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MECHANICS

FOR ENGINEERS

Contents

1. Continuum Theory

• The Continuum Concept

• Continuum Mechanics

2. Essential Mathematics

• Scalars, Vectors, and Cartesian Tensors

• Tensor Algebra

• Summation Convention

• Indicial Notation

• Matrices and Determinants

• Transformations of Cartesian Tensors

• Principal Values and Principal Directions of Symmetric

• Second-Order Tensors

• Tensor Fields, Tensor Calculus

• Integral Theorems of Gauss and Stokes

3. Stress Principles

• Body and Surface Forces, Mass Density

• Cauchy Stress Principle

• The Stress Tensor

• Force and Moment Equilibrium,

• Stress Tensor Symmetry

• Stress Transformation Laws

• Principal Stresses, Principal Stress Directions

• Maximum and Minimum Stress Values

• Mohr’s Circles for Stress

• Plane Stress

• Deviator and Spherical Stress States

• Octahedral Shear Stress

4. Kinematics of Deformation and Motion

• Particles, Configurations, Deformation, and Motion

• Material and Spatial Coordinates

• Lagrangian and Eulerian Descriptions

• The Displacement Field

• The Material Derivative

• Deformation Gradients, Finite Strain Tensors

• Infinitesimal Deformation Theory

• Stretch Ratios

• Rotation Tensor, Stretch Tensors

• Velocity Gradient, Rate of Deformation, Vorticity

• Material Derivative of Line Elements, Areas, Volumes

5. Strain Tensors

• The Lagrangian finite strain tensor

• The Eulerian finite strain tensor

• Displacement gradients

• Infinitesimal deformation theory

6. Fundamental Laws and Equations

• Balance Laws, Field Equations, Constitutive Equations

• Material Derivatives of Line, Surface, and Volume Integrals

• Conservation of Mass, Continuity Equation

• Linear Momentum Principle, Equations of Motion

• The Piola-Kirchhoff Stress Tensors,

• Lagrangian Equations of Motion

• Moment of Momentum (Angular Momentum) Principle

7. Law of Conservation of Energy, The Energy Equation

• Entropy and the Clausius-Duhem Equation

• Restrictions on Elastic Materials by the Second

• Law of Thermodynamics

• Invariance

• Restrictions on Constitutive Equations

• from Invariance

• Constitutive Equations

8. Linear Elasticity

• Elasticity, Hooke’s Law, Strain Energy

• Hooke’s Law for Isotropic Media, Elastic Constants

• Elastic Symmetry; Hooke’s Law for Anisotropic Media

• Isotropic Elastostatics and Elastodynamics,

• Superposition Principle

• Plane Elasticity

• Linear Thermoelasticity

• Airy Stress Function

• Torsion

• Three-Dimensional Elasticity

9. Classical Fluids

• Basic Equations of Viscous Flow, Navier-Stokes Equations

• Specialized Fluids

• Steady Flow, Irrotational Flow, Potential Flow

• The Bernoulli Equation, Kelvin’s Theorem

BIBLIOGRAFIA

[1] G. Thomas Mase, Ronald Smelser. Continuum Mechanics for Engineers. CRC

Press 2010

[2] Xavier Oliver Olivella, Carlos Agelet de Saracibar Bosch . Mecánica de

Medios Continuos para Ingenieros. Ed. Alfa Omega. 2002.

[3] I. S. Sokolnikoff. Mathematical Theory of Elasticity. Ed. McGraw-Hill.1956.

Continuum Theory

one another in a particular repetitive lattice.

Thus, matter is not continuous.

Material Body

CRISTALINOS

AMORFO

The continuum model for material bodies is important for two very good

reasons:

are extremely large compared to molecular distances.

entirely upon experimental data gathered by tests on relatively large

specimens.

Continuum Mechanics

The analysis of the mechanical behavior of materials modeled on the

continuum assumption is what we know as continuum mechanics.

continuous media. These equations are based upon universal laws of

physics such as the conservation of mass, the principles of energy and

momentum, etc.

behavior of speciﬁc idealized materials, the perfectly elastic solid and the

viscous ﬂuid being the best known examples.

Essential Mathematics

such that:

T(u+w) = Tu + Tw

T(αv) = α (Tv)

Para todo v y w

Furthermore:

(T+S)v = Tv + Sv

(αT)v = α (Tv)

Scalars, Vectors, and Cartesian Tensors

geometrical quantities have important roles in continuum

mechanics, and fortunately, each of these may be

represented by some form of tensor.

For example, such quantities as density and Temperature may be

specified completely by giving their magnitude, i.e., by stating a

numerical value. These quantities are represented mathematically by

scalars, which are referred to as zeroth-order tensors.

Several physical quantities of mechanics such as force require not only an

assignment of magnitude, but also a specification of direction for their

complete characterization. Quantities possessing such directional properties

are represented by vectors, which are first-order tensors.

A significant number of physical quantities having important status in

continuum mechanics require mathematical entities of higher order than

vectors for their representation in the hierarchy of tensors. As we shall

see, among the best known of these are the stress tensor and the strain

tensors. These particular tensors are second-order tensors, and are said

to have a rank of two.

Tensors, like vectors, are independent of any coordinate system,

but just as with vectors, when we wish to specify a tensor by its

components we are obliged to refer to a suitable set of reference

axes.

Tensor Algebra in Symbolic Notation —Summation

Convention

The three-dimensional physical space of everyday life is the space in

which many of the events of continuum mechanics occur.

Mathematically, this space is known as a Euclidean three-space, and its

geometry can be referenced to a system of Cartesian coordinate axes.

Unit vectors in the coordinate directions

x1,x2, and x3.

Because a scalar has only a single component, it will have

the same value in every system of axes, but the

components of vectors and tensors will have different

component values, in general, for each set of axes.

identify with these axes the triad of unit base vectors 𝑒1 ,

𝑒2 , 𝑒3 , due to the mutual perpendicularity of these base

vectors, they form an orthogonal basis; furthermore,

because they are unit vectors, the basis is said to be

orthonormal.

𝑽 = 𝑣1 𝑒1 + 𝑣2 𝑒2 + 𝑣3 𝑒3 = 𝑣𝑖 𝑒𝑖

𝑖=1

the summation convention. Stated briefly, we agree that

whenever a subscript appears exactly twice in a given term,

that subscript will take on the values 1, 2, 3 successively,

and the resulting terms summed.

𝑉 = 𝑣𝑖 𝑒𝑖

Example: expand the following expression according to the

summation convention:

𝑢𝑖 𝑣𝑖 𝑤𝑗 𝑒𝑗

Solution:

𝑢𝑖 𝑣𝑖 𝑤𝑗 𝑒𝑗 = 𝑢1 𝑣1 + 𝑢2 𝑣2 + 𝑢3 𝑣3 𝑤1 𝑒1 + 𝑤2 𝑒2 + 𝑤3 𝑒3

Example: expand the following expression according to the

summation convention:

Solution:

Summing first on i, and then on j,

+ 𝑻𝟏𝟑 𝒗𝟏 + 𝑻𝟐𝟑 𝒗𝟐 + 𝑻𝟑𝟑 𝒗𝟑 𝒆𝟑

Kronecker Delta

1 𝑖=𝑗

𝛿𝑖𝑗 =

0 𝑖≠ 𝑗

Note that:

𝛿𝑖𝑖 = 𝛿11 + 𝛿22 + 𝛿33 = 3

𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝑒𝑗 = 𝑒𝑖

Permutation Symbol

𝜀𝑖𝑗𝑘 = −1 𝑖𝑓 𝑖𝑗𝑘 𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑎𝑠 𝑖𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑠𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 32132

0 𝑖𝑓 𝑖𝑗𝑘 𝑎𝑝𝑝𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑖𝑛 𝑎𝑛𝑦 𝑜𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟 𝑠𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒

𝑒𝑖 × 𝑒𝑗 = 𝜀𝑖𝑗𝑘 𝑒𝑘

Several useful definitions from vector/tensor algebra.

1. Addition of vectors:

𝑤 =𝑢+𝑣

or

𝑤𝑖 𝑒𝑖 = (𝑢𝑖 + 𝑣𝑖 )𝑒𝑖

2. Multiplication:

(a) of a vector by a scalar:

𝜆𝑣 = 𝜆𝑣𝑖 𝑒𝑖

(b) dot (scalar) product of two vectors:

𝑢. 𝑣 = 𝑢𝑖 𝑣𝑖

(c) The vector cross product:

𝑢 × 𝑣 = 𝑢𝑖 𝑒𝑖 × 𝑣𝑗 𝑒𝑗 = 𝜀𝑖𝑗𝑘 𝑢𝑖 𝑣𝑗 𝑒𝑘

(f) Dyad: Two vectors can be multiplied together to yield a tensor. The

tensor product of two vectors creates a dyad.

𝑢𝑣 = 𝑢𝑖 𝑒𝑖 𝑣𝑗 𝑒𝑗 = 𝑢𝑖 𝑣𝑗 𝑒𝑖 𝑒𝑗

𝑢𝑖 𝑣𝑗 𝑒𝑖 𝑒𝑗 = 𝑢1 𝑣1 𝑒1 𝑒1 + 𝑢1 𝑣2 𝑒1 𝑒2 + 𝑢1 𝑣3 𝑒1 𝑒3 + 𝑢2 𝑣1 𝑒2 𝑒1 + 𝑢2 𝑣2 𝑒2 𝑒2 + 𝑢2 𝑣3 𝑒2 𝑒3

+ 𝑢3 𝑣1 𝑒3 𝑒1 + 𝑢3 𝑣2 𝑒3 𝑒2 + 𝑢3 𝑣3 𝑒3 𝑒3

A sum of dyads such as: 𝒖𝟏 𝒗𝟏 + 𝒖𝟐 𝒗𝟐 + ⋯ + 𝒖𝒏 𝒗𝒏

Is called a dyadic.

𝑎1 𝑢1

𝑎0𝑏 𝑢 = 𝑎 𝑏. 𝑢 = 𝑎2 𝑏1 𝑏2 𝑏3 𝑢2

𝑎3 𝑢3

𝑢𝑣 . 𝑤𝑠 = 𝑢𝑖 𝑒𝑖 (𝑣𝑗 𝑒𝑗 . 𝑤𝑘 𝑒𝑘 )𝑆𝑞 𝑒𝑞 = 𝑢𝑖 𝑣𝑗 𝑤𝑗 𝑆𝑞 𝑒𝑖 𝑒𝑞

(h) Vectors can be multiplied by a tensor to give a vector:

One of the most important advantages of the indicial notation

is the compactness it provides in expressing equations in three

dimensions:

Problems

1. Let v = a x b

Using indicial notation, show that,

a) 𝑣. 𝑣 = 𝑎2 𝑏2 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝜃

b) 𝑎 × 𝑏. 𝑎 = 0

c) 𝑎 × 𝑏. 𝑏 = 0

2. If 𝐴𝑖𝑗 = 𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝐵𝑘𝑘 + 3 𝐵𝑖𝑗, Determine Bkk and using that solve for Bij in terms of Aij

08/07/2017 Dr. Luis Mosquera L. 37

4. By summing on the repeated subscripts determine the simplest form of:

(a) 𝜀3𝑗𝑘 𝑎𝑗 𝑎𝑘

(b) 𝜀𝑖𝑗𝑘 𝛿𝑗𝑘

(c) 𝜀1𝑗𝑘 𝑎2 𝑇𝑘𝑗

Indicial notation

Vi = vector (first order tensor)

UiVj = dyad (second order tensor)

Tij = dyadic (second order tensor)

Qijk = triadic (third order tensor)

Cijkm = tetradic (forth order tensor)

For tensors defined in a three-dimensional space, the free indices take on the values

1,2,3 successively, and we say that these indices have a range of three. If N is the

number of free indices in a tensor, that tensor has 3𝑁components in three space.

In the indicial notation exactly two types of subscripts appear:

1. “Free” indices, wich are represented by letters that occur only once in a

given term,

2. “summed”, or “dummy” indices which are represented by letters that

appear only twice in a given term.

twice in any given term.

using the indicial notation:

𝑢𝑖 + 𝑣𝑖 − 𝑤𝑖 = 𝑠𝑖

𝑡𝑖𝑗 − 𝑣𝑖𝑗 + 𝑠𝑖𝑗 = 𝑞𝑖𝑗

Multiplication of two tensors to produce an outer tensor product is

accomplished by simply setting down the tensor symbols side by side with no

dummy indices appearing in the expression.

Example: the outer product of the vector Vi and tensor tjk is the third-order

tensor Vitjk

Contraction is the process of identifying (that is, setting equal to one another)

any two indices of a tensor term.

more contractions involving indices from separate tensors in the outer

product. The rank of a given tensor is reduced by two for each contraction.

Forms for inner and outer products

𝑢𝑖 𝑣𝑗 𝑖=𝑗 𝑢𝑖 𝑣𝑖 Vector dot product

Tensor symmetric

𝑠𝑖𝑗 = 𝑠𝑗𝑖

𝑐𝑖𝑗𝑚 = 𝑐𝑗𝑖𝑚

𝑠𝑖𝑗 = −𝑠𝑗𝑖

𝑐𝑖𝑗𝑚 = −𝑐𝑗𝑖𝑚

Example:

Show that the inner product 𝑠𝑖𝑗 𝑎𝑖𝑗 of a symmetric tensor S and

an anti-symmetric tensor a is zero.

Solution:

𝑠𝑖𝑗 𝑎𝑖𝑗 = −𝑠𝑗𝑖 𝑎𝑗𝑖 = −𝑠𝑚𝑛 𝑎𝑚𝑛 = −𝑠𝑖𝑗 𝑎𝑖𝑗

Therefore,

2𝑠𝑖𝑗 𝑎𝑖𝑗 = 0

Example:

Solution:

By summing first on j and then on k and then omitting the zero terms, we find that

𝑣𝑖 = 𝜀𝑖12 𝑤12 + 𝜀𝑖13 𝑤13 + 𝜀𝑖21 𝑤21 + 𝜀𝑖23 𝑤23 + 𝜀𝑖31 𝑤31 + 𝜀𝑖32 𝑤32

Therefore,

𝑣1 = 𝜀123 𝑤23 + 𝜀132 𝑤32 = 𝑤23 − 𝑤32

𝑖𝑗 𝑖 𝑗

an axial vector by using the permutation symbol. Let the axial vector for Wij be wi defined by:

1

𝑤𝑖 = − 𝜀𝑖𝑗𝑘 𝑤𝑗𝑘

2

and wjk in terms of wi:

𝜀𝑖𝑚𝑛 𝑤𝑖 = −𝑤𝑚𝑛

Matrices and determinants

A matrix having elements Aij, which may be numbers, variables, functions, or any of

several mathematical entities, is designated by 𝐴𝑖𝑗

𝐴21 𝐴22 … 𝐴2𝑁

.

𝐴 = 𝐴𝑖𝑗 = ..

Row and column matrices represent vectors, whereas a 3x3 square matrix

represents a second-order tensor.

For a diagonal matrix, Aij = 0 for i ≠ j

The unit or identity matrix I, is a diagonal matrix whose diagonal elements all have

the value one.

The NxM matrix formed by interchanging the rows and columns of the MxN matrix

A is called the transpose of A, and is written as 𝐴𝑇

The elements of the principal diagonal of a skew-symmetric matrix are all zeros.

A+B = B+A

A+(B+C) = (A+B)+C

C = A B, CIJ = AIK BKJ

AB ≠ BA

𝐴𝑚 𝐴𝑛 = 𝐴𝑚 +𝑛

𝐴𝑛 𝑇

= 𝐴𝑇 𝑛

1

If BB = A, then: 𝐵 = 𝐴 = 𝐴2

𝑇

𝐴𝐵 = 𝐵𝑇 𝐴𝑇

The determinant:

𝑑𝑒𝑡𝐴 = 𝐴𝑖𝑗 = 𝐴21 𝐴22 𝐴23

𝐴31 𝐴32 𝐴33

𝑑𝑒𝑡𝐴 = 𝐴11 − 𝐴12 21 + 𝐴13 21

𝐴32 𝐴33 𝐴31 𝐴33 𝐴31 𝐴32

Example: show that det A = det 𝐴𝑇

Solution:

Since

𝐴11 𝐴21 𝐴31

𝐴𝑇 = 𝐴12 𝐴22 𝐴32

𝐴13 𝐴23 𝐴33

𝑑𝑒𝑡𝐴𝑇 = 𝐴11 − 𝐴12 21 + 𝐴13 21 = det 𝐴

𝐴23 𝐴33 𝐴23 𝐴33 𝐴22 𝐴32

The inverse of the matrix A is written A-1

𝐴𝐴−1 = 𝐴−1 𝐴 = 𝐼

𝐴𝐵 = 𝐼 → 𝐵 = 𝐴−1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐴 = 𝐵 −1

𝐴∗ = 𝐴𝑐 𝑇

−1

𝐴∗

𝐴 =

det 𝐴

An orthogonal matrix, call it Q, is a square matrix for which:

𝑄 −1 = 𝑄 𝑇

−1

𝐴𝐵 = 𝐵 −1 𝐴−1 = 𝐵 𝑇 𝐴𝑇 = 𝐴𝐵 𝑇

Problem 6:

If A is any orthogonal matrix, show that det A = ± 1

The vector-tensor product, u = T v or 𝑢𝑖 = 𝑇𝑖𝑗 𝑣𝑗 appears in matrix form as:

𝑢𝑖1 = 𝑇𝑖𝑗 𝑣𝑗 1 𝑜𝑟 𝑢2 = 𝑇21 𝑇22 𝑇23 𝑣2

𝑢3 𝑇31 𝑇32 𝑇33 𝑣3

appears as:

𝑤1𝑖 = 𝑣1𝑗 𝑇𝑗 𝑖 𝑜𝑟 𝑤1 𝑤2 𝑤3 = 𝑣1 𝑣2 𝑣3 𝑇12 𝑇22 𝑇32

𝑇13 𝑇23 𝑇33

𝑤 = 𝑣. 𝑇 = (𝑇. 𝑣)𝑇 = 𝑣 𝑇 . 𝑇 𝑇 = 𝑢𝑇 = 𝑇. 𝑣

Problem 7. Show that the square matrices

1 0 0

5 2

𝐵𝑖𝑗 = 0 −1 0 and 𝐶𝑖𝑗 =

−12 −5

0 0 1

are both square roots of the identity matrix

Transformations of Cartesian Tensors

𝑒1 , 𝑥1 𝑒2 , 𝑥2 𝑒3 , 𝑥3

𝑒1′ 𝑥1′ 𝑎11 𝑎12 𝑎13

𝑒2′ 𝑥2′ 𝑎21 𝑎22 𝑎23

𝑒3′ 𝑥3′ 𝑎31 𝑎32 𝑎33

𝑎𝑖𝑗 = 𝐶𝑜𝑠(𝑥𝑖′ , 𝑥𝑗 )

𝑒𝑖′ = 𝑎𝑖𝑗 𝑒𝑗

𝑒𝑖 = 𝑎𝑗 𝑖 𝑒𝑗′

𝑒1′ = 𝑎11 𝑒1 + 𝑎12 𝑒2 + 𝑎13 𝑒3 = 𝑎1𝑗 𝑒𝑗

In matrix form:

′

𝑒𝑖1 = 𝑎𝑖𝑗 𝑒𝑗 1 𝑜𝑟 𝑒2′ = 𝑎21 𝑎22 𝑎23 𝑒2

𝑒3′ 𝑎31 𝑎32 𝑎33 𝑒3

Transformation matrix

Because of the perpendicularity of the primed axes,

𝑒𝑖′ . 𝑒𝑗′ = 𝑎𝑖𝑞 𝑒𝑞 . 𝑎𝑗𝑚 𝑒𝑚 = 𝑎𝑖𝑞 𝑎𝑗𝑚 𝛿𝑞𝑚 = 𝑎𝑖𝑞 𝑎𝑗𝑞 = 𝛿𝑖𝑗

Consider next an arbitrary vector v having components vi in the unprimed system, and

vi´ in the primed system, then:

𝑣 ′ = 𝐴𝑣 = 𝑣𝐴𝑇

𝑣𝑗′ = 𝑎𝑗𝑖 𝑣𝑖

The unprimed components in terms of the primed:

𝑣 = 𝑣 ′ 𝐴 = 𝐴𝑇 𝑣 ′

𝑣𝑘 = 𝑎𝑗𝑘 𝑣𝑗′

A dyad is, after all, one form of a second-order tensor, then the transformation

law for a second-order tensor, T is:

′

𝑡𝑖𝑗 = 𝑎𝑞𝑖 𝑎𝑚𝑗 𝑡𝑞𝑚 𝑜𝑟 𝑇 = 𝐴𝑇 𝑇 ′ 𝐴

Rotation and reflection of reference axes

The primed axes may be related to the unprimed axes through either a rotation

about an axis through the origin, or by a reflection of the axes in one of the

coordinate planes, (or by a combination of such changes).

0 0 −1

𝑎𝑖𝑗 = 0 1 0

1 0 0

det A = -1

Example: For a reflection of axes in the x2 x3 plane shown in figure:

−1 0 0

𝑎𝑖𝑗 = 0 1 0

0 0 1

det A = -1

Principal values and principal directions of symmetric second-

order tensors

𝑡𝑖𝑗 𝑢𝑗 = 𝑣𝑖 𝑜𝑟 𝑇. 𝑢 = 𝑣

transforms the antecedent vector u into the image vector v in a Euclidean three-

space.

T, and the scalar λ is called a principal value, or eigenvalue of T.

Using the kronecker delta:

𝑡𝑖𝑗 − λ𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝑢𝑗 = 0 𝑜𝑟 𝑇 − λ𝐼 . 𝑢 = 0

vanishes. Thus: 𝑡 − λ𝛿 = 0

𝑖𝑗 𝑖𝑗

Which upon expansion leads to the cubic in λ (called the characteristic equation)

𝜆3 − 𝐼𝑇 𝜆2 + 𝐼𝐼𝑇 λ − 𝐼𝐼𝐼𝑇 = 0

Where,

𝐼𝑇 = 𝑡𝑖𝑖 = 𝑡𝑟 𝑇

1 1 2

𝐼𝐼𝑇 = (𝑡𝑖𝑖 𝑡𝑗𝑗 − 𝑡𝑖𝑗 𝑡𝑗𝑖 ) = 𝑡𝑟 𝑇 − 𝑡𝑟(𝑇 2 )

2 2

I, II, III, are known as the first, second and third invariants of the tensor T.

If the λq are distint, the principal directions are unique and mutually

perpendicular. If, there is a pair of equal roots, say λ1 = λ2 , then only the direction

associated with λ3 will be unique. In this case any other two directions which are

orthogonal to 𝑛𝑖(3) and to one another so as to form a right handed system, may be

taken as principal directions.

If λ1 = λ2 = λ3 , every set of right-handed orthogonal axes qualifies as principal axes,

and every direction is said to be a principal direction.

Let the components of the tensor T be given initially with repect to arbitrary

cartesian axes , 𝑂𝑥1 𝑥2 𝑥3 and let the principal axes of T be designated by 𝑂𝑥1∗ 𝑥2∗ 𝑥3∗ ,

as shown in the figure:

Principal axes 𝑂𝑥1∗ 𝑥2∗ 𝑥3∗ relative to axes 𝑂𝑥1 𝑥2 𝑥3

𝑥1 𝑜𝑟 𝑒1 𝑥2 𝑜𝑟 𝑒2 𝑥3 𝑜𝑟 𝑒3

𝑥1∗ 𝑜𝑟 𝑒1∗ 𝑎11 = 𝑛1

(1)

𝑎12 = 𝑛2

(1)

𝑎13 = 𝑛3

(1)

𝑎21 𝑛1 𝑎22 = 𝑛2

(2)

𝑎23 = 𝑛3

(2)

𝑎31 𝑛1 𝑎32 = 𝑛2

(3)

𝑎33 = 𝑛3

(3)

transformation law for second-order tensors:

Where T* is a diagonal matrix whose elements are the principal values λ(q)

Example:

tensor T whose matrix representation is:

5 2 0

𝑡𝑖𝑗 = 2 2 0

0 0 3

Solution:

5−𝜆 2 0

2 2−𝜆 0 =0

0 0 3−𝜆

3 − λ 10 − 7λ + λ2 − 4 = 0

For λ2 = 6: n3 = 0; n1= ± 2/ 5; n2 = ±1/ 5

0 0 ±1

2 1

± ± 0

𝑎𝑖𝑗 = 5 5

1 2

± ± 0

5 5

Finally, 0 0 1 2 1

2 1 0

0 5 2 0 5 5 3 0 0

5 5 2 2 0 1 2 = 0 6 0

1 2 0 0 3 0 5

−

5 0 0 1

− 0

5 5 1 0 0

Example: Determine the principal values and principal directions of the second-

order tensor T whose matrix representation is:

5 1 2

1 5 2

2 2 6

Tensor Fields, Tensor Calculus

A tensor field assigns to every location x, at every instant of time t, a tensor tij…k(x,t),for

which x ranges over a finite region of space, and t varies over some interval of time.

∅ 𝑥, 𝑡 Scalar field

𝑣𝑖 (𝑥, 𝑡) Vector field

𝑡𝑖𝑗 (𝑥, 𝑡) Tensor field

𝜕

the operator 𝜕𝑡 and follows the usual rules of calculus. Partial differentiation with

𝜕

respect to the coordinate 𝑥𝑞 will be indicated by the operator 𝜕𝑥 , which may be

𝑞

abbreviated as simply 𝜕𝑞 .

𝜕2

Likewise, the second partial may be written 𝜕𝑞𝑚 , and so on.

𝜕𝑥𝑞 𝜕𝑥𝑚

𝜕∅

∅,𝑖 =

𝜕𝑥𝑖

𝜕𝑣𝑖

𝑣𝑖,𝑗 =

𝜕𝑥𝑗

𝜕𝑡𝑖𝑗

𝑡𝑖𝑗,𝑘 =

𝜕𝑥𝑘

order higher.

𝜕 2 𝑢𝑖

𝜕𝑥𝑗 𝜕𝑥𝑘

Also,

𝜕𝑥𝑖

= 𝛿𝑖𝑗

𝜕𝑥𝑗

𝜕 𝜕 𝜕 𝜕

𝛻= 𝑒 + 𝑒2 + 𝑒 = 𝑒 = 𝜕𝑖

𝜕𝑥1 1 𝜕𝑥2 𝜕𝑥3 3 𝜕𝑥𝑖 𝑖

𝛻∅ = 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑑 ∅ = 𝜕𝑖 ∅ = ∅,𝑖

𝛻𝑣 = 𝜕𝑖 𝑣𝑗 = 𝑣𝑗,𝑖

𝛻. 𝑣 = 𝜕𝑖 𝑣𝑖 = 𝑣𝑖,𝑖

Example:

Show that div(curl v) = 0

Solution

And because the first term of this inner product is skew-symmetric in i and j, whereas

the second term is symmetric in the same indices, (since vk is assumed to have

continuos spatial gradients), their product is zero.

Problem 8. Show that the square matrices are both square roots of the identity matrix.

1 0 0

𝐵𝑖𝑗 = 0 −1 0

0 0 1

5 2

𝐶𝑖𝑗 =

−12 −5

Problem 9. The angles between the respective axes of the 𝑂𝑥1∗ 𝑥2∗ 𝑥3∗ and the 𝑂𝑥1 𝑥2 𝑥3

𝑥1 𝑥2 𝑥3

𝑥1′ 450 900 450

𝑥2′ 600 450 1200

𝑥3′ 1200 450 600

Determine the transformation matrix between the two sets of axes, and show that it is

a proper orthogonal transformation.

Stress Principles

free if the only forces present are those inter-atomic

forces required to hold the body together.

Body and surface forces,mass density

throughout the body, are known as body forces:

bi (force per unit mass)

pi (force per unit volume)

Those forces which act upon, and are distributed in some fashion

over a surface element of the body, regardless of whether that

element is part of the bounding surface, or an arbitrary element of

surface within the body, are called surface forces fi.

Density

∆𝑚

𝜌𝑎𝑣𝑒 =

∆𝑣

𝑑𝑚

𝜌=

𝑑𝑣

𝜌b = p

Of course, the density is, in general, a scalar function of position and time as

indicated by: 𝜌 = 𝜌 𝑥𝑖 , 𝑡 , and thus may vary from point to point within a

given body.

Cauchy Stress Principle

Consider a homogeneous, isotropic material body having a bounding surface

S, and a volume V, which is subjected to arbitrary surface forces fi and body

forces bi. Let P be an interior point and a plane surface 𝑆 ∗ passing through

point P (cutting plane).

The Cauchy stress principle asserts that in the limit as the area 𝑆 ∗ shrinks

to zero with P remaining an interior point, we obtain:

∆𝑓𝑖 𝑑𝑓𝑖 (𝑛 )

lim = = 𝑡𝑖

∆𝑆 ∗ →0 ∆𝑆 ∗ 𝑑𝑆 ∗

and

∆𝑀𝑖

lim =0

∆𝑆 ∗ →0 ∆𝑆 ∗

The vector 𝑡𝑖 𝑛 is called the stress vector, or sometimes the traction vector

For the infinity of cutting planes imaginable through point P, each identified

by a specific 𝑛, there is also an infinity of associated stress vector 𝑡𝑖 𝑛 for a

given loading of the body. The totality of pairs 𝑡𝑖 𝑛 defines the state of stress

at that point.

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We have made the assumption that in the limit at P, the moment vector

vanishes, and there is no remaining concentrated moment, or couple stress

as it is called.

(𝑛 ) 𝑑

𝑡𝑖 𝑑𝑆 + 𝜌𝑏𝑖 𝑑𝑣 = 𝜌𝑣𝑖 𝑑𝑣

𝑆𝐼 𝑣𝐼 𝑑𝑡 𝑣𝐼

(𝑛 ) 𝑑

𝑡𝑖 𝑑𝑆 + 𝜌𝑏𝑖 𝑑𝑣 = 𝜌𝑣𝑖 𝑑𝑣

𝑆𝐼𝐼 𝑣𝐼𝐼 𝑑𝑡 𝑣𝐼𝐼

Where SI y SII are the bounding surfaces and VI and VII are the volumes of

portions I and II, respectively. Also, vi is the velocity field for the two portions.

The linear momentum principle may also be applied to the body as a whole,

so that:

(𝑛 ) 𝑑

𝑡𝑖 𝑑𝑆 + 𝜌𝑏𝑖 𝑑𝑣 = 𝜌𝑣𝑖 𝑑𝑣

𝑆 𝑣 𝑑𝑡 𝑣

Where, (𝑛 ) (−𝑛 )

𝑡𝑖 + 𝑡𝑖 𝑑𝑆 = 0

𝑆∗

(𝑛 ) (−𝑛 )

Which means that: 𝑡𝑖 = −𝑡𝑖

The Stress Tensor

The Cauchy stress principle associates with each direction 𝑛 at point P a stress

vector 𝑡𝑖 𝑛 :

These three stress vectors associated with the coordinate planes are expressed by:

(𝑒 𝑖 ) (𝑒 𝑖 )

𝑡 = 𝑡𝑗 𝑒𝑗

For deducir an expression for the coordinate components of the stress

vector at P associated with an arbitrarily oriented plane, we consider the

equilibrium of a small portion of the body:

𝑛 = 𝑛𝑖 𝑒𝑖

𝑛 is perpendicular to the base ABC

If the area of the base is assigned the value dS, the areas of the respective

faces will be the projected areas:

𝑒𝑖

𝑑𝑆𝑖 = 𝑑𝑆 cos

(𝑛, 𝑒𝑖 )

𝑛

for BPC 𝑑𝑆1 = 𝑛1 𝑑𝑆

Equilibrium requires the vector sum of all forces acting on the tetrahedron to

be zero, that is, for,

∗ (𝑛 ) 𝑒1 𝑒2 𝑒3

𝑡𝑖 𝑑𝑆 − ∗𝑡𝑖 𝑑𝑆1 − ∗𝑡𝑖 𝑑𝑆2 − ∗𝑡𝑖 𝑑𝑆3 + 𝜌∗ 𝑏𝑖 𝑑𝑣 = 0

∗ (𝑛 ) ∗ 𝑒𝑗

𝑡𝑖 𝑑𝑆 − 𝑡𝑖 𝑛𝑗 𝑑𝑆 + 𝜌∗ 𝑏𝑖 𝑑𝑣 = 0

08/07/2017 Dr. Luis Mosquera L. 84

∗ (𝑛 ) ∗ 𝑒𝑗

𝑡𝑖 𝑑𝑆 − 𝑡𝑖 𝑛𝑗 𝑑𝑆 + 𝜌∗ 𝑏𝑖 𝑑𝑣 = 0

1

𝑑𝑣 = 3 h dS

∗ (𝑛 ) ∗ 𝑒𝑗 1 ∗

Where, 𝑡𝑖 = 𝑡𝑖 𝑛𝑗 − 𝜌 𝑏𝑖 ℎ

3

(𝑛 ) 𝑒𝑗

𝑡𝑖 = 𝑡𝑖 𝑛𝑗

𝑒𝑗

defining 𝑡𝑗𝑖 ≡ 𝑡𝑖 , then,

(𝑛 )

𝑡𝑖 = 𝑡𝑗𝑖 𝑛𝑗 𝑜𝑟 𝑡 (𝑛 ) = 𝑛. 𝑇

Stress as a Tensor

𝑒𝑗

The quantities 𝑡𝑗𝑖 ≡ 𝑡𝑖

are the components of a second order tensor T know as the stress

tensor.

as, 𝑒𝑖′ = 𝑎𝑖𝑗 𝑒𝑗 , and, 𝑛𝑗′ = 𝑎𝑗 𝑠 𝑛𝑠

Also, we see that if know the stress vectors on the three coordinate planes

of any cartesian system at P, or equivalently, the nine stress tensor

components tji at that point, we can determine the stress vector for any

plane at that point.

𝑡 (𝑛 ) = 𝑛. 𝑇

In the matrix form:

𝑡11 𝑡12 𝑡13

(𝑛 ) (𝑛 ) (𝑛 )

𝑡1 𝑡2 𝑡3 = 𝑛1 𝑛2 𝑛3 𝑡21 𝑡22 𝑡23

𝑡31 𝑡32 𝑡33

The nine components of tij are often displayed by arrows on the coordinate

faces of a rectangular parallelpiped, as shown in the figure:

Example: Let the components of the stress tensor at P be given in matrix form by

21 −63 42

𝑡𝑖𝑗 = −63 0 84

42 84 −21

(a) The stress vector on the plane at P having the unit normal

1

𝑛= (2𝑒1 − 3𝑒2 + 6𝑒3 )

7

shown in the sketch

Solution

(a)

(𝑛 ) (𝑛 ) (𝑛 ) 2 3 6 21 −63 42

𝑡1 𝑡2 𝑡3 = − −63 0 84 = 69 54 −42

7 7 7 42 84 −21

(b) The equation of the plane ABC is 2𝑥1 + 2𝑥2 + 𝑥3 =2, and the unit outward

1

normal to this plane is 𝑛= 2𝑒1 + 2𝑒2 + 𝑒3 so that,

3

(𝑛 ) (𝑛 ) (𝑛 ) 2 2 1 21 −63 42

𝑡1 𝑡2 𝑡3 = −63 0 84 = −14 −14 77

3 3 3 42 84 −21

Stress Tensor Symmetry

Consider a material body having a volume V and a bounding surface S. Let the

body be subjected to surface tractions 𝑡𝑖(𝑛 ) and body forces bi, as shown by

figure:

Equilibrium requires that

(𝑛 )

𝑡𝑖 𝑑𝑆 + 𝜌𝑏𝑖 𝑑𝑣 = 0

𝑆 𝑣

(𝑛 )

𝑡𝑖 𝑑𝑆 = 𝑡𝑗𝑖 𝑛𝑗 𝑑𝑆 = 𝑡𝑗𝑖 ,𝑗 𝑑𝑣

𝑆 𝑆 𝑣

So that

𝑣

→ 𝑡𝑗𝑖 ,𝑗 + 𝜌𝑏𝑖 = 0

In addition to the balance of forces, equilibrium requires that the summation

of moments with respect to an arbitrary point must also be zero. Therefore,

taking the origin of coordinates as the center for moments, express the

balance of moments for the body as a whole by

(𝑛 )

𝜀𝑖𝑗𝑘 𝑥𝑗 𝑡𝑖 𝑑𝑆 + 𝜀𝑖𝑗𝑘 𝑥𝑗 𝜌𝑏𝑖 𝑑𝑣 = 0

𝑆 𝑣

(𝑛 )

As before, using 𝑡𝑘 = 𝑡𝑞𝑘 𝑛𝑞 and Gauss’s divergence theorem, obtain

𝑣

But,

𝑥𝑗 ,𝑞 = 𝛿𝑗𝑞 and 𝑡𝑘𝑞 ,𝑘 + 𝜌𝑏𝑘 = 0

Then,

𝜀𝑖𝑗𝑘 𝑡𝑗 𝑘 𝑑𝑣 = 0

𝑣

𝜀𝑖𝑗𝑘 𝑡𝑗 𝑘 = 0

𝑡𝑗 𝑘 = 𝑡𝑘𝑗

Stress transformation laws

Example: Let the stress components (in Mpa) at point P with respect to axes P

X1X2X3 be expressed by the matrix

1 3 2

𝑡𝑖𝑗 = 3 1 0

2 0 −2

1 2 3

solution

𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 0

𝑎𝑖𝑗 = −𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 0

0 0 1

𝑇 ′ = 𝐴𝑇𝐴𝑇

4 0 2

𝑡𝑖𝑗′ = 0 −2 − 2

2 − 2 −2

Principal Stresses; Principal Stress Directions

For certain special directions at P, the stress vector does indeed act in the

direction of ni , thus, for such directions

(𝑛 )

𝑡𝑖 = 𝜎 𝑛𝑖

scalar σ is called a principal stress value of tij. Formulating the eigenvalue

problem for the stress tensor

𝑡𝑖𝑗 𝑛𝑗 − 𝜎𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝑛𝑗 = 0

For non-trivial solutions

𝑡𝑖𝑗 − 𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝜎 = 0

𝑥1 𝑥2 𝑥3

𝑥1∗ 𝑎11 = 𝑛1

(1)

𝑎12 = 𝑛2

(1) (1)

𝑎13 = 𝑛3

𝑥2∗ (2)

𝑎21 = 𝑛1

(2)

𝑎22 = 𝑛2

(2)

𝑎23 = 𝑛3

𝑥3∗ (3)

𝑎31 = 𝑛1

(3)

𝑎32 = 𝑛2

(3)

𝑎33 = 𝑛3

08/07/2017 Dr. Luis Mosquera L. 99

Example: The components of the stress tensor at P are given in MPa

with respect to axes P X1 X2 X3 by the matrix

57 0 24

𝑡𝑖𝑗 = 0 50 0

24 0 43

determine the principal stresses and the principal stress directions at P

Solution:

4 5 0 3 5

A= 0 1 0

−3 5 0 4 5

4 5 0 3 5 57 0 24 4 5 0 −3 5

𝑇′ = 0 1 0 . 0 50 0 . 0 1 0

−3 5 0 4 5 24 0 43 3 5 0 4 5

75 0 0

𝑇′ = 0 50 0

0 0 25

Maximum and Minimum Stress Values

(𝑛 )

The stress vector 𝑡𝑖 on an arbitrary plane at P may be resolved into a component

normal to the plane having a magnitude 𝜎𝑁 , along with a shear component which acts

in the plane and has a magnitude 𝜎𝑆

𝑖

(𝑛 )

As, 𝑡𝑖 = 𝑡𝑖𝑗 𝑛𝑗

𝜎𝑆2 = 𝑡 (𝑛 ) . 𝑡 (𝑛 ) − 𝜎𝑁2

We may use the Lagrangian multiplier method to obtain extremal values of 𝜎𝑁

𝑓 𝑛𝑖 = 𝑡𝑖𝑗 𝑛𝑖 𝑛𝑗 − 𝜎(𝑛𝑖 𝑛𝑖 − 1)

𝜕𝑓

= 𝑡𝑖𝑗 𝛿𝑖𝑘 𝑛𝑗 + 𝛿𝑗 𝑘 𝑛𝑖 − 𝜎 2𝑛𝑖 𝛿𝑖𝑘 = 0

𝜕𝑛𝑘

𝑡𝑖𝑗 − 𝜎𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝑛𝑗 = 0

principal stress and, that the principal stresses include both the maximum and

minimum normal stress values.

Let the principal stresses be ordered in the sequence σI > σII > σIII so that

𝜎𝑆2 = 𝑡 (𝑛 ) . 𝑡 (𝑛 ) − 𝜎𝑁2

𝜎𝑆2 = 𝜎𝐼2 𝑛12 + 𝜎𝐼𝐼2 𝑛22 +𝜎𝐼𝐼𝐼

2 2

𝑛3 − 𝜎𝐼 𝑛12 + 𝜎𝐼𝐼 𝑛22 + 𝜎𝐼𝐼𝐼 𝑛32 2

⇉

2

𝜎𝑆2 = 𝜎𝐼 − 𝜎𝐼𝐼𝐼 𝑛12 + 𝜎𝐼𝐼2 − 𝜎𝐼𝐼𝐼

2

𝑛22 + 𝜎𝐼𝐼𝐼

2

− 𝜎𝐼 − 𝜎𝐼𝐼𝐼 𝑛12 + 𝜎𝐼𝐼 − 𝜎𝐼𝐼𝐼 𝑛22 + 𝜎𝐼𝐼𝐼

To obtain the extremal values of 𝜎𝑆2 , we must equate the derivatives of the right-hand

side of this equation with respect to both n1 and n2 to zero, and solve simultaneously.

Obtaining the extremal values:

1 1 1

𝑛1 = 0, 𝑛2 = ± , 𝑛3 = ± ; 𝜎𝑆 = 𝜎𝐼𝐼 − 𝜎𝐼𝐼𝐼

2 2 2

1 1 1

𝑛1 = ± , 𝑛2 = 0, 𝑛3 = ± ; 𝜎𝑆 = 𝜎𝐼𝐼𝐼 − 𝜎𝐼

2 2 2

1 1 1

𝑛1 = ± , 𝑛2 = ± , 𝑛3 = 0; 𝜎𝑆 = 𝜎𝐼 − 𝜎𝐼𝐼

2 2 2

It is clear that because 𝜎𝐼 > 𝜎𝐼𝐼 > 𝜎𝐼𝐼𝐼 , the largest shear stress value is

1

𝜎𝑆𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝜎𝐼𝐼𝐼 − 𝜎𝐼

2

Example: The state of stress at point P is given in MPa with respect to axes X1X2X3

by the matrix

25 0 0

𝑡𝑖𝑗 = 0 −30 −60

0 −60 5

(a) Determine the stress vector on the plane whose unit normal is

1

𝑛= 2𝑒1 + 𝑒2 + 2𝑒3

3

on the same plane.

Solution:

(a) 2

(𝑛)

3

𝑡1 25 0 0

(𝑛) 1 1 50

𝑡2 = 𝑡𝑖𝑗 𝑛𝑗 = 0 −30 −60 3 = −150

3

(𝑛) 0 −60 5 −50

𝑡3 2

3

(b) 2

3

2 1 2 25 0 0 1 150

𝜎𝑁 = 0 −30 −60 3 = − 𝑀𝑃𝑎

3 3 3 0 −60 9

5

2

3

Mohr’s Circles for Stress

three dimensions, the convenience and simplicity of Mohr’s circle to transform

stress components to an arbitrary reference frame vanishes.

referenced to principal axes:

2 2

𝑛3

Solving these equations, we obtain

𝑛12 =

𝜎𝐼 − 𝜎𝐼𝐼 𝜎𝐼 − 𝜎𝐼𝐼𝐼

2

𝜎𝑁 − 𝜎𝐼𝐼𝐼 𝜎𝑁 − 𝜎𝐼 + 𝜎𝑆

𝑛22 =

𝜎𝐼𝐼 − 𝜎𝐼𝐼𝐼 𝜎𝐼𝐼 − 𝜎𝐼

𝜎𝑁 − 𝜎𝐼 𝜎𝑁 − 𝜎𝐼𝐼 + 𝜎𝑆2

𝑛32 =

𝜎𝐼𝐼𝐼 − 𝜎𝐼 𝜎𝐼𝐼𝐼 − 𝜎𝐼𝐼

point in the stress plane having 𝜎𝑁 as absicca and 𝜎𝑆 as ordinate.

Of the first equation, we note that

For the case where the equality sign holds, this equation may be rewritten , to read

2 2

1 1

𝜎𝑁 − 𝜎𝐼𝐼 + 𝜎𝐼𝐼𝐼 + 𝜎𝑆2 = 𝜎 − 𝜎𝐼𝐼𝐼

2 2 𝐼𝐼

Which is the equation of the circle C1. The pairs of values 𝜎𝑁 and 𝜎𝑆 which satisfy

the inequality result in stress points having coordinates exterior to circle C1.

Following the same general procedure, we extract the equations of the circles C2

and C3 . The tree circles are called Mohr’s circles for stress.

All possible pairs values of 𝜎𝑁 and 𝜎𝑆 lie on these circles or between the areas

enclosed by them. In addition, it is clear from the Mohr’s circles diagram that the

maximum shear stress value at P is the radius of circle C2 .

the stress plane:

Example:

The state of stress at point P is given in Mpa with respect to axes Px1x2x3 by the

matrix

25 0 0

𝑡𝑖𝑗 = 0 −30 −60

0 −60 5

(a) Determine the stress vector on the plane whose unit normal is

1

𝑛= 2𝑒1 + 𝑒2 + 2𝑒3

3

(b) Determine the normal stress component 𝜎𝑁 and 𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑚𝑝𝑜𝑛𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝜎𝑆 on the

same plane.

(c) Verify the results of part (b) by the Mohr’s circle construction

Solution

Verify that for the stress tensor tij given here the principal stress values are

σI = 50 Mpa, σII = 25 Mpa and σIII = -75 Mpa. Also, the transformation matrix from

axes Px1x2x3 to 𝑃𝑥1∗ 𝑥2∗ 𝑥3∗ is

0 −3/5 4/5

𝑎𝑖𝑗 = 1 0 0

0 4/5 3/5

2

3

𝑛1∗ 0 −3/5 4/5 1/3

1

𝑛2∗ = 1 0 0 3 = 2/3

𝑛3∗ 0 4/5 3/5 2/3

2

3

Therefore, φ = cos-1 (1/3); β = θ = cos-1 (2/3), from which we may measure the

coordinates of the stress point q and confirm the values 𝜎𝑁 = −16,7 and 𝜎𝑆 =

52,7 in Mpa.

Plane Stress

When one, and only one principal stress is zero, we have a state of plane stress

If the principal stresses are not ordered and the direction of the zero principal stress

is arbitrarily chosen as x3 , the stress matrix takes the form

𝑡11 𝑡12 0

𝑡𝑖𝑗 = 𝑡12 𝑡22 0

0 0 0

𝜎1 0 0

𝑡𝑖𝑗∗ = 0 𝜎2 0

0 0 0

stress situation

This is sometimes represented by a single Mohr’s circle

2 2

1 2

1 2

𝜎𝑁 − 𝑡11 + 𝑡22 + 𝜎𝑆 = 𝑡 − 𝑡22 + 𝑡12

2 2 11

Points A y B on the circle represent the stress states for area elements having unit

normals 𝑒1 and 𝑒2 respectively. For an element of area having a unit normal in an

arbitrary direction at point P, we must include the two dashed circles shown

With respect to axes 𝑂𝑥1′ 𝑥2′ 𝑥3′ rotated by the angle θ about the x3 axis

′

𝑡11 = + 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃 + 𝑡12 𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝜃

2 2

𝑡11 + 𝑡22 𝑡11 − 𝑡22

′

𝑡22 = − 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃 − 𝑡12 𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝜃

2 2

𝑡11 − 𝑡22

′

𝑡12 =− 𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝜃 + 𝑡12 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃

2

08/07/2017 Dr. Luis Mosquera L. 119

If the principal axes of stress are chosen for the primed directions

2

1 1

𝜎1 , 𝜎2 = 𝑡11 + 𝑡22 ± 𝜎𝑆2 = 𝑡 − 𝑡22 2

+ 𝑡12

2 2 11

Example:

A specimen is loaded with equal tensile and shear stresses. This case of plane stress

may be represented by the matrix

𝜎0 𝜎0 0

𝑡𝑖𝑗 = 𝜎0 𝜎0 0

0 0 0

Where σ0 is a constant stress. Determine the principal values and plot the Mohr’s circles.

Solution

2𝜎0 0 0

𝑡𝑖𝑗∗ = 0 0 0

0 0 0

Desviator and spherical stress states

1 1

𝜎𝑀 = 𝑡11 + 𝑡22 + 𝑡33 = 𝑡𝑖𝑖

3 3

Is referred to as the mean normal stress. The state of stress having all three principal

stresses equal is called a spherical state of stress

𝜎𝑀 0 0

𝑡𝑖𝑗 = 0 𝜎𝑀 0

0 0 𝜎𝑀

For which all directions are principal directions. The classical physical example is

the hydrostatic stress (-p0).

Every state of stress tij may be decomposed into a spherical portion and a portion Sij

known as the deviator stress

1

𝑡𝑖𝑗 = 𝑆𝑖𝑗 + 𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝜎𝑀 = 𝑆𝑖𝑗 + 𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝑡𝑘𝑘

3

1

𝑆𝑖𝑖 = 𝑡𝑖𝑖 − 𝛿𝑖𝑖 𝑡𝑘𝑘 = 0

3

The characteristic equation for the deviator stress is

3

1

𝑆 − 𝑆𝑖𝑗 𝑆𝑗𝑖 − 𝜀𝑖𝑗𝑘 𝑆1𝑖 𝑆2𝑗 𝑆3𝑘

2

A principal direction of tij is also a principal direction of Sij . The principal values of Sij

𝑆𝑞 = 𝜎𝑞 − 𝜎𝑀

08/07/2017 Dr. Luis Mosquera L. 123

Example: Descompose the stress tensor T into its deviator and spherical portions and

determine the principal stress values of the deviator portion.

57 0 24

𝑡𝑖𝑗 = 0 50 0 MPa

24 0 43

Solution

1

𝜎𝑀 = 57 + 50 + 43 = 50 𝑀𝑃𝑎

3

57 0 24 7 0 24 50 0 0

0 50 0 = 0 0 0 + 0 50 0 𝑀𝑃𝑎

24 0 43 24 0 −7 0 0 50

7−𝑆 0 24

0 −𝑆 0 =0

24 0 −7 − 𝑆

08/07/2017 Dr. Luis Mosquera L. 125

Problems

(10) The stress tensor at P relative to axes Px1x2x3 has components in MPa given by

the matrix representation

𝑡11 2 1

𝑡𝑖𝑗 = 2 0 2

1 2 0

perpendicular to 𝑛 will be stress-free, that is, for which 𝑡 𝑛 = 0 on that plane.

What is the required value of t11 for this condition?

(11) Show that the sum of squares of the magnitudes of the stress vectors on the

coordinate planes is independent of the orientation of the coordinate axes, that is,

show that the sum

𝑒 𝑒 𝑒 𝑒 𝑒 𝑒

𝑡𝑖 1 𝑡𝑖 1 + 𝑡𝑖 2 𝑡𝑖 2 + 𝑡𝑖 3 𝑡𝑖 3

Is an invariant

(12) With respect to axes Ox1x2x3 the stress state is given in terms of the

coordinates by the matrix

𝑥1 𝑥2 𝑥22 0

𝑡𝑖𝑗 = 𝑥22 𝑥2 𝑥3 𝑥32

0 𝑥32 𝑥3 𝑥1

Determine

(a) The body force components as functions of the coordinates if the equilibrium

equations are to be satisfied everywhere, and

(b) The stress vector at point P (1,2,3) on the plane whose outward unit normal

makes equal angles with the positive coordinate axes.

(13) The stress components in a circular cylinder of length L and radius r are given by

𝑡𝑖𝑗 = 𝐶𝑥3 0 0

−𝐶2 0 0

(a) Verify that in the absence of body forces the equilibrium equations are satisfied

(b) Show that the stress vector vanishes at all points on the curved surface of the

cylinder

(14) Sketch the Mohr’s circles for the various stress states shown on the cube which

is oriented along the coordinate axes

Kinematics of deformation and motion

Particles, configurations, deformations and motion

and gases. Whereas a particle of classical mechanics has an assigned mass, a

continuum particle is essentially a material point for which a density is defined.

x = k(X)

In which the vector function k assigns the position x relative to some origin for each

particle X of the body. Also,

X= k-1 (x)

A arbitrary displacement will usually include both a rigid-body displacement and a

deformation which results in a change in size, or shape, or possibly both. A motion

of body B is a continuous time sequence of displacements that carries the set of

particles X into various configurations in a stationary space:

x = k(X,t)

Which gives the position x for each particle X for all times t.

X = k-1(x,t)

Material and Spatial Coordinates

Consider that the position vector X of particle X relative to the axes OX1X2X3 is given by

𝑋 = ∅ 𝑋 = 𝑋𝐴 𝐼𝐴

With respect to the usual cartesian axes Ox1x2x3 the current position vector is

𝒙 = 𝑘 ∅−1 𝑋 , 𝑡 = 𝑥𝑖 𝑒𝑖

The material coordinates are used in conjuction with the reference configuration

only, and the spatial coordinates serve for all other configurations.

𝒙 = 𝑘 ∅−1 𝑋 , 𝑡 = 𝑥𝑖 𝑒𝑖

∅−𝟏 𝑿 maps the particle at X in the reference configuration onto the point x

in the current configuration at time t as indicated in the figure.

x = x(X,t)

The initial spatial coordinates being identical in value with the material coordinates

𝑥 𝑃 = 𝑥(𝑋 𝑃 , 𝑡)

xP describe the path, or trajectory of that particle as a function of time. The velocity

of the particle along its path is defined as

𝜕𝑥

𝑣𝑃 = 𝑥𝑃 =

𝜕𝑡 𝑋=𝑋 𝑃

Of course, the individual particles of a body cannot execute arbitrary motions

independent of one another. No two particles can occupy the same location in space

at a given time. For that reason, the function X must be single-valued and

continuous, and must possess continuous derivatives with respect to space and time.

For know where the particle , now at x, was located in the reference configuration,

we require the inverse function x-1

𝑋 = 𝑥 −1 (𝑥, 𝑡)

𝜕𝑥𝑖

𝐽= ≠0

𝜕𝑋𝐴

Example: Let the motion of a body be given by

𝑥1 = 𝑋1 + 𝑡 2 𝑋2

𝑥2 = 𝑋2 + 𝑡 2 𝑋1

𝑥3 = 𝑋3

Determine

(a) The path of the particle originally at X = (1,2,1)

(b) The velocity when t = 2 s

Solution

𝑥1 = 1 + 2𝑡 2

𝑥2 = 2 + 𝑡 2

𝑥3 = 1

that the particle moves on a straight line path in the plane x3 = 1.

Lagrangian and Eulerian Descriptions

If a physical property of the body B such as its density ρ, or a kinematic property of its

motion such as the velocity v, is expressed in terms of the material coordinates X,

and the time t, we say that property is given by the material description.

this description is usually called the Lagrangian description. Thus, the equations

𝜌 = 𝜌(𝑋, 𝑡)

𝑣 = 𝑣(𝑋, 𝑡)

chronicle a time history of these properties for each particle of the body.

If the properties ρ and v are given as functions of the spatial coordinates x

and time t, we say that those properties are expressed by a spatial

description or by the Eulerian description.

happening to the individual particles during the motion,

whereas in the spatial description the emphasis is directed to

the events taking place at specific points in space.

Example: Let the motion equations be given in component form by the Lagrangian

description

𝑥1 = 𝑋1 𝑒 𝑡 + 𝑋3 (𝑒 𝑡 − 1)

𝑥2 = 𝑋2 + 𝑋3 (𝑒 𝑡 − 𝑒 −𝑡 )

𝑥3 = 𝑋3

Solution

initial configuration has been taken as the reference configuration.

𝑋1 = 𝑥1 𝑒 −𝑡 + 𝑥3 (𝑒 −𝑡 − 1)

𝑋2 = 𝑥2 + 𝑥3 (𝑒 −𝑡 − 𝑒 𝑡 )

𝑋3 = 𝑥3

Eulerian description

The Displacement Field

from the reference configuration to the current configuration.

Because this relationship holds for all particles it is often useful to analyze deformation

or motion in terms of the displacement field of the body.

𝑢 = 𝑢𝑖 𝑒𝑖 = 𝑢𝐴 𝐼𝐴

The material form: we are describing the displacement that will occur to the

particle that stars at X

𝑢 𝑋, 𝑡 = 𝑥 𝑋, 𝑡 − 𝑋

The spatial form: present the displacement that the particle now at x has undergone

𝑢 𝑥, 𝑡 = 𝑥 − 𝑋(𝑥, 𝑡)

We may take the time rate of change of displacement as an alternative definition

for velocity

𝑑𝑢 𝑑(𝑥 − 𝑋) 𝑑𝑥

= = =𝑣

𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡

𝑥1 = 𝑋1 𝑒 𝑡 + 𝑋3 (𝑒 𝑡 − 1)

𝑥2 = 𝑋2 + 𝑋3 (𝑒 𝑡 − 𝑒 −𝑡 )

𝑥3 = 𝑋3

Solution

𝑢1 = 𝑥1 − 𝑋1 = (𝑋1 + 𝑋3 )(𝑒 𝑡 − 1)

𝑢2 = 𝑥2 − 𝑋2 = 𝑋3 (𝑒 𝑡 − 𝑒 −𝑡 )

𝑢3 = 𝑥3 − 𝑋3 = 0

𝑢1 = (𝑥1 + 𝑥3 )(1 − 𝑒 −𝑡 )

𝑢2 = 𝑥3 (𝑒 𝑡 − 𝑒 −𝑡 )

𝑢3 = 0

The Material Derivative

scalar, vector or tensor property; we represent it by Pij…

The material derivative can be thought of as the rate at which Pij… changes when

measured by an observer attached to, and traveling with, the particle, or group of

particles.

When Pij… is given in the material description, the material derivative is simply the

partial derivative with respect to time,

𝑑 𝜕

𝑃𝑖𝑗 … (𝑋, 𝑡) = 𝑃 (𝑋, 𝑡)

𝑑𝑡 𝜕𝑡 𝑖𝑗 …

If, Pij… is given in the spatial form, we recognize that the specific collection of particles

of interest will be changing position in space, and we obtain:

𝑑 𝜕 𝜕 𝑑𝑥𝑘

𝑃𝑖𝑗 … (𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝑃𝑖𝑗 … (𝑥, 𝑡) + 𝑃𝑖𝑗 … (𝑥, 𝑡)

𝑑𝑡 𝜕𝑡 𝜕𝑥𝑘 𝑑𝑡

𝑃 (𝑥, 𝑡)

𝜕𝑡 𝑖𝑗 …

gives the change occurring in the property at position x, known as the local rate

of change.

The term 𝜕 𝑑𝑥𝑘

𝑃𝑖𝑗 … (𝑥, 𝑡) results from the particles changing position in

𝜕𝑥𝑘 𝑑𝑡

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥𝑘

As 𝑣= 𝑜𝑟 𝑣𝑘 =

𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡

Then, 𝑑 𝜕 𝜕

𝑃𝑖𝑗 … (𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝑃𝑖𝑗 … (𝑥, 𝑡) + 𝑃 (𝑥, 𝑡) 𝑣𝑘

𝑑𝑡 𝜕𝑡 𝜕𝑥𝑘 𝑖𝑗 …

From which we deduce the material derivative operator for properties expressed in

the spatial description

𝑑 𝜕 𝜕

= + 𝑣𝑘

𝑑𝑡 𝜕𝑡 𝜕𝑥𝑘

𝑑 𝜕

= + 𝑣. ∇

𝑑𝑡 𝜕𝑡

Example: Let a certain motion of a continuum be given by the component equations,

𝑥1 = 𝑋1 𝑒 −𝑡

𝑥2 = 𝑋2 𝑒 𝑡

𝑥3 = 𝑋3 + 𝑋2 (𝑒 −𝑡 − 1)

and let the temperature field of the body be given by the spatial description.

Determine the velocity field in spatial form, and using that, compute the material

derivative dθ/dt of the temperature field.

Solution

The velocity components in material form are

𝑣1 = −𝑋1 𝑒 −𝑡

𝑣2 = 𝑋2 𝑒 𝑡

𝑣3 = −𝑋2 𝑒 −𝑡

𝑋1 = 𝑥1 𝑒 𝑡

𝑋2 = 𝑥2 𝑒 −𝑡

𝑋3 = 𝑥3 − 𝑥2 (𝑒 −2𝑡 − 𝑒 −𝑡 )

Which yields the spatial components for the velocity,

𝑣1 = −𝑥1

𝑣2 = 𝑥2

𝑣3 = −𝑥2 𝑒 −2𝑡

𝑑𝜃

= −𝑒 −𝑡 𝑥1 − 2𝑥2 + 3𝑥3 − 𝑥1 𝑒 −𝑡 − 2𝑥2 𝑒 −𝑡 − 3𝑥3 𝑒 −𝑡

𝑑𝑡

𝑑𝜃

= −2𝑋1 𝑒 −2𝑡 − 3𝑋2 (2𝑒 −2𝑡 − 𝑒 −𝑡 ) − 3𝑋3 𝑒 −𝑡

𝑑𝑡

Strain Tensors

The deformation gradient tensor

In deformation analysis we confine our attention to two stationary configurations and

disregard any consideration for the particular sequence by which the final deformed

configuration is reached from the initial undeformed configuration.

Accordingly, the mapping function is not dependent upon time as a variable, so that

𝑥𝑖 = 𝑋𝑖 (𝑋)

Consider 𝑑𝑋 = 𝑑𝑋𝐴 𝐼𝐴

2

𝑑𝑋 = 𝑑𝑋. 𝑑𝑋 = 𝑑𝑋𝐴 𝑑𝑋𝐴

Under the displacement field, the particles originally at P and Q move to the

positions p and q, respectively, in the deformed configuration. Now

𝑑𝑥 = 𝑑𝑥𝑖 𝑒𝑖

2

𝑑𝑥 = 𝑑𝑥. 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑑𝑥𝑖 𝑑𝑥𝑖

We assume the mapping function Xi is continuous so that

𝜕𝑋𝑖

𝑑𝑥𝑖 = 𝑑𝑋 = 𝑥𝑖,𝐴 𝑑𝑋𝐴

𝜕𝑋𝐴 𝐴

where

𝑥𝑖,𝐴 ≡ 𝐹𝑖𝐴

termed inhomogeneous, otherwise, if F is independent of X, the deformation is

called homogeneous.

In symbolic notation

𝑑𝑥 = 𝐹. 𝑑𝑋 𝑜𝑟 𝑑𝑥 = 𝐹𝑑𝑋

F is invertible so that the inverse F-1 exist such that

𝑑𝑋 = 𝐹 −1 𝑑𝑥

Let us consider

2 2

𝑑𝑥 − 𝑑𝑋 = 𝑑𝑥𝑖 𝑑𝑥𝑖 − 𝑑𝑋𝐴 𝑑𝑋𝐴

2 2

𝑑𝑥 − 𝑑𝑋 = 𝑥𝑖,𝐴 𝑑𝑋𝐴 𝑥𝑖,𝐵 𝑑𝑋𝐵 − 𝛿𝐴𝐵 𝑑𝑋𝐴 𝑑𝑋𝐵

= 𝑥𝑖,𝐴 𝑥𝑖,𝐵 − 𝛿𝐴𝐵 𝑑𝑋𝐴 𝑑𝑋𝐵

= 𝐶𝐴𝐵 − 𝛿𝐴𝐵 𝑑𝑋𝐴 𝑑𝑋𝐵

Where the symmetric tensor

Is called the Green’s deformation tensor. From this define the Lagrangian finite

strain tensor EAB as

2 2

𝑑𝑥 − 𝑑𝑋 = 2𝐸𝐴𝐵 𝑑𝑋𝐴 𝑑𝑋𝐵 = 𝑑𝑋. 2𝐸. 𝑑𝑋

In a similar way, in terms of the spatial variables

2 2

𝑑𝑥 − 𝑑𝑋 = 𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝑑𝑥𝑖 𝑑𝑥𝑗 − 𝑋𝐴,𝑖 𝑑𝑥𝑖 𝑋𝐴,𝑗 𝑑𝑥𝑗

= 𝛿𝑖𝑗 − 𝑋𝐴,𝑖 𝑋𝐴,𝑗 𝑑𝑥𝑖 𝑑𝑥𝑗

= 𝛿𝑖𝑗 − 𝑐𝑖𝑗 𝑑𝑥𝑖 𝑑𝑥𝑗

2 2

𝑑𝑥 − 𝑑𝑋 = 2𝑒𝑖𝑗 𝑑𝑥𝑖 𝑑𝑥𝑗 = 𝑑𝑥. 2𝑒. 𝑑𝑥

For any two arbitrary differential vectors dX(1) and dX(2) which deform into dx(1) and

dx(2), respectively, we have

= 𝑑𝑋 (1) . 𝐹 𝑇 . 𝐹. 𝑑𝑋 (2)

= 𝑑𝑋 1 . 𝐼 + 2𝐸 . 𝑑𝑋 (2)

If E is identically zero, the lengths of all line elements are unchanged so that (dx)2 = (dX)2

and in view of the definition dx(1) . dx(2) = dx(1) dx(2) cosθ, the angle between any two

elements will also be unchanged. Thus in the absence of strain, only a rigid body

displacement can occur.

The Lagrangian and Eulerian finite strain tensors may also be developed in terms of

displacement gradients.

𝑢𝑖 𝑋𝐴 = 𝑥𝑖 𝑋𝐴 − 𝑋𝑖

𝑢𝐴 𝑥𝑖 = 𝑥𝐴 − 𝑋𝐴 (𝑥𝑖 )

Example: Let the simple shear deformation

𝑥1 = 𝑋1 ; 𝑥2 = 𝑋2 + 𝑘𝑋3 ; 𝑥3 = 𝑋3 + 𝑘𝑋2

Where k is a constant, be applied to the small cube of edge dimensions dL. Draw the

deformed shape of face ABGH of the cube and determine the difference (dx)2 – (dX)2

for the diagonals AG,BH and OG of the cube.

Solution

From the mapping equations directly, the origin O is seen to remain in place, and

the particles originally at points A,B,G and H are displaced to the points a(dL,O,O),

b(dL,dL,kdL), g(dL, (1+k)dL,(1+k)dL) and h(dL,kdL,dL), respectively, and the square

face ABGH becomes the diamond shaped parallelogram abgh.

1 0 0

𝑥𝑖,𝐴 ≡ 𝐹𝑖𝐴 𝐹𝑖𝐴 = 0 1 𝑘

0 𝑘 1

1 0 0

𝑇

𝐶=𝐹 𝐹 𝐶𝐴𝐵 = 0 1 + 𝑘2 2𝑘

0 2𝑘 1 + 𝑘2

0 0 0

2𝐸 = 𝐶 − 𝐼 2𝐸𝐴𝐵 = 0 𝑘2 2𝑘

0 2𝑘 𝑘2

2 2

𝑑𝑥 − 𝑑𝑋 = 𝑑𝑋. 2𝐸. 𝑑𝑋 so that for diagonal AG,

0 0 0 0

𝑑𝑥 2 − 𝑑𝑋 2 = 0 𝑑𝐿 𝑑𝐿 0 𝑘 2 2𝑘 𝑑𝐿

0 2𝑘 𝑘 2 𝑑𝐿

2 2

= 2(2𝑘 + 𝑘 )(𝑑𝐿)

0 0 0 0

2 2

𝑑𝑥 − 𝑑𝑋 = 0 −𝑑𝐿 𝑑𝐿 0 𝑘 2 2𝑘 −𝑑𝐿

0 2𝑘 𝑘2 𝑑𝐿

2 2

= 2(−2𝑘 + 𝑘 )(𝑑𝐿)

0 0 0 𝑑𝐿

2 2

𝑑𝑥 − 𝑑𝑋 = 𝑑𝐿 𝑑𝐿 𝑑𝐿 0 𝑘 2 2𝑘 𝑑𝐿

0 2𝑘 𝑘 2 𝑑𝐿

= 2(2𝑘 + 𝑘 2 )(𝑑𝐿)2

Infinitesimal deformation theory

If the numerical values of all the components of the displacement and the displacement

gradient tensors are very small we may neglect the squares and products of these

quantities in comparison to the gradients themselves so that

and

2𝑒𝑖𝑗 = 𝑢𝑖,𝑗 + 𝑢𝑗 ,𝑖

= = + 𝛿𝑘𝐴 ≈ 𝛿𝑘𝐴

𝜕𝑋𝐴 𝜕𝑥𝑘 𝜕𝑋𝐴 𝜕𝑥𝑘 𝜕𝑋𝐴 𝜕𝑥𝑘

Therefore, to the first order of approximation for the case of small displacement

gradients, it is unimportant whether we differentiate the displacement

components with respect to the material or spatial coordinates.

08/07/2017 Dr. Luis Mosquera L. 165

Similarly, it can be shown that in the linear theory uA,B and uA,j are equivalent

2𝜀𝑖𝑗 = 𝛿 + 𝛿 = + = 𝑢𝑖,𝑗 + 𝑢𝑗 ,𝑖

𝜕𝑋𝐴 𝐴𝑗 𝜕𝑋𝐵 𝐵𝑖 𝜕𝑥𝑗 𝜕𝑥𝑖

𝜀1 0 0 𝜀𝐼 0 0

𝜀𝑖𝑗∗ = 0 𝜀2 0 = 0 𝜀𝐼𝐼 0

0 0 𝜀3 0 0 𝜀𝐼𝐼𝐼

Together with the strain invariants

1

𝐼𝐼𝜀 = 𝜀𝑖𝑖 𝜀𝑗𝑗 − 𝜀𝑖𝑗 𝜀𝑖𝑗 = 𝜀𝐼 𝜀𝐼𝐼 + 𝜀𝐼𝐼 𝜀𝐼𝐼𝐼 + 𝜀𝐼𝐼𝐼 𝜀𝐼

2

𝐼𝐼𝐼𝜀 = 𝜖𝑖𝑗𝑘 𝜀1𝑖 𝜀2𝑗 𝜀3𝑘 = 𝜀𝐼 𝜀𝐼𝐼 𝜀𝐼𝐼𝐼

The components of ε, physical interpretations

2 2

𝑑𝑥 − 𝑑𝑋 = 2𝜀𝑖𝑗 𝑑𝑋𝑖 𝑑𝑋𝑗 = 𝑑𝑋. 2𝜀. 𝑑𝑋

𝑑𝑥 − 𝑑𝑋 𝑑𝑥 + 𝑑𝑋 𝑑𝑋𝑖 𝑑𝑋𝑗

. = 2𝜀𝑖𝑗

𝑑𝑋 𝑑𝑋 𝑑𝑋 𝑑𝑋

= 𝑁𝑖

𝑑𝑋

𝑑𝑥 − 𝑑𝑋

= 𝜀𝑖𝑗 𝑁𝑖 𝑁𝑗 = 𝑁. 𝜀. 𝑁

𝑑𝑋

𝑑𝑥 − 𝑑𝑋

Longitudinal strain 𝑒𝑁 =

𝑑𝑋

If N is taken in the X1 direction so that 𝑁 = 𝐼 1 , then

𝑒 𝐼1 = 𝐼1 . 𝜀. 𝐼1 = 𝜀11

Likewise, for N = I2 or N = I3 the normal strains are found to be ε22 and ε33 .The

diagonal elements of the infinitesimal strain tensor represent normal strains in the

coordinate directions.

If consider the differential vectors dX(1) and dX(2) at position P which are deformed

into vectors dx(1) and dx(2), may be written,

. 2𝜀. 𝑑𝑋 (2)

. 2𝜀. 𝑑𝑋 (2)

Where θ is the angle between the deformed vectors

If: 𝜋

𝜃 = −𝛾

2

𝜋

𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 − 𝛾 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛾 ≈ 𝛾

2

𝑑𝑋 1 𝑑𝑋 (2)

𝛾 ≈ 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 = 1

. 2𝜀. (2) ≈ 𝑁1 . 2𝜀. 𝑁2

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

Here, if we take 𝑁(1) = 𝐼 1 and 𝑁 (2)= 𝐼 2 and designate the angle ϒ as ϒ12, we obtain

𝛾12 = 2 1 0 0 𝜀21 𝜀22 𝜀23 1 = 2𝜀12

𝜀31 𝜀32 𝜀33 0

The engineering shear strain components ϒij represent the changes in the original right

angles between the coordinate axes in the undeformed configuration.

In engineering texts, the infinitesimal strain tensor is frequently written in matrix

form as

1 1

𝜀11 𝛾 𝛾

2 12 2 13

1 1

𝜀𝑖𝑗 = 𝛾 𝜀22 𝜀 𝛾23

2 12 2

1 1

𝛾 𝛾 𝜀33

2 13 2 23

𝛾 = 𝑁1 . 2𝜀 ∗ . 𝑁2 = 0

remain orthogonal under infinitesimal deformation.

Therefore, a small rectangular parallelpied of undeformed edge dimensions dX(1)

, dX(2) and dX(3) taken in the principal strain directions will be deformed into

another rectangular parallelpiped having edge lengths

The change in volume per unit original volume of the parallelpiped is

=

𝑉 𝑑𝑋 (1) 𝑑𝑋 (2) 𝑑𝑋 (3)

≈ 𝜀(1) + 𝜀(2) + 𝜀(3)

The ratio ΔV/V being the first invariant of ε, is called the cubical dilation

Example

A delta rosette has the shape of an equilateral triangle, and records longitudinal

strains in the directions x1, x´1 and x´´1 shown in the sketch. If the measured strains in

these directions are ε11 = -3x10-4, ε´11 = 4x10-4 and ε´´11 = 2x10-4 , determine ε22 , ϒ12

and ε´22 . Show that ε11 + ε22 = ε´11 + ε´22 as the first strain invariant requires.

Solution

′

𝜀11 + 𝜀22 𝜀11 − 𝜀22 𝛾12

𝜀11 = + 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃 + 𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝜃

2 2 2

′

𝜀11 + 𝜀22 𝜀11 − 𝜀22 𝛾12

𝜀22 = − 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝜃 − 𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝜃

2 2 2

′

𝛾12 = − 𝜀11 − 𝜀22 𝑠𝑖𝑛2𝜃 + 𝛾12 𝐶𝑜𝑠2𝜃

4= + (− ) +

2 2 2 2 2

−3 + 𝜀22 −3 − 𝜀22 1 𝛾12 3

2= + (− ) −

2 2 2 2 2

Where we determine ε22 = 5 and ϒ12 = 4/31/2. Next, using θ = 150° we determine ε’22

′

−3 + 5 −3 − 5 2 3

𝜀22 = + + − = −2

2 2 3 2

Consider once more two particles P and Q in the undeformed configuration, and

are now at positions p and q, in the deformed configuration. In general, an

arbitrary displacement will include both deformation (strain) and rigid boy

displacements. To separate these we consider the vector du,

𝜕𝑢𝑖

𝑑𝑢𝑖 = 𝑑𝑋𝑗

𝜕𝑋𝑗

𝑃

= = 𝑁

𝑑𝑋 𝑑𝑋𝑗 𝑑𝑋 𝑑𝑋𝑗 𝑗

Where Nj is the unit vector in the direction from P toward Q. By decomposing the

displacement gradient into its symmetric and skew-symmetric parts,

𝑑𝑢𝑖 = + + − 𝑑𝑋𝑗

2 𝜕𝑋𝑗 𝜕𝑋𝑖 2 𝜕𝑋𝑗 𝜕𝑋𝑖

= 𝜀𝑖𝑗 + 𝑤𝑖𝑗 𝑑𝑋𝑗

08/07/2017 Dr. Luis Mosquera L. 178

If εij happens to be identically zero, there is no strain, and the displacement is a

rigid body displacement. For this case is define the rotation vector

1

𝑤𝑖 = 𝜀𝑖𝑗𝑘 𝑤𝑘𝑗

2

𝑤𝑖𝑗 = 𝜀𝑘𝑗𝑖 𝑤𝑘

or

𝑑𝑢 = 𝑤 × 𝑑𝑋

body rotation about the axis of the rotation vector w. On the other hand, si wij =0,

the relative displacement will be the result of pure strain.

P15.- The motion of a continuous medium is specified by the component equations

1 1

𝑥1 = 𝑋1 + 𝑋2 𝑒 + 𝑋1 − 𝑋2 𝑒 −𝑡

𝑡

2 2

1 1

𝑥2 = 𝑋1 + 𝑋2 𝑒 − 𝑋1 − 𝑋2 𝑒 −𝑡

𝑡

2 2

𝑥3 = 𝑋3

a) Show that the Jacobian determinant J does not vanish, and solve for the inverse

equations X=X(x,t).

b) Calculate the velocity and acceleration components in terms of the material

coordinates.

c) Using the inverse equations developed in part (a), express the velocity and

acceleration components in terms of spatial coordinates.

P16.- A velocity field is given in Lagrangian form by

𝑣1 = 2𝑡 + 𝑋1

𝑣2 = 𝑋2 𝑒 𝑡

𝑣3 = 𝑋3 − 𝑡

Integrate these equations to obtain x = x(X,t) with x = X at t = 0, and using that result

compute the velocity and acceleration components in the Eulerian (spatial) form.

P17.- For the deformation field given by

𝑥1 = 𝑋1 + 𝛼𝑋2

𝑥2 = 𝑋1 − 𝛼𝑋2

𝑥3 = 𝑋3

Where α is a constant, determine the matrix form of the tensors E and e, and show

that the circle of particles 𝑋12 + 𝑋22 = 1 deforms into the circle 𝑥12 + 𝑥22 = 1 + 𝛼 2

Fundamental Laws and Equations

Compatibility Equations

𝜕𝑢𝑖 𝜕𝑢𝑗

+ = 2𝜀𝑖𝑗

𝜕𝑥𝑗 𝜕𝑥𝑖

for determining the ui, then the system is over-determined, and we cannot in general

find three single-valued functions ui = ui (xj) satisfying the six partial differential

equations. Therefore, some restrictive conditions must be imposed upon the strain

components if the equations above are to be satisfied by a single-valued displacement

field.

There are 81 equations in all but only six of these are distinct

𝜀22,31 + 𝜀31,22 − 𝜀23,21 − 𝜀21,23 = 0

𝜀33,12 + 𝜀12,33 − 𝜀31,32 − 𝜀32,31 = 0

2𝜀12,12 − 𝜀11,22 − 𝜀22,11 = 0

2𝜀23,23 − 𝜀22,33 − 𝜀33,22 = 0

2𝜀31,31 − 𝜀33,11 − 𝜀11,33 = 0

For plane strain in the x1-x2 plane, the six equations reduce to a single equation,

given the strain εij with continuously differentiable displacements

𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑙 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑙 𝜀 = 0

By the definition of linear strain and the continuity of the displacements, we see

Where the first displacement term, symmetric in mn, cancel with skew-simmetric

ϵlmn, and the second displacement term, simmetric in jk, cancels with skew-term ϵijk

To demonstrate sufficiency it must be shown that starting from curl curl ε = 0 that

the linear strain eij can be constructed.

𝐴 = 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑙 𝜀

Compatibility gives

𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑙 𝐴 = 0

Since ε is symmetric, 𝑡𝑟 𝐴 = 0

Therefore, 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑙 𝜀 + 𝑤 = 0

From which 𝜀 + 𝑤 = ∇𝑢

1

𝜀 = (∇𝑢 + ∇𝑢𝑇 )

2

1

or 𝜀𝑖𝑗 = (𝑢𝑖,𝑗 + 𝑢𝑗 ,𝑖 )

2

Stretch Ratios

Define the ratio of dx and dX to be the stretch ratio, Λ. For the differential element in the

direction of the unit vector N at P, we write

𝑑𝑥

𝛬 𝑁 =

𝑑𝑋

2

Thus, 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑑𝑥. 𝑑𝑥 = 𝐹. 𝑑𝑋. 𝐹. 𝑑𝑋 = 𝑑𝑋. 𝐹 𝑇 𝐹. 𝑑𝑋

𝑑𝑿 𝑇 𝑑𝑿

𝛬2𝑁 = . 𝐹 𝐹. = 𝑁. 𝐹 𝑇 𝐹. 𝑁

𝑑𝑋 𝑑𝑋

In an analogous way

1 𝑑𝑋

=

𝜆𝑛 𝑑𝑥

1 𝑑𝒙 −1 𝑇 −1 𝑑𝒙 𝑇

= .𝐹 𝐹 . = 𝑛. 𝐹 −1 𝐹 −1 . 𝑛

𝜆2𝑛 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥

08/07/2017 Dr. Luis Mosquera L. 188

For 𝑁 = 𝐼1

𝛬2𝐼1 = 1 + 2𝐸11

And for 𝑛 = 𝑒1

1

= 1 − 2𝑒11

𝜆2𝑒1

𝑑𝑥 − 𝑑𝑋

𝑒 𝑁 = =𝛬 𝑁 −1= 𝑁. 𝐹 𝑇 𝐹. 𝑁 − 1

𝑑𝑋

If

𝑁 = 𝐼1

𝑒 𝐼1 = 𝐼1 . 𝐹 𝑇 𝐹. 𝐼1 − 1 = 1 + 2𝐸11 − 1

𝐸11 → 𝜀11 = 𝑒 𝐼1

𝑁1 . 𝐹 𝑇 𝐹. 𝑁2

𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃 =

𝛬 𝑁1 𝛬 𝑁2

In a similar fashion,

𝑇

𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛩 = 𝜆 𝑛1 𝜆 𝑛2 𝑛1 . 𝐹 −1 𝐹 −1 . 𝑛2

𝑥1 = 𝑋1 − 𝑋2 + 𝑋3

𝑥2 = 𝑋1 + 𝑋2 − 𝑋3

𝑥3 = 𝑋3 − 𝑋1 + 𝑋2

Determine

a) The stretch ratio in the direction of 𝑁1 = 𝐼1 + 𝐼2 / 2

b) The angle θ12 in the deformed configuration between elements that were

originally in the directions of N1 and N2 = I2

Solution

1 −1 1

a) 𝐹 = 1 1 −1

−1 1 1

1

1 1 3 −1 −1 2

𝛬2𝑁1 = 0 −1 3 −1 1 =2

2 2 −1 −1 3 2

0

b) 𝛬2𝑁2 = 3

𝐼1 + 𝐼2 / 2. 𝐹 𝑇 𝐹. 𝐼2 2/ 2

𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜃12 = =

2 3 6

And θ12 = 54.7° . Thus, the original 45° angle is enlarged by 9.7°

The ratio of the deformed volume to the original becomes,

1

𝑑𝑉 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 2 𝑑𝑥 3

= =Λ 𝑁1 Λ 𝑁2 Λ 𝑁3

𝑑𝑉 0 𝑑𝑋 1 𝑑𝑋 2 𝑑𝑋 3

𝑁1 = 𝐼1 + 𝐼2 + 𝐼3 / 3 𝛬 𝑁1 = 1

𝑁2 = 𝐼1 − 𝐼2 / 2 𝛬 𝑁2 = 2

𝑁3 = 𝐼1 + 𝐼2 − 2𝐼3 / 6 𝛬 𝑁3 = 2

𝑑𝑉

Using these results, =4

𝑑𝑉 0

08/07/2017 Dr. Luis Mosquera L. 193

Velocity Gradient, Rate of Deformation, Vorticity

Let the velocity field of a continuum given by vi =vi (x,t). The spatial velocity gradient is

defined by

𝜕𝑣𝑖

𝐿𝑖𝑗 =

𝜕𝑥𝑗

1 𝜕𝑣𝑖 𝜕𝑣𝑗

𝑑𝑖𝑗 = +

2 𝜕𝑥𝑗 𝜕𝑥𝑖

and 1 𝜕𝑣𝑖 𝜕𝑣𝑗

𝑤𝑖𝑗 = −

2 𝜕𝑥𝑗 𝜕𝑥𝑖

Consider two neighboring points p and q. The particle at q has a velocity relative to the

particle at p of

𝜕𝑣𝑖

𝑑𝑣𝑖 = 𝑑𝑥

𝜕𝑥𝑗 𝑗

𝑑𝑣 = 𝐿. 𝑑𝑥

Note that

𝜕𝑣𝑖 𝜕𝑣𝑖 𝜕𝑋𝐴 𝑑 𝜕𝑥𝑖 𝜕𝑋𝐴

= =

𝜕𝑥𝑗 𝜕𝑋𝐴 𝜕𝑥𝑗 𝑑𝑡 𝜕𝑋𝐴 𝜕𝑥𝑗

In symbolic notation

𝐿 = 𝐹 . 𝐹 −1

𝐹 = 𝐿. 𝐹

Consider next the stretch ratio 𝑑𝑥

𝛬=

𝑑𝑋

𝑛𝛬 = 𝐹. 𝑁

𝑛𝛬 + 𝑛𝛬 = 𝐹 . 𝑁 = 𝐿. 𝐹. 𝑁 = 𝐿. 𝑛𝛬

𝑛. 𝑛 = 1 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑠𝑜 𝑛. 𝑛 = 0

resulting in 𝛬

= 𝑛. 𝐿. 𝑛 = 𝑑𝑖𝑗 𝑛𝑖 𝑛𝑗

𝛬

Which represents the rate of stretching per unit stretch of the element that originated

in the direction of N, and is in the direction of n of the current configuration.

Recall that 2𝐸 = 𝐹 𝑇 𝐹 − 𝐼

Therefore,

2𝐸 = 𝐹 𝑇 . 𝐿𝑇 + 𝐿 . 𝐹 = 𝐹 𝑇 . 2𝐷. 𝐹

(𝑝)

since 𝑛𝑖 = 𝑤𝑖𝑗 𝑛𝑗 and because a unit vector can change only in direction, then

wij gives the rate of change in direction of the principal axes

of D. Hence the names, vorticity or spin given to W.

1

Additionally, 𝑤 = 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑙 𝑣 , is called vorticity vector

2

Material Derivative of Line Elements, Areas, Volumes

𝑑𝑥 = 𝐹. 𝑑𝑋

𝑑𝑥 = 𝐹 . 𝑑𝑋 = 𝐿. 𝐹. 𝑑𝑋 = 𝐿. 𝑑𝑥

Consider the plane area defined in the reference configuration by the differential

line elements

(1) (2)

𝑑𝑋𝐴 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑑𝑋𝐴

(1) (2)

𝑑𝑆𝐴0 = ϵ𝐴𝐵𝐶 𝑑𝑋𝐵 𝑑𝑋𝐶

As a result of the motion, this area is carried into the current area dSi

(1) (2)

𝑑𝑆𝑖 = ϵ𝑖𝑗𝑘 𝑑𝑥𝑗 𝑑𝑥𝑘

𝑑𝑆. 𝐹 = 𝐹 𝑑𝑆 0

Also,

𝑑𝑉 = 𝐹 𝑑𝑉 0

P18.- Let a displacement field be given by

1

𝑢1 = 𝑋3 − 𝑋2

4

1

𝑢2 = 𝑋1 − 𝑋3

4

1

𝑢3 = 𝑋2 − 𝑋1

4

P19.- Given the deformation expressed by

𝑥1 = 𝑋1 + 𝐴𝑋22

𝑥2 = 𝑋2

𝑥3 = 𝑋3 − 𝐴𝑋22

Where A is a constant (not necessarily small), determine the finite strain tensors E

and ε, and show that if the displacements are small so that x ≈ X, and if squares of A

may be neglected, both tensors reduce to the infinitesimal strain tensor.

P20.- Let the deformation

𝑥1 = 𝑎1 (𝑋1 + 2𝑋2 )

𝑥2 = 𝑎2 𝑋2

𝑥3 = 𝑎3 𝑋3

Where a1, a2 and a3 are constants be applied to the unit cube of material shown in

the sketch. Determine

a) The deformed length l of diagonal OC

b) The angle between edges OA and OG after deformation,

c) The conditions which the constants must satisfy for the deformation to be

possible if

i) The material is incompressible,

ii) The angle between elements OC and OB is to remain unchanged

Material derivatives of line, surface and volume integrals

represented by the integral

𝑃𝑖𝑗 … 𝑡 = 𝑃𝑖𝑗∗ … 𝑥, 𝑡 𝑑𝑉

𝑉

The material derivative of this property is given in both spatial and material form by

𝑑 𝑑

𝑃𝑖𝑗 … 𝑡 = 𝑃𝑖𝑗∗ … 𝑥, 𝑡 𝑑𝑉 = 𝑃𝑖𝑗∗ … 𝑥 𝑋, 𝑡 , 𝑡 𝐽𝑑𝑉 0

𝑑𝑡 𝑉 𝑑𝑡 𝑉0

𝑉0 𝑉0

Ref. P. 148

08/07/2017 Dr. Luis Mosquera L. 204

Which upon application of the divergence theorem becomes

𝜕𝑃𝑖𝑗∗ …

𝑃𝑖𝑗 … 𝑡 = 𝑑𝑉 + 𝑣𝑘 𝑃𝑖𝑗∗ … 𝑛𝑘 𝑑𝑆

𝑉 𝜕𝑡 𝑆

This equation gives the time rate of change of the property Pij… as the sum of the

amount created in the volume V, plus the amount entering through the bounding

surface S, and is often spoken of as the transport theorem.

𝑚= 𝜌 𝑥, 𝑡 𝑑𝑉

𝑉

The mass of the body in the referencial configuration

𝑚= 𝜌0 𝑋, 𝑡 𝑑𝑉 0

𝑉0

The law of conservation of mass asserts that the mass of a body, or of any portion of

the body, is invariant under motion. Thus,

𝑑

𝑚= 𝜌 𝑥, 𝑡 𝑑𝑉 = (𝜌 + 𝜌𝑣𝑖,𝑖 ) 𝑑𝑉 = 0

𝑑𝑡 𝑉 𝑉

Therefore, 𝜌 + 𝜌𝑣𝑖,𝑖 = 0

Which is known as the continuity equation in Eulerian form. But the material

derivative of ρ is,

𝜕𝜌 𝜕𝜌

𝜌= + 𝑣𝑖

𝜕𝑡 𝜕𝑥𝑖

So that, 𝜕𝜌

+ 𝜌𝑣𝑖 , 𝑖 = 0

𝜕𝑡

If 𝜌 = 0, the material is said to be incompressible, and thus

𝑣𝑖,𝑖 = 0 𝑜𝑟 𝑑𝑖𝑣 𝒗 = 0

Since the law of conservation of mass requires the mass to be the same in all

configurations, thus we have

𝜌 𝑥 𝑋, 𝑡 , 𝑡 𝑑𝑉 = 𝜌 𝑋, 𝑡 𝐽𝑑𝑉 0

𝑉 𝑉0

𝜌𝐽 = 𝜌0

𝜌𝐽 = 0

This equation is said the Lagrangian, or material, form of the continuity equation

08/07/2017 Dr. Luis Mosquera L. 207

Linear Momentum Principle, Equations of Motion

Let a material continuum body having a current volume V and bounding surface S be

subjected to surface traction 𝑡𝑖 𝑛 and distributed body forces ρbi . In addition, let the

body be in motion under the velocity field vi = vi(x,t).

𝑃𝑖 𝑡 = 𝜌𝑣𝑖 𝑑𝑉

𝑉

states that

𝑑

𝜌𝑣𝑖 𝑑𝑉 = 𝑡𝑖 𝑛 𝑑𝑆 + 𝜌𝑏𝑖 𝑑𝑉

𝑑𝑡 𝑉 𝑆 𝑉

Where,

𝜌𝑣𝑖 − 𝑡𝑗𝑖 ,𝑗 − 𝜌𝑏𝑖 𝑑𝑉 = 0

𝑉

When the velocity field is zero, or constant, the equations of motion reduce to the

equilibrium equations,

𝑡𝑗𝑖 ,𝑗 + 𝜌𝑏𝑖 = 0

Moment of Momentum (Angular Momentum)

Principle

The principle of angular momentum states that the time rate of change of the

moment of momentum of a body with respect to a given point is equal to the

moment of the surface and body forces with respect to that point.

reference, the angular momentum

principle has the mathematical form

𝑑 (𝑛 )

𝜀𝑖𝑗𝑘 𝑥𝑗 𝜌𝑣𝑘 𝑑𝑉 = 𝜀𝑖𝑗𝑘 𝑥𝑗 𝑡𝑘 𝑑𝑆 + 𝜀𝑖𝑗𝑘 𝑥𝑗 𝜌𝑏𝑘 𝑑𝑉

𝑑𝑡 𝑉 𝑆 𝑉

results in

𝑉

which reduces to

𝜀𝑖𝑗𝑘 𝑡𝑘𝑗 𝑑𝑉 = 0

𝑉

𝜀𝑖𝑗𝑘 𝑡𝑘𝑗 = 0

which by direct expansion demonstrates that 𝑡𝑘𝑗 = 𝑡𝑗𝑘 , and the stress tensor

is symmetric.

Law of Conservation of Energy,

the material time derivative of the kinetic plus internal energies is equal to the

sum of the rate of work of the surface and body forces, plus all other energies that

enter or leave the body per unit time. Other energies may include, for example,

thermal, electrical, magnetic, or chemical energies.

By definition, the kinetic energy of the material occupying an arbitrary volume V

of the body is

1 1

𝐾 𝑡 = 𝜌𝒗. 𝒗𝑑𝑉 = 𝜌𝑣𝑖 𝑣𝑖 𝑑𝑉

2 𝑉 2 𝑉

Also, the mechanical power, or rate of work of the body and surface forces shown

in the figure is defined by the scalar

𝑃 𝑡 = 𝑡𝑖 𝑛 𝑣𝑖 𝑑𝑆 + 𝜌𝑏𝑖 𝑣𝑖 𝑑𝑉

𝑆 𝑉

Consider now the material derivative of the kinetic energy integral

𝐾= 𝜌 𝑣𝑖 𝑣𝑖 𝑑𝑉 = 𝑣𝑖 𝑡𝑗𝑖 ,𝑗 + 𝜌𝑏𝑖 𝑑𝑉

𝑉 𝑉

which, if we convert the middle term by the divergence theorem and make

use of the decomposition

𝑉 𝑆 𝑉

Therefore,

𝐾+𝑆 =𝑃

where the integral

𝑆= 𝑡𝑖𝑗 𝑑𝑖𝑗 𝑑𝑉 = 𝑇: 𝐷 𝑑𝑉

𝑉 𝑉

The balance of mechanical energy shows that, of the total work done by the

external forces, a portion goes toward increasing the kinetic energy, and the

remainder appears as work done by the internal stresses.

𝑑

𝑆=𝑈= 𝜌𝑢𝑑𝑉 = 𝜌𝑢 𝑑𝑉

𝑑𝑡 𝑉 𝑉

where U is called the internal energy and u the specific internal energy, or energy

density (per unit mass),then

𝑑 1 𝑛

𝜌 𝑣𝑖 𝑣𝑖 + 𝑢 𝑑𝑉 = 𝜌𝑏𝑖 𝑣𝑖 𝑑𝑉 = 𝑡𝑖 𝑣𝑖 𝑑𝑆

𝑑𝑡 𝑉 2 𝑉 𝑆

or, briefly,

𝐾+𝑈=𝑃

thermal energy is added to a body by

𝑄= 𝜌𝑟𝑑𝑉 − 𝑞𝑖 𝑛𝑖 𝑑𝑆

𝑉 𝑆

The scalar field r specifies the rate at which heat per unit mass is produced by

internal sources and is known as the heat supply. The vector qi, called the

heat flux vector, is a measure of the rate at which heat is conducted into the

body per unit area per unit time across the element of surface dS whose

outward normal is ni .

08/07/2017 Dr. Luis Mosquera L. 215

The heat flux qi is often assumed to obey Fourier’s law of heat conduction;

𝑞𝑖 = −𝑘𝜃,𝑖 𝑜𝑟 𝒒 = −𝑘∇𝜃

With the addition of the thermal energy consideration, the complete energy

balance takes the form

𝐾+𝑈 =𝑃+𝑄

or, when written out in detail,

Entropy and the Clausius-Duhem Equation

interconvertibility of heat and work. However, there is not total interconvertibility

for irreversible processes. For instance, the case of mechanical work being

converted to heat via friction is understood, but the converse does not hold. That

is, heat cannot be utilized to directly generate work.

This, of course, is the motivation for the second law of thermodynamics.

restrictions on continua. However, in the case of continuum mechanics the

restrictions are placed on the material response functions called constitutive

responses.

At any given state for the continuum there are various quantities that affect the

internal energy. These might be the volume of an ideal gas or the components of

the deformation gradient of a solid. In the case of the deformation gradient, the

nine components represent a deformation in the body that is storing energy. The

collection of these parameters is called the thermodynamic substate and will be

denoted by 𝑣1 𝑣2 … . . 𝑣𝑛

While the thermodynamic substate influences the internal energy of the body

it does not completely define it. Assume that the substate plus an additional

independent scalar parameter, η, is sufficient to define the internal energy. This

definition may be made in the form of

𝑢 = 𝑓 𝜂, 𝑣1 , 𝑣2 , … 𝑣𝑛

the specific entropy.

Temperature is the result of the change in internal energy with respect to

entropy

𝜕𝑢

𝜃=

𝜕𝜂

substate variables results in thermodynamic tensions

𝜕𝑢

𝜏𝑎 =

𝜕𝑣𝑎

We write a differential form of the internal energy as follows:

𝑑𝑢 = 𝜃𝑑𝜂 + 𝜏𝑎 𝑑𝑣𝑎

𝑎

Assuming that all the functions defined in the section are continuously differentiable

as many times as necessary, it is possible to solve for entropy in terms of temperature

𝜂 = 𝜂 𝜃, 𝑣𝑎

This result may be substituted into the caloric equation of state to yield internal

energy as a function of temperature and substate parameters

𝑢 = 𝑢 𝜃, 𝑣𝑎

Using this result allows the definition of the thermal equations of state

𝜏𝑎 = 𝜏𝑎 𝜃, 𝑣𝑎

The principles of thermodynamics are often posed in terms of thermodynamic

potentials which may be defined as follows:

internal energy u

Free energy 𝜓 = 𝑢 − 𝜂𝜃

Enthalpy 𝜒=𝑢− 𝑎 𝜏𝑎 𝑣𝑎

Free enthalpy 𝜁 = 𝜒 − 𝜂𝜃

𝑢−𝜓+𝜁−𝜒 =0

When considered for a portion P of the body, the total entropy is given as

𝐻= 𝜌𝜂𝑑𝑉

𝑃

Γ= 𝜌𝛾𝑑𝑉

𝑃

where the scalar γ is the specific entropy production. The second law can be stated as

follows: the time rate-of-change in the entropy equals the change in entropy due to

heat supply, heat flux entering the portion, plus the internal entropy production. For

a portion P of the body, this is written as

𝑑 𝜌𝑟 𝑞𝑖 𝑛𝑖

𝜌𝜂𝑑𝑉 = 𝑑𝑉 − 𝑑𝑆 + 𝜌𝛾𝑑𝑉

𝑑𝑡 𝑃 𝑃 𝜃 𝜕𝑃 𝜃 𝑃

second law in the form of the Clausius-Duhem inequality

1

𝜌𝜃𝜂 − 𝜌𝑟 + 𝑞𝑖,𝑖 − 𝑞𝑖 𝜃,𝑖 ≥ 0

𝜃

Restrictions on Elastic Materials by the

Second Law of Thermodynamics

described by eight functions of the material point and time. These functions

would be as follows:

1. Spatial position 𝑥𝑖 = 𝑋𝑖 𝑋, 𝑡

2. Stress tensor 𝜎𝑖𝑗 = 𝜎𝑖𝑗 𝑋, 𝑡

3. Body force per unit mass bi = bi(X,t)

4. Specific internal energy u = u(X,t)

5. Heat flux vector qi = qi(X,t)

6. Heat supply per unit mass r = r(X,t)

7. Specific entropy η = η(X,t)

8. Temperature (always positive) θ = θ(X,t)

A set of these eight functions which are compatible with the balance of linear

momentum and the conservation of energy makes up a thermodynamic process.

Invariance

continuum to be invariant with regards to reference frame. There are two basic

methods for examining invariance of constitutive response functions: material

frame indifference and superposed rigid body motion.

In the first, a continuum body’s response to applied forces or prescribed motion must

be the same as observed from two different reference frames. The body and the

applied forces remain the same; only the observer’s reference frame changes.

the superposed motion can be written as

𝑝𝑖+ = 𝑐𝑖 𝑡 + 𝑄𝑖𝑚 𝑡 𝑝𝑚

+

where vectors 𝑝𝑖 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑝𝑚

Here, 𝑄𝑖𝑚 is simply the matrix of

the direction cosines between

Ox1x2x3 and 𝑂+𝑥1+𝑥2+𝑥3+

Restrictions on Constitutive

Equations from Invariance

Under a superposed rigid body motion scalars are unaffected, allowing the

following to be written

𝑢+ = 𝑢, 𝜂+ = 𝜂, 𝜃+ = 𝜃

ψ, χ, and ζ would be unaffected by the superposed rigid body motion. The remaining

quantities of the response functions and their independent variables are affected in

different ways from the superposed rigid body motion.

Under a superposed rigid body motion, these functions transform as follows :

+

𝐹𝑖𝐴 = 𝑄𝑖𝑗 𝐹𝑗𝐴

+

𝐹𝑖𝐴 = 𝑄𝑖𝑗 𝐹𝑗𝐴 + Ω𝑖𝑗 𝑄𝑗𝑘 𝐹𝑘𝐴

𝐿+𝑖𝑚 = 𝑄𝑖𝑗 𝐿𝑗𝑛 𝑄𝑛𝑚 + Ω𝑖𝑚

𝑞𝑖+ = 𝑄𝑖𝑗 𝑞𝑗

𝑔𝑖+ = 𝑄𝑖𝑗 𝑔𝑗

superposed rigid body motion as follows

+

𝑢+ 𝜂+, 𝐹𝑖𝐴 = 𝑢(𝜂, 𝐹𝑖𝐴 )

+

𝜃 + 𝜂+, 𝐹𝑖𝐴 = 𝑢(𝜂, 𝐹𝑖𝐴 )

𝑡𝑖𝑗+ 𝜂+, 𝐹𝑚𝐴

+

= 𝑄𝑖𝑘 𝑡𝑘𝑙 (𝜂, 𝐹𝑚𝐴 )𝑄𝑙𝑘

+

, 𝑔𝑖+, 𝐿+𝑘𝑙 = 𝑄𝑖𝑚 𝑞𝑚 (𝜂, 𝐹𝑖𝐴 , 𝑔𝑖 , 𝐿𝑘𝑙 )

Constitutive Equations

earlier in this chapter are applicable to all continuous media, but say

nothing about the response of specific materials to force or

temperature loadings. To fill this need, we introduce the so-called

constitutive equations, which specify the mechanical and thermal

properties of particular materials based upon their internal

constitution.

A brief listing of some well-known constitutive equations is as follows:

(a) the stress-strain equations for a linear elastic solid assuming infinitesimal

strains,

𝑡𝑖𝑗 = 𝐶𝑖𝑗𝑘𝑚 𝜀𝑘𝑚

Where the Cijkm are the elastic constants representing the properties of the

body.

in which λ and μ are coefficients that express the elastic properties of the

material.

(b) the linear viscous fluid,

where τij is the shearing stress in the fluid and the constants Kijmn represent its

viscous properties. For a Newtonian fluid,

where λ* and μ* are viscosity coefficients.

𝑑𝜖𝑖𝑗𝑃 = 𝑆𝑖𝑗 𝑑𝜆

𝑃

Where 𝑑𝜖𝑖𝑗 is the plastic strain increment, Sij the deviator stress, and dλ a

proportionality constant.

In formulating a well-posed problem in continuum mechanics, we need the

field equations together with whatever equations of state are necessary, plus

the appropriate constitutive equations and boundary conditions. As a point of

reference we list again, as a group, the important field equations in indicial

notation:

𝜕𝜌

+ 𝜌𝑣𝑖 , 𝑖 = 0

𝜕𝑡

If we assume the body forces bi and distributed heat sources r are

prescribed, the above collection consists of five independent equations

involving fourteen unknowns, namely, ρ, vi , σij , qi , and u. In addition, in a

non-isothermal situation, the entropy η and temperature field θ = θ(x,t)

have to be taken into consideration. For the isothermal theory, eleven

equations are needed in conjunction with the five field equations listed

above. Of these, six are constitutive equations, three are temperature-heat

conduction equations (Fourier’s law), and two are equations of state.

P21.- Given the velocity field

𝑣1 = 𝑎𝑥1 − 𝑏𝑥2

𝑣2 = 𝑏𝑥1 + 𝑎𝑥2

𝑣3 = 𝑐 𝑥12 + 𝑥22

(a) whether or not the continuity equation is satisfied

(b) whether the motion is isochoric.

P22.- For a certain contiuum at rest, the stress is given by

where p0 is a constant. Use the continuity equation to show that for this case

the stress power may be expressed as

𝑝0 𝜌

𝑡𝑖𝑗 𝑑𝑖𝑗 =

𝜌

P23.-Show that, for a rigid body rotation about the origin, the kinetic energy

integral

1 1

𝐾 𝑡 = 𝜌𝒗. 𝒗𝑑𝑉 = 𝜌𝑣𝑖 𝑣𝑖 𝑑𝑉

2 𝑉 2 𝑉

1

𝐾 = 𝑤𝑖 𝑤𝑖 𝐼𝑖𝑗

2

P24.- Starting with Equation

1 𝜆

𝜀𝑖𝑗 = 𝑡 − 𝛿 𝑡

2𝜇 𝑖𝑗 3𝜆 + 2𝜇 𝑖𝑗 𝑘𝑘

Linear Elasticity

(1) Where the stress in a material is a unique function of the strain, and

(2) where the material has the property for complete recovery to a

“natural” shape upon removal of the applied forces.

most general form as

𝑇 = 𝐺(𝜀)

elastic behavior may be linear or non-linear. However, for the response function

G we consider only that case for which the stress is a linear function of strain.

Uniaxial loading-unloading stress-strain curves for (a) linear elastic; (b)

nonlinear elastic; and (c) inelastic behavior.

are everywhere small compared with unity. Thus, the distinction between the

Lagrangian and Eulerian descriptions is negligible.

1

𝜀𝑖𝑗 = (𝑢𝑖,𝑗 + 𝑢𝑗 ,𝑖 )

2

equation for linear elastic behavior as

or 𝑇 = 𝐶𝜀

where the tensor of elastic coefficients Cijkm has 34 = 81 components. However,

due to the symmetry of both the stress and strain tensors, it is clear that

The tensor character of C : expressed in a rotated (primed) coordinate system, it has

the form

In general, the Cijkm coefficients may depend upon temperature, but here we

assume adiabatic (no heat gain or loss) and isothermal (constant temperature)

conditions.

We also shall ignore strain-rate effects and consider the components Cijkm to be

at most a function of position.

If the elastic coefficients are constants, the material is said to be homogeneous.

It is convenient to define

𝑡22 = 𝑡2 , 𝑡13 = 𝑡31 = 𝑡5

𝑡33 = 𝑡3 , 𝑡12 = 𝑡21 = 𝑡6

and

𝜀11 = 𝜖1 , 2𝜀23 = 2𝜀32 = 𝜖4

𝜀22 = 𝜖2 , 2𝜀13 = 2𝜀31 = 𝜖5

𝜀33 = 𝜖3 , 2𝜀12 = 2𝜀21 = 𝜖6

𝑡𝛼 = 𝒞𝛼𝛽 𝜖𝛽

with Greek subscripts having a range of six. In matrix form this equation appears

as

𝑡1 𝒞11 𝒞12 𝒞13 𝒞14 𝒞15 𝒞16 𝜖1

𝑡2 𝒞21 𝒞22 𝒞23 𝒞24 𝒞25 𝒞26 𝜖2

𝑡3 𝒞31 𝒞32 𝒞33 𝒞34 𝒞35 𝒞36 𝜖3

𝑡4 = 𝒞41 𝒞42 𝒞43 𝒞44 𝒞45 𝒞46 𝜖4

𝑡5 𝒞51 𝒞52 𝒞53 𝒞54 𝒞55 𝒞56 𝜖5

𝑡6 𝒞61 𝒞62 𝒞63 𝒞64 𝒞65 𝒞66 𝜖6

The array of the 36 constants Cαβ does not constitute a tensor.

1 1 𝜕𝑣𝑖 𝜕𝑣𝑗

𝑢 = 𝑡𝑖𝑗 𝑑𝑖𝑗 ; 𝑑𝑖𝑗 = +

𝜌 2 𝜕𝑥𝑗 𝜕𝑥𝑖

1

𝑢 = 𝑡𝑖𝑗 𝜀𝑖𝑗

𝜌

The internal energy u in these equations is purely mechanical and is called the

strain energy (per unit mass).

Recall now that, by the continuity equation in Lagrangian form, ρo = ρJ and also

that to the first order of approximation

𝜕𝑢𝑖 𝜕𝑢𝑖

𝐽 = det 𝐹 = 𝑑𝑒𝑡 𝛿𝑖𝐴 + =1+

𝜕𝑋𝐴 𝜕𝑋𝐴

𝝏𝒖𝒊 /𝝏𝑿𝑨 ≪ 𝟏, we may take J ≈1 in the continuity equation to give ρ = ρ0, a constant.

For elastic behavior under these assumptions, the strain energy is a function of

the strain components only, and we write

𝜕𝑢

𝑢= 𝜀

𝜕𝜀𝑖𝑗 𝑖𝑗

1

also 𝑢 = 𝑡𝑖𝑗 𝑑𝑖𝑗

𝜌

1 𝜕𝑢

Therefore, 𝑡 =

𝜌 𝑖𝑗 𝜕𝜀𝑖𝑗

08/07/2017 Dr. Luis Mosquera L. 244

The strain energy density, W (strain energy per unit volume) is defined by

𝑊 = 𝜌0 𝑢

From it follows that

𝜕𝑢 𝜕𝑊

𝑡𝑖𝑗 = 𝜌 =

𝜕𝜀𝑖𝑗 𝜕𝜀𝑖𝑗

𝜕𝑊 𝜕𝑊(0) 𝜕 2 𝑊(0)

𝑡𝑖𝑗 = = + 𝜀 +⋯

𝜕𝜀𝑖𝑗 𝜕𝜀𝑖𝑗 𝜕𝜀𝑖𝑗 𝜕𝜀𝑘𝑚 𝑘𝑚

It is customary to assume that 𝑡𝑖𝑗 = 0 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝜀𝑖𝑗 = 0, thus, we may express the

linear elastic constitutive equation as

𝜕 2 𝑊(0)

𝑡𝑖𝑗 = 𝜀 = 𝐶𝑖𝑗𝑘𝑚 𝜀𝑘𝑚

𝜕𝜀𝑖𝑗 𝜕𝜀𝑘𝑚 𝑘𝑚

So that

𝐶𝑖𝑗𝑘𝑚 = 𝐶𝑘𝑚 𝑖𝑗

Thus, the existence of a strain energy function reduces the number of distinct

components of Cijkm from 36 to 21.

1 1

𝑊 𝜀𝑖𝑗 = 𝐶𝑖𝑗𝑘𝑚 𝜀𝑖𝑗 𝜀𝑘𝑚 = 𝑡𝑖𝑗 𝜀𝑖𝑗

2 2

Also

1 1

𝑊 𝜖𝛼 = 𝒞𝛼𝛽 𝜖𝛼 𝜖𝛽 = 𝑡𝛼 𝜖𝛼

2 2

Hooke’s Law for Isotropic Media,

Elastic Constants

If the coeficients Cijkm are the same in every set of reference axes at any point

for a given situation, we call it an isotropic elastic material.

general, an isotropic tensor is defined as one whose components are unchanged by

any orthogonal transformation from one set of Cartesian axes to another.

The unit tensor I, having Kronecker deltas as components, and any scalar multiple of

I are the only second-order isotropic tensors.

The only nontrivial third-order isotropic tensor is the permutation symbol. The

most general fourth-order isotropic tensor may be shown to have a form in terms

of Kronecker deltas which we now introduce as the prototype for C, namely,

𝐶𝑖𝑗𝑘𝑚 = 𝜆𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝛿𝑘𝑚 + 𝜇 𝛿𝑖𝑘 𝛿𝑗𝑚 + 𝛿𝑖𝑚 𝛿𝑗𝑘

+ 𝛽 𝛿𝑖𝑘 𝛿𝑗𝑚 − 𝛿𝑖𝑚 𝛿𝑗𝑘

Thus,

this reduces to

𝑡𝑖𝑗 = 𝜆𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝜀𝑘𝑘 + 2𝜇 𝜀𝑖𝑗

which is Hooke’s law for isotropic elastic behavior

Example:

Show that for an isotropic linear elastic solid the principal axes of the stress and

strain tensors coincide, and develop an expression for the relationship among their

principal values.

Solution

with these normals the corresponding principal values ε(q).

(𝑞) (𝑞) (𝑞) (𝑞)

𝑡𝑖𝑗 𝑛𝑗 = 𝜆𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝜀𝑘𝑘 + 2𝜇 𝜀𝑖𝑗 𝑛𝑗 = 𝜆𝑛𝑖 𝜀𝑘𝑘 + 2𝜇 𝜀𝑖𝑗 𝑛𝑗

𝜀𝑖𝑗 𝑛𝑗 = 𝜀(𝑞) 𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝑛𝑗

So that

(𝑞) (𝑞) (𝑞)

𝑡𝑖𝑗 𝑛𝑗 = 𝜆𝜀𝑘𝑘 + 2𝜇 𝜀(𝑞) 𝑛𝑖 = 𝜆𝜀𝑘𝑘 + 2𝜇 𝜀(𝑞) 𝑛𝑖

and because 𝜀𝑘𝑘 = 𝜀 1 + 𝜀 2 + 𝜀 3 is the first invariant of strain, it is constant for all

(𝑞)

𝑛𝑖 so that

(𝑞) (𝑞)

𝑡𝑖𝑗 𝑛𝑗 = 𝜆 𝜀(1) + 𝜀(2) + 𝜀(3) + 2𝜇𝜀(𝑞) 𝑛𝑗

(𝑞)

This indicates that 𝑛𝑖 are principal directions of stress also, with principal stress

values

𝑡(𝑞) = 𝜆 𝜀(1) + 𝜀(2) + 𝜀(3) + 2𝜇𝜀(𝑞)

Expressing the strain components in terms of the stresses

1 𝜆

𝜀𝑖𝑗 = 𝑡 − 𝛿 𝑡

2𝜇 𝑖𝑗 3𝜆 + 2𝜇 𝑖𝑗 𝑘𝑘

𝜆+𝜇 𝜆 𝜆

𝜀𝑖𝑗 = 1+ 𝑡𝑖𝑗 − 𝛿 𝑡

𝜇(3𝜆 + 2𝜇) 2 𝜆+𝜇 2 𝜆 + 𝜇 𝑖𝑗 𝑘𝑘

𝜆

𝜇(3𝜆 + 2𝜇) and 𝜈=

𝐸= 2(𝜆 + 𝜇)

𝜆+𝜇

we obtain the following form of Hooke’s law for isotropic behavior in terms of the

engineering constants E and v,

1

𝜀𝑖𝑗 = 1 + 𝜈 𝑇𝑖𝑗 − 𝜈𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝑇𝑘𝑘

𝐸

𝐸

𝑇𝑖𝑗 = 𝜈𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝜀𝑘𝑘 + 1 − 2𝜈 𝜀𝑖𝑗

1 + 𝜈 1 − 2𝜈

The shear modulus, or modulus of rigidity (G) and the bulk modulus (K) are

defined as:

𝐸 𝐸

𝐺= =𝜇 𝐾=

2(1 + 𝜈) 3(1 − 2𝜈)

The physical interpretations of the constants E, v, G, and K introduced above can

be determined from a consideration of the special states of stress displayed in

figure:

direction with σ11 = ±σ0 and all other stress components are zero.

𝑡11 ±𝜎0

𝜀11 = = 𝑓𝑜𝑟 (𝑖 = 𝑗 = 1)

𝐸 𝐸

∓𝜈𝜎0

𝜀22 = −𝜈𝜀11 = 𝑓𝑜𝑟 (𝑖 = 𝑗 = 2)

𝐸

∓𝜈𝜎0

𝜀33 = −𝜈𝜀11 = 𝑓𝑜𝑟 (𝑖 = 𝑗 = 3)

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ν is seen to be the ratio of the unit lateral contraction to unit longitudinal

extension for tension, and vice versa for compression.

For the simple shear case shown we, say, σ12 = τ0 , all other stresses zero,

1+𝜈 𝜏0

𝜀12 = 𝑡12 =

𝐸 2𝐺

or for engineering strains,

𝑡12 𝜏0

𝛾12 = =

𝐺 𝐺

Finally, for the case of uniform triaxial tension (or hydrostatic compression), we

take 𝒕𝒊𝒋 = ±𝒑𝜹𝒊𝒋 with p>0. For this,

1 − 2𝜈 ±3 1 − 2𝜈 ±𝑝

𝜀𝑖𝑖 = 𝑡𝑖𝑖 = 𝑝=

𝐸 𝐸 𝑘

by which we infer that the bulk modulus K relates the pressure p to the volume

change given by the cubical dilation εii

By use of the constants G and K, Hooke’s law may be expressed in terms of the

spherical and deviator components of the stress and strain tensors. Thus, the pair

of equations

𝑆𝑖𝑗 = 2𝐺𝜂𝑖𝑗

𝑡𝑖𝑖 = 3𝑘𝜀𝑖𝑖

may be shown to be equivalent to

1

𝜀𝑖𝑗 = 1 + 𝜈 𝑇𝑖𝑗 − 𝜈𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝑇𝑘𝑘

𝐸

Elastic Symmetry; Hooke’s Law for

Anisotropic Media

Hooke’s law for isotropic behavior was established on the basis of C being a

fourth-order isotropic tensor. The same result may be achieved from the concepts

of elastic symmetry.

Defined equivalent elastic directions as those specified by Cartesian axes Ox1x2x3 and

Ox’1x’2x’3 at a point such that the elastic constants Cαβ are unchanged by a

transformation between the two sets of axes.

If the transformation represents a rotation about an axis, we say the material has

axial elastic symmetry with respect to that axis.

order N where N = 2π/θ

If the transformation is a reflection of the axes with respect to some plane, we

say the material has a plane of elastic symmetry.

behavior, since the elastic constants would remain unchanged for any two sets of

Cartesian axes at the point.

Let us consider the consequences of the x1x2 plane being a plane of elastic symmetry

The transformation matrix for this is clearly

1 0 0

𝑎𝑖𝑗 = 0 1 0

0 0 −1

so that in the single subscript notation for stress and strain components the

transformations in matrix form are

𝑡6′ 𝑡2′ ′

𝑡4 = 0 1 0 𝑡6 𝑡2 𝑡4 0 1 0

𝑡5′ 𝑡4′ 𝑡3′ 0 0 −1 𝑡5 𝑡4 𝑡3 0 0 −1

𝑡1 𝑡6 −𝑡5

= 𝑡6 𝑡2 −𝑡4

−𝑡5 −𝑡4 𝑡3

and

1 ′ 1 ′ 1 1

𝜖1′ 𝜖6 𝜖5 𝜖1 𝜖6 𝜖5

2 2 2 2

1 ′ 1 ′ 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0

𝜖 𝜖2′ 𝜖4 = 0 1 0 𝜖6 𝜖2 𝜖4 0 1 0

2 6 2 0 0 −1 2 2 0 0 −1

1 ′ 1 ′ 1 1

𝜖 𝜖 𝜖3′ 𝜖 𝜖 𝜖3

2 5 2 4 2 5 2 4

1 1

𝜖1 𝜖6 − 𝜖5

2 2

1 1

= 𝜖6 𝜖2 − 𝜖4

2 2

1 1

− 𝜖5 − 𝜖4 𝜖3

2 2

Therefore, assuming all 36 constants in equation

𝑡𝛼 = 𝒞𝛼𝛽 𝜖𝛽

whereas for axes Ox’1x’2x’3, under the condition that x1x2 is a plane of symmetry

such that the Cαβ are unchanged in this system, we have

𝑡′1 = 𝒞11 𝜖′1 + 𝒞12 𝜖′2 + 𝒞13 𝜖′3 + 𝒞14 𝜖′4 + 𝒞15 𝜖′5 + 𝒞16 𝜖′6

So that,

Following the same procedure, the additional elastic constants C24, C25, C34, C35,

C41, C42, C43, C46, C51, C52, C53, C56, C64, and C65 must also be zero. for the x1x2 plane

to be one of elastic symmetry

Accordingly, the elastic constant matrix for this case has the form

𝒞11 𝒞12 𝒞13 0 0 𝒞16

𝒞21 𝒞22 𝒞23 0 0 𝒞26 for the x1x2 plane to be one of elastic

𝒞𝛼𝛽

𝒞

= 31

𝒞32 𝒞33 0 0 𝒞36 symmetry

0 0 0 𝒞44 𝒞45 0

0 0 0 𝒞54 𝒞55 0

𝒞61 𝒞62 𝒞63 0 0 𝒞66

Also, if a strain energy functions exists, Cαβ = Cβα and these 20 nonzero constants

would be further reduced to 13.

08/07/2017 Dr. Luis Mosquera L. 261

If the x2x3 plane is also one of elastic symmetry at the same time as the x1x2 plane

at a point and we repeat the procedure outlined above, we find that C16, C26, C36, C45,

C54, C61, C62, and C63 must also be zero, and the C matrix is further reduced to

𝒞21 𝒞22 𝒞23 0 0 0

0 0 0

𝒞𝛼𝛽 = 𝒞31 𝒞32 𝒞33

0 0 0 𝒞44 0 0

0 0 0 0 𝒞55 0

0 0 0 0 0 𝒞66

Interestingly enough, if x1x3 is also a plane of elastic symmetry along with the two

considered above, no further reduction in the Cαβ matrix occurs.

called an orthotropic material, and its elastic constants matrix is that given.

The reduction of the orthotropic elastic matrix to that of the isotropic matrix may

be completed by successive consideration of the three axes of elastic symmetry

shown in Figure

08/07/2017 Dr. Luis Mosquera L. 264

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By the rotation of 90° about the x1 axis (Figure a), we find that C12 = C13, C21 = C31, C22

= C33, C23 = C32, and C55 = C66. For the rotation of 90° about the x3 axis (Figure b), we

see that C12 = C21, C11 = C22, C12 = C23, C31 = C32, and C44 = C55. Finally, by a rotation of

45° about the x3 axis (Figure c), we obtain 2C44 = C11 – C12. Therefore, by setting C44 =

μ and C12 = λ, we may write the elastic coefficient matrix for isotropic behavior as

𝜆 + 2𝜇 𝜆 𝜆 0 0 0

𝜆 𝜆 + 2𝜇 𝜆 0 0 0

𝜆 𝜆 𝜆 + 2𝜇 0 0 0

𝒞𝛼𝛽 =

0 0 0 𝜇 0 0 for isotropic behavior

0 0 0 0 𝜇 0

0 0 0 0 0 𝜇

this matrix may be expressed in terms of the engineering constants E and v, as

𝑡1 0 0 0 𝜖1

1−𝜈 𝜈 𝜈

𝑡2 0 0 0 𝜖2

𝜈 1−𝜈 𝜈 0 0 0

𝑡3 𝐸 𝜈 𝜈 1−𝜈 𝜖3

= 1 0 0

𝑡4 1 + 𝜈 1 − 2𝜈 0 0 0 1 − 2𝜈 𝜖4

0 2 1 0 𝜖5

𝑡5 0 0 1 − 2𝜈 1

0 0 0 0 2 𝜖6

𝑡6 1 − 2𝜈

0 0 2

Isotropic Elastostatics and Elastodynamics,

Superposition Principle

The formulation and solution of the basic problems of linear elasticity comprise the

subjects we call elastostatics and elastodynamics. Elastostatics is restricted to

those situations in which inertia forces may be neglected. In both elastostatics

and elastodynamics, certain field equations have to be satisfied at all interior

points of the elastic body under consideration, and at the same time the field

variables must satisfy specific conditions on the boundary. In the case of

elastodynamics problems, initial conditions on velocities and displacements must

also be satisfied.

We begin with elastostatics for which the appropriate field equations are:

𝑡𝑗𝑖 ,𝑗 + 𝜌𝑏𝑖 = 0

2𝜀𝑖𝑗 = 𝑢𝑖,𝑗 + 𝑢𝑗 ,𝑖

(c) Hooke’s law

𝑡𝑖𝑗 = 𝜆𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝜀𝑘𝑘 + 2𝜇𝜀𝑖𝑗

or 1

𝜀𝑖𝑗 = 1 + 𝜈 𝑡𝑖𝑗 − 𝜈𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝑡𝑘𝑘

𝐸

It is usually assumed that the body forces bi are known so that the solution we

seek from the fifteen equations listed here is for the six stresses tij, the six strains

εij, and the three displacements ui.

The conditions to be satisfied on the boundary surface S will appear in one of

the following statements:

1. Displacements prescribed everywhere,

𝑢𝑖 = 𝑢𝑖∗ 𝑥 𝑜𝑛 𝑆

𝑛 ∗ 𝑛

𝑡𝑖 = 𝑡𝑖 𝑜𝑛 𝑆

𝑢𝑖 = 𝑢𝑖∗ 𝑥 𝑜𝑛 𝑆1

𝑛 ∗ 𝑛

𝑡𝑖 = 𝑡𝑖 𝑜𝑛 𝑆2

A most important feature of the field equations is that they are linear in the

unknowns. Consequently, if , 𝑡𝑖𝑗1 , and 𝜀𝑖𝑗1 are a solution for body forces 1 𝑏𝑖∗

1 ∗(𝑛 )

And surface tractions 𝑡𝑖 , whereas 𝑡𝑖𝑗(2) , 𝜀𝑖𝑗(2) , 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑢𝑖(2) are a solution for body

forces 2 𝑏𝑖∗ and surface tractions 2 ∗ 𝑛

𝑡𝑖 , then

1 2

𝑡𝑖𝑗 = 𝑡𝑖𝑗 + 𝑡𝑖𝑗

1 2

𝜀𝑖𝑗 = 𝜀𝑖𝑗 + 𝜀𝑖𝑗

1 2

𝑢𝑖 = 𝑢𝑖 + 𝑢𝑖

superposition

𝑛 ∗ 𝑛 ∗ 𝑛

𝑡𝑖 = 1𝑡𝑖 + 2𝑡𝑖

For those problems in which the boundary conditions are given in terms of

displacements by 𝑢𝑖 = 𝑢𝑖∗ 𝑥 𝑜𝑛 𝑆 , it is convenient for us to eliminate the stress

and strain unknowns from the field equations so as to state the problem

solely in terms of the unknown displacement components. Thus,

the equations of compatibility for infinitesimal strains may be combined with

Hooke’s law and the equilibrium equations to arrive at the equations,

1 𝜈

𝑡𝑖𝑗 ,𝑘𝑘 + 𝑡𝑘𝑘 ,𝑖𝑗 + 𝜌 𝑏𝑖,𝑗 + 𝑏𝑗 ,𝑖 + 𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝜌𝑏𝑘,𝑘 = 0

1+𝜈 1−𝜈

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In elastodynamics, the equilibrium equations must be replaced by the equations of

motion in the system of basic field equations. So that a solution for the displacement

field appears in the form

𝑢𝑖 = 𝑢𝑖∗ 𝑥, 𝑡 𝑜𝑛 𝑆

𝑛 ∗ 𝑛

𝑡𝑖 = 𝑡𝑖 (𝑥, 𝑡) 𝑜𝑛 𝑆

𝑢𝑖 = 𝑢𝑖∗ 𝑥, 0

and

𝑢𝑖 = 𝑢𝑖∗ 𝑥, 0

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SAINT VENANT PROBLEM

the 1800s Saint-Venant studied long beams that were loaded in a variety of ways:

extension, torsion, pure bending and flexure. Rather than satisfy exact boundary

conditions on the lateral surface and the ends, Saint Venant solved the problems

by considering relaxed boundary conditions on the beam ends. If one considers

statically equivalent force and moment systems, the solution sufficiently far

away from the application of the load will be the same. This is known as the

Saint-Venant Principle.

To demonstrate Saint Venant’s solution considerar a beam as shown in the figure:

The lateral surface of the cylinder βL, will be stress free, This condition can be written

as

𝑛

𝑡𝑖 = 𝑡𝑖1 𝑛1 + 𝑡𝑖2 𝑛2 = 0 𝑜𝑛 ℬ𝐿

For the different problems (extensión, torsion, pure bending and flexure) the ends,

C1 and C2, will have relaxed boundary conditions. The sum of the stress over the

end’s area will give a force vector Ti

𝑡3𝑖 𝑑𝑆 = 𝑇𝑖

𝒞1

Bending moments on the ends are expressed in terms of the axial stress t33 as:

𝒞1 𝒞1

𝑡33 𝑥2 − 𝑡31 𝑥2 𝑑𝑆 = 𝑀3 = 𝑀𝑡

𝒞1

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A reasonable assumption was made regarding the stress components, strain or

displacements. From this assumption the equilibrium and compatibility equations

were shown to be satisfied. Boundary conditions, exact and relaxed, were

checked. The different problems are solved by setting the components of the end

force Ti and moment Mi to different values:

𝐼 𝑇1 = 𝑇2 = 0, 𝑇3 = 𝑇, 𝑀𝑖 = 0 𝑃𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑒𝑥𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛

𝐼𝐼 𝑇𝑖 = 0, 𝑀1 = 𝑀2 = 0, 𝑀3 = 𝑀𝑡 𝑃𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛

𝐼𝑉 𝑇1 = 𝑇, 𝑇2 = 𝑇3 = 0, 𝑀𝑖 = 0 𝑃𝑢𝑟𝑒 𝑓𝑙𝑒𝑥𝑢𝑟𝑒

More complex elasticity problems can be obtained by superposing the basic solutions.

Extension

For the case of pure extension the nonzero stress components are assumed to be

𝑇

𝑡33 =

𝐴

𝒞

And all other components are zero. These stress components clearly satisfy the

equilibrium conditions without body forces. Also, the relaxed boundary conditions

are satisfied.The strains can be found to be

𝑇 𝜈𝑇

ℰ33 = , ℰ11 = ℰ22 = −

𝐸𝐴 𝐸𝐴

With all other strain components being zero. The compatibility condition is satisfied

since the strains are constant, and using the strain-displacement relationship, the

displacements can be found to be,

𝑇 𝜈𝑇 𝜈𝑇

𝑢3 = 𝑥 , 𝑢1 = − 𝑥 , 𝑢2 = − 𝑥

𝐸𝐴 3 𝐸𝐴 1 𝐸𝐴 2

Torsion

We begin with a brief review of the solution to the case of a shaft having a

constant circular cross section when subjected to equilibrating end couples, Mt

as shown in the figure (a). Let the end face at x3 = 0 be fixed while the face at

x3 = L is allowed to rotate about the axis of the shaft.

to the axis remain plane under the twisting,

and that each rotates through an angle

proportional θ x3 to its distance from the fixed

end.

A point in the cross section at

coordinate x3 will rotate an angle of θ x3.

Each point, say point P, in the cross

section travels a distance θ x3R which is

proportional to the distance R from the

x3 axis as shown in figure b

The distance squared to point P is the square of the x1 and x2 coordinates (figure c).

Using this distance, it is possible to define the cosine and sine of angle β.

𝑐𝑜𝑠 90 − 𝛽 = 𝑥2 /𝑅

and

𝑠𝑖𝑛 90 − 𝛽 = 𝑥1 /𝑅

(c)

Thus,

𝑢1 = −𝜃𝑥3 𝑅𝑐𝑜𝑠 90 − 𝛽 = −𝜃𝑥3 𝑥2

𝑢2 = 𝜃𝑥3 𝑥1 , 𝑢3 = 0

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Recall that

2𝜀𝑖𝑗 = 𝑢𝑖,𝑗 + 𝑢𝑗 ,𝑖

1

0 0 − 𝜃𝑥2

2

1

𝜀= 0 0 𝜃𝑥

2 1

1 1

− 𝜃𝑥2 𝜃𝑥 0

2 2 1

Because these stress components, as well as the strains from which they were

derived, are either linear functions of the coordinates or zero, the compatibility

equations are satisfied. Likewise, for zero body forces, the equilibrium equations

are clearly satisfied.

08/07/2017 Dr. Luis Mosquera L. 284

The lateral surface of the shaft is stress free. To verify this, consider the stress

components in the direction of the normal at a point on the cross-section

perimeter designated in figure b. Thus, at a radius R = a,

x2

𝑥1

(x1 ,x2) 𝑛1 =

𝑎

a

𝑥2

x1 𝑛2 =

𝑎

𝑛

𝑡𝑖 = 𝑡𝑖1 𝑛1 + 𝑡𝑖2 𝑛2 = 0 𝑜𝑛 ℬ𝐿

𝑥1 𝑥2 𝐺𝜃

𝑡13 + 𝑡23 = −𝑥2 𝑥1 + 𝑥1 𝑥2 = 0

𝑎 𝑎 𝑎

At the same time, the total shearing stress at any point of the cross section

is the resultant

2 2

𝜏= 𝑡13 + 𝑡23 = 𝐺𝜃 𝑥12 + 𝑥22 = 𝐺𝜃𝑅

which indicates that the shear is proportional to the radius at the point, and

perpendicular to that radius. By summing the moments of the shear forces on

either end face of the shaft, we find that

For a prismatic shaft of any cross section other than circular, plane sections do not

remain plane under twisting, and warping will occur. For such cases we must expressing

the displacements in the form

𝑢1 = −𝜃𝑥2 𝑥3 , 𝑢2 = 𝜃𝑥1 𝑥3 , 𝑢3 = 𝜃𝜓 𝑥1 , 𝑥2

𝜃 𝜕𝜓

0 0 − 𝑥2

2 𝜕𝑥1

𝜃 𝜕𝜓

𝜀= 0 0 + 𝑥1

2 𝜕𝑥2

𝜃 𝜕𝜓 𝜃 𝜕𝜓

− 𝑥2 + 𝑥1 0

2 𝜕𝑥1 2 𝜕𝑥2

𝑡𝑖𝑗 = 𝜆𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝜀𝑘𝑘 + 2𝜇𝜀𝑖𝑗

𝜕𝜓

0 0 𝜇𝜃 − 𝑥2

𝜕𝑥1

𝜕𝜓

𝑡= 0 0 𝜇𝜃 + 𝑥1

𝜕𝑥2

𝜕𝜓 𝜕𝜓

𝜇𝜃 − 𝑥2 𝜇𝜃 + 𝑥1 0

𝜕𝑥1 𝜕𝑥2

It is clear from these stress components that there are no normal stresses

between the longitudinal elements of the shaft.

0

𝑡𝑗𝑖 ,𝑗 + 𝜌𝑏𝑖 = 0

The first two of the equilibrium equations, are satisfied identically in the absence

of body forces, and substitution into the third equilibrium equation yields

𝜕2 𝜓 𝜕2 𝜓

𝜇𝜃 2 + 𝜇𝜃 2 = 0 = 𝐺𝜃 𝜓,11 + 𝜓,22 = 0

𝜕𝑥1 𝜕𝑥2

∇2 𝜓 = 0

on the cross section of the shaft.

Boundary conditions on the surfaces of the shaft must also be satisfied. On the

lateral surface which is stress free, the following conditions must prevail

𝑡. 𝑛 = 0

here n3 = 0. The first two of these equations are satisfied identically while the

third requires

𝐺𝜃 𝜓,1 − 𝑥2 𝑛1 + 𝐺𝜃 𝜓,2 + 𝑥1 𝑛2 = 0

which reduces to

𝑑𝜓

𝜓,1 𝑛1 + 𝜓,2 𝑛2 = = 𝑥2 𝑛1 − 𝑥1 𝑛2

𝑑𝑛

We note further that in order for all cross sections to be force free, that is, in simple

shear over those cross sections

satisfied

𝑥2 𝑡33 𝑑𝑥1 𝑑𝑥2 = 𝑥1 𝑡33 𝑑𝑥1 𝑑𝑥2 = 0, 𝑥1 𝑡23 − 𝑥2 𝑡13 𝑑𝑥1 𝑑𝑥2 = 𝑀𝑡

Again, since σ33 = 0, the first two of these are trivial. The third leads to

Defining the torsional rigidity as

𝑀𝑡

𝜃=

𝐾

A second approach to the general torsion problem rests upon the introduction of a

torsion stress function, designated here by Φ and defined so that the non-zero

stresses are related to it by the definitions

𝜕Φ 𝜕Φ

𝑡13 = , 𝑡23 =−

𝜕𝑥2 𝜕𝑥1

Thus, 𝜕Φ 𝜕Φ

= 𝐺𝜃 𝜓,1 − 𝑥2 , = −𝐺𝜃 𝜓,2 + 𝑥1

𝜕𝑥2 𝜕𝑥1

∇2 Φ = −2𝐺𝜃

As already noted, the lateral surface of the shaft parallel to the axis must remain

stress free, that is, the equation 𝑡31 𝑛1 + 𝑡32 𝑛2 = 0 must be satisfied

along the boundary rather than unit normal 𝑛 as shown in figure:

𝑑𝑥2 𝑑𝑥1

𝑡31 𝑛1 + 𝑡32 𝑛2 = 0 𝑡13 − 𝑡23 =0

𝑑𝑠 𝑑𝑠

which in terms of Φ becomes

𝜕Φ 𝑑𝑥1 𝜕Φ 𝑑𝑥2 𝑑Φ

+ = =0

𝜕𝑥1 𝑑𝑠 𝜕𝑥2 𝑑𝑠 𝑑𝑠

Thus, Φ is a constant along the perimeter of the cross section and will be assigned

the value of zero here.

In terms of Φ

∂Φ ∂Φ

𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥 = 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑥1 = Φ 𝑏𝑎 𝑑𝑥1 = 0

𝜕𝑥2 1 2 𝜕𝑥2 2

since Φ is constant on the perimeter. Likewise, by the same reasoning, the second

of equations is satisfied, while the third is satisfied since τ33 = 0.

08/07/2017 Dr. Luis Mosquera L. 295

On the end faces of the shaft, x3 = 0 or x3 = L, the following conditions must be

satisfied

𝑥2 𝑡33 𝑑𝑥1 𝑑𝑥2 = 𝑥1 𝑡33 𝑑𝑥1 𝑑𝑥2 = 0, 𝑥1 𝑡23 − 𝑥2 𝑡13 𝑑𝑥1 𝑑𝑥2 = 𝑀𝑡

∂Φ ∂Φ

−𝑥1 − 𝑥2 𝑑𝑥1 𝑑𝑥2 = 𝑀𝑡

𝜕𝑥1 𝜕𝑥2

Integrating here by parts and using the fact that Φ is assumed zero on the

perimeter C yields

𝑀𝑡 = 2 Φ 𝑑𝑥1 𝑑𝑥2

Thus, the solution by this approach consists of determining the stress function

Φ which is zero on the cross-section perimeter, and satisfies

∇2 Φ = −2𝐺𝜃

08/07/2017 Dr. Luis Mosquera L. 296

Example

Determine the stresses and the angle of twist for a solid elliptical shaft of the

dimensions shown when subjected to end couples Mt .

Solution

The equation of this ellipse is given by

𝑥12 𝑥22

2

+ 2=1

𝑎 𝑏

Therefore, take the stress function Φ in the form

𝑥12 𝑥22

Φ=𝜆 2+ 2 −1

𝑎 𝑏

equation ∇2 Φ = −2𝐺𝜃

1 1

2𝜆 + = −2𝐺𝜃

𝑎2 𝑏 2

so that

𝑎2 𝑏 2 𝐺𝜃

𝜆=− 2

𝑎 + 𝑏2

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Now from equation

𝑀𝑡 = 2 Φ 𝑑𝑥1 𝑑𝑥2

Then,

𝑀𝑡 = − 2 + − 1 𝑑𝑥1 𝑑𝑥2

𝑎 + 𝑏2 𝑎2 𝑏 2

Noting that

1

𝑥12 𝑑𝑥1 𝑑𝑥2 = 𝐼𝑥 2 = 𝜋𝑏𝑎3

4

1

𝑥22 𝑑𝑥1 𝑑𝑥2 = 𝐼𝑥 1 = 𝜋𝑎𝑏 3

4

we may solve for Mt which is

𝜋𝑎3 𝑏 3 𝐺𝜃

𝑀𝑡 = 2

𝑎 + 𝑏2

Therefore

𝑀𝑡 𝑥12 𝑥22

Φ=− + −1

𝜋𝑎𝑏 𝑎2 𝑏 2

𝜕Φ 2𝑀𝑡 𝜕Φ 2𝑀𝑡

𝑡13 = =− 𝑥 , 𝑡23 =− = 𝑥

𝜕𝑥2 𝜋𝑎𝑏 3 2 𝜕𝑥1 𝜋𝑎3 𝑏 1

The maximum stress occurs at the ends of the minor axis, and equals

2𝑀𝑡

𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 =± ;(X2=b)

𝜋𝑎𝑏 2

The torsional rigidity is calculated to be

𝑀𝑡 𝜋𝑎3 𝑏 3 𝐺 𝐺𝐴4

𝑘= = 2 =

𝜃 𝑎 + 𝑏 2 4𝜋 2 𝐼𝑃

2 2

𝑀𝑡

𝜏= 𝑡13 + 𝑡23 = 𝑟

𝐼𝑃

Pure Bending

Consider the beam to be subject to end conditions

𝑇𝑖 = 0, 𝑀1 = 𝑀3 = 0, 𝑀2 = 𝑀

𝑀𝑥1

𝑡33 =−

𝐼

The compatibility equations are satisfied since the nonzero stresses are linear in the

coordinates. The equilibrium equations tji,j = 0 only have one equation which is not

identically satisfied.

the torque on the end, M3 = Mt = 0 since t31 = t32 = 0.

The axial force on the ends is given by

𝑡3𝑖 𝑑𝑆 = 𝑇𝑖

𝒞1

𝑀𝑥1 𝑀

− 𝑑𝑆 = − 𝑥1 𝑑𝑆 = 0

𝒞1 𝐼 𝐼 𝒞1

Providedthat the axes origin is chosen at the centroid of the cross section C. A similar

calculation for M1 gives

𝑀𝑥1 𝑀

𝑀1 = − 𝑥2 𝑑𝑆 = − 𝑥1 𝑥2 𝑑𝑆 = 0

𝒞1 𝐼 𝐼 𝒞1

𝑀2 = − 𝑥1 𝑑𝑆 = 𝑥12 𝑑𝑆 = 𝑀

𝒞1 𝐼 𝐼 𝒞1

where 𝐼= 𝑥12 𝑑𝑆

𝒞1

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Strain components are found from

1

𝜀𝑖𝑗 = 1 + 𝜈 𝑡𝑖𝑗 − 𝜈𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝑡𝑘𝑘

𝐸

𝜈𝑀

𝜀11 = 𝜀22 = 𝑥1

𝐸𝐼

𝑀

𝜀33 = − 𝑥1

𝐸𝐼

𝜀12 = 𝜀13 = 𝜀23 = 0

Flexure

Consider the beam to have end C1 fixed and a flexure load of T acting on C2. The

relaxed boundary conditions are

𝑇1 = 𝑇, 𝑇2 = 𝑇3 = 0, 𝑀𝑖 = 0

𝑇

𝑡11 = 𝑡22 = 𝑡12 = 0; 𝑡33 = − 𝐿 − 𝑥3 𝑥1

𝐼

With no assumption made on the components t31 and t32. Equilibrium equations are

𝑇

𝑡13,3 = 0, 𝑡23,3 = 0, 𝑡31,1 + 𝑡32,2 = − 𝑥1

𝐼

Which implies

1

𝜀𝑖𝑗 = 1 + 𝜈 𝑡𝑖𝑗 − 𝜈𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝑡𝑘𝑘

𝐸

𝜈𝑇

𝜀11 = 𝜀22 = 𝐿 − 𝑥3 𝑥1

𝐸𝐼

𝑇

𝜀33 =− 𝐿 − 𝑥3 𝑥1

𝐸𝐼

𝑡23 𝑡31

𝜀23 = ; 𝜀31 = ; 𝜀12 = 0

2𝜇 2𝜇

The compatibility equations results in two nontrivial conditions

𝜕

𝜀 − 𝜀13,2 = 0

𝜕𝑥1 23,1

𝜕 𝜈𝑇

𝜀31,2 − 𝜀23,1 =

𝜕𝑥2 𝐸𝐼

𝜈𝑇

𝜀23,1 − 𝜀31,2 = 𝛼 − 𝑥

𝐸𝐼 2

𝜈𝑇

𝜀

The equation, 23,1 − 𝜀31,2 = 𝛼 − 𝑥

𝐸𝐼 2 , may be written as

1 1 1 𝜈𝑇 2

𝜀23 − 𝛼𝑥1 = 𝜀31 + 𝛼𝑥2 − 𝑥2

2 ,1 2 2 𝐸𝐼 ,2

From which the shear strains may be found in terms of a potencial function f

1 1

𝜀32 − 𝛼𝑥1 = 𝑓,2

2 2

1 1 𝜈𝑇 2 1

𝜀31 + 𝛼𝑥2 − 𝑥 = 𝑓

2 2 𝐸𝐼 2 2 ,1

The shear stresses may be written using Hooke’s Law and this equations

𝜈𝜇𝑇 2

𝑡31 = 2𝜇𝜀31 = −𝜇𝛼𝑥2 + 𝑥 + 𝜇𝑓,1

𝐸𝐼 2

𝑡32 = 2𝜇𝜀32 = 𝜇𝛼𝑥1 + 𝜇𝑓,2

2

𝑇𝑥1 2 1+𝜈 𝑇

∇ 𝑓 𝑥1 , 𝑥2 =− =− 𝑥1 𝑜𝑛 𝒞

𝜇𝐼 𝐸𝐼

𝜕𝑓 𝜈𝑇 2

= 𝛼 𝑥2 𝑛2 − 𝑥1 𝑛2 − 𝑥 𝑛 𝑜𝑛 𝜕𝒞

𝜕𝑛 𝐸𝐼 2 1

To solve the boundary value problem, define a function F(x1,x2) by

𝑇 𝜈𝑥13 𝜈

𝑓 = 𝛼𝜓 − 𝐹+ + 1 + 𝑥1 𝑥22

𝐸𝐼 6 2

∇2 𝜓 = 0 𝑜𝑛 𝒞;

𝜕𝜓

= 𝑥2 𝑛1 − 𝑥1 𝑛2 𝑜𝑛 𝜕𝒞

𝜕𝑛

𝑇 𝜈𝑥12 𝜈

𝑡31 = 𝜇𝛼(𝜓,1 − 𝑥2 ) − 𝐹,1 + + 1 + 𝑥22

2 1+𝜈 𝐼 2 2

𝑇

𝑡32 = 𝜇𝛼(𝜓,2 + 𝑥1 ) − 𝐹 + 2 + 𝜈 𝑥1 𝑥2

2 1 + 𝜈 𝐼 ,2

𝑇

𝑡33 = − (𝐿 − 𝑥3 )𝑥1

𝐼

Subject to the lateral boundary condition

𝜕𝐹 𝜈𝑥12 𝜈

=− + 1 + 𝑥22 𝑛1 − 2 + 𝜈 𝑥1 𝑥2 𝑛2 𝑜𝑛 𝜕𝒞

𝜕𝑛 2 2

P25.- In general, the strain energy density W may be expressed in the form

∗

𝑊 = 𝒞𝛼𝛽 𝜀𝛼 𝜀𝛽 (𝛼, 𝛽 = 1, … . ,6)

Where 𝒞𝛼𝛽∗ is not necessarily symmetric. Show that this equation may be

rearranged to appear in the form

1

𝑊= 𝒞𝛼𝛽 𝜀𝛼 𝜀𝛽

2

𝜕𝑊

= 𝒞𝛼𝛽 𝜀𝛽 = 𝑡𝛽

𝜕𝜀𝛽

Plane Elasticity

patterns lead to a reduced, essentially two-dimensional form of the equations

of elasticity, and the study of these situations is referred to as plane elasticity.

In plane stress problems, the geometry of the body is that of a thin plate with

one dimension very much smaller than the other two.

The loading in this case is in the plane of the plate and is assumed to be

uniform across the thickness, as shown in figure:

Plane stress

plane strain

FIG (a) Plane stress problems generally involve bodies that are thin in dimensions with

loads perpendicular to that dimension; (b) plane strain problems involve bodies that are

long in one dimension with loads applied along that dimension.

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For the plane stress situation, the stress components t33, t31, and t32 are taken as

zero everywhere and the remaining components considered functions of only x1 and

x2. Thus,

and as a result, the equilibrium equations, 𝑡𝑗𝑖 ,𝑗 + 𝜌𝑏𝑖 = 0, reduce to the specific

equations

𝑡11,1 + 𝑡12,2 + 𝜌𝑏1 = 0

𝜀11 = 𝑢1,1

𝜀22 = 𝑢2,2

08/07/2017 Dr. Luis Mosquera L. 315

and at the same time the strain compatibility equations,

1

𝜀11 = 𝑡 − 𝜈𝑡22

𝐸 11

1

𝜀22 = 𝑡 − 𝜈𝑡11

𝐸 22

1+𝜈 𝑡12

𝜀12 = 𝑡12 =

𝐸 2𝐺

along with

𝜈 −𝜈

𝜀33 = − 𝑡11 + 𝑡22 = 𝜀11 + 𝜀22

𝐸 1−𝜈

By inverting the equations, we express the stress components in terms of the

strains as

𝐸

𝑡11 = 2

𝜀11 + 𝜈𝜀22

1−𝜈

𝐸

𝑡22 = 𝜀 + 𝜈𝜀11

1 − 𝜈 2 22

𝐸

𝑡12 = 𝜀

1 + 𝜈 12

These equations may be conveniently cast into the matrix formulation

𝑡11 1 𝜈 0 𝜀11

𝐸

𝑡22 = 𝜀22

1 − 𝜈 2 𝜈 1 0

𝑡12 0 0 1−𝜈 𝜀12

In terms of the displacement components, ui (i = 1, 2), the plane stress field

equations may be combined to develop a Navier-type equation for elastostatics,

namely,

𝐸 𝐸

𝑢 + 𝑢 + 𝜌𝑏𝑖 = 0 ; (𝑖, 𝑗 = 1,2)

2 1 + 𝜈 𝑖,𝑗𝑗 2 1 − 𝜈 𝑗 ,𝑗𝑖

For the plane strain situation, figure b, we assume that u3 = 0 and that the remaining

two displacement components are functions of only x1 and x2,

𝑢𝑖 = 𝑢𝑖 𝑥1 , 𝑥2 ; (𝑖 = 1,2)

𝐸

𝑡11 = 1 − 𝜈 𝜀11 + 𝜈𝜀22

1 + 𝜈 1 − 2𝜈

𝐸

𝑡22 = 1 − 𝜈 𝜀22 + 𝜈𝜀11

1 + 𝜈 1 − 2𝜈

𝐸

𝑡12 = 𝜀

1 + 𝜈 12

along with

𝐸𝜈

𝑡33 = 𝜀11 + 𝜀22 = 𝜈 𝑡11 − 𝑡22

1 + 𝜈 1 − 2𝜈

𝐸

𝑡22 = 𝜈 1−𝜈 0 𝜀22

𝑡12 1 + 𝜈 1 − 2𝜈 𝜀12

0 0 1 − 2𝜈

law for plane strain by the equations

1+𝜈

𝜀11 = (1 − 𝜈)𝑡11 − 𝜈𝑡22

𝐸

1+𝜈

𝜀22 = 1 − 𝜈 𝑡22 + 𝜈𝑡11

𝐸

1+𝜈 2(1 + 𝜈) 𝑡12 𝑡12

𝜀12 = 𝑡 = =

𝐸 12 𝐸 2 2𝐺

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By combining the field equations with Hooke’s law for elastostatic plane strain, we

obtain the appropriate Navier equation as

𝐸 𝐸

𝑢 + 𝑢 + 𝜌𝑏𝑖 = 0 ; (𝑖, 𝑗 = 1,2)

2 1 + 𝜈 𝑖,𝑗𝑗 2 1 + 𝜈 (1 − 2𝜈) 𝑗 ,𝑗𝑖

Airy Stress Function

When body forces are conservative with a potential function V = V(x1, x2) such that

bi = –V,ii, we may introduce the Airy stress function, φ = φ(x1, x2) in terms of which

the stresses are given by

𝑡11 = 𝜙,22 + 𝜌𝑉

𝑡22 = 𝜙,11 + 𝜌𝑉

𝑡12 = −𝜙,12

Note that by using this definition the equilibrium equations are satisfied

identically.

which in terms of φ becomes

or in terms of φ

If the body forces consist of gravitational forces only, or if they are constant forces,

the right-hand sides of both equations reduce to zero and φ must then satisfy the bi-

harmonic equation

Example

For a thin rectangular plate of the dimensions shown in Figure a, consider the general

polynomial of the third degree as the Airy stress function and from it determine the

stresses. Assume body forces are zero.

Select a polynomial stress function of the form 𝜙3 = 𝐴3 𝑥13 + 𝐵3 𝑥12 𝑥2 + 𝐶3 𝑥1 𝑥22 + 𝐷3 𝑥23

Choosing this particular polynomial form for the stress function is not arbitrary; the

choice is based on many trials of different order polynomials.

may be solved. Here, two specific cases will be considered.

(a) Assume all coefficients in φ3 are zero except D3. This may be shown to solve the case

of pure bending of a beam by equilibrating moments on the ends. Stress in the fiber

direction of the beam varies linearly with the distance from the x1 axis

as is the case for simple bending. Similarly, by taking only A3 as nonzero, the solution

is for bending moments applied to a beam whose lengthwise direction is taken to be

x2 rather than x1 direction.

(b) If only B3 (or C3) is non-zero, both shear and normal stresses are present. Figure (c)

shows the stress pattern for B3 ≠ 0.

Example

𝜙 ∗ = 𝐵2 𝑥1 𝑥2 + 𝐷4 𝑥1 𝑥23

Show that this stress function may be adapted to solve for the stresses in an end-

loaded cantilever beam shown in the sketch. Assume the body forces are zero for

this problem.

Solution

are directly computed as

𝑡11 = 6𝐷4 𝑥1 𝑥2

𝑡22 = 0

In order for the top and bottom surfaces of the beam to be stress free, t12 must be

zero at x2 = ± c. Using this condition B2 is determined in terms of D4 as B2 = –3D4 c2.

The shear stress is thus given in terms of single constant B2

𝐵2 𝑥22

𝑡12 = −𝐵2 + 2

𝑐

The concentrated load is modeled as the totality of the shear stress t12 on the free

end of the beam. Thus, the result of integrating this stress over the free end of the

beam at x1 = 0 yields the applied force P. In equation form

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𝑐

𝑥22

𝑃=− −𝐵2 + 𝐵2 2 𝑑𝑥2

−𝑐 𝑐

where the minus sign is required due to the sign convention on shear stress. Carrying

out the integration we have B2 = 3P/4c so that stress components may now be written

as

3𝑃

𝑡11 = − 3 𝑥1 𝑥2

2𝑐

𝑡22 = 0

3𝑃 𝑥22

𝑡12 =− 1− 2

4𝑐 𝑐

But for this beam the plane moment of inertia of the cross section is I = 2c3/3

so that now

𝑃

𝑡11 = − 𝑥1 𝑥2

𝐼

𝑡22 = 0

𝑃 2

𝑡12 = − 𝑐 − 𝑥22

08/07/2017 2𝐼

Dr. Luis Mosquera L. 329

The Airy stress function expressed in terms of polar coordinates

We introduce here the basic material element together with the relevant stress

components in terms of the coordinates r and θ as shown on figure.

Using this element and summing forces in the radial direction results in the equilibrium

equation

+ + +𝑅 =0

𝜕𝑟 𝑟 𝜕𝜃 𝑟

+ +2 +Θ=0

𝑟 𝜕𝜃 𝜕𝑟 𝑟

in which R and Θ represent body forces. In the absence of such forces this equations

are satisfied by

1 𝜕𝜙 1 𝜕 2 𝜙

𝑡𝑟𝑟 = +

𝑟 𝜕𝑟 𝑟 2 𝜕𝜃 2

𝜕2 𝜙

𝑡𝜃𝜃 = 2

𝜕𝑟

1 𝜕𝜙 1 𝜕 2 𝜙 𝜕 1 𝜕𝜙

𝑡𝑟𝜃 = 2 − =−

𝑟 𝜕𝜃 𝑟 𝜕𝑟𝜕𝜃 𝜕𝑟 𝑟 𝜕𝜃

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To qualify as an Airy stress function φ must once again satisfy the condition ∇4 ϕ = 0

which in polar form is

4

𝜕2 1 𝜕 1 𝜕2 𝜕 2 𝜙 1 𝜕𝜙 1 𝜕 2 𝜙

∇ ϕ= + + + + =0

𝜕𝑟 2 𝑟 𝜕𝑟 𝑟 2 𝜕𝜃 2 𝜕𝑟 2 𝑟 𝜕𝑟 𝑟 2 𝜕𝜃 2

For stress fields symmetrical to the polar axis this equation reduces to

4

𝜕2 1 𝜕 𝜕 2 𝜙 1 𝜕𝜙

∇ ϕ= + + =0

𝜕𝑟 2 𝑟 𝜕𝑟 𝜕𝑟 2 𝑟 𝜕𝑟

𝜙 = 𝐴 𝑙𝑛𝑟 + 𝐵𝑟 2 𝑙𝑛𝑟 + 𝐶𝑟 2 + 𝐷

so that for the symmetrical case the stress components take the form

1 𝜕𝜙 𝐴

𝑡𝑟𝑟 = = + 𝐵 1 + 2 𝑙𝑛𝑟 + 2𝐶

𝑟 𝜕𝑟 𝑟 2

𝜕2 𝜙 𝐴

𝑡𝜃𝜃 = 2 = − 2 + 𝐵 3 + 2 𝑙𝑛𝑟 + 2𝐶

𝜕𝑟 𝑟

𝑡𝑟𝜃 = 0

When there is no hole at the origin in the elastic body under consideration, A and B

must be zero since otherwise infinite stresses would result at that point. Thus, for a

plate without a hole only uniform tension or compression can exist as a symmetrical

case.

Example

Determine the stresses in a curved beam of the dimensions shown when subjected

to constant equilibrating moments.

Solution

𝑡𝑟𝑟 = 0 𝑎𝑡 𝑟 = 𝑎, 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑎𝑡 𝑟 = 𝑏,

𝑏

𝑡𝜃𝜃 𝑑𝑟 = 0 𝑜𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑒𝑛𝑑 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑠

𝑎

𝑏

𝑟𝑡𝑟𝑟 𝑑𝑟 = −𝑀 𝑜𝑛 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑒𝑛𝑑 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑠

𝑎

The inner and outer radii are free of normal stress which can be written in terms

of boundary condition as

𝐴

+ 𝐵 1 + 2 𝑙𝑛𝑎 + 2𝐶 = 0,

𝑎2

𝐴

+ 𝐵 1 + 2 𝑙𝑛𝑏 + 2𝐶 = 0

𝑏2

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No transverse loading is present on the ends of the curved beam which may

be written in terms of boundary condition as

𝑏 𝑏 𝑏

𝜕2 𝜙 𝜕𝜙

𝑡𝜃𝜃 𝑑𝑟 = 𝑑𝑟 = =0

𝑎 𝑎 𝜕𝑟 2 𝜕𝑟 𝑎

Finally, the applied moments on the ends may be written in terms of boundary

condition

𝑏 𝑏 𝑏

𝜕2 𝜙 𝜕𝜙 𝜕𝜙

𝑟 2 𝑑𝑟 = (𝑟 ) − 𝑑𝑟 = −𝑀

𝑎 𝜕𝑟 𝜕𝑟 𝑎 𝑎 𝜕𝑟

Because of condition (1) the bracketed term here is zero and from the integral

term

𝑏

𝐴 𝑙𝑛 + 𝐵 𝑏 2 𝑙𝑛𝑏 − 𝑎2 𝑙𝑛𝑎 + 𝐶 𝑏 2 − 𝑎2 = 𝑀

𝑎

Therefore,

4𝑀 2 2 𝑏

𝐴=− 𝑎 𝑏 𝑙𝑛

𝑁 𝑎

2𝑀 2

𝐵=− 𝑏 − 𝑎2

𝑁

𝑀 2

𝐶= 𝑏 − 𝑎2 + 2 𝑏 2 𝑙𝑛𝑏 − 𝑎2 𝑙𝑛𝑎

𝑁

where

𝑁 = 𝑏 2 − 𝑎2 2

− 4𝑎2 𝑏2 𝑙𝑛 𝑏/𝑎 2

4𝑀 𝑎2 𝑏 2 2

𝑟 2

𝑎

𝑡𝑟𝑟 =− 𝑙𝑛 𝑏/𝑎 + 𝑏 𝑙𝑛 + 𝑎 𝑙𝑛

𝑁 𝑟2 𝑏 𝑟

4𝑀 𝑎2 𝑏 2 𝑏 𝑟 𝑎

𝑡𝜃𝜃 =− − 2 𝑙𝑛 + 𝑏 2 𝑙𝑛 + 𝑎2 𝑙𝑛 + 𝑏 2 − 𝑎2

𝑁 𝑟 𝑎 𝑏 𝑟

𝑡𝑟𝜃 = 0

08/07/2017 Dr. Luis Mosquera L. 337

Three-Dimensional Elasticity

First, the displacement formulation is based upon solutions of the Navier equations.

The second formulation, called the stress formulation, utilizes solutions of the

equilibrium equations in association with the Beltrami-Michell stress equations and

based upon the compatibility equations in terms of strains.

𝑡𝑗𝑖 ,𝑗 + 𝜌𝑏𝑖 = 0

2𝜀𝑖𝑗 = 𝑢𝑖,𝑗 + 𝑢𝑗 ,𝑖

𝑡𝑖𝑗 = 𝜆𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝜀𝑘𝑘 + 2𝜇𝜀𝑖𝑗

1

𝜀𝑖𝑗 = 1 + 𝜈 𝑡𝑖𝑗 − 𝜈𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝑡𝑘𝑘

𝐸

The above equations,

Navier equations. For the stress formulation we convert the strain equations

of compatibility and repeated here as

into the equivalent expression in terms of stresses, and combine that result with

above equaions to obtain

1 𝜈

𝑡𝑖𝑗 ,𝑘𝑘 + 𝑡𝑘𝑘 ,𝑖𝑗 + 𝜌 𝑏𝑖,𝑗 + 𝑏𝑗 ,𝑖 + 𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝜌𝑏𝑘,𝑘 = 0

1+𝜈 1+𝜈

Let us first consider solutions developed through the displacement formulation. By

inserting an expression for ui in terms of the proposed potentials into the Navier

equations we obtain the governing equations for the appropriate potentials.

The method used in our first approach rests upon the well-known theorem of

Helmholtz which states that any vector function that is continuous and finite, and

which vanishes at infinity, may be resolved into a pair of components: one a rotation

vector, the other an irrotational vector. Thus, if the curl of an arbitrary vector a is zero,

then a is the gradient of a scalar φ, and a is irrotational, or as it is sometimes called,

solenoidal. At the same time, if the divergence of the vector a is zero, then a is the

curl of another vector ψ, and is a rotational vector.

displacement field is given by

where φ,i is representative of the irrotational portion, and curl ψ the rotational

portion. Substituting this displacement vector with bi taken as zero, namely

𝜇𝑢𝑖,𝑗𝑗 + 𝜆 + 𝜇 𝑢𝑗 ,𝑗𝑖 = 0

we obtain

𝜇𝜙,𝑖𝑗𝑗 + 𝜇𝜀𝑖𝑝𝑞 𝜓𝑞,𝑝𝑗𝑗 + 𝜆 + 𝜇 𝜙,𝑖𝑗𝑗 + 𝜆 + 𝜇 𝜀𝑗𝑝𝑞 𝜓𝑞,𝑝𝑗𝑖 = 0

which reduces to

𝜆 + 2𝜇 𝜙,𝑖𝑗𝑗 + 𝜇𝜀𝑖𝑝𝑞 𝜓𝑞,𝑝𝑗𝑗 = 0

since 𝜀𝑗 𝑝𝑞 𝜓𝑞,𝑝𝑗𝑖 = 0

In coordinate-free notation

𝜆 + 2𝜇 ∇∇2 𝜙 + 𝜇∇ × ∇2 𝜓 = 0

Any set of φ and ψ which satisfies the above equations provides a displacement

field satisfying the Navier equation. Clearly, one such set is obtained by requiring φ

and ψ to be harmonic:

∇2 𝜙 = 0

∇2 𝜓 = 0

the Lamé strain potential. By taking the divergence of this equation, and remembering

that the divergence of a curl vanishes, we see that

∇4 𝜙 = 0

solution for ui. Similarly, we find that

∇4 𝜓 = 0

The second approach for solving the Navier equations is based on the premise of

expressing the displacement field in terms of the second derivatives of a vector

known as the Galerkin vector, and designated here by 𝐹 = 𝐹𝑖 𝑒𝑖

vector specifically by the equation

𝑢𝑖 = 2 1 − 𝜈 𝐹𝑖,𝑗𝑗 − 𝐹𝑗 ,𝑗𝑖

and reducing the resulting equations with the help of the identity 𝜆 = 2𝜈𝜇/ 1 − 2𝜈

∇4 𝐹 = 0

Thus, any bi-harmonic vector is suitable as a Galerkin vector.

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there is a relationship between φ and ψ with F. It can be been shown that

𝜙 = −𝐹𝑖,𝑖

and

𝜀𝑖𝑗𝑘 𝜓𝑘,𝑗 = 2 1 − 𝜈 𝐹𝑖,𝑗𝑗

𝜀𝑖𝑗𝑘 𝜓𝑘,𝑗 = 0

𝜙,𝑖𝑖 = −𝐹𝑖,𝑗𝑗 𝑖

Example

coordinates, that is 𝐹3 = 𝐹3 (𝑥1 , 𝑥2 , 𝑥3 ) . Apply this vector to obtain the solution

to the problem of a concentrated force acting at the origin of coordinates in the

direction of the positive x3 axis of a very large elastic body. This is called the Kelvin

problem.

Solution

Therefore,

𝑢1 = −𝐹3,31

𝑢2 = −𝐹3,32

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Take F3 to be proportional to the distance squared from the origin as defined by

F3 = BR where B is a constant and 𝑅 2 = 𝑥12 + 𝑥22 + 𝑥32 thus, the displacements

are

𝐵𝑥3 𝑥1

𝑢1 =

𝑅3

𝐵𝑥3 𝑥2

𝑢2 =

𝑅3

4 1−𝜈 𝑥12 + 𝑥22

𝑢3 = 𝐵 −

𝑅 𝑅3

From these displacement components the stresses may be computed using Hooke’s

law.

Prob 26.- For an isotropic elastic medium as defined by 𝑡𝑖𝑗 = 𝜆𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝜀𝑘𝑘 + 2𝜇𝜀𝑖𝑗 ,

express the strain energy density in terms of

(a) the components of εij

(b) the components of σij

(c) the invariants of εij

1 2 𝜆+𝜇

𝑎) =

1 + 𝜈 3𝜆 + 2𝜇

𝜈 𝜆

𝑏) =

1 + 𝜈 𝜆 + 2𝜇

2𝜇𝜈 3𝐾𝜈

𝑐) =

1 − 2𝜈 1 + 𝜈

𝑑) 2𝜇 1 + 𝜈 = 3𝐾 1 − 2𝜈

Prob 28.- Develop a formula in terms of the strain components for the strain energy

density W for the case of an orthotropic elastic medium.

Prob 29.- A rectangular beam of width unity and length 2L carries a uniformly

distributed load of q lb/ft as shown. Shear forces V support the beam at both ends.

List the six boundary conditions for this beam the stresses must satisfy.

Classical Fluids

matter how small they may be, will cause the fluid to deform continuously as long

as the stresses act.

This implies that the stress vector on an arbitrary element of surface at any point

in a fluid at rest is proportional to the normal ni of that element, but independent

of its direction:

𝑛

𝑡𝑖 = 𝑡𝑖𝑗 𝑛𝑗 = −𝑝0 𝑛𝑖

is frequently called, the hydrostatic pressure. We note that

which indicates that every direction is a principal stress direction at any point, and

that the hydrostatic pressure is equal to the mean normal stress,

1

𝑝0 = − 𝑡𝑖𝑖

3

For a fluid in motion the shear stresses are not usually zero, and in this case

For a fluid in motion, p is not equal to the mean normal stress, but instead is

given by

1

𝑝 = − 𝑡𝑖𝑖 − 𝜏𝑖𝑖

3

If the functional relationship in this equation is nonlinear, the fluid is called a

Stokesian fluid.

When fij defines τij as a linear function of Dij, the fluid is known as a Newtonian

fluid, and we represent it by the equation:

From this equation we see that the mean normal stress for a Newtonian fluid is

1 1

𝑡𝑖𝑖 = −𝑝 + 3𝜆∗ + 2𝜇∗ 𝑑𝑖𝑗 = −𝑝 + 𝑘 ∗ 𝑑𝑖𝑖

3 3

Where k* is known as the coefficient of bulk viscosity. The condition

1

𝑘 = 3𝜆∗ + 2𝜇∗

∗

3

is known as Stokes condition. If we introduce the deviator tensors

.

1

𝑆𝑖𝑗 = 𝑡𝑖𝑗 − 𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝑡𝑘𝑘

3

1

𝛽𝑖𝑗 = 𝑑𝑖𝑗 − 𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝑑𝑘𝑘

3

for stress and for rate of deformation, we obtain

1 1

𝑆𝑖𝑗 + 𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝑡𝑘𝑘 = −𝑝𝛿𝑖𝑗 + 3𝜆∗ + 2𝜇∗ 𝛿𝑖𝑗 𝑑𝑘𝑘 + 2𝜇∗ 𝛽𝑖𝑗

3 3

which may be conveniently split into the pair of constitutive equations

because the viscous forces are related directly to the velocity field, it is

customary to employ the Eulerian description in writing the governing equations

for boundary value problems in viscous fluid theory. Thus, for the

thermomechanical behavior of a Newtonian fluid, the following field equations

must be satisfied:

𝜌 + 𝜌𝑣𝑖,𝑖 = 0

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(b) the equations of motion

𝑝 = 𝑝(𝜌, 𝜃)

(f) the caloric equation of state

𝑢 = 𝑢(𝜌, 𝜃)

𝑞𝑖 = −𝑘𝜃,𝑖

This system of equations together with the definition of the rate of deformation

tensor,

1

𝑑𝑖𝑗 = 𝑣𝑖,𝑗 + 𝑣𝑗 ,𝑖

2

Certain of the above field equations may be combined to offer a more compact

formulation of viscous fluid problems. Thus, we can obtain

∗

𝜌𝑣𝑖 = 𝜌𝑏𝑖 − 𝑝,𝑖 + 𝜆 + 𝜇∗ 𝑣𝑗,𝑗𝑖 + 𝜇∗ 𝑣𝑖,𝑗𝑗

𝜕𝑣𝑖

𝑣𝑖 = + 𝑣𝑗 𝑣𝑖,𝑗

𝜕𝑡

If Stokes condition 2

𝜆∗ = − 𝜇 ∗ is assumed, the navier equation reduces to

the form 3

1 ∗

𝜌𝑣𝑖 = 𝜌𝑏𝑖 − 𝑝,𝑖 + 𝜇 (𝑣𝑗,𝑗𝑖 + 3𝑣𝑖,𝑗𝑗 )

3

Steady Flow, Irrotational Flow, Potential Flow

If the velocity components of a fluid are independent of time, the motion is called

a steady flow. In such cases, the material derivative of the velocity,

𝜕𝑣𝑖

𝑣𝑖 = + 𝑣𝑗 𝑣𝑖,𝑗

𝜕𝑡

reduces to the simpler form

𝑣𝑖 = 𝑣𝑗 𝑣𝑖,𝑗

Furthermore, if the velocity field is constant and equal to zero everywhere, the

fluid is at rest and the theory for this condition is called hydrostatics. For this, the

Navier-Stokes equations are simply

𝜌𝑏𝑖 − 𝑝,𝑖 = 0

function in the form

𝑝

𝑑𝑝

𝑃 𝑝 =

𝑝0 𝜌

In addition, if the body forces are conservative, we may express them in terms of a

scalar potential function Ω by the relationship

𝑏𝑖 = −Ω,𝑖

Therefore, it follow that

1 ∇𝑝

𝑃,𝑖 = 𝑝,𝑖 𝑜𝑟 ∇𝑃 =

𝜌 𝜌

Ω+𝑃 ,𝑖 =0

as the governing equation for steady flow of a barotropic fluid with conservative

body forces.

Example

gravity down an inclined plane of slope β. If the thickness of the fluid

perpendicular to the plane is h and the pressure on the free surface is p = po

(a constant), determine the pressure and velocity fields for this flow.

Solution

flow, vi,i = 0. Hence, v2,2 = 0 and v2 = v2(x3). Thus, the rate of deformation tensor

1 𝜕𝑣2

has components 𝑑23 = 𝑑32 = and all others equal to zero. The

2 𝜕𝑥3

Newtonian constitutive equation is given in this case by

−𝑝 0 0

𝜕𝑣2

0 −𝑝 𝜇∗

𝑡𝑖𝑗 = 𝜕𝑥3

𝜕𝑣2

0 𝜇∗ −𝑝

𝜕𝑥3

the equations of motion having the steady flow form

(for i = 1) −𝑝,1 = 0

2

∗ 𝜕 𝑣2

(for i = 2) −𝑝,2 + 𝜇 + 𝜌𝑔𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛽 = 0

𝜕𝑥32

𝒃 = 𝑔 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛽𝑒2 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛽𝑒3

Integrating the equations gives

𝑝 = − 𝜌𝑔𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛽 𝑥3 + 𝑓(𝑥2 )

𝑓 𝑥2 = 𝑝0 + 𝜌𝑔ℎ𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛽

and thus

𝑝 = 𝑝0 + 𝜌𝑔𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛽 ℎ − 𝑥3

Next, by integrating the middle equation above (for i = 2) twice with respect to x3,

we obtain

−𝜌𝑔𝑠𝑒𝑛𝛽 2

𝑣2 = 𝑥3 + 𝑎𝑥3 + 𝑏

2𝜇 ∗

with a and b constants of integration. But from the boundary conditions,

1. v2 = 0 when x3 = 0, therefore b = 0

𝜌𝑔ℎ

2. σ23 = 0 when x3 = h, therefore 𝑎 = ∗ 𝑠𝑒𝑛𝛽

𝜇

Finally,

𝜌𝑔𝑠𝑒𝑛𝛽

𝑣2 = 2ℎ − 𝑥3 𝑥3

2𝜇 ∗

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