: e

-Location: Outside the


shells

Orbiting in fixed orbits

-Mass: 1/2000

-Charge: negative

-
Number: similar to protons

Protons

-Symbol: p
-Symbol: n
Neutrons -location: In nucleus
-Location: In nucleus
-Mass: similar
-Mass: similar to the mass of protons
to the mass of neutrons
-Charge: Neutral

-Number: Nucleon number-proton


number
-Charge: positive

-Number: similar to electrons

Nucle
on number-neutron number

5. Without protons, the atom will be negatively charged and electrons will not
move as there is no force to attract them.

6. Without neutrons, the nucleus in the atom will burst as the protons in it repels.

7. Without electrons, the atom will be positively charged.

16 Mass number/Nucleon
number

O Chemical Symbol

8 Proton number/ atomic


number
Number of electrons= 8

Number of neutrons= 8

Number of atoms=8

Mass number=16

Chapter 2: Elements

1. Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. Matter is made of
elements.

2. Elements are substances made of many atoms and all of them are identical.

-Elements are classified by a periodic table.

-A periodic table is a method to classify and arrange elements.

-Vertical column is known as group. Elements in the same group have similar
properties.

-Horizontal rows are known as periods. Elements on the left are metals while the
elements on the right are non-metals.

-The elements near the zig zag lines on the right are metalloids. Metalloids are
elements that have both metal and non metal properties.
Properties of Metals Properties of Non-Metals
Shiny Dull
Ductile Non-ductile
Malleable Brittle
Sonorous Non-sonorous
Good conductor of electricity Non-conductor of electricity
Good conductor of heat Non-conductor of heat
High boiling point Low boiling point
High melting point Low melting point
High density Low density
Mostly solids Mostly liquids and gases

Periodic Table

Chemical Name Chemical


Symbol
Lithium Li
Sodium Na
Potassium K
Magnesium Mg
Calcium Ca
Titanium Ti
Tungsten W
Iron Fe
Cobalt Co
Nickel Ni
Copper Cu
Silver Ag
Gold Au
Zinc Zn
Cadmium Cd
Mercury Hg
Boron B
Aluminum Al
Carbon C
Tin Sn
Nitrogen N
Oxygen O
Sulphur S
Fluorine F
Chlorine Cl
Iodine I
Helium He

Metals
Copper

-reddish brown solid


-good conductor of electricity

-ductile

-strong

-corrosion resistant

Zinc

-grey solid

-strong

-corrosion resistant

-prevent rust of iron

-good conductor of electricity

Aluminum

-silvery shiny solid

-corrosion resistant

-malleable

-strong and light

-low density

Mercury

-silvery liquid

-good conductor of heat

-expand on heat evenly

-does not react with other chemical easily

-fluorescent

Magnesium

-grey solid

-burn with dazzling white light

-forms alkali to neutralize excess acid in stomachs

Iron

-grey solid
-strong

-good conductor of electricity

-good conductor of heat

-ductile

-magnetic

Non-Metals
Iodine

-black crystals

-poisonous

-antiseptic

Chlorine

- Green-yellow liquid

- Bleaches Dye

-poisonous

Sulfur

-Yellow powdery solid

-poisonous

-soluble in alcohol but not water

Diamond

-hardest substance to man

-shiny, can be polished

Hydrogen

-colorless

-explosive

-low density

Carbon (Graphite)

-black solid
-smooth

-light

-good conductor of electricity

Oxygen

-colorless

-essential to life

-does not burn but support combustion

Nitrogen

-colorless

-unreactive

-low boiling point

Chapter 3: Compounds

1. A compound is a substance which is made of two or more elements chemically


combined together.

2. The properties of a compound are usually different from its constituent


elements.

<E.g.> Sodium + Chlorine= Sodium chloride

Common salt, can be


Inedible, reactive consumed

Poisonous

3. A compound’s constituent elements are combined in a fixed proportion by


mass.

4. A compound can be formed by combination and decomposition.

5. Combination <combustion>

-combustion happens when an element or compound burn and combine with


oxygen to form one or more new compounds.

-E.g. carbon in charcoal burns, it combines with oxygen in the air which produces
a new compound namely carbon dioxide.

-Carbon + Oxygen = Carbon dioxide

6. Combination <contaction>
-contaction happens when certain elements or compounds combine with other
substances to produce compounds when they touch each other.

-E.g. when sodium metal come in contact with water, two substances are
produced. First, compound produced would be sodium hydroxide; the other
element would be hydrogen.

-Sodium + Water = Sodium hydroxide, hydrogen

7. Decomposition

-Decomposition happens when complex compounds are heated to break down


into simpler substances.

-Sugar is heated and decomposed into water and carbon.

-water + carbon = sugar

Compound Compound

Element

Test tube

Sugar

Bunsen burner

Description of decomposed sugar: color of substance change from white to


yellow then black. As the white solid melts into a yellow liquid, a vapor is
produced. Then yellow liquid turned black and water droplets are formed on the
sides on the test tube, a sweet smell is given off.

The tube which wires connected to the positive charge would contain oxygen
while the one connected to the negative charge contains hydrogen as water is
made of more hydrogen namely h2o.
When the electric current is on, effervescence (many tiny bubbles formed) as a
gas is produced-oxygen.

Chapter 4 Mixtures

1. Mixtures are substances made of two or more different substances that are
not chemically combined together but just mixed physically.

2. A mixture has similar properties as its constituent elements.

3. When a mixture is formed, no chemical reaction occurs.

4. A mixture can be easily separated by physical methods which dosen’t involves


chemical reactions.

5. The components in a compound are not mixed in any fixed proportion.

6. Solid-Solid Mixtures

-Alloys are mixtures of metals and with other elements such as metals or non-
metals. Alloy properties are much better than its constituent element’s
properties.

- E.g. Iron + Carbon= Steel

Copper + Zinc = Brass

Copper + Tin = Bronze

-Concretes are also solid-solid mixtures as they are made of cement and gravel.
Concretes are used in pavements, structures and bridges.

7. Liquid-Liquid Mixtures

-Alcoholic drinks are mixtures of ethanol, flavorings and water.

-Vinegar is also mixtures of ethanol acid and water.

8. Solid-Liquid Mixtures

-Calamine lotion is mixtures of solid zinc oxide, sodium calcium hydroxide, liquid
glycerin, water.

- Chendol is a food; ingredients are a mixture of red beans, jelly, flavorings and
water.

9. Liquid-Gas Mixtures

-Foam is a mixture of air bubbles in liquids.

-Soda drinks also include such gases known carbon dioxide dissolved in flavored
liquid drinks.

10. Gas-Gas mixtures


-the air around us is a mixture of gases. 78 % nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 1% carbon
dioxide and others.

Chapter 5 Separation of Mixtures

1. Many mixtures are found around us and some of its substances are useful and
thus, we separate them from its mixture.

2. To separate mixtures, we use physical methods because the process does not
involve chemical changes. No new substances are form; the original substances
are recovered through these separations.

3. Magnetic Attraction

-Magnetic Attraction is used to separate magnetic materials from materials that


are not attracted by a magnet.

- Hold a magnet bar over a small dish filled with iron fillings and sulfur. The iron
will be attracted to the magnet, leaving the sulfur in the dish as sulfur is not
magnetic while iron is.

-Magnetic attraction can be used to separate metal contaminants which might


accidently get into the food products from the food. The magnets are able to
detect and remove the metal contaminants.

-Magnetic attraction can be used to salvage scrap iron and steel. Discarded iron
and steel are sold as scrap metal and they are brought to the junkyard for
recycling. We use extremely large magnets to separate iron and steel from other
materials.

4. Filtration

-Filtration method is use to separate an insoluble solid form a liquid in a liquid-


solid mixture.

-The figure below shows a set up for filtration in a laboratory. The filter paper has
tiny pores to allow the liquid component to pass through which are known as
filtrate and leaving the solid on the filter paper known as residue.
Filter paper

Residue

Filter funnel

Filtrate
-Filtration method is an important method used in our daily lives.

-In vacuum cleaners, the vacuum bag traps the dust sucked in and allow the air
to escape.

-In coffee makers, the filter jugs are used to prepare fresh coffee. We put coffee
powder on the filter paper and add in water. Soluble coffee powder dissolves in
the water and passes through the holes as filtrate.

-In Singapore, one of stages of water treatment from our reservoirs is the
filtration method. Raw water is being filtered through layers of sand beds. Water
passes through each layer and end up being filtered clean water.

5. Evaporation

-Evaporation is used to separate a dissolved solid from liquid. The dissolved solid
must to be stable to heat and not decompose.

Mixture

Water Bath

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-The mixture of liquid and the dissolve solid are in the evaporating dish. After
while, water will evaporate, leaving the dissolved solid on the evaporating dish.

-The evaporation method is also used to obtain pure salt from sea water.

---------Sea salt ----------Pure salt

6. Distillation

-Distillation is a method to obtain a pure liquid from a solid-liquid substance or a


liquid liquid substance.

-The two main processes in distillation are boiling and condensation.

-The pure liquid collected at the end is called distillate.

-The steps to fix up the set up of Distillation:


1. Liquid mixture and porcelain chips are place in distilling flask. During
distillation, the liquid mixture is heated till boiled. The porcelain chips are just to
smooth the boiling process to prevent vigorous boiling.

2. Vapour will start coming out when the thermometer hits the boiling point of
the liquid,

3. The water that the condenser will contain will be from the tap inlet and will
travel towards the outlet. This is to ensure the condenser is filled with water
constantly and effective condensation take place.

4. The condenser’s surface will be cool thus; the vapor which travels in the
condenser will condense into water droplets.

5. Lastly, water droplets will be collected in a beaker and liquid is formed and it
does not contain any dissolve solutions at all!

- Distillation is also used to make perfumes.

-the rose petals will boiled in the water and droplets of fragrant vapor will travel
towards the condenser and condense in fragrant oil and water as distillate.