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Language and Language Yeaching Journals

Vol. 7, No. 1, Juni 2014 ISSN 1979-8903

Table of Contents

Psychological Structural Analysis to “A Child Called It” by Dave Pelzer


Endang Susilowati.......................................................................................................1

Students’ Perceptions on a Good Tertiary Foreign Language Teacher


Siti Tarwiyah and Nadiah Ma’mun............................................................................13

The Impact of Structural Competence Towards Speaking Competence


of The Fourth Semester Students of English Department of Tarbiyah
Faculty IAIN Walisongo Semarang in the Academic Year of 2010/2011
Muhammad Nafi Annury..........................................................................................42

The Influence of Digital Games Based Learning on Students’ Learning


Outcomes and Motivation
Rahmat Yusny and Sarah Fitri.................................................................................61

Autonomous Learning Writing Promoted by the Use of Facebook Group


KhairilRazali and HusnulKhatimah...........................................................................81

The Interlanguage Interference on the Difficulties of Building Question


Sentences by the Second Year Students of MA As Soorkaty Salatiga

Sari Famularsih........................................................................................................99

SUBMISSION GUIDELINES............................................................................119
Reviewer

KC Lee
Centre for English Language Communication, National University of
Singapore

Prof. Dr. Gusti Astika


Satya Wacana Christian University

Handoyo
Politeknik Negeri Jember

T. Ruanni F. Tupas
Centre for English Language Communication, National University of Singapore

Dr. A. Gumawang Jati, M.A


UPT Pusat Bahasa Institut Teknologi Bandung

Drs. Ahmad Sofyan, Ph.D


Universitas Negeri Semarang

Dr. H. Sa’adi
Sekolah Tinggi Agama Islam Negeri (STAIN) Salatiga
Psychological Structural Analysis to “A Child Called It”
by Dave Pelzer

Endang Susilowati
Ngudi Waluyo Nursing Academy
Jl. Gedong Songo Candi Rejo Ungaran
endsus2@yahoo.co.id

Abstract
This paper attempts to explore a child abuse, the reason and the effect of the character’s
psychological development using the theory of psychological development and
structural analysis. Two approaches are used in this paper. Those are structural
approach and psychology, especially developmental psychology approach. The
first approach focuses on literary intrinsic elements. The second approach focuses
on the character’s psychological development based on the developmental stages
and tasks. Those are integrated into a psychological structural analysis. The result
shows that child abuse that experienced by David is physical and psychological. He
got the first stage of abuse commited by his mother who didn’t give him food and
the last stage evidenced by some physical abuses when he lived with his mother.
The primary reasons of David abuses are disciplinary patterns and he was regarded
as a trouble maker.

Keywords: Psychological structural analysis, child abuse and psychological


develop­ment.

Abstrak
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengungkapkan kekerasan pada anak, alasan
dan dampak dari kekerasan tersebut terhadap perkembangan psikologis tokoh

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dengan menggunakan teori perkembangan psikologis dan analisis struktural.


Ada dua pendekatan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Pendekatan ter­
sebut adalah pendekatan struktural dan psikologi, khususnya psikologi
per­kembangan. Pendekatan pertama berfokus pada unsur intrinsik sastra.
Pendekatan kedua berfokus pada perkembangan psikologis tokoh ber­
da­
sar­kan tahap dan tugas perkembangan. Kedua pendekatan tersebut di­inte­
grasikan ke dalam analisis struktur psikologis. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa
kekerasan terhadap anak yang dialami oleh David adalah kekerasan yang
berupa fisik dan psikologis. Dia mendapat tahap pertama kekerasan yang
dibuktikan dengan ibunya yang tidak memberinya makanan dan tahap ter­
akhir dari kekerasan yang dibuktikan dengan beberapa hukuman secara
fisik ketika ia tinggal dengan ibunya. Alasan utama David mendapatkan pe­
nyiksaan adalah pola pendisiplinan dan ia dianggap sebagai anak yang men­
jadi sumber masalah.

Kata kunci: Analisis struktur psikologis, Kekerasan pada anak dan Perkembangan
psikologis

Introduction

Novel as a genre of literary work has intrinsic elements such as character and
characterization, plot and plotting, setting and point of view. Those transfer
the writer’s ideas to readers. Some novels are personal, seeking to explore
human relationships, conflicts, desires and fears. This novel seems to appeal
to readers in the way that described the writer’s idea. For example, Dave Plezer,
the writer of novel trilogy A Child Called it, The Lost Boy and A Man Named
Dave tells his idea about child abuse in his novels. This paper only focuses on
his first novel, A Child Called It.
David Plezer through Dave—tells about a child who tried to survive
from his mother’s cruelty. His father only watched without ability to help
him. Even when he was legally taken by his country, his effort to be freed from
his mother’s shadow couldn’t be stopped. Until at last he can prove that he
can become a famous writer.
This paper tries to explore the kind of child abuse and its effect to a
child by analyzing its character and characterization, plot and the writer’s

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point of view. Because the problem is the psychological development of a


child so it needs developmental psychology. Those theories will be integrated.
Wellek and Warren (1976:81) state ‘by psychology of literature’, we
may mean the psychological study of the writer as type and as individual,
or the study of the creative process, or the study of psychological types and
laws present within works of literature, or , finally, the effect of literature upon
its readers (audience psychology). It is known that psychology can be used to
analyze the writer’s soul, his creative process, psychological types and the
concept of psychology in literature and the effect of literature works upon
its readers. It can be said that there is a significant relationship between
psychology and literature. Psychology helps to clarify the problems in literature
and literature presents insight to psychology.

Developmental psychology

Monks, et.al (2004:1) say that the object of developmental psychology is the
human development as an individual. Development refers to a process leading
to bring out capabilities and cannot be repeated. Some psychologists differ
in their opinion about growth and development. Growth refers to the adding
of body weight and physical’s function, whereas development refers to
distinctive nature of psychological condition.
Erikson approach in discussing the process of child development is to
outline the stages of psychosocial development. Those are trust versus distrust
(0-1 year), autonomy versus shyness and doubtful (1-3 years), initiative versus
guilty (3-6 years), ability feeling versus low self esteem (6-12 years), identity
and role disoriented (12-18 years), intimacy versus isolation (21-40 years/early
adult), generative versus stagnation (40-65/middle adult) and ego integrity
versus desperate (65-die). Those phases have their own developmental task.
Meanwhile Piaget in his theory about cognitive development explains
that cognitive development is discussed based on the phase of sensoric-motoric,
preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational states (Piaget,
1952:18,42,153). At every process of development there is a combination of
self-encouragement to maintain and develop the self-encouragement. This
means that what have been achieved will be maintained and used as a basic

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moral for further development. As a result of the defense, one will store all
the useful experience. This experience will make the person more intelligent
and mature.
Kartono (1995:40) states that the combination of self-defense and
encouragement of self-development is a process of new synthesis integration,
namely the impulse of self realization and self-transcendence efforts. The
developmental psychology also mentions that the principle of develop­
ment, the main motive of life is to negate and break away from all obstacles,
sense of tension, and inner disequilibrium to reach and satisfy state of inner
equilibrium. This balance would be achieved if all the requirements are met
so all tension and mental disorders are lost.

Discussion

By using the first person point of view (I), the narrator seemed to make the
reader able to feel all feelings experienced by the character. David as the main
character and is a complex figure as can be seen from the dynamics of his
life. It can be seen from his efforts to survive in the face of violence committed
by his mother. The character in this novel is figured in dramatic ways. The
reader will know the character and his attitude from several measures taken
by him to survive. In the process of reading the novel, the reader will soon be
brought with the dynamism of the character who never gave up in his quest
to survive the abuse.

“I act timid, nodding to her threats. ‘Please, ‘I say to myself, ‘just let me to eat. Hit
me again, but I have to have food. ‘Another blow pushed my head against the tile
counter top. I let the tears of mock defeat stream down my face as storms out the
kitchen, seemingly satisfied with herself. After I count her steps, making sure she’s
gone, I breathe a sigh of relief. The act worked. Mother can beat me all she wants.
I haven’t let her take away my will to somehow survive.
I finish the dishes, then my other chores. For my reward I receive breakfast-leftover
from one of my brother’s cereal bowls.” (4)

In his very young age (6-12 years), David has known that he had to get
food if he wanted to live. His effort is not only having food but also stealing,
slacking off when his mother would torture him, being very obedient and

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others. Based on the plot of time analysis, this novel uses flash back. The
first chapter of the novel is Rescue. It tells about David’s life at the end he got
abuse from his mother, as cited in the first chapter of this novel:” 5 March
1973, Daly City, California-I’m late I’ve got to finish the dishes on time, otherwise
no breakfast; since I didn’t have dinner last night, I have to make sure I get something
to eat” (3). From this note, it can be seen that at the first narration, the narrator
at this case is David who brings the reader to the situation when he had to
finish his task if he wanted to get a plate of rice. In this chapter, David also
tells about the rescue that was done by his school teacher and ends the abuse
from his mother. Then he was brought to foster house by a police officer.

“I run to the administration office, and I’m there in a flash. My throat is raw and
still burns from yesterday’s ‘game’ Mother played against me. The secretary leads
me into the teacher’s lounge. After she opens the door, it takes a moment for my
eyes to adjust. In front of me, sitting around a table, are my homeroom teacher Mr.
Ziegler, my match teacher Miss Woods, the school nurse, Mr. Hansen and a police
officer… I have no idea that they are about to risk their jobs to save me” (9)

Then, the story is back to the situation when he was happy with his family
and when his mother still loved him:”In the years before I was abused, my family
was ‘Brady Bunch’ of the 1960s. My two brothers and I were blessed with the perfect
parents. Our every whim was fulfilled with love and care” (17). In this step through
the chapter of Good Times, David tries to explore his mother’s closeness with
her children and David’s admiration of his mother. “My Mother, Catherine
Roerva, was a woman of average size and appearance. I never could remember the color
of her hair or eyes, but Mom was a woman who glared with love for her children…”
(18). David also told that her mother was a perfect woman for him.

“When it came to house keeping, Mom was an absolute clean fiend. After
feeding my two brohters, Ronald and Stand, and I breakfast. She would dust
disinfect, scour and vacuum everything. No room in our house was left untouched.
As we grew older, Mom made sure we did our part by keeping our room neat.
Outside, she meticulously attended a small flower garden, which was the envy of
the neighborhood, with Mom, everything she touched turned into gold. She didn’t
believe in doing anything halfway. Mom often told us that we must always do the
best could, in whatever we did” (18-19).

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From David’s story readers can know that David admired and loved her
mother so much. Her mother really cared of her sons and her house. Even
her neighbors were also jealous with the way she managed her house. It is
told by David when he was four (4) years. According to Kohlberg moral
developmental psychology (1968:12) a child in this age is on the sensoric-
motoric and preoperational phase by interpreting a thing or an event. David
also uses his sensoric-motoric by starting to evaluate his house condition
and his mother which makes him comfortable. This comfortable state can
be seen from his happiness when he lived with his parents and his brothers.
At Halloween and Christmas celebrations his mother always gave the best
things to him. Because his father was a fire man who worked for 24 hours, he
and his brothers spent most of the time with his mother. Base on the Erikson
psychosocial development, David didn’t get bias of development when he
was in 0-11 months or in the phase of trust versus un trust and when he was
in one (1) until three (3) years old or in phase of autonomy versus shyness and
doubtful. Because of that, David had really trust on his mother. His mother’s
love in giving his daily needs when he was hungry or thirsty made him feels
comfortable. He was never scared of his mother and it also made his mother
close to her children. At that time, he was the youngest children in his house.
He could play with his brothers well.
The story develops with his mother changing and to ill treat David as
the conflict in this story emerges. In the chapter of Bad Boys, David told that
his mother’s treatment to him changed dramatically because of disciplinary
reasons. His mother often gave punishment to him. It made him afraid of his
mother. His fear is the conflict source in this story and makes the story more
developed.

“About this time, Mom’s behavior began to change radically. At times while father
was away, she would spend the entire day lying on the couch, dressed only in
her bathrobe, watching television. Mom got up only to go to the bathroom, get
another drink or heat leftover food. When she yelled at us, her voice changed from
nurturing mother to the wicked witch. Soon, the sound of Mother’s voice began to
send tremors down on my spine. Even when she barked at one of my brothers, I’d
run to hide in our room, hoping she would soon return to the couch, her drink and
her tv show” (30).

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It can be seen from the quote that the abused happened when David’s father
was not at home. His mother’s attitude changed and this changing made
David’s afraid. His mother who was initially described as an ideal mother
for her children, day by day her character changes. The problem between
David and his mother developed more as when his mother often gave David
punishment. The punishment started from standing at the corner of the bed
to smashing and pinching.

“SMACK!” Mother hits me in the face, and I topple to the floor. I know better
than to stand there and take hit, I learned hard way that she takes that as an act of
defiance, which means more hits, or worst of all, no food”(37)
“Mother claimed that she had seen me that very day playing on the grass, which
was absolutely forbidden by her rules. I quickly answered that I never played on
the grass. I knew Mother had somehow made a mistake. My reward for observing
Mother’s rules and telling the truth was a hard pinch in the face” (40-41)

In the chapters The Fight for Food and While Father is Away, David tells his mother
abused to him. In exploring those abuses, the narrator brings the reader to
the phase of the end of the character’s torturing. Plot of the story presented
the existing conflict between David and his mother and makes it interesting.
The worst punishment that David got from his mother was when she didn’t
allow David going out with his father and his brothers when they went out.

“….Once in the cabin, I was scolded for making too much noise. For my
punishment, I was not allowed to go with father and my brothers to the super
slide. I sat on a chair in a corner, shivering, hoping that something would happen
so three of them wouldn’t leave. I know mother had something hideous on her
mind. As soon as they left, she brought out of Russell’s diapers. She smeared the
Diaper on my face. I tried to sit perfectly still. I knew if I moved, it would only be
worse. I didn’t look up. I couldn’t see Mother standing over me; but I could hear her
heavy beating.”(53)

David gets abused when he was four (4) years old. According to Erikson (1963:
19) a child in this age is on the initiative versus guilty phase (3-6 years). In
this phase the child started to develop his independency by his effort to wear
his own cloth, to take his own food and to go to the toilet. David didn’t get
development problem in this phase because at the beginning of his life, he felt
comfortable living with his family. He had been able to control himself. The

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abuses continuously happened to David. David hoped that his father could
help him but he never got it. His father only saw what his mother had done
to him. It made David hates his father so much.”...when I open them, I stared at
Father who turned away to avoid my pain. At that moment I hated Mother to the end,
but I hated father even more”. (64). According to Kohlberg moral development
(1968:15), David’s feeling to his father emerged because David was in pre-
conventional phase. He had learned about good and bad and he had known
that what his mother had done to him was not good but he didn’t get support
from his father. He came to hate his father as the result of his disappointment.
After David was pushed to eat his own vomit, his punishment was
changed to the ammoniac. Because he couldn’t eat, his mother forced him to
drink that liquid. As the child who didn’t know the dangers of the ammoniac,
David thought that his punishment was too easy for him. He only needed to
open his mouth and his problem would be finished. According to Piaget
cognitive development (1952:42), the child 7 until 11 years old, his thinking
is more rationale, imaginative, and can explore more object or situation to
solve his problem. But his thinking ability isn’t completed. It also happened to
David. His knowledge about the dangerous of the ammoniac wasn’t sufficient.

“Without hesitation I opened my mouth, and mother rammed the cold spoon deep
into my throat. Again I told myself this was all too easy, but moment later I couldn’t
breathe. My throat seized. I stood wobbling in front of Mother, feeling as if my
eyes were going to pop out of my skull…” (75)

As a result of that punishment, David nearly died.. He couldn’t breathe, his


throat was burned and his body seized. But it didn’t make his mother stop to
punish him. His mother stabbed her knife into David’s stomach accidentally.

“She tried to regain her balance, snapping at Russell to let go of her leg, while she
continued to scream at me. By then, her upper body looked like rocking chair that
was out of control. Forgetting about her useless threats, I imagined that the old
drunk was going to fall flat on her face. I focused all my attention on Mother’s face.
Out of the corner of my eye I saw blurred object fly from her hand. A sharp pain
erupted from just above my stomach. I tried to remain standing, but my legs gave
out, and my world turned black” (87)

David thought with this accident his punishment would be over, but he was
wrong. His mother still asked him to finish his food and wash all the dishes

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in thirty minutes. With his body still weak and in very severe pain, David
followed his mother’s instructions. This condition is like the climax of the
story, but the tensions of the story still continued. His mother dunks David’s
face in the bathroom sink. Those abuses made David were very scared of
his mother. According to Hurlock psychological development (1991:131)
about the changing relationship between children and their parents, it can
happen because of the concept of a good child. If the child doesn’t fulfill what
his parents needed, his parents often become critical and punished. It also
happened into David’s mother who thought that David isn’t a good boy
because he always breaks her rules and always be able to have tactics to face
each of her punishment and it makes her annoyed and made her give more
and even worse punishment. “…This will teach The Boy to quit stealing food!”
(76). Her mother’s reason giving hard punishments to stop David’s habit
stealing food in his school.
As 4-6 years child or in initiative versus guilty phase in Piaget (1952)
cognitive development phase, David started his initiative by planning and
trying new things. In his development phase he thought that it may not give
a chance to him for fighting and he didn’t have another choice to be freed
from his torturing. The climax of this story is in chapter The Lord Prayer as the
end of the chapter of A Child Called It. This chapter told about David’s abuse
when he was a proud of his writing was the best in his school and his teacher
was very a proud of him. He hoped his mother would do the same but his
mother never appreciated his works. His mother thought he was only it that
had meaningless. His mother amuck made him had no spirit to survive.
“….There is nothing you can do to impress me! Do you understand me? You are
nobody! An it! You are nonexistent! You are a bastard child! I hate you and I wish
you were dead! Dead! Do you hear me? Dead! (140).
Views of psychosocial development suggested by Erickson (1963:42),
when David got abused from his mother, he was at the phase of feeling ability
versus low self esteem (6-12 years). In this phase the child will begin to learn
to work together to compete through academic activities. As well as David,
he felt very happy when he succeeded in writing and it made his teacher
proud of him.. He hoped her mother would also be nice to him when she
knew that he was doing well in his school, but he was wrong. His mother did
not appreciate and reward for all that was done by him. As a result David

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felt that he was useless and he becomes low self-esteem. All his efforts to
prove to his mother that he doesn’t like what his mother’s thought was gone.
David finally found that he was only it just like what his mother said and his
presence was only making a problem in his family. He did not have a passion
for life. He resigned to that done by her mother until she eventually rescued
by the teachers at his school.
David was in 5th grade when he was rescued. He started to get abused
when he was in kindergarten, which was the age of 3-4 years. Refers to
Kohlberg’s moral development (1968:20) at that time child is in preconvention
at the second phase. It can be seen from David’s-oriented attitude to punish­
ment and obedience; he was very obedient to all that was done by his mother.
The obedience to his mother made ​​him more afraid of his mother. As a child
he only felt fear when her mother suddenly punished him when his brother
also did the same thing.

“As a small child, I probably had a voice that carried farther than others. I also had
the unfortunate luck of getting caught at mischief, even though my brothers and I
were often committing the same ‘crime’. In the beginning, I was put in a corner of
our bedroom. By this time, I had become more afraid of Mom. Very afraid. I never
asked her to let me come out. I would sit and wait for one of my brothers to come
into our bedroom, and have him ask if David could come out now and play” (29).

According to Kohlberg moral development (1963:20) at the preconvention


phase, the child should get strong motivation from his family. This moti­
vation is to make the child able to differentiate between good and bad in his
attitude. But if the task of child’s development isn’t fulfilled, the child will
not understand about good and bad label and he will be scared. Then it’s
happened to David. He doesn’t understand what his mistake was. He only
knew that he got a lot of punishment from his mother.
With these experiences David became more mature than his age. He
suffered early aspiration level; the level of struggle leads a higher level. With
his attitudes, he was able to find a way to survive. He realizes, crying is not
a settlement. He must be able to think quickly and act correctly when faced
his mother. It is in line with the thinking of the Monks who said that by the
encouragement to survive, someone will save all his useful experiences (2004:
178). Then, with those experiences, someone will be cleverer and mature and

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have deeper appreciation of life. Every stage of life has just achieved a form
of temporary equilibrium point of departure for the effort and new activities.
David, with his experiences, began to look for ways to be able to withstand
his mother’s abuse. “Standing alone in that damp, dark garage, I knew, for the first
time, that I could survive. I decided that I would use any tactic. I could think of defeat
Mother or delay her from her grisly obsession” (43).
In term of cognitive development, Piaget (1962), David’s capabilities
in addressing the abuses because when he was in 6-11 years old he is in
concrete phase, he has been able to form his knowledge. David has been able
to analyze the events in his life. He thought if he wanted to survive he had to
have a tactics to face his mother.

Conclusion

Based on the analysis above, it can be seen that the writer uses flash back of
the plot in telling his story. The writer made the story interesting and complex
by revealing the tensions of the problem. The writer wants the reader to feel
what has been experienced by the character with using ‘I ‘as the point of view
of his narration.
By analyzing the structural point of the literature along with psycho­
logical development approach, it can be seen that David gets from the first to
the last stages of the child abuse. The sign of the first stage is that he didn’t
get food from his mother and the sign of the last stage is physical abuse such
as slap in his face, pinch etc.
The primary reason of the abuse that David received is disciplinary. His
mother thought that David wasn’t a good son so he should be disciplined by
giving a lot of punishment that were very heavy for David. His mother also
was annoyed with David because he was always able to face her punishment.
The effect of the abuse was that David became scared of his mother. He
also feels disappointed with his father because he couldn’t help him. David
didn’t understand why he got a lot of abuse from his mother because he was
still a kid when he got those abuses.

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References

Erikson EH; 1963. Childhood and society. New York: Norton


Hurlock, Elizabeth B. 1991. Psikologi Perkembangan: Suatu Pendekatan Sepanjang
Rentang Kehidupan (terjemahan Istiwadayanti dan Soedjarwo). Jakarta
Erlangga.
Kartono, Kartini. 1995. Psikologi Anak (Psikologi Perkembangan). Bandung:
Penerbit Mandar Maju.
Kolberg. L. 1968. The Child as Moral. Cambridge: MA Harvard University
Monks, et al. 2004. Psikologi Perkembangan. Yogjakarta: Gadjah Mada University
Press
Piaget, J. 1952. The Origin of Intelegence in Children. New York: International
University Press
Plezer, David. 2004. A Child Called It (thirty third impression). London: Orion
Books Ltd.
Wellek, Rene and Warren, Austin. 1976. Theory of Literature. Great Britain: Cox
and Wayman Ltd

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Students’ Perceptions on a Good Tertiary Foreign
Language Teacher

Siti Tarwiyah
IAIN Walisongo Semarang
Jl. Walisongo 3-5 Semarang
nashidadear@yahoo.co.id

Nadiah Ma’mun
IAIN Walisongo Semarang
Jl. Walisongo 3-5 Semarang
nadiah.mamun@facebook.com

Abstract
This paper investigates students’ perception of tertiary teachers’ attitude, method of
teaching and classroom management in the teaching and learning of (professional,
pedagogic, social and personality competence) English and Arabic Language at
IAIN Walisongo Semarang. This study is designed quantitavely and qualitatively
using closed and open-ended questionnaire for collecting data. The subject of this
research is the second semester students of the two faculties at IAIN Walisongo
who, in that semester, take Arabic or English language course. The subject is chosen
because based on 2012 course distribution, English and Arabic are distributed in the
first and the second semester. The findings revealed that it is clearly seen that KPI
(Islamic Communication & Broadcasting) department students have better perception
to their English language teachers. Meanwhile, students who have better perception
to their Arabic Language Teachers are those from Islamic Counseling Departments
(BPI) of Dakwah faculty. Data of Tarbiyah Faculty shows Arabic language teachers
are dominating. Arabic language teachers win 0.5 over English language teachers

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Students’ Perceptions on a Good Tertiary....

in almost all characteristics. This implies that expected performance of students in


English Language is based on the teachers’ attitude, method of teaching the subject
and classroom management. Based on the above-findings, recommendations were
made.

Keywords: Perception, Tertiary Teachers, Personality Social and Pedagogic


Competence, English Language, Teaching/Learning

Abstrak
Makalah ini mengkaji persepsi mahasiswa terhadap kompetensi sikap,
metode pembelajaran, dan manajemen kelas dosen mata kuliah Bahasa
Inggris dan Bahasa Arab di IAIN Walisongo Semarang. Kajian ini didesain
secara kuantitatif dan kualitatif, dengan menggunakan kuesioner tertutup
dan terbuka sebagai teknik pengumpulan data. Subyek penelitian ini adalah
mahasiswa IAIN Walisongo semester dua dari dua fakultas, yaitu Fakultas
Dakwah dan Fakultas Tarbiyah. Subyek ini diambil karena pada semester
tersebut mereka sudah mengambil Bahasa Arab dan Bahasa Inggris. Hasil
kajian menunjukkan bahwa mahasiswa Komunikasi dan Penyiaran Islam
(KPI) mempunyai persepsi yang lebih baik terhadap dosen Bahasa Inggris,
sedangkan mahasiswa Bimbingan Islam (BPI) memandang dosen Bahasa
Arab mereka yang lebih baik. Data dari Fakultas Tarbiyah menunjukkkan
bahwa dosen Bahasa Arab lebih mendapat tempat dalam hampir seluruh ka­
rakterisrik yang dikaji.

Kata kunci: Persepsi, Kompetensi Sikap, Sosial dan Pengajaran, Bahasa Inggris,
Pembelajaran

Introduction

Teaching a foreign language is considered to be one of the most challenging


teaching practices. In Indonesia, students are usually afraid of joining foreign
language classes. They may feel unmotivated, discouraged easily. Their minds
say foreign language is difficult to learn because most of them know little
thing or even nothing from the start. These phenomena should be taken into
account by English and Arabic language teachers both at schools and at
universities. .

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In the teaching and learning process, teachers of English and Arabic


Language as foreign/second language (FL/SL) have an important role in
helping learners to learn. English and Arabic Language teachers must be able
to create good atmosphere of language class and engage students’ motivation in
learning them so that they can enjoy learning. This situation will automatically
facilitate students’ understanding and support the realization of learning aims.
It is believed that personal, pedagogical, intellectual/professional,
and social capacity support teachers in conducting their teaching. A foreign
language teacher with good competency will be able to cope with the following
compelling factors:
1. Insufficient foreign language competence
2. The lack of knowledge and skill about the latest concept of foreign
language teaching.
3. The use of new books which the teachers must familiarize themselves
and manage to master the contents.
4. Monotonous teaching style results from insufficient knowledge about
various media and method.
5. Poor personality which will impact students’ attitude to the language
classes.
6. Poor classroom management which will influence the classroom
atmosphere.

Good foreign language teachers manage to conduct teaching learning process


based on language teaching principles. To make sure whether the process is
done appropriately, supervision is demanded.
Supervision of teaching learning process becomes an art of the work
of the quality assurance board of a school. It is done by Lembaga Penjamin
Mutu Pendidikan, school supervisor, headmaster, and teachers of the same
subjects. The results of the supervision are, then, brought into the focus-group
discussion among the elements involved. The discussion results in some
recommendation for the future improvement of the teaching learning process.
In another way it may be said that teaching learning needs preparation
or plan which covers identification of learning aims, materials, methods,
sources, and assessment. The implemented plan is then learnt to identify
the strength and the weaknesses. The weaknesses becomes the room for im­

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Students’ Perceptions on a Good Tertiary....

provement in the next teaching, especially when the teacher teaches the same
materials.
On the other hand, it is still perceived that many English language
teachers in Indonesia are not effective teachers. They do not have adequate
teaching skills and knowledge of subject matters, which are indicators of
effective teachers (Hay McBer, 2000). The same case tend also to happend in
Arabic language class.
The second semester students of all faculties at IAIN Walisongo attend
English or Arabic language class, since both courses are offered in the first and
the second semester. Students as the subject of teaching, in a learner-centred
class, must be aware of the importance of good lecturer, must be critical of
their teachers’ competence. A class with a good lecturer will be a class with
good output. On the other hands 60% of Arabic (35) and English language
teachers (28) at IAIN Walisongo, where the study was conducted, do not have
either English or Arabic Education background. This condition may influence
teaching capacity of the teachers.
On the base of that notion, this research is considered to be important
input for Centre for Language and Culture as the coordinator of foreign
language teacher and teaching at IAIN Walisongo especially in the effort of
having English and Arabic language teachers that meet the demands of good
teachers as proposed by students and concepts of teacher competences. After
being aware of the importance of having the characteristics of good language
teacher, the researcher hopes that the centre will upgrade its foreign language
teachers’ competence and the teachers will also try to equip themselves with
those characteristics.

Perception
Some studies on perception on teaching learning processes had been con­
ducted cited for this study. Among all of them are “Good Language Teachers”,
Whose Perception?, done by Ani Purjayanti (2007) at Bogor Agricultural
University, What Is a Good Language Teacher?: Students’ and Teachers’
Reflection, conducted by listyani at satya Wacana Christion University Sala­
tiga, and Conceptions of a Good Tertiary EFL Teachers in China, studied by
Qunying Zhang and David Watkins (2007) at University of Hongkong.

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Hoffman said that perception aims at estimating true properties of


the world. Perception usually results in cathegorization, which is in fact the
classification of the world itself. ... perceptions usually hide the complexity of
the world and guides adaptive behaviour (Hoffman, 2013:1). The way a person
conceives and perceives something are usually influenced by the back­ground
knowledge of thing being highlighted and the person’s needs and interest.
The wider knowledge s/he has the more comprehensive she/he will see the
target. Nevertheless her/his view may be made blurred because of her/his
needs and interest.

Good language teacher

The perception of good teacher comprises personal and teaching charac­


teristics. Directorate General of Higher Education (2006) had done a survey
about students’ expectation towards toward their teachers. It indicates that
a teacher should be clever/knowledgeable (pintar), knowledgeable in their
subjects (menguasai ilmu-ilmu yang diajarkan), explain difficult points in an
easy way (menjelaskan hal-hal yang sulit dengan cara yang mudah, patient
and not cynical (sabar dan tidak sinis), have broad experiences/minded
(mem­punyai pengalaman yang luas), active in academic society (terkenal di
ma­syarakat ilmiah), have a sense of humour (humoris), not to test students’
weak­nesses in their lesson (bukan menguji ketidaktahuan mahasiswa), show
positive attitudes to their students (bersikap positif terhadap mahasiswa)
The law on lecturers and teachers (undang-undang Guru dan Dosen)
has also explained that teachers must equip themselves with professional,
pedagogic, personal, and social competences. A teacher who has these com­
petences can create a classroom atmospheree, make the lesson easy which
boost students’ motivation and good attitude to the class/subject.
The change of curriculum from 2006 or KTSP curriculum to 2013
curriculum, which emphasizes on character education represented in its
core competence demands teacher creativity in arranging learning activities
highly. It is hoped that through learning activities students will not only get
knowledge, but also attitude and action (pengetahuan, sikap, ketrampilan). This
is explisitly mentioned and explained in the enclosure of the regulation of

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Students’ Perceptions on a Good Tertiary....

minister of education (Permendikbud) no. 54/2013 about graduation com­


petence standard.
The 2013 curriculum also require teachers to implement scientific
approach. Through this approach teachers are demanded to design learning
activities which give more learning experience to students in their effort to
understand the materials. Through this approach teachers are also required to
integrate three domains of learning aims, i.e. cognitive, affective, and psycho­
motoric, which are in line with knowledge, attitude, and action.
Tomlinson (2003) is among experts who explain some characteristics of
good language teachers. The characteristics are:
1. is patient and supportive
2. has a good sense of humor
3. is enthusiastic, positive, and confident
4. is interesting, stimulating, and creative
5. is a good communicator
6. is flexible and takes initiative
7. is sensitive to the needs and wants of her learners and teaches res­
ponsively
8. is critically aware of current theoretical and methodological develop­
ments
9. has a large and varied repertoire of pedagogical procedures
10. is proficient user of the target language
11. has awareness of the realities of the target language and of the L1 and L2
cultures

Criteria 1, 2, 3 can be classified as personal competence and criteria 4, 5, 6,


7, 8, 9 belong to pedagogic competence, and 10, 11 deal with professional
competence.
In term of material development, as a part of pedagogical competence
which also supports a language teacher to be a good language teacher,
Tomlinson (1998) states the following principals of material development:
1. provide rich and varied experience
2. provide variety of context specific beliefs
3. set achievable challenges
4. encourage cooperative learning

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5. encourage peer monitoring and feedback


6. encourage reflection and self evaluation
7. provide constructive feedbacks

Other criteria of good language teacher can be mentioned here are (1) he
must have good mastery of teaching materials, (2) have positive attitudes
toward the target language, (3) must be patient, fair, and friendly, (4) know
how to motivate students, (5) know how to deal with modern technology, (6)
be able to activate students (I Gusti, 2007).
In a nutcell, a good teacher is a teacher who can become a good partner
for his or her students in one side and become an information resource as well
as a classroom manager in another side.

The roles of teachers in foreign language teaching


Teachers is not a person who can do anything she or he wants in her or his
class. Nevertheless it is still frequently said that a teacher is a ruler of the class.
The following roles are those which should actually be played:
1. as an observer
2. as an assessor
3. as an organizer
4. as a facilitator
5. as a participant
6. as a source
(Harmer, 1983).

Like teachers in general, a good language teacher has to play his roles in line
with his classroom situation or activity. If he is aware of all those roles he
will create a logical sequence of activities in which he can change his role in
one activity to another activity. The harmonious activities will make the class
enjoyable for the students.

Research method

This research was quantitavely and qualitatively designed. It employed


questionnaire as the main data collection techniques. That technique comprised

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Students’ Perceptions on a Good Tertiary....

closed and open-ended ones. The open ended questionnaire was functioned
as triangulation of data collection technique. Meanwhile, the closed ended
questionnaire was basically the main data collection technique aimed at getting
the same data. Students were given enough time to express their judgment
on their English and Arabic language teacher through both open and closed
ended questionnaire.
This study was carried out at IAIN Walisongo. Data of this study were
taken from students of all faculties, i.e. Education and Teacher Training and
Dakwah and Communication, who had taken English or Arabic Language
in their previous semesters. Their conceptions and perception are the
representation of their judgment made based on their learning experience.

Discussion
Perception of students of education and teacher training faculty
Perception toward english language teachers
To gain information about students’ perception toward English language
teachers, researchers distributed questionnaire to the students from four
departments, i.e. biology, chemistry, physics, and Islamic Elementary School
Teacher Training.

Professional competence
In terms of characteristics relating to professional competence the data show
that having good mastery of teaching materials gains the highest score. It is 2.7.
Other characteristics representing professional competence are proficient user
of the target language, has awareness of the realities of the target language, and
doesn’t see L1 and L2 as the different materials. Each of them gets 2.5, 1.5, 2.3.
Those scores are summarized in tabel 1 below:

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Table 1
The Score of Professional Competence of English Language Teachers
at Education and Teacher Training Faculty

Characteristics
No. Score
of Professional Competence
1. has good mastery of teaching materials 2.7
2. is proficient user of the target language 2.5
3. doesn’t see L1 and L2 as the different ones 1.5
4. has awareness of the realities of the target language 2.3
Mean 2.25

If it is seen from the ranks of 4 (strongly agree), 3 (agree), 2 (disagree),


and 1 (strongly disagree), which also mean 4 (very good), 3 (good), 2 (good
enough), 1 (bad) the score of 2.25 (mean) is categorized as good enough, which
does not mean good. To gain this cathegory, it still needs 0.75 or nearly 1.
The score of 2.7 does not show that the English teachers teaching English 1,
2, and 3 at Education and Teacher Training Faculty have good mastery of
the materials. If we trace back to the prerequisite of being English Teacher
at this institution, such an impression or perception may not be given by the
students. As can be seen, they are all have passed their graduate program,
either from home or foreign universities. This perception may be influenced
by their pedagogic competence. A teacher with good mastery of the materials
without the support of good pedagogic competence will give unclear
explanation of the materials and result in misunderstanding. More over, if
the teachers look confused of making students understand, the perception that
the materials is difficult, that the teachers do not master the materials well
may be born.
It is also shown that the teachers are also not proficient users of the target
language, with the score of 2.5. In fact speaking is still hard for most of students
and some teachers are also still hard to familiarize students with the oral use
of the target language. To use the target language is actually not a problem
for most of the English language teachers. But, it becomes a problem when
the teachers fail to grade the language to students’ levels. Moreover, if the class
is too heterogeneous. This fact often results in the desicion to use English less

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Students’ Perceptions on a Good Tertiary....

than Indonesian language when explaining the materials. Students may see
that case as the teachers’ lack of competence in using oral English.
Most of the teachers has less awareness of the realities of the target
language, and L1 and L2 as the different one as can be seen from the score
of 1.5 and 2.3. It may be true since not all English language teachers have
background of English Education. Some of them teach the language because
they are considered as good language users either oral or written regardless
their educational background. Cultural intgration and personalization is
importan when we teach a foreign language. But any information about the
target language is commonly interesting for the students. Moreover, infor­
mation about the target language in context.
Students should also know in what way the native language and the
target language are different. By comparing between both of them the area
of learning difficulties may be predicted. Hence, based on this prediction,
teachers set a strategic plan in the form of teaching learning activities which
focus on that area. In a nut cell, identifying the difference between native and
target language is highly demanded in teaching a foreign language.
One thing wonder the researcher is the data from open-ended question­
naire. Mosts students said that their English teachers were good. Only little of
the did not say so. Some of the prooves may be listed are: ... jelas, menguasai
‘clear, master the materials’ (FIS/I14-L), ... sabar, cakap, motivator yang baik
‘patient, skillfull, good motivator’ (FIS/I15-MR), ... tidak pernah berbahasa
Inggris dan lebih mengajar tentang bahasa, bukan ketrampilan berbahasanya ‘never
speaks English and teach more about English, not language skill’ (FIS/
I14-AR), ... sabar, berbahasa Inggris dengan baik ‘patient, speaks English well’
(FIS/I20-SL), menguasai materi .... ‘master the materials’ (PGMI/I4-MH) dan
(PGMI/I6-RW), Berbahasa Inggris dengan baik dan lancar ‘speaks English well
and fluently’ (BIO/I19-a).

Pedagogic and social competence


The scores of teachers’ pedagogic competence are listed in the following table:

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Table 2
The Score of Pedagogic and Sosial Competence of English Language Teachers
at Education and Teacher Training Faculty

No. Characteristics Score


1. doesn’t believe in students’ ability 2.7
2. is interesting, stimulating 2.8
3. Is creative 2.7
4. is a good communicator 3.0
5. always teaches based on students’ request 2.0
6. is sensitive to the needs and wants of her learners 2.2
7. teaches responsively 2.6
8. sometimes aware of current theoretical and 2.7
methodological developments
9. has a large and varied repertoire of pedagogical 2.3
procedures
10. set hard challenges 2.3
11. Encourage cooperative learning 2.4
12. Encourage peer monitoring and feedback 2.2
13. Encourage reflection and self evaluation 2.3
14. provide constructive feedbacks 2.2
15 is flexible and takes initiative 2.3
Mean 2.3

Data above ensure the previous prediction that the low score of teachers’
professional competence may be tightly influenced by the teachers’ pedagogic
and sosial competence. It is shown by the mean of the competences which
reaches only 2.3, which is in fact less than ideal. Teachers’ inability to convey
the lesson clearly often result in the perception that the teachers do not master
the materials well.
The lowest score is 2.0 representing teachers’ frequency in accommo­
dating students’ request which says always teaches based on students’ request.
Although the score seems low but it is in fact the ideal score. When we teach,

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Students’ Perceptions on a Good Tertiary....

we are requested to consider students’ request. But, we must note not to


always hear their voice.
Before teaching teachers prepare syllabus and lesson plan. when they
implement them, they are required to involve them in terms of choice of
themes, activities learning sources. But we do that in line with our teaching
learning plan.
The frequency of monitor, feedback, reflection and evaluation is also
still low, from 2.2 to 2.3. teachers who seldom monitor students’ activity will
not be able to provide appropriate feedback. It’s also impossible for the to
conduct reflection and class evaluation.
Monitoring is one of crucial items in teaching learning process. It in
fact needs energy and consumes time. When monitoring students’ activity,
teachers do not have time to do their “side busnisses” while students are
working out their instruction. More over, if it is followed by correcting
students’ work. Although it’s time consuming teachers should spend their
portion of time to monitor and correct students’ activities and work. This is
they way how they will learn from their mistakes.
Referring to these competences, some of the data from open-ended
questionnaire also say differently. Most students said that their teachers were
good, professional who implemented varied methodes, taught for skills, knew
students’ condition, had fun class. They said, ... menggunakan metode bervariasi
dan kelas yang menyenangkan ‘uses varied methods and has fun class’ (BIO/
I12-a), ... kreatif, menarik, jelas, disiplin ‘creative, interesting, clear, descipline’
(BIO/I13-a), ... menarik, antusias, jelas, pembelajaran berbasis tugas ‘interesting,
enthusistic, clear, task-based learning’ (BIO/15-AP), ... sangat baik, bisa
meng­hidupkan kelas ‘very good, capable of enlivening class’ (KIM/I13-ST),
Mengimplementasikan cooperative learning ‘Implementing cooperative learning’
(KIM/I1-D), Enak ‘Fun’ (KIM/I29-S), Memenuhi kompetensi pedagogik .... ‘Meet
padagogic competence’ (FIS/I2-SL), Jelas .... ‘clear’ (FIS/I14-L), ... kreatif
dalam penyampaian dan manajemen kelas ‘creative in delivering materias and
managing class’ (PGMI/I4-MH), Tanggap terhadap kondisi kelas dan tanggap
terhadap karakter mahasiswa ‘Responsive to the class condition and students’
characteristics’ (PGMI/I16-MR).

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Personality competence
The information about English language teachers’ personality competence
may be accessed from table 3 below:

Table 3
The Score of Personality Competence of English Language Teachers
at Education and Teacher Training Faculty

No. Characteristics Score


1. is patient and supportive 2.4
2. doesn’t have sense of humour 2.2
3. is enthusiastic and confident 2.2
Mean 2.3

Just like the previous three competences, the data above proove that
the average score of English language teachers’ personality competence has
not reached an ideal score, since it is less than 3.0. Although it is not a terrible
score, the English teachers still need to improve their personality. They still
needto be more patient and supportive, have sense of humour, enthusiatic
and confident.
To change a person’s personality is not an easy job, since it has usually
been built from her/his family and closest environment. But it is not impossible
for a person to have better personality, to suit with the requirement of her/
his profession.
That process may be started from improving teachers’ emphaty and
care. Put ourselves in the position of others so that we can feel what others
feel. Emphaty may boost our care, may make us more patient and supportive,
and enthusiatic when handling our class.
Some students had good perception about their English teachers’ per­
sonality competence by expressing their opinion through the open-ended
questionnaire. Some said that their teachers are Menarik, antusias, ....
‘Interesting, enthusiastic’ (BIO/I15-AP), Perhatian pada yang belum paham
‘Give attention to those who are unclear’ (BIO/I26-a), Enak ‘Fun’ (KIM/
I29-a), Fleksibel, humoris, obyektif ‘Flexible, has sense of humour, objective’
(FIS/14-L), Sabar, cakap, motivator yang baik ‘Patient, skillfull, good motivator’

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Students’ Perceptions on a Good Tertiary....

(FIS/I16-AM), Baik, sabar, suportif, jelas, .... ‘Good, patient, supportive, clear’
(PGMI/I10-AM), Sabar, inovatif ‘patient, innovative’ (PGMI/I17-NMA), Jelas,
motivator yang baik, terbuka ‘Clear, good motivator, open’ (PGMI/I19-MU).

Perception toward arabic language teachers


The source of information about students’ perception toward Arabic language
teachers are students from other four departments of Education and Teacher
Training Faculty, i.e. Islamic Education, Mathematics, Islamic Education
Management, and Arabic Education.

Professional competence
The following data provide information about Arabic language teachers’
professional competence with the average score of 2.7.
Table 4
The Score of Professional Competence of Arabic Language Teachers
at Education and Teacher Training Faculty

No. Characteristics Score


of Professional Competence
1. has good mastery of teaching materials 3.2
2. is proficient user of the target language 2.8
3. doesn’t see L1 and L2 as the different ones 2.0
4. has awareness of the realities of the target language 2.8
Mean 2.7

Table 4 shows that most Arabic language teachers at Education and Teacher
Training Faculty have good mastery of teaching materials. They may also be
cathegorized as teachers good Arabic language proficiency and awareness of
the realities of the target language. This perception may be influenced by the
good score of pedagogic competence.
Most of them are perceived not to see L1 and L2 as the different ones.
Contrasting between native language and target language may raise students’
awareness about the different features between all those two languages. Good
awarenesss of the differences prevent students from transfering L1 language

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Siti Tarwiyah & Nadiah Ma’mun

rules into the L2’s they are learning. To conclude, that comparison will be a
meaningful strategy in teaching a second or a foreign language.
Teachers with good mastery of the materials often impatient in
delivering the materials gradually. The Arabic language teachers may also
be impatience in highlighting the difference between the native language and
the target language. That is why, students perceive that their teachers do not
see L1 and L2 as the different one.
Most of data from open-ended aquestionnaire do support the above
numerical data. Through this instrument most students also had positive
perception to their arabic teachers’ professional competence. Among all of
them said, Menguasai .... ‘Master the materials’ (PAI/A12-F), Menguasai, ber­
pengalaman, .... ‘Master the materials, experienced’ (PAI/A21-Y), Memenuhi
standar ‘Meet the standards of a good teacher (KI/A12-SA), Menguasai materi,
.... ‘Master the materials’ (KI/A15-SA), ... mempunyai kemampuan linguistik ....
‘... has linguistic ability ....’ (KI/A26-FA).

Pedagogic and social competence


The scores of teachers’ pedagogic competence are listed in the following table:

Table 5
The Score of Pedagogic and Sosial Competence of Arabic Language Teachers
at Education and Teacher Training Faculty

No. Characteristics Score


1. doesn’t believe in students’ ability 2.7
2. is interesting, stimulating 2.8
3. Is creative 2.7
4. is a good communicator 3.0
5. always teaches based on students’ request 2.0
6. is sensitive to the needs and wants of her learners 2.2
7. teaches responsively 2.6
8. sometimes aware of current theoretical and 2.7
methodological developments

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Students’ Perceptions on a Good Tertiary....

9. has a large and varied repertoire of pedagogic 2.8


procedures
10. set hard challenges 2.7
11. Encourage cooperative learning 2.7
12. Encourage peer monitoring and feedback 2.6
13. Encourage reflection and self evaluation 2.7
14. provide constructive feedbacks 2.6
15 is flexible and takes initiative 2.8
Mean 2.7

The average score of pedagogic and social competence of Arabic language


teachers at Education and Teacher Training Faculty is relatively good. Most
of them are good communicator. It means that they can convey their learning
materials well. Students’ understanding is facilitated by their explanation.
They also do not always involve students in setting teaching poicies.
Score 2.0 means that they keep the ballance between students’ involvement
and teachers’ authority in setting them.
Most of the teachers are also interesting, stimulating, have varied
repertoire of pedagogic procedures, flexible and take initiative. Data from
open-ended questionnaire seem not to support the above data. Most students
of Islamic education Department (PAI) wrote that their teachers’ explanation
is ununderstandable, teacher has less attention to the slow learners,
monotonous class – “... kurang memahami kekurangan mahasiswa” (PAI/A4-
MI), “... belum baik, belum memahamkan” (PAI/A6-N), “... kurang memahamkan,
tidak sesuai kontrak belajar” (PAI/A12-F), “... menguasai, berpengalaman, tapi
anggap mahasiswa berkemampuan sama,” (PAI/A21-Y) , “Metode kurang, hanya
menghafal, kadang monoton” (PAI/A26-N), “... tidak menghiraukan yang belum bisa”
(PAI/A26-M).
Unlike students of Islamic Education Department, students from
Mathematics, Arabic, and Islamic Education Management said differently
about their Arabic language teachers. Their Arabic language teachers are
patient, supportive, fun, creative, humorist, qualified, have good commitment,
methode, classroom management, ... Their teachers are ... sabar, suportif, me­
nyenangkan ‘patient, supportive, fun’ (KI/A1-ZR), ... berkomitmen, tepat waktu

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Siti Tarwiyah & Nadiah Ma’mun

‘has commitment, on time’ (KI/A1-AI), ... kuasai kelas, materi, metode ‘manage
the class, master the materials and methods’ (KI/A5-FA), ... semangat, menarik
‘enthusiatic, interesting’ (KI/A16-SA), ... sabar, membimbing ‘patient, guide’
(KI/A17-YR), ... jelas, menguasai metode, banyak inisiatif ‘clear, master teaching
methods, has good initiative’ (PBA/A12-F), ... komunikatif, paham situasi
mahasiswa, fasih ‘communicative, understand students’ condition, speaks
fluently’ (PBA/A23-NMU), ... sabar, suportif, variatif, sistematis ‘patient,
supportive, variative, sistematic’ (TM/A11-F), ... pengertian, sabar, toleran
‘understand students’ condition, patient, tolerant’ (TM/A12-AH).

Personality competence
Table 6 provides information about Arabic language teachers’ personality
competence.

Table 6
The Score of Personality Competence of English Language Teachers
at Education and Teacher Training Faculty

No. Characteristics Score


1. is patient and supportive 2.9
2. doesn’t have sense of humor 2.7
3. is enthusiastic and confident 2.7
Mean 2.76

From table 6 it is proven that most of the Arabic language teachers have
considerably good personality competence. Although the score is less than but
closes to 3.0.
Personality may be the first thing which creates good impression,
triggers and stimulates positive attitude to the language learning. Personality
is actually innnate, but it may be changed and developed, although it is hard.
The data from open-ended questionnaire support the numerical data
above. Some of them are, sabar, suportif, variatif, sistematis ‘patient, supportive,
variative, systematic’ (TM/A-F), pengertian, sabar, toleran ‘understand
students’ condition, patient, tolerant’ (TM/A12-AH), sabar, suportif, menye­
nangkan ‘patient, supportive, fun’ (KI/A1-ZR), sabar, kreatif, humoris ‘patient,

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Students’ Perceptions on a Good Tertiary....

creative, has sense of humour’ (KI/A10-UN), sabar, kreatif, menarik, jelas ‘patient,
creative, interesting, clear’ (PAI/A4-Mi), sabar, baik, suasana cair ‘patient,
good, fun’ (PAI/A5-MT), tahu kondisi mhs, motivator ‘understand students’
condition, motivator’ (PBA/A28-MNU).

Perception toward english and arabic language teachers: a brief comparison


To highlight clearly the difference between the students’ perception toward
English and Arabic Language Teachers at Education and Teacher Training
Faculty, the researcher need to provide the following data:

Table 7
The Score of Students’ Perception toward English and Arabic Language
Teachers at Education and Teacher Training Faculty

Characteristics
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
E 2.4 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.7 2.6 1.8 1.7 2
A 2.9 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.7 3.2 3 2 2.2 2.6

Characteristics
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
E 2.2 2.3 2.5 1.5 2.3 2.4 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.3
A 2.7 2.8 2.8 2 2.7 2.7 2.6 2.7 2.6 2.8 2.8

If it is seen in detail, table 7 shows that in all characteristics Arabic language


teachers are dominating. Arabic language teachers win 0.5 over English
language teachers in almost all characteristics.
Meanwhile, the data from each department may be listed as follow:

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Siti Tarwiyah & Nadiah Ma’mun

Table 8
The Score of Students’ Perception toward English and Arabic Language
Teachers from the Departments at Education and Teacher Training Faculty

Teachers’ Subject Department Average Score


English Biology 2
Chemistry 3
Physics 2
Islamic Elementary Teacher Training 2
Arabic Islamic Education 2
Mathematics 2
Islamic Education Management 3
Arabic Education 3

It is clearly seen that chemistry department students have better per­ception


to their English language teachers. Meanwhile, students who have better per­
ception to their Arabic Language Teachers are those from Islamic Education
Management and Arabic Education Departments.
The above conclusion does not mean that teachers who teach chemistry,
Islamic Education Management and Arabic Education Departments students
are more qualified than those who teach the rest of students, since the English
and the Arabic classes are mixed. The students are classified based on their
intake rather than their department.

Perception of students of dakwah and communication faculty


Perception toward english language teachers
To gain information about students’ perception toward English language
teachers, researchers distributed questionnaire to the students from four
departments, i.e. KPI, BPI and MD.

Professional competence
In terms of characteristics relating to professional competence the data show
that having good mastery of teaching materials gains the highest score. It is 3.2.
Other characteristics representing professional competence are proficient user

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Students’ Perceptions on a Good Tertiary....

of the target language, has awareness of the realities of the target language, and
doesn’t see L1 and L2 as the different materials. Each of them gets 2.7, 2.2, 3.1.
Those scores are summarized in tabel 1 below:

Table 1
The Score of Professional Competence of English Language Teachers
at Dakwah and Communication Faculty

No. Characteristics Score


of Professional Competence
1. has good mastery of teaching materials 3.2
2. is proficient user of the target language 2.7
3. doesn’t see L1 and L2 as the different ones 2.2
4. has awareness of the realities of the target language 3.1
Mean (11.2 : 4) 2.8

If it is seen from the ranks of 4 (strongly agree), 3 (agree), 2 (disagree), and 1


(strongly disagree), which also mean 4 (very good), 3 (good), 2 (good enough),
1 (bad) the score of 2.8 (mean) is categorized as good. The score of 3.2 shows
that the English teachers teaching English 1, 2, and 3 at Dakwah Faculty have
good mastery of the materials. As can be seen that a teacher who has good
mastery of the materials with the support of good pedagogic competence will
give clear explanation of the materials and good result. It indicates that the
perception of students toward the teachers is good.
On the contrary, it is shown that the teachers are not proficient users
of the target language, with the score of 2.7. In fact speaking is still hard
for most of students and some teachers are also still hard to familiarize
students with the oral use of the target language. To use the target language
is actually not a problem for most of the English language teachers. But, it
becomes a problem when the teachers fail to grade the language to students’
levels. Moreover, if the class is too heterogeneous. This fact often results in the
desicion to use English less than Indonesian language when explaining the
materials. Students may see that case as the teachers’ lack of competence in
using oral English.
Most of the teachers has less awareness of the realities of the target
language, and L1 and L2 as the different one as can be seen from the score

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Siti Tarwiyah & Nadiah Ma’mun

of 2.2 and 3.1 It may be true since not all English language teachers have
background of English Education. Some of them teach the language because
they are considered as good language users either oral or written regardless
their educational background. Cultural intgration and personalization is
important when we teach a foreign language. But any information about the
target language is commonly interesting for the students. Moreover, infor­
mation about the target language in context.
Students should also know in what way the native language and the
target language are different. By comparing between both of them the area
of learning difficulties may be predicted. Hence, based on this prediction,
teachers set a strategic plan in the form of teaching learning activities which
focus on that area. In a nut cell, identifying the difference between native and
target language is highly demanded in teaching a foreign language.
One thing wonder the researcher is the data from open-ended question­
naire. Mosts students said that their English teachers were good. Only little of
the did not say so. Some of the prooves may be listed are: ... jelas, menguasai
‘clear, master the materials’ (FD/BPI), ... sabar, cakap, motivator yang baik
‘patient, skillfull, good motivator’, ... tidak pernah berbahasa Inggris dan lebih
mengajar tentang bahasa, bukan ketrampilan berbahasanya ‘never use English,
teaches about language not language skill’ (FD/KPI), ... sabar, berbahasa
Inggris dengan baik ‘patient, speaks English well’, Berbahasa Inggris dengan baik
dan lancar ‘Speaks English well and fluently’ (FD/MD).

Pedagogic and social competence


The scores of teachers’ pedagogic competence are listed in the following table:

Table 2
The Score of Pedagogic and Sosial Competence of English Language Teachers
at Dakwah and Communication Faculty

No. Characteristics Score


1. doesn’t believe in students’ ability 2.7
2. is interesting, stimulating 2.8
3. Is creative 2.9

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Students’ Perceptions on a Good Tertiary....

4. is a good communicator 2.9


5. always teaches based on students’ request 2.5
6. is sensitive to the needs and wants of her learners 2.7
7. teaches responsively 2.8
8. sometimes aware of current theoretical and 2.7
methodological developments
9. has a large and varied repertoire of pedagogical procedures 3.0
10. set hard challenges 2.9
11. Encourage cooperative learning 2.7
12. Encourage peer monitoring and feedback 2.9
13. Encourage reflection and self evaluation 2.9
14. provide constructive feedbacks 2.8
15 is flexible and takes initiative 3.0
Mean (42.2 : 15 ) 2.8

Data above ensure the previous prediction that the low score of teachers’
professional competence may be tightly influenced by the teachers’ pedagogic
and sosial competence. It is shown by the mean of the competences which
reaches 2.8, which is in fact less than ideal (good enough). Teachers’ inability
to convey the lesson clearly often result in the perception that the teachers do
not master the materials well.
The lowest score is 2.5 representing teachers’ frequency in accommo­
dating students’ request which says always teaches based on students’ request.
Although the score seems quite low but it is in fact the ideal score. When we
teach, we are requested to consider students’ request. But, we must note not
to always hear their voice.
Before teaching teachers prepare syllabus and lesson plan. when
they implement them, they are required to involve them in terms of choice of
themes, activities learning sources. In fact, we do that in line with our teaching
learning plan.
The frequency of monitor, feedback, reflection and evaluation is good
enough, from 2.8 to 2.9. teachers who seldom monitor students’ activity will
not be able to provide appropriate feedback. It’s also impossible for the to

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Siti Tarwiyah & Nadiah Ma’mun

conduct reflection and class evaluation. It needs improvement to have a good


result.
Monitoring is one of crucial items in teaching learning process. It in
fact needs energy and consumes time. When monitoring students’ activity,
teachers do not have time to do their “side busnisses” while students are
working out their instruction. More over, if it is followed by correcting
students’ work. Although it’s time consuming teachers should spend their
portion of time to monitor and correct students’ activities and work. This is
they way how they will learn from their mistakes.
Referring to these competences, some of the data from open-ended
questionnaire also say good. Most students said that their teachers were good,
professional who implemented varied methodes, taught for skills, knew
students’ condition, had fun class. They said, ... menggunakan metode bervariasi
dan kelas yang menyenangkan ‘uses varied methods and has fun class’ , ...
kreatif, lumayan menarik, jelas ‘creative, interesting enough, clear’ (FD/BPI), ...
kreatif dalam penyampaian dan manajemen kelas ‘creative in delivering materials
and managing class (FD/KPI), Tanggap terhadap kondisi kelas dan tanggap
terhadap karakter mahasiswa ‘Responsive to the class condition and students’
characters’ (FD/MD).

Personality competence
The information about English language teachers’ personality competence
may be accessed from table 3 below:

Table 3
The Score of Personality Competence of English Language Teachers
at Dakwah and Communication Faculty

No. Characteristics Score


1. is patient and supportive 3.1
2. doesn’t have sense of humour 2.7
3. is enthusiastic and confident 3.5
Mean (9.3 : 3) 3.1

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Students’ Perceptions on a Good Tertiary....

Different from the previous three competences that the data above proove
that the average scores of English language teachers’ personality competence
has not reached an ideal score, since it is less than 3.0. This table of Per­
sonality shows that their personalities are good. They are not only patient
and supportive, but also enthusiatic and confident. Even though teachers’
emphaty and care, patient, supportive, and enthusiatic when handling our
class in fact (based on the data above) they are less sense of humor in a
classroom.

Perception toward arabic language teachers


The source of information about students’ perception toward Arabic language
teachers are students from other three departments of Dakwah and Communi­
cation Faculty, i.e. KPI, BPI, and MD.

Professional competence
The following data provide information about Arabic language teachers’
professional competence with the average score of 2.7.

Table 4
The Score of Professional Competence of Arabic Language Teachers
at Dakwah and Communication Faculty

No. Characteristics Score


of Professional Competence
1. has good mastery of teaching materials 3.2
2. is proficient user of the target language 2.6
3. doesn’t see L1 and L2 as the different ones 2.2
4. has awareness of the realities of the target language 3.0
Mean ( 11 : 4 ) 2.8

Table 4 shows that most Arabic language teachers at Dakwah and Communi­
cation Faculty have good mastery of teaching materials. They may also be
cathegorized as teachers good Arabic language proficiency and awareness of
the realities of the target language. This perception may be influenced by the
good score of pedagogic competence.

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Siti Tarwiyah & Nadiah Ma’mun

Most of them are perceived not to see L1 and L2 as the different ones.
Contrasting between native language and target language may raise students’
awareness about the different features between all those two languages. Good
awarenesss of the differences prevent students from transfering L1 language
rules into the L2’s they are learning. To conclude, that comparison will be a
meaningful strategy in teaching a second or a foreign language.
Teachers with good mastery of the materials often impatient in
delivering the materials gradually. The Arabic language teachers may also be
impatience in highlighting the difference between the native language and
the target language. That is why, students perceive that their teachers do not
see L1 and L2 as the different one.
Most of data from open-ended aquestionnaire do support the above
numerical data. Through this instrument most students also had positive
perception to their arabic teachers’ professional competence. Among all of
them said, Menguasai materi ‘Master the materials’, berpengalaman ‘berpe­
ngalaman’ , Memenuhi standar ‘Meet the standards (FD/KPI,BPI,MD).

Pedagogic and social competence


The scores of teachers’ pedagogic competence are listed in the following table:

Table 5
The Score of Pedagogic and Sosial Competence of Arabic Language Teachers
at Dakwah and Communication Faculty

No. Characteristics Score


1. doesn’t believe in students’ ability 2.8
2. is interesting, stimulating 2.8
3. Is creative 2.8
4. is a good communicator 2.9
5. always teaches based on students’ request 2.7
6. is sensitive to the needs and wants of her learners 2.8
7. teaches responsively 2.7
8. sometimes aware of current theoretical and methodological 3.1
developments

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Students’ Perceptions on a Good Tertiary....

9. has a large and varied repertoire of pedagogic procedures 2.9


10. set hard challenges 2.8
11. Encourage cooperative learning 2.7
12. Encourage peer monitoring and feedback 2.7
13. Encourage reflection and self evaluation 2.8
14. provide constructive feedbacks 2.7
15 is flexible and takes initiative 2.8
Mean ( 42 : 15 ) 2.8

The average score of pedagogic and social competence of Arabic language


teachers at Dakwah and Communication Faculty is relatively good. Most of
them are good communicator. It means that they can convey their learning
materials well. Students’ understanding is facilitated by their explanation.
They also do not always involve students in setting teaching policies.
Score 2.8 means that they keep the ballance between students’ involvement
and teachers’ authority in setting them.
Most of the teachers are also interesting, stimulating, have varied
repertoire of pedagogic procedures, flexible and take initiative. Data from
open-ended questionnaire seem not to support the above data. Most students
of Islamic Broadcasting and Communication Department (KPI) wrote that
their teachers’ explanation is ununderstandable, teacher has less attention to
the slow learners, monotonous class (FD/BPI,KPI,MD).
Some students also said about their Arabic language teachers. Their
Arabic language teachers are patient, supportive, fun, creative, humorist,
qualified, have good commitment, methode, classroom management.

Personality competence
Table 6 provides information about Arabic language teachers’ personality
competence.

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Siti Tarwiyah & Nadiah Ma’mun

Table 6
The Score of Personality Competence of English Language Teachers
at Dakwah and Communication Faculty

No. Characteristics Score


1. is patient and supportive 3.0
2. doesn’t have sense of humour 2.8
3. is enthusiastic and confident 3.4
Mean (9.2 : 3) 3.1

From table 6 it is proven that most of the Arabic language teachers have
considerably good personality competence. Personality may be the first thing
which creates good impression, triggers and stimulates positive attitude to
the language learning. Personality is actually innnate, but it may be changed
and developed, although it is hard.

Perception toward english and arabic language teachers: a brief comparison


To highlight clearly the difference between the students’ perception toward
English and Arabic Language Teachers at Dakwah and Communication
Faculty, the researcher need to provide the following data:

Table 7
The Score of Students’ Perception toward English and Arabic Language
Teachers at Dakwah and Communication Faculty

Characteristics
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
E 2.4 2.2 2.2 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.2 2.9 2.5 2.7 2.8
A 2.9 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.8 3.2 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.7

Characteristics
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
E 3.0 2.9 2.7 2.2 2.7 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.8 3.0 3.1

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Students’ Perceptions on a Good Tertiary....

A 3.1 2.9 2.6 2.2 2.8 2.7 2.7 2.8 2.7 2.8 3.0

If it is seen in detail, table 7 shows that in all characteristics English language


teachers are dominating. English language teachers win 0.5 over Arabic
language teachers in almost all characteristics.
Meanwhile, the data from each department may be listed as follow:

Table 8
The Score of Students’ Perception toward English and Arabic Language
Teachers from the Departments at Dakwah and Communication Faculty

Teachers’ Subject Department Average Score


English BPI 3.0
KPI 2.8
MD 2.7
Arabic BPI 2.9
KPI 2.7
MD 2.6

It is clearly seen that KPI (Islamic Communication & Broadcasting) department


students have better perception to their English language teachers. Meanwhile,
students who have better perception to their Arabic Language Teachers are
those from Islamic Counseling Departments (BPI).
The above conclusion does not mean that teachers who teach KPI, and
MD Departments students are more qualified than those who teach the rest
of students, since the English and the Arabic classes are mixed. The students
are classified based on their intake rather than their department.

References

Ani Purjayanti. 2007. “The ‘Good Language Teacher’: Students’ Perspectives.


Human Resources Development in English Language Teaching: The 55th
TEFLIN Conference Proceedings. December 4-6, 2007.
Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Tinggi (Dikti). 2006. Sosialisasi Tim Dikti.

40 REGISTER, Vol. 7, No. 1, Juni 2014


Siti Tarwiyah & Nadiah Ma’mun

Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi (KBK)


Hoffman, Donald D. The Interface theory of Perception to Swift Extinction. www.
cogsci.uci.edu/~ddhoff/interface.pdf. Accessed on October 10, 2013
Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan: Permendikbud no. 65/2013
Tomlinson, Brian (ed). 1998. Material Development in Language Teaching.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tomlinson, Brian. 2003. Developing Materials to Develop Yourself Teaching.
London: Continuum Press.
Harmer, Jeremy. 1983. The Practice of English Language Teaching. London &
New York: Longman
Hay McBer Consultants. 2000. Research in Teaching Effectiveness. A summary
report to the Department for Education and Employment, United
Kingdom. Retrieved September 14, 2005 ,from http://www.teachernet.
gov.uk/doc/1487/haymcber.doc.
I Gusti Ayu GS. 2007. “Good Language Teacher in the Era of Globalization.”
Human Resources Development in English Language Teaching: The 55th
TEFLIN Conference Proceedings. December 4-6, 2007.
Listyani. 2007. “What is a Good Language Teacher? An Overview of Students’
and Teachers’ Reflection.” Human Resources Development in English Language
Teaching: The 55th TEFLIN Conference Proceedings. December 4-6, 2007.
Zhang, Qunying and Davit Watkins. “Conceptions of a Good Tertiary EFL
Teachers in China” in Tesol Quaterly Vol. 4 No. 4, December 2007

REGISTER, Vol. 7, No. 1, Juni 2014 41


The Impact of Structural Competence Towards Speaking
Competence of The Fourth Semester Students of English
Department of Tarbiyah Faculty IAIN Walisongo Semarang
in the Academic Year of 2010/2011

Muhammad Nafi Annury


IAIN Walisongo Semarang
Jl. Walisongo 3-5 Semarang
nafiannury@gmail.com

Abstract
This paper tries to define any impact of structural competence towards speaking
competence. In this research, the writer used descriptive co-relational method. It was used
to describe whether there was an impact between two variables, i.e. structural competence
(X) as independent variable and speaking competence (Y) as dependent variable. The subject
of study was the fourth semester students of English department of Tarbiyah Faculty
IAIN Walisongo Semarang. After the data had been analyzed, it was found that there was
significant impact of structural competence especially in appropriateness. It helped students
to arrange words into sentences that they utter.

Keywords: structural competence, speaking competence

Abstrak
Makalah ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah ada dampak kemampuan
berbicara terhadap kemampuan struktur berbahasa. Pada penelitian ini,
penulis mengunakan metode deskriptif korelasi. Hal tersebut digunakan
untuk mengetahui apakah ada dampak antara kedua varibel tersebut; kom­
petensi struktur bahasa (X) sebagai variabel yang tidak berpengaruh dan

42 REGISTER, Vol. 7, No. 1, Juni 2014


Muhammad Nafi Annury

kompetensi berbicara (Y) sebagai variabel yang terpengaruh. Subyek pene­litian


adalah mahasiswa semester empat Progdi Tadris Bahasa Inggris Fakultas
Pendidikan IAIN Walisongo Semarang. Setelah dianalisa, ditemukan bahwa
ada dampak yang signifikan terhadap kompetensi stuktur berbahasa ter­
utama pada ketepatan pada penyusunan tuturan. Hal tersebut membantu
mahasiswa dalam merangkai kata untuk menyusun kalimat yang mereka
tuturkan.

Kata kunci: Kompetensi struktur berbahasa, Kompetensi berbicara

Introduction

English is an international language which used all over the world. Many
people learn to master it because many aspects in modern life cannot be
separated from English. Nowadays we can find everything is written in
English. As one of the aspects of globalization, English is now considered more
and more important.
English is spoken throughout the world and in most of multilingual
societies; it has been adopted as the official language of law, administration,
commerce, and education. In nearly every country in the world, English is
taught in school as the major second language (Gathered, 1996: VI)
There are four skills in mastering English, they are speaking, listening,
reading and writing. Speaking is considered primary (Finocchiaro, 1973:3)
because people learn to speak their native language several years before they
learn to read and to write it. People judge one’s English competence through
his speaking. If a student can speak English well, it indicates that he masters
English.
There are some elements of language such as vocabulary, structure,
pronunciation, spelling, etc. Structure, as one of the elements of English is
very important in language teaching. It is the system of language (Byrne, 1979),
how the language is organized and used in communication. We can under­
stand the language if we know its structure.
Some other time, the writer finds some students who understand
structure, but in fact, they seem have difficulties in English especially in their
speaking class. For instances: students still making mistakes on defining

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The Impact of Structural Competence....

Present and Simple Past Tense. They often do this cause they are not realized
when they have to change some activities which done in the past, therefore,
they speak it in the Present Tense. It means that students knowledge of
structural competence which they have do not support them much.
Since structure is a fundamental in mastering English, and speaking
is considered primary, the writer formulates a problem. The writer tries to
define any impact of structural competence towards speaking competence
of fourth semester students of English department of Tarbiyah Faculty IAIN
Walisongo Semarang in the academic year of 2010/2011.

Nature of structure
As one of the elements of language, structure is very important learning,
since it is the basic framework to master the production and comprehension
of the typical sentences of the language. When people communicate with
others, they may utter a word or some words to convey their ideas, thought
or feelings. The words, which are form then, are called sentence. The sentence
can be defined as a group of words joined together by grammatical agreement
(relating device) and which, not grammatically dependent upon any other
groups, are complete in themselves (Fries, 1952:20). Quirk and Greenbaun
(1976:12) stated that a sentence may alternatively be seen as compromising
five units called of sentence; structure, i.e: subject, verb, complement, object,
and adverbial abbreviated as S, V, C, O, A.
a. Elements of Sentence
The elements are simply explained below:
1. Subject is a noun or pronoun that comes before the verb in an
ordinary affirmative sentence. It usually says (in an active sentence)
who or what does the action that verb refers to.
2. Verb is word, which is used with a subject to form the basics of a
clause. Most verbs refer to actions or states.
3. Object is a noun or pronoun that normally comes after the verb (in
active sentence). There are two kind of object:
a) Direct Object
It refers to a person or thing affected by the action of the verb.
b) Indirect Object
It usually refers to a person who receives the direct object.

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Muhammad Nafi Annury

1) Adverbial is a group of words that does the same job as


an adverb phrase or adverb clause.
2) Complement is a part of sentence that gives more
information about subject (after be, seem and the same
after verbs) or in some structures, about object (Swan:
1980).
b. The Sentence Classification
Sentence is divided according to their structure into class simple,
compound and complex sentence.
1. Simple sentence
A simple sentence is a group of words, which express a single
independent thought or contains one independent clause only.
Quirk and Greenbaun (1976: 191) divided simple sentence into
four major syntactic classes, whose use correlates with different
communicative functions:
a) Statements are sentences in which the subject is always
presented and generally precedes the verb, example: A student
comes to the class.
b) Questions are sentences marked one by one or more of these
criteria:
1) The placing of the operator immediately in front of the
subject, example: Does a student come to the class?
2) The initial positioning of an interrogative or wh- elements,
example: Who comes to the class?
3) Rising intonation, example: A student comes to the class?
c) Commands are sentences, which normally have no overt
grammatical subject and whose; verb is in the imperative,
example: Come on the class!
d) Exclamations are sentences which have an initial phrase
introduced by what or how, without inversion subject and
operator; example: What a diligent student!
2. Compound sentence
Compound sentence is a sentence that combined from two or more
simple sentences (main clause) joined coordinately by punctuation
alone, by coordinate conjunctions or by conjunctive adverbs.

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The Impact of Structural Competence....

a) Joined by punctuation alone


John was sick; he did not come to school

Main clause Main clause


Punctuation
b) Joined by coordinative conjunction; and, but, or.
John was sick, but he came to school

Main clause Main clause


Coordinative conjunction
c) Joined by conjunctive adverb; moreover, in addition, other­
wise, however, nevertheless, therefore, etc.
John was sick, however he came to school

Main clause Main Clause
Conjunctive adverb
3. Complex sentence
A complex sentence is a sentence that consisting of one main
clause and one or more subordinate clauses.
For example: They watch the television whenever they like

Main clause subordinate clause


4. Compound complex sentence
Compound complex sentence is a sentence that consists of two or
more main clauses and one more subordinate clauses. For example:
since I had seen her the day before, I knew that he was unhappy,
but I did not guess that he would give up this plan.

Language skills
Anyone who uses languages well has a number of different abilities. He/she
may read books, write letters, speak on the telephone, listen to the radio,
and so on. Generally, we can identify four major skills such as; listening,
speaking, reading and writing (Hammer, 1978: 16). Those skills are classified
into productive and receptive skills. Speaking and writing are productive

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Muhammad Nafi Annury

skills and involve some kinds of production on the part of the language user.
Listening and reading understanding belong to receptive skills and involve
the language user is receiving written or spoken language.
When two people carry out a conversation, they very often use a com­
bination of skills, for example speaking and listening skills. As we know that
speaking is a part of language skills which should be mastered by students.
As stated in the 2006 national curriculum states that students should master
the four language skills besides speaking, there are: listening, writing and
reading. Therefore, English still becomes one of the compulsory subjects which
have been afraid by students.

Nature of communication
When two people are in talking to each other, we can fairly be sure that are so
far a certain reason. The reasons they may have are as follows:
a. They want to say something. “Want” is used here in general way to
suggest that speakers make definite decisions to address other people.
Speaking may be forced upon them but we can call still say they feel
the need to speak, otherwise they would keep silent.
b. They have some comunicative purposes. Speakers say things because
they want something to happen as a result of what they say. They may
want to give information or express their ideas. They may decide to be
rude or flatter, to agree communicative purpose, or succeed in conveying
the message and the effect they want it to have.
c. They select from their language store. Speakers have an infinitive
capacity to create new sentences (especially if they are native speakers).
In order to achieve their communicative purpose, they will select the
language they think is appropriate for this purpose.
d. They want to listen to “something”. Once again “want” is used in general
way. But the listeners in order to understand what they are listening to
they must have some desire to do so.
e. They are interested in the communicative purpose of what is being
said. In general people listen to because they want to find out what the
speaker is going to say – in other words what ideas they are conveying,
and what effect they wish the communication to have.

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f. The process a variety of languages. Although the listener may have a


good idea of what the speaker is going to say next in general terms,
he has to be prepared to process a great variety of life grammar and
vocabulary to understand exactly what is being said.

As we see from the explanation above that oral communication is a two-


way process between speaker and listener, involving the productive skill
of speaking and receptive skill of understanding. Both speaker and listener
have a positive function to perform. The speaker has encode the message to
be conveyed in appropriate language, while the listener has to decode (or
interpret) the message. The message itself, in normal speech, usually contains
a great deal of “information” which is redundant. At the some other time, the
listener is helped by prosodic feature, such as stress and intonation, which
accompany the spoken utterances and form part of its meaning, hence, by
facial and body movement.

Oral production
The main goal in teaching the productive skill of speaking is oral fluency that is
the ability to express oneself intelligibility, reasonably, accurately and without
undue hesitation. To attain this goal, the students will be brought from the
stage where they merely imitate a model or respond to cues to the point where
they can use the language to express their own ideas. Two complementary
levels of training will therefore be required practice in the manipulation of
the six elements of the language (principally the use of grammatical patterns
and lexical terms) and practice in the expression of personal meaning. For the
purpose the teacher cannot depend on written texts as basic for oral practice.
Audio – visual aids, on the other hand, provide at all levels a powerful way
of stimulating and developing oral ability without resource to the written
language.

Interdependence of the oral skills in communication


Although in the class practice it is often necessary to concentrate at certain
times developing one of the oral skills more than others, we should not
lose sight of the fact that oral comunication is two-ways process between
speaker and listener. Thus, the speaker does not always imitate: he also

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responds to what he has heard, while the listener does not always remain
silent: he is normally expected to make some sort of response. In classroom,
therefore, appropriate provision has to be made to see that the two oral skills
are integrated through situations, which permit and encourage authentic
comunication.

Intelligibility
Intelligibility is usually defined in phonological sound such as /i:/ and /i/.
At a level of basic understanding this aspect of intelligibility is unquestionably
important but for the purpose of oral fluency, the terms need to be able to
communicate effectively, the leaners need an adequate matery of grammar
and vocabulary as well as phonology. In the arrea of grammar, learners should
not be expected to master grammatical items simply because the exist in the
language, but not only those essential for communication.

Oral ability and motivation


The development of oral ability is a good source of motivation for most learners
who normally much concern to be able to speak and uderstand a foreign
language. Satisfaction at being able to say a small number of sentences after
a few lesson must be sustained by demonstrating to the students that they
can say progresively more and more through the language as the course
continues. Motivation can often be improved in large classes by placing greater
emphasis on the receptive skill of listening. This has the additional advantage
of getting the students accustomed to understanding the language without
reference to a written text as well as providing opportunities the meaningful
repetition of known.

Communicative competence
From the baby onwards, everybody starts to learn how to communicate
effectively and how to respond to other people’s communications. Some
people are better at communicating than others, but common people learn to
communi­cate through language.
One of the importance factors in context is the nature of the participants.
The age, sex, social status and educational level of the speaker and listener,
all affect that the mode of expression used.

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The next two factors are closely connected with each other. They are
actual situation in which the language occurs and the kind of contact between
the participants. The importance of the situation itself has always been
recognized, and it is heavily emphasized in situational language courses, as
well as in travelers; phrase books, where it becomes clear that the language
varies according to whether one is shopping, or asking direction, or booking
at the hotel and restaurant. Depending on the situation, the contact between
the participants could either in speech or in writing, and at any points on
the range of proximity, i.e. face to face, not face-to-face (two ways contact by
telephone or correspondence), or one way contact (radio, TV, advertisement,
notice). Simply by observing the choice of expression, one can postulate
circumstances’ in which one or the other would be likely to be written rather
than spoken, used in one place rather than another.
Another parameter is the nature of the subject matter or topic or field of
discourse. Its influence has been recognized for extreme of English Special
Purposes such as technical usage, international aviation English, legal
terminology, etc.

Mod and purpose


The way people communicate, as well as what they communicate is a matter
of choice. It is restricted by the conventions of the speech community and
the language itself. The external factors governing usage play their part in
decreeing what is appropriate to different circumstances.
A speaker is free to choose the mood as he wishes to convey as well
as what he wants to say, he is constrained by the available resources of the
language to fulfill his aims. That’s why he must select not only a correct
expression but one that is appropriate to his intentions.
Regarding the function of communication, there are five general
functions, which can usefully be isolated: personal. The speaker will be open
to interpret as polite, aggressive, in a hurry, angry, pleased, etc., according to
how he speaks Directive. The speaker attempts to control of influence the
listener in some ways. Establishing relationship: the speakers establish and
maintain contact the listener, often by speaking in ritualized way in which
what is said is not as important as the fact that is said is not as important as

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information to the listener. Enjoyment: the speaker is using language for its
own ‘sake’ in poetry, rhymes, songs, etc (Corder, 1973:42-9).

Basic assumption
Structure is the rule of language that enables speakers to express and orga­
nized their ideas through sentences or utterances or in the other words to
carry out a communication with others. Therefore, students must understand
the English structure in order to speak English. Without understanding its
structure, it is very hard to get the meaning of the message conveyed.

Research Method

In this study the writer used descriptive co-relational method. It was used
to describe whether there was impact between two variables, i.e. structural
competence (X) as independent variable and speaking competence (Y) as
dependent variable.
The population of this research was the fourth semester students of
English Department Tarbiyah Faculty IAIN Walisongo Semarang in the
academic year of 2011/2012. The number of the population was sixty (60)
students. The sample was taken from the all students of fourth semester
because the total number of population was less than 100 subjects.
In collecting the data of this research, the writer used test as the
instrument. There were two kinds of tests. The structure oral test was used to
measure students’ competence in structure. The other test, oral test was used
to collect data of students’ speaking competence. The tests had been carried
out at June 27th 2011 and June 29th 2011.

1. Structure test
Structure test of 40 items, and the test contains multiple choice ones.
The test is compiled from TOEFL. The consideration of compiling it is
that TOEFL, is a standardized test and admitted by people to measure
one’s English competence.

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Table 1
The content of structure test

No Materials Item Numbers


1 Duration: since 1
2 Used to 2
3 Numerical order the 3, 4
4 Not only .............. but also 5
5 Causative have, make 6,7,8
6 Conditional type I 9, 10
7 Conditional type II 11
8 Had better 12
9 Paralel structure 13, 14
10 Anticipatory II 16
11 Uncountable noun 17
12 Countable noun 18
13 Degree comparison 19, 20
14 Adjective clause 22, 23
15 Would rather 24
16 Passive voice 25
17 Indirect question 26, 27
18 Infinitive to 28, 29
19 Verb + ing form 30, 31
20 Verbal modifier – ing form 32
21 Either; neither 33, 34
22 Clause 35, 36
23 Because 37
24 Reflexive pronoun 38
25 Because of 39
26 Adverb 40

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2. Oral test
Underhill (1987: 44-81) states there are twenty techniques to test
speaking skill, i.e.: discussion oral report, learner-learner joint discussion,
role-play, interview, learner-learner description and recreation, form
filling, making appropriate responses, questions answer, reading
blank dialogue, using picture, giving description, i.e.: tell story or text
from aural stimuli, reading aloud, translating/interpreting sentence
completion from aural or written stimulus, sentence correction, sentence
transformation and sentence repetition. From those techniques, the
writer taught that using picture was effective and the most efficient to
conduct the test. The components of language proficiency used are:
a. Fluency
It refers to one’s ability to speak a language smoothly and easily
b. Grammar
It concerns with one’s ability to organize words into sentences
grammatically correct and to measure one’s ability in applying
grammatical rule as well.
c. Vocabulary
This item is designed to measure one’s skill to remember or retake
any words from his memory.
d. Pronunciation
measures one’s ability to pronounce English sounds correctly,
includes its aspects like stress, intonation, etc.

3. Scoring systems
a. Scoring of structure test
The structure test consists of 40 items and all are multiple choice.
The score of each number is one for the right one. So we can get a
maximum score around 40.
b. Scoring of oral test
As mentioned above that the test type used is using picure. There
are seven pictures that must be retold by the students for about
ten minutes. The components of language proficiency, grammar,
vocabulary and pronounciation. The maximum score of each is 20,
thus the total score is 80.

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Table 2
The Speaking Score

No Language aspects Number of items Score


1 Fluency 5x4 20
2 Grammar 5x4 20
3 Vocabulary 5x4 20
4 Pronounciation 5x4 20
Total 80

To make it easier, the writer gives criteria for each components and it is
applied by score 1 – 5. The criteria are mentioned below:
1. Fluency
5: speak smoothly and easily without any grooving
4 : speak with only accational hesitation
3: frequently have to think first before speak but enable to
continue to speak
2: often stop speaking
1: say a word then stop speaking
2. Grammar
5: the sentences are all grammatically correct
4: making mistakes but not destroy the meaning
3: making mistakes and destroy the meaning
2: the utterances are difficult to be understood
1: the speech cannot be understood at all
3. Vocabulary
5: using appropriate vocabulary
4: using some innapropriate words
3: frequently using innapropriate
2: having very limited vocabulary
1: stop speaking at all
4. Pronounciation
5: Pronounce all words correctly
4: understandable although having certain accent

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3: paying attention a lot of and making understanding


2: often making misprouncing
1: the speech is not understandable

Discussion
Students’ structural competence
1. Classical structural competence
In measuring the classical structural competence is 50.4%. Thus the
classical structural competence is 50.4%. It can be said that the students
structural competence is fair.
To know the precentage of students’ competence, Arikunto (1991: 67)
suggested five categories the students’ competence as follows:
a. Very good: if 81-100% the answer are correct
b. Good: if 61-80% of the answer are correct
c. Fair: if 41-60% of the answer are correct
d. Bad: if 21-60% of the answer are correct
e. Very bad: if 0-20% of the answer are correct
2. Frequency distribution of structural competence
The computation of frequency distribution of students’ structural
competence is as follows:

Table 3
The Length of Class Interval

Class interval Fi Xi Fixi


30 – 32 3 31 93
27 – 29 5 28 140
24 – 26 8 25 200
21 – 23 12 22 264
18 – 20 16 19 304
15 – 17 10 19 160
Des – 14 6 13 78
Total 50 157 1239

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a. Determining the range of scores by substracting the highest score


by lowest score. The range of students’ structure is the highest
score: 31, and the lowest score: 12. The range is 19.
b. The number of class interval by using the formula 1 + 3.3 log 50.
The result is 6.606. so the number of class internal is 7.
c. Length of class interval is 2.71
In this case the length of class interval used is 3
2. Measure of central tendency of structural competence
Table 4
The Structural Competence

Mean Median Mode


20.31 20.125 19.3

a. The mean of students’ structural competence has been compurized


by frequency distribution is 20.31
b. Thus the median of structural competence is 20,125
c. Mode 19.3

Students’ speaking competence


Table 5
The Students’ speaking Competence

Class interval Fi Yi Fi . Yi
72 – 74 3 73 219
69 – 71 9 70 630
66 – 68 13 67 871
63 – 65 3 64 192
60 – 62 15 61 915
57 – 59 5 58 290
54 – 56 5 55 275
51 – 53 5 52 260
Total 58 62 3652

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Muhammad Nafi Annury

1. Classical speaking competence is 80. 125%


Thus the classical speaking competence is 80.125%. We can categorize
that the classical speaking competence is good. It can be seen in Arikunto
(1991: 67) in the previous pages.
2. Frequency distribution
The computation of frequency distribution of students speaking com­
petence is as follows:
a. The range of students’ speaking competence is, the highest score:
73, and the lowest score: 51. The range is 22.
b. The number of class interva by using the formula: 1 + 3.3 log 50,
the result is 6.606. So, the number of class interval is 7
c. The length of class interval (P) is 3.14
In this case the length of class interval used is 3
3. Measure of central tendency of speaking competence
a. The mean is 59,868
Thus the main of speaking competence is 59.868
b. Median
Thus, the median of speaking competence is 66,4
c. Mode
The mode of speaking competence is 66.357

Product moment correlation


The computation of product moment correlation coefficient is done after we find the
values of N, ∑X, ∑Y, ∑X2, ∑Y2, and ∑ XY score. The result of computation using
Pearson’s formula is 0.990

Table 6
The Respondents

Respondents R Y X^2 Y^2 XY


R1 20 60 400 3600 1200
R2 16 56 256 3136 896
R3 19 59 361 3481 1121
R4 23 63 529 3969 1449

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R5 19 59 361 3481 1121


R6 17 57 289 3249 969
R7 17 57 289 3249 969
R8 18 58 324 3364 1044
R9 18 58 324 3364 1044
R10 18 58 324 3364 1044
R11 22 62 484 3844 1364
R12 20 60 400 3600 1200
R13 24 64 576 4096 1536
R14 20 60 400 3600 1200
R15 19 59 361 3481 1121
R16 21 61 441 3721 1281
R17 27 67 729 4489 1809
R18 26 66 676 4356 1716
R19 24 64 576 4096 1536
R20 13 53 169 2809 689
R21 15 55 225 3025 825
R22 23 63 529 3969 1449
R23 19 59 361 3481 1121
R24 21 61 441 3721 1281
R25 15 55 225 3025 825
R26 26 66 676 4356 1716
R27 24 64 576 4096 1536
R28 20 60 400 3600 1200
R29 20 60 400 3600 1200
R30 20 60 400 3600 1200
R31 22 62 484 3844 1364
R32 21 61 441 3721 1281
R33 19 59 361 3481 1121
R34 21 61 441 3721 1281
R35 19 59 361 3481 1121
R36 23 63 529 3969 1449

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Muhammad Nafi Annury

R37 16 56 256 3136 896


R38 23 63 529 3969 1449
R39 18 58 324 3364 1044
R40 20 60 400 3600 1200
R41 19 59 361 3481 1121
R42 20 60 400 3600 1200
R43 20 60 400 3600 1200
R44 23 63 529 3969 1449
R45 26 66 676 4356 1716
R46 19 59 361 3481 1121
R47 22 62 484 3844 1364
R48 21 61 441 3721 1281
R49 18 58 324 3364 1044
R50 21 61 441 3721 1281
R51 22 62 484 3844 1364
R52 21 61 441 3721 1281
R53 21 61 441 3721 1281
R54 20 60 400 3600 1200
R55 24 64 576 4096 1536
R56 17 57 289 3249 969
R57 25 65 625 4225 1625
R58 20 60 400 3600 1200
R59 15 55 225 3025 825
R60 20 60 400 3600 1200
R61 20 60 400 3600 1200
1240 3680 25726 222526 75326

From this table above we know that the computation of product moment
correlation coefficient is done after we find the values of N, ∑X, ∑Y, ∑X2, ∑Y2,
and ∑ XY score. The result of computation using Pearson’s formula is 0.0990.

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The Impact of Structural Competence....

Conclusion

The classical structural competence of fourth semester students of English


Department of Tarbiyah Faculty IAIN Walisongo Semarang is 50.4%. It can
be catgorized in fair level and the mean of structural competence is 20.125.
The classical speaking competence of fourth semester students of English
Department of Tarbiyah Faculty IAIN Walisongo Semarang is 59.868% and it
is good category. The mean of speaking competence is 63.76. It occurs because
structure is a small element in speaking besides vocabulary, pronounciation,
and fluency that work together. The result showed that there was significant
impact of structural competence especially in appropriateness because they
are able to arrange words into sentences when they utter.

References

Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2006. Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Praktik.


Jakarta: PT. Rineka Cipta.
Byrne, James. 1973. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. New York:
Addison Wesley Longman
Corder, Dale. 1973. How To Develop Self-Confidence And Influence People by
Public Speaking. London: Vermilion.
Fries, CC. 1952. Speech Communication Made Simple. New York: Addison Wesley
Longman.
Guthered, Tim.1996. The Study of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
Harmer, Jeremy. 2001. The Practice of English Language Teaching. Great Britain:
Pearson Education Limited.
Underhill, M. 1987. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. New York:
Addison Wesley Longman.
Swan. 1980. Writing English Language Tests. London: Longman.

60 REGISTER, Vol. 7, No. 1, Juni 2014


The Influence of Digital Games Based Learning on Students’
Learning Outcomes and Motivation

Rahmat Yusny
UIN Ar Raniry Aceh
Jl. Syech Abdurra’uf Kopelma Darussalam Banda Aceh
ryusny@gmail.com

Sarah Fitri
UIN Ar Raniry Aceh
Jl. Syech Abdurra’uf Kopelma Darussalam Banda Aceh
sarah_fitri24@yahoo.com

Abstract
There is no doubt that the emergence of today’s digital age greatly affects the human
life - including students in their educational life. In order to simplify the process
of studying languages, especially English, many scientists and experts continue to
find new and innovative methods. One of them is the method of Digital Games
Based Learning (DGBL). However, the implementation effort of DGBL method to
improve English language skills of students is still a matter of controversy. It is
mainly caused by the use of game - which is assumed by the public just as merely
means of entertainment rather than as a medium of learning. Judging on this reason,
researchers are interested highlighting them to be their research. This research was
conducted in order to view the significance and influence of DGBL in improving
English language skills of students - particularly the ability to hear and read - as
well as their motivation to learn. The study was conducted over five sessions in
March 2013 with a sample of 13 students were selected at random stratification of
68 second -year student population PBI, Ar - Raniry UIN .Researchers collected

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The Influence of Digital Games Based....

data by applying the experimental use of games in the classroom, provide pre-test
and post-test, as well as distributing questionnaires dealing with motivation. From
the analysis of quantitative data, it can be concluded that the method of Digital
Games Based Learning (DGBL) can be used to improve student’s achievement and
learning motivation in learning English.

Keywords: Digital Games Based Learning (DGBL), Learning outcome, Motivation

Abstrak

Kemunculan era digital dewasa ini, tidak dapat dipungkiri, sangat ber­pe­
ngaruh terhadap kehidupan manusia—termasuk siswa dalam mengenyam
pendidikan mereka. Guna mempermudah proses mempelajari ilmu bahasa,
terutama Bahasa Inggris, banyak ilmuwan dan para ahli yang terus berupaya
menemukan metode baru dan inovatif. Salah satunya adalah metode Digital
Games Based Learning (DGBL). Akan tetapi, upaya pengimplementasian
metode DGBL untuk meningkatkan kemampuan berbahasa Inggris siswa
masih menjadi kontroversi. Hal ini tidak lain disebabkan oleh peng­guna­
an game—yang diasumsikan oleh publik sekedar alat hiburan semata—se­
bagai media pembelajaran. Menilik pada alasan tersebut, peneliti ter­
tarik mengangkat permasalahan ini ke dalam penelitiannya. Penelitian ini
dilakukan guna melihat signifikansi serta pengaruh DGBL dalam me­ning­
katkan kemampuan berbahasa Inggris mahasiswa—terutama kemampuan
mendengar dan membaca—serta motivasi belajar mereka. Penelitian dilaku­
kan selama lima sesi pada bulan Maret 2013 dengan jumlah sampel 13
mahasiswa yang dipilih secara stratifikasi acak dari 68 jumlah mahasiswa
PBI tahun kedua, UIN Ar-Raniry. Peneliti mengumpulkan data dengan
mengaplikasikan penggunaan game di kelas eksperimen, memberikan pretest
dan posttest, serta mendistribusikan kuisioner motivasi. Dari hasil analisis
data secara kuantitatif, dapat disimpulkan bahwa metode Digital Games
Based Learning (DGBL) dapat meningkatkan prestasi serta motivasi belajar
mahasiswa dalam mempelajari Bahasa Inggris.

Kata kunci: Digital Games Based Learning (DGBL), Prestasi, Motivasi

62 REGISTER, Vol. 7, No. 1, Juni 2014


(Rahmat Yusny & Sarah Fitri)

Introduction

The method in which student’s speaking, listening, writing and reading


abilities can be improved are becoming critical issues in which English is
used as foreign language. Therefore, developing effective method to increase
students’ performance as both language learner and language user, and thus,
enhancing students’ English learning achievements has become an important
topic.
To assist students with developing foreign language proficiency, second
language teaching methods have begun to embrace the use of technology,
specifically Computers-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) tools (Alatis,
1983; Pusack, 1981; Soper, 1982; Stevens, 1983, as cited in Levent, 2009: 45).
One of methods that use Computer-Assisted Language Learning tools is
learning through digital games. Prensky (2001: 5) used term “Digital Games
Based Learning” to denote the use of computer game in educational content.
Digital Games Based Learning is a profoundly new learning method that
integrates the use of digital game on learning environment.
Although game is most often thought as a pure entertainment, it is
important to actually know that it can be enormously powerful tool used to
learn. Prensky (2006) stressed that digital game works as learning tool since
“all games [basically] already cause player to learn”. Findings from many
researchers strengthen such acclaim as they found that digital game has
enormously increased students’ learning achievement, especially in learning
language (Liu and Chu, 2010; Muller, n.d.; Panoutsopoulos and Sampson,
2012).
Prensky (2001:3) described “the process of game playing [as] engaging,”
so much that it brings together a great deal of motivation. Therefore, combining
games with learning can add potential motivation, massive enough to let the
learners stick with their learning process. Levent (2009: 46) further remarked
that digital game helps the process of learning to become more engaging as it
adds fun and excitement to help students feel more relaxed and comfortable.
Purushotma (2005) has suggested that games can be so highly motivating that
they can even cause addictive behavior as cited in Levent (2009: 46).
As cited in Prensky (2006: 1), Akerman (n.d.) affirmed that “play (game)
is our brain’s favorite way of learning things.” Thus, learning new things by

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playing game can be one of the most engaging as well as effective ways to
perceive data to our brain. The fact that people feel better, get less tired, and
are highly motivated when they do things they enjoy, such as playing games,
is the main idea of creating Digital Games Based Learning method.
Greatly interested with the use and development of Digital Games
Based Learning (DGBL) method in English language learning—especially
in enhancing students’ reading and listening skills as well as their learning
motivation—the researchers decided to strive this research to address the
following two major aims:
1. To know if adventure game enhances students’ English receptive skills
2. To find out the influence of DGBL towards students’ learning motivation

Hypothesis
The hypothesis of this research is formulated as follow:

“Digital Games Based Learning does influence students’ learning outcomes


and motivation”

Digital games based learning


There were two essential premises explaining the existence of digital games
based learning (Prensky, 2006: 1). The first premise is that today’s learners
have changed in some fundamental ways. The fact that students nowadays
living in digitally enhanced world, are somewhat have different way of
thinking than what former students had. The second premise is that computer
can provide new way to motivate today’s students to learn. If one could think
what game is actually best at, it would be based on the fact that it could
provide motivation to its players. As mentioned by Anyaegbu (2012) “Games
are often used for motivational or fun purposes.”
Therefore, keeping the students motivated enough (to stick with their
educational life) is a very critical matter faced nowadays. Learning methods
that were effective in motivating learners in the past might not be able to
motivate the learners of today. That is why the proponents of digital games
based learning believed (Prensky, 2001; Pivec&Dziabenko, 2003) that digital
games based learning is the learning method that could foster not only students’
learning achievement but also their inner motivation.

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However, the use of game as a profoundly new learning method has


been thoroughly criticized. As per saying goes “there are always two sides of
a coin.” While one side sees the emergence of digital games based learning
as a bright light and solution in improving both students’ achievements and
motivation, the rest sees it as a merely exaggerated misled effort in combining
two radically different things: serious, book-oriented, fixed purposed, rigid
activity named learning, with carefree, fun-oriented, time-wasting activity
called game.

Positive effect of gaming in learning


Games are effective not because of what they are, but because of what they
embody and what learners are doing as they play a game (Richard Van Eck,
2006). “Games create an environment where education is mostly learner-
centered, with a good opportunity for socialization when they are well-
organized, and awakening the will to win and competitive desire inside
people”(Squire, 2003: 5).Moreover, game presents simulated situation that
often extracted from real world. Students think and understand better when
they learn something they have been familiar with. Gee (2003) as cited in
McClarty et al. (2012) pointed out “games present a similar situation through
simulation, providing us the opportunity to think, understand, prepare, and
execute actions”.
Another learning benefit one can get from game playing is derived
from the fact that game provides opportunities to continue practice despite
repeated failures. It also presents immediate feedback and clear objectives.
This allows players to change their game play in order to improve their per­
formance and reach their goals.
Game is said to be particularly effective when “Designed to address
a specific problem or to teach a certain skill” (Mitchell and Savill-Smith, 2004:
19), for example in encouraging learning in subjects areas such as math,
physics and language, where specific objectives can be stated, or when chosen
selectively to fulfill the objective intended aforementioned of playing the game,
for instance: playing game to enhance spatial, problem-solving and strategic
ability or to obtain new knowledge.

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Negative effect of gaming in learning


As highlighted by Clark (2003) as cited in Mitchell and Savill-Smith (2004),
there are a number of risk factors that can negatively give impact on learning
via computer games:
1) Game objectives may not be compatible with learning objectives.
2) Games can distract from learning as players concentrate on completing,
scoring, and winning instead of focusing on learning.
3) Games require suspension of belief; it may be difficult to retain learning
acquired in that state
4) Failure to reach male and female players to the same extent
5) Games risk the learners becoming non socialized people as gaming
world is then literally seen as their world instead of their societies (pp.
22-23).

Aside from the bad effect of game is causing on learners, game in general
induces severe effects of frequent playing for gamers. This includes health
issues, psycho-social issues, and changes in behavior. Hence, players definitely
in need to have a control and a good self-management in playing the game
and also a good sense of selection in choosing age and task appropriate game.

Learning outcomes
Learning outcomes measure final result of intervention or program given to
the students. It should be measurable as it will identify or observe what the
students will achieve, should be able to do, and will know as the effect of the
intervention given beforehand. Thus, immediate evidence of these collected
knowledge, skills, and ability gathered after intervention is what is called
outcomes.

A learning outcome is a written statement of what the successful student/


learner is expected to be able to do at the end of the module/course unit,
or qualification. The key aspect each of the definitions has in common is
the desire for more precision and consideration as to what exactly a learner
acquires in terms of knowledge and/or skills when they successfully
complete a period of learning (Adam, 2004, p. 6).

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Game and reading comprehension


Aside from the importance of cognitive and metacognitive strategies, a few
studies have addressed the issues related to “motivation” and “engagement”
when it comes to reading comprehension and the way to enhances it. As
Guthrie et al. (2006) put it:

Engaged reading is based on motivational and cognitive characteristics


of the reader…who is intrinsically motivated, builds knowledge, uses
cognitive strategies, and interacts socially to learn from text. These
engagement processes can be observed in student’s cognitive effort,
perseverance, and self-direction in reading (p. 404).

Encouraging learners to reading comprehension can be done by selecting


appropriate materials, especially for young readers in their early stages of
learning. This selection is very crucial considering the number of selected
readers in recent times. That is why—in motivating readers of today—many
educational practitioners have begun to embrace game as one of the methods
used in enhancing students’ reading achievement.
Being labeled as one of solutions in motivating language learner, games
as Carlson (1952) as cited in Meizaliana (2009:53) described “. . . are activities
used to provide a fun and more relax atmosphere especially . . . for student
to acquire a second or foreign language.” Thus, games are believed to help
enhancing students’ motivation to learn to read and later to read to learn by
providing various contexts of learning materials in a more fun and engaging
way.

Game and listening comprehension


Listening as an active process requires conscious attention and interests as
well as physical involvement. Students who indicated high levels of motivation
appeared to engage in listening more. “Motivation and metacognition appear
to be elements that are part of clusters of variables contributing to variance
in L2 listening” (Vandergrift, 1997: 196). Listening to what learners want to
listen to and want to try to comprehend might motivate them to listen and
to keep on learning. These want and interest might appear in when someone
touches with different, unusual way of learning, thus commended on using
game in learning language.

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As Verdugo and Belmonte (2007: 87) pointed out: “Digital technology


for students, if appropriately selected and organized, can offer a range of
opportunities to develop foreign language listening and proficiency in a playful
and enjoyable context.” Therefore, in order to motivate and to enhance
students’ listening ability, one can afford to use appropriate, task-oriented,
listening-produced game.

Game enhances learning motivation


The first thing one might expect to see while playing game is an increasing
motivation. Common wisdom suggests that games are at least motivating, if
not educational. Game embodies aspects and characters that engage learners
to play.
Games contain the pieces necessary to engage students and help
them enter a state of flow where “they are fully immersed in their learning
environment and energized and focused on the activity they are involved in”
(Csikszentmihalyi, 1990, as cited in McClarty et al., 2012: 14). When complete
attention is devoted to the game, a player may lose track of time and not
notice other distractions. Purushotma (2005) as cited in Levent (2009: 46)
further added that “games can be so highly motivating that they can even
cause addictive behavior.”
On the other hand, game also creates fantasy, imaginary world which
has rich visuals and plenty aesthetics aspects. Such things might attract awe
and excitement from its players as it is considered as unique and recognizable
feature. Another aspect of game that attains interest is its clear objectives.
“Games are played to win or achieve a goal … The key to motivation is
winning while remaining challenged” (Becta, 2001: 1). Eventually, all “these
components can increase student engagement, and student engagement is
strongly associated with student achievement” (McClarty et al., 2012).

Research design
Participants
The population of the study was 68 English Department of IAIN Ar-Raniry
students year 2011. The researchers used stratified random sampling
technique to specify and determine the final samples of this research.

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Stratified random sampling is sampling technique which was based on


diversities or stratified qualifications and characteristics that targeted po­
pulation has (Prasetyo & Jannah, 2009). The researchers stratified population
based on students’ game playing frequency and students’ interest in game
playing.
The researchers used preliminaries questionnaire as a basis to de­
termine their strata. The researchers distributed the questionnaire to all
English department students year 2011and there were 68 students responded
to the questionnaire. Final samples were 13 students whom the researchers
selected after careful consideration based on end result of preliminaries
questionnaire.

Data collection
This study was a quantitative research. It also applied pre-experimental
design with one group pretest-posttest design. According to Sugiyono (2008),
one-group pretest-posttest design is a design in which the experimental
group experiences both pretest and posttest during the experiment. Further,
the data was collected through experimental treatment using digital game,
pretest and posttest, and motivational questionnaire. The process of collecting
the data would be picturised as follow:

Figure 1: Diagram Outlining the Procedure of The Case Study

Digital game
The game used in this research was “Dream Sleuth”. The game was comprised
as adventure, point-click, and hidden-object game. This game used as an
intervention for five-meeting research.

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Figure 2: “Dream Sleuth” Screenshot

The selection of Dream Sleuth as intervention in this study was for the very
reason of finding out appropriate game to foster English language learners’
ability. Looking at how the game had in plate, this game offered mysterious
storyline, unique mini games, exciting game play, and the foremost reason
of having quite plenty of language learning benefits—especially reading and
listening benefits.

Tests
The researchers handed out two tests for the experimental class: pre-test
and post-test. Pretest was given at the beginning of the meeting, before the
treatment conducted. Whereas post-test would be given at the end of the
meeting, immediately after giving class treatment.

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Pre-test was distributed with the aim of measuring the students’ initial
learning achievements before given the treatment. On the other hand, post-
test had a purpose of measuring the improvement or differences in students’
learning outcomes after being treated with the game. Both were necessary for
the researchers to obtain the data as in to analyze whether there would be
influences of digital game based learning on students’ learning outcomes
or not. The researchers intended to see students’ learning outcomes. In
particular, they wanted to find out two mainstream students’ English learning
outcomes, which were listening and reading. Therefore, in designing the test,
the researchers created two parts of the test: listening comprehension and
reading comprehension test.
Listening part consisted of four sections: section I, II, III, and IV. Each
section of listening test comprised of five questions. In designing the listening
part, the researchers excerpted the audio materials originated from Dream
Sleuth game. They used Audacity, an audio editing software, to record, select,
part, and save listening part in one complete format of listening material.
Meanwhile, reading part consisted of two reading texts: reading text I and
II. Each reading text has ten comprehension questions. In selecting reading
texts, the researchers carefully examined reading texts and their correlation
with the treatment. Reading text I was Aesop fables story, while reading text
II was selected based on the theme used in “Dream Sleuth” game.

Table 1
Sample of Test

Grandma : Happy birthday grandma!


Catherine : _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Catherine! Thank you.
Listening Part
It’s going to be a crazy day today with so many
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ coming.

According to the writer, what is the true nature of the nurse?


(A) She is caring
Reading Part
(B) She is tricky and mean
(C) She is evil and hateful
(D) She is truthful

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Questionnaire
The researchers applied questionnaire in order to perceive students’ learning
motivation. Questionnaire was distributed in the middle of treatment, right
after the third session of game playing. Questionnaire used in this research
was Learning Motivation through Game Playing Questionnaire (LMGP-Q).
The questionnaire was adapted from Keller’s ARCS model used by Kebritchi
(2008). The questionnaire consisted of 20 questions with 14 non reversed
questions and six reversed questions. Each item of ARCS Model (Attention,
Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction) comprised of five questions.

Table 2
LMGP-Q’s List of Questions

1. I think this game will be 11. The game is relevant to my interests.


challenging, but neither too
easy, nor too hard for me.
2. There is something interesting 12. It is clear to me how people use the
about this game that will game to improve their English skills
capture my attention.
3. This game seems more difficult 13. I will really enjoy completing the task
than I would like for it to be in this game

4. I believe that completing the 14. After working on this game for awhile,
task in the game will give me I believe that I will be confident in my
a feeling of satisfaction. ability to successfully improve my
English skills
5. It is clear to me how this game 15. I think that the variety of materials,
is related to things I already tasks, illustration, etc., will help keep
know. my attention on this game.
6. I believe this game will gain 16. The technology used to deliver this the
and maintain my interest game may be frustrating/ irritating.

7. I believe that the tasks 17. It will feel good to successfully


contained in this game will complete this game.
be important to improve my
English skills

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8. As I learn more about this 18. The contents of this game do not
game, I am confident that I include information that will be useful
could learn English through to me.
playing
9. I believe that I will enjoy this 19. I do NOT think that I will be able to
game so much that I would really understand what I learn from
like to know more about the the game
learning I got while playing
the game
10. The game seems dry and 20. I do not think that this game will be
unattractive. worth my time and effort.

This questionnaire used Likert Scale measurement. There were five scales
used in this Likert scale, namely: Not True = 1; Slightly True = 2; Moderately
True = 3; Mostly True = 4; and Very True = 5. There were the items marked
reversedwhich are stated in a negative manner. For the reversed questions
(item 3, item 10, item 16, item 18, item 19, and item 20), researcher would
use reversed scoring. That is for these items, 5=1, 4=2, 3=3, 2=4, and 1=5. The
range of score for this questionnaire is: 20 – 35 indicates very low learning
motivation; 36 – 51 indicates low learning motivation; 52 – 67 indicates
moderate learning motivation; 68 – 83 indicates high learning motivation; and
84 – 100 indicates very high learning motivation.

Table 3
Reversed and Non-Reversed Motivational Questionnaire’s Questions

Questions
Items
Non Reversed Reversed
Attention 2, 6, 15 10, 16
Relevance 5, 7, 11, 12 18
Confidence 1, 8, 14 3, 19
Satisfaction 4, 9, 13, 17 20

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Research result
Students’ learning outcomes
Through the use of tests, the researchers found necessary data needed to figure
out the answer whether game method applied was significantly influential to
enhance students’ learning outcomes. In analyzing the data from the tests, the
researchers would use statistical computing program called SPSS (Statistical
Product and Service Solution).

Table 4
Frequencies Table of Pre-test and Post-test

Pretest Posttest
N Valid 13 13
Missing 0 0
Mean 54.2308 71.3462
Median 57.5000 72.5000
Std. Deviation 9.48599 6.00481
Variance 89.984 36.058
Minimum 40.00 60.00
Maximum 70.00 80.00

Based on the analysis of pretest and posttest, the researchers found that there
was difference between mean of pretest (54.23) and posttest (71.35). From
these data alone, it can be inferred that there was difference of students’
learning outcomes before and after getting the treatment. To further analyze
the improvement of students’ learning outcome, the researchers used formula
of paired samples t test, finding that t value was significantly different from t
table and p value was much more less than standard sig. value of 0.05. With -t
value< -t table (-6.683 < -2.179) and p value< 0.05 (0.000 < 0.05), meaning that the
alternative hypothesis stating significant improvement in learning outcomes
following the treatment using digital game was statistically accepted.

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Table 5
Paired Samples T Test
Paired Differences
95% Confidence
Std. Sig.
Mean Std. Interval of the T df
Error (2-tailed)
Deviation Difference
Mean
Lower Upper

Pretest –
Pair 1 -17.1154 9.2334 2.5609 -22.69510 -11.53567 -6.683 12 .000
Posttest

As many proponents of DGBL claimed that game is significantly influential


to students’ achievements if it is appropriately selected. Thus, in regard of such
statement, the researchers used the formula of Effect Size to confirm digital
game’s treatment significance.

In classifying the criteria of effect size number, the researchers used classifi­
cation designed by Glass (n.d., as cited in Sutrisno, 2010):

: classified as low
: classified as medium
: classified as high

With score 1.80, it can be concluded that game did have significant influence
on students’ learning outcomes. Above all, according to scale of effect size range
from Glass, this number of effect size indicated high effect.

Students’ learning motivation


The researcherss distributed motivational questionnaire to their participants.
The questionnaire was adapted from Keller’s ARCS model employed by
Kebritchi (2008), indicating students’ learning motivation toward the use of
digital game. To suit the purpose of their study, the researcherss adapted
questions and scales in their designated questionnaire.

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Learning Motivation through Game Playing (LMGP-Q), as it was


named, was distributed during the treatment. The researcherss used both
numerical and descriptive analysis to explain the questionnaire. After getting
the result for questionnaire, the researcherss found that among 13 samples, one
student was classified as moderate level of motivated learner, eight as highly
motivated learners, and four as very highly motivated learners.

Table 6
The Description of Students’ Questionnaire Results

No. Initials Score Level


1. N.F 82 High
2. I.P 79 High
3. Y.A 94 Very High
4. S.F.Y 88 Very High
5. I.R 86 Very High
6. N.U 80 High
7. Aul. 71 High
8. D.R.R 69 High
9. R.A 60 Moderate
10. O.R.P 83 High
11. M.D.U 75 High
12. N.M 87 Very High
13. N.H 80 High
Mean 79.54 High

In accordance of each items in ARCS model, with Attention (M= 4.14), Relevance
(M = 3.88), Confidence (M = 3.89), and Satisfaction (M = 4.02) resulting
in positive attitude and motivation from participants in general. These
result demonstrated participants’ positive interest, confidence, satisfaction,
and attitude toward using game to enhance their learning experience and
motivation.

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Table 7
Mean of ARCS Model Items

Items Score Average (Mean)


Attention 4.14
Relevance 3.88
Confidence 3.89
Satisfaction 4.02

Hypothesis
Now that the result of the research had been found, the researcherss could
analyze the hypothesis. Statistically speaking, hypothesis “Digital Games
Based Learning does influence students’ learning outcomes and motivation”
was accepted, as the result indicates improvement on students’ learning
outcomes (-6.683 < -2.179) and positive indicator for learning motivation (M
= 79.54). Eventually, it can be summarized that digital game based learning
has significant influence on students’ learning outcomes and motivation. In
the end, concluding that formulated hypothesis is accepted.

Conclusions
Conclusions
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of digital games based
learning on students’ learning outcomes and motivation. The population of
the study was 68 English Department students year 2011. The total 13 samples
were derived from the use of stratified random sampling which divided the
population into three, from which the researchers selected her samples.
This study was a quantitative research. It also applied pre-experimental
design with one group pretest-posttest design. The data was collected
through experimental treatment using digital game, pretest and posttest, and
motivational questionnaire. The process of collecting the data was held for five
sessions in March, 2013.
In analyzing the data from the tests, the researchers used paired sample t
test to find out if there was difference of score following students’ engagement

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in game-playing. Further use of effect size formula was also considered in order
to find out how big of effect was actually the digital games based learning
method had in enhancing students’ learning outcomes. Moreover, in
analyzing the data of motivational questionnaire, the researchers was setting
out standard value for each item and reversed item, accumulating them into
final score and describing them into three level group of students’ learning
motivation. Since the researchers used Keller’s ARCS model, the researchers
then analyzed each ARCS item—considering its dimensional difference within
learning motivation. After analyzing the data and discussing its result,
provided below are the conclusions of study:
1. There was significant improvement of students’ learning outcomes,
in particular reading and listening skills, after indulging within the
treatment using digital game. The significance of digital game to enhance
students’ English skills was shown through the result of data analysis.
The difference of pretest’s mean (M = 54.23) to that of posttest’s (M =
71.35) signaling that there was difference of students’ before and after
treatment’s score. Further use of paired samples t test strengthened the
difference, by resulting in -t value (-6.683) lower than that of -t table’s
(-2.179). The significance of students’ improvement were statistically
calculated using effect size which resulted in high significance level
of influence of digital games based learning on students’ learning
outcomes. In summary, it can be concluded that DGBL did enhance
students’ learning outcomes.
2. There was influence of digital games based learning toward students’
learning motivation since the result of motivational questionnaire
showed that students mostly reacted positively toward the use of game
to learn English. Mean score (M = 79.54) was the proof that in average,
participants indulged in this research were indicated as highly
motivated learners. This indication of high learning motivation was
clearly shown during the researchers’ research—having seen her parti­
cipants playing continuously with a lot of curiosity; breaking in joy for
finishing certain levels; or simply seen them focusing intensely since
the level was pretty difficult. In the end, it all proved that digital games
based learning indeed has effect on students’ learning motivation.

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3. Through the analysis of Keller’s ARCS items, the researchers could


deduce the following assumptions: (1) Majority of students believed
that digital games based learning could increase their interest and
attention toward English learning as it provided various tasks, rich
visuals, and challenging levels, all provided in English; (2) students
realized that the game, if appropriately selected, could enhance their
English learning, especially in reading and listening; and (3) students
would feel satisfaction, excitement, challenge, and accomplishment
once they finish the game. These resulting in students’ feeling more
motivated and enthusiastic toward learning English through game-
playing.

Future works
For future researchers, the researcherss suggest to ensue further exploration
toward the effect of digital games in learning environment. The following
issues can be considered for future research: Firstly, it is helpful to examine
the effects of the same or similar game used in this study with different
participants. Secondly, various findings for the influence of the games in this
study, justify further investigation to better identify the cause of the game
effects on achievement and motivation. Thirdly, as this study relied only
on statistical calculation, further and deeper investigation using qualitative
instruments on effects of the games on motivation should be conducted.
Finally, the researchers recommended other researchers to work on the same
background with a more complete design and a greater number of parti­
cipants.

References

Adam, S. 2004. Using Learning Outcomes. In Report for United Kingdom


Bologna Seminar, Bologna.
Guthrie, J. T., Wigfield, A., Humenick, N. M., Perencevich, K. C., Taboada,
A., & Barbosa, P. 2006. Influences of Stimulating Tasks on Reading
Motivation and Comprehension. The Journal of Educational Research, 99
(4), 232-246.

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Levent, U. 2009. An Evaluative Checklist for Computer Games Used for


Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning and Practice: Vocaword Sample.
Novitas-ROYAL, 3(1), 45-59.
McClarty, K. L., Orr, A., Frey, P. M., Dolan, R. P., Vassileva, V., &McVay, A.
2012. A Literature Review of Gaming in Education. London: Pearson Pubs.
Meizaliana, M. 2009. Teaching Structure through Games to the Students of
Madrasyah Aliyah Negeri 1 Kepahiang, Bengkulu (Doctoral dissertation).
Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia.
Mitchell, A., &Savill-Smith, C. 2004. The Use of Computer and Video Games
for Learning: A Review of the Literature. Wales: Learning and Skills
Development Agency.
Prasetyo, B., &Jannah, L. M. 2006. Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif. Jakarta: Raja
Grafindo Persada.
Prensky, M. 2001. The Digital Game-based Learning Revolution. Retrieved from
http://www.marcprensky.com/.../prensky%20-%20ch1-digital%20
game- on October 9, 2012.
Prensky, M. 2006. Computer Games and Learning: Digital Game-based Learning.
Retrieved from http://www.marcprensky.com/.../prensky%20-%20
ch1-digital%20game-... on October 9, 2012.
Squire, K. D. 2003. Video Games in Education. Int. J. Intell. Games & Simulation,
2(1), 49-62.
Sugiyono. 2008. Metode Penelitian Pendidikan. Bandung: Alfabeta.
Vandergrift, L. 1997. The Comprehension Strategies of Second Language
(French) Listeners: A Descriptive Study. Foreign Language Annals, 30(3),
387-409.
Verdugo, D. R., & Belmonte, I. A. 2007. Using Digital Stories to Improve
Listening Comprehension with Spanish Young Learners of English.
Language Learning & Technology, 11(1), 87-101.

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Autonomous Learning Writing Promoted by the Use of
Facebook Group

KhairilRazali
UIN ArRaniry Aceh
Jl. SyechAbdurra’ufKopelma Darussalam Banda Aceh
khairilrazali1976@gmail.com

HusnulKhatimah
UIN ArRaniry Aceh
Jl. SyechAbdurra’ufKopelma Darussalam Banda Aceh
husnulkhatimah.adnan@gmail.com

Abstract
In aglobalized world, internet facilities and social media are becoming increasingly
important and take a strategic role in most of human activities. One of them is in
the education and learning sector. This qualitative research explored the role of a
Facebook group to increase students’ autonomy in learning writing. The experiment
was conducted with qualitative methodology to 6 students as a sample. The process
of data collection is done through the media Facebook group which was developed
during the data collection through observation and interviews. The research lasted
for 30(thirty) days in which researchers became the administrator and facilitator.
From the process of collecting and analyzing the data assumed that Facebook group
influenced the autonomy and promote independent of students learning in writing.

Keywords: Facebook group, Students autonomy, Learning writing

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Abstrak

Dalamdunia yang global, sarana internet dan media social menjadi semakin
penting dan mengambil peran strategis dalam segala lini kehidupan
manusia. Salah satunya adalah di sector pendidikan dan pembelajaran.
Penelitian ini melakukan explorasi kualitatif tentang eran Facebook Group
terhadap peningkatan kemandirian siswa dalam belajar writing. Penelitian
dilaksanakan dengan pendekatan kualitatif terhadap 6 siswa sebagai sampel.
Proses pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui media facebook group yang
di desain untuk proses penelitian ini, observasi dan wawancara. Penelitian
berlangsung selama 30 (tiga puluh) hari dimana peneliti menjadi pengelola
akun dan fasilitator. Dari proses pengumpulan dan analisa disimpulkan
bahwa media Facebook group mempromosikan dan mempengaruhi ke­
mandiriaan siswa dalam kemandirian belajar writing.

Kata kunci: Facebook group, Kemandirian belajar siswa, Belajar menulis

Introduction

Facebook is a global large social media that boosts more than 100 million
followers, and it is one of the fastest-growing and best-known sites on internet
these days. Initiated and established by Zuckerberg in 2004, Facebook as a
network at first targeted high school and college students but it goes globally
and actively gains its popularity of all people ages. (Blattner & Fiori, 2009).
Literally, Hayashi (2011) has studied about the use of Facebook that
contributed the increased students’ motivation and language output. She
explained that in Facebook students can enjoy written communication freely
by sharing their ideas, via Facebook status or note. They also can comment to
other’s posting, and or share link, and video as well. However even so, she
just tends to see the use of Facebook in general and focusing on the general
language learning.
Learning writing in the classroom is not adequate to foster students’
competence. Therefore, the demand of autonomous learning methods and
techniques by learning outside classroom is increased. Autonomous learning
as defined by Holec (cited in Hayashi, 2011) as “The ability to take charge of

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KhairilRazali & HusnulKhatimah

one’s learning,” had grown considerably in the field of language education.


Lee (2011) stated that autonomous learning does not require learners to work
in isolation; rather, they socially construct knowledge by actively engaging in
the process of learning. Through social interaction, learners develop a capacity
to receive information, and then to create a new perspective. It means, to lead
students to get their autonomy in learning, the instructors must be able to
create such community that appropriate for this need.
Fortunately, besides enhancing students’ motivation to love writing,
Facebook also provides an additional media to facilitate this need. One of the
examples is Facebook group. ‘Facebook group’ is a feature that is available on
the social networking site Facebook, where students are allowed to participate
communicate and interact via post and chat for a specific purpose with
unlimited number of people, and of course with unlimited usage of time.
This article mainly discusses the use of Facebook groups only. Actually,
Yunus et al (n.d) has studied about the connection of Facebook group and
learning writing. However, their focus is only on how Facebook develop
students’ preparation process in writing, which is brainstorming, before they
are doing the real writing. Then, they looked at the issues from teacher point
of view with having the result ‘How to teach writing to ELS students by using
Facebook group?’
Otherwise, this present study would explore more at how ‘Facebook
Group Promoting Students Autonomy in Writing Learning?’ with the focus
more on students point of view. According to Yunus et al (n.d) method, for
this study, a Facebook group was created specifically for the purpose of
providing students with a space where they were in control of the content
and the direction of their learning, as well as providing more opportunities
for students to write. The researcher merely acted as a facilitator for the group
which apply scaffolding role, to give temporary support to help student
move from lower stage to higher stage of development. Facebook group also
allowed for almost immediate feedback and fun interaction that the researcher
hoped will motivate students in improving their writing. The researcher
hypothesized that Facebook group will benefit the students in motivating
them to learn writing autonomously.

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Facebook
Facebook has been a leading social media currently. Facebook has been
gaining market share since launched in February 2004. It obtains over eight
million users in the U.S. alone and expands worldwide to eight other English-
Speaking Countries with more to follow (Yani, 2011). It started its corporation
with high schools in the United States in September 2005 and followed
crossing the Atlantic to universities in the UK (Yani, 2011). Now, the site
becomes one of the biggest web sites in the world visited by 400 million people
in a month.
In Indonesia, currently stands at the second largest Facebook market
in the world. The fact, despite of its relatively slow internet connection
compared to other countries, its rates grown rate from year to year that has
been tremendously high. Bucher (as cited in Yani, 2011) reported the top 30
countries by number of active Facebook users with Facebook data from 1st
April 2011 compared to April 2009 and April 2010, which is showed that
Indonesia precisely the second stair after USA and above the UK. It is surprise
when we recall back to the Facebook History development which showed
that UK is the second home of Facebook in the beginning.
However, Sukmana (2011) states there are reasons statistically lead
Indonesia at the second place of followers Facebook growth. Culturally,
Indonesian is mostly based on sharing, communicating, and solidarity. Face­
book facilitates Indonesian people to connect with their families, friends and
collegues in their lives easily. As more and more people get connected through
Facebook, people are not able to refuse to join it since most of their friends
had been there. In addition, the fact mobile phone subscribers have reached
more than 200 million in 2011 in Indonesia. It shows an increasingly trend.
Another important reason is the demands and interests towards Facebook has
led to innovative and impressive development of Facebook website, there­
fore, it leads to attracts users through its features and functions. Indeed, by
the reason, exclusive network, photo-tagging, news feed, and great application
including Facebook group resulted to a community-based cultural country like
Indonesia promotes of the existence of Facebook and its group allowspeople to
manage communication, moreover, it gives in some way Facebook increases
its development in Indonesian Market rapidly.

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Furthermore, Facebook has successfully won the heart of Indonesian


people, moreover the young adults. Communication on Facebook group is
mostly done in written type, therefore this study would like to find out how
this popular media involves in developing students’ autonomy in learning
writing. To somehow the students’ autonomy in learning is totally important
in learning writing.

Learner autonomy
The origin theory and practice of autonomy in language learning emerged
from Knowel’sresearch of self-directed learning (1975, cited in Kocak, 2003)
which defined as a leading figure in adult education, as a process in which
individuals accept responsibility for all the decisions concerned with their
learning. In the 1970s and 1980s the focuses on adult self-directed learning
was becoming popular.
Then, the term of autonomy firstly was introduced by Holec in 1981.
It begins with the council of Europe’s Modern Language project, which led
to the publication of Holec’s seminar report, in which autonomy is defined
as ‘The ability to take charge of one’s own learning’ (cited in Benson, 2006).
However, the practical application focuses on self-directed learning and led
the development of self-access centers and learner training as focal point for
experimentation.
Therefore, as the more recent literature has begun to use the term ‘self-
directed learning’ together with the concept of learning autonomy in the
context of institutional education context, it treats autonomous learning as a
synonym for self-directed learning. The only distinction between autonomy
and self-directed learning is clearly emphasized by Dickinson (1987, cited
in Kocak, 2003) who said that in self-directedlearning, learners accept
responsibility for all decisions related to their learning but not necessarily
implement those decisions; on the other hand, in autonomous learning the
learners are entirely responsible for all the decisions concerned with their
learning and also the implementation of these decisions.
Nevertheless, at that time, the issues of autonomous learning still
involved around adult learning which is held out of the classroom-based. Then,
in his book on learner training, Dickinson (1992, cited in Benson, 2003) argued
that learner often acted ‘independently,’ both cognitively and behaviorally,

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in the classroom, while Dam (1995, cited in Benson 2003) demonstrated how
principle of autonomy could be integrated into secondary school classroom
without self-access or formal learner training. This then turn to the application
of learner autonomy in the classroom context, which was as the second wave
of the interest in learner autonomy in language learning and teaching.
Furthermore, Allwright (1988: 35, cited in Benson 2003) suggested for
the re-conceptualizing autonomy if it was to be used to the classroom context.
It is because, he defined autonomy as the long-life learning which was not
being adequate captured by the classroom environment. This idea then
was supported by the development of computer and internet usage for the
academic educational purposes. This is third wave of the context for growing
of the interest of autonomy in recent years. Indeed, the “tendency has been
towards a blurring of the distinctions, leading to new and often complex
understandings of the role of autonomy in language teaching and learning”
(Benson, 2003).
Language skills can best be developed if the learner develops
awareness of his or her own learning, and of the strategies and styles that are
available. Strategic competence means being able to plan, implement, monitor
and evaluate one’s learning, and making use of all available opportunities
both in and outside the classroom.
Autonomy is often taken, mistakenly we believe, to be a solitary condi­
tion. However more and more writers are stressing the need for interaction
and negotiation. Dam (1995, cited in Nordlund, n.d.) stressed the social
dimension that “learner autonomy is characterized by a readiness to take
charge of one’s own learning in the service of one’s needs and purposes. This
entails a capacity and willingness to act independently and in co-operation
with others, as a socially responsible person.”
Therefore, in this learning, every participant is encouraged to response
to each other writing, whether to appreciate it or to revise it. Their participation
in commenting others would be well-observed.
An important part of language-learning awareness is the admission
that a lot of learning goes on the outside the classroom. There has been
considerable debate over whether autonomy is just another Western concept
that is being forced on cultures that do not share the same values. However,

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there have been autonomous systems successfully applied and adopted in


a wide range of cultures. This indicates that the problem may be more a
misunderstanding about the deep values of different societies. Individual
differences in learning styles, for instance, may be more important than
learning strategies that have been acquired in a different classroom culture.
Furthermore, autonomous learning can be developed in almost any
context and with any type of learner, but the context and culture have to be
taken into account.

Autonomous learning of writing


Writing is a task, described by Levy and Olive as “one of the most complex
activities that people can accomplish” (Dion, M. N., 2011). It is undeniable
that the hardest skill in English learning is writing which require learner’s
competency to receipt the information, process it, and at least, produce it.
Seriously, learning writing is inadequate if only rely on the “two hours or
four hours” learning in the classroom. Writing is about the long processes,
which require more time, more effort, as well as more guidance.
Indeed, learners need to learn more outside the classroom in order to
be a good writer, especially English writer. It is undeniably that the demand
of autonomous learning in writing is such a crucial issue to be focused on.
Therefore, in this study I would like to explore on how autonomous learning
of writing could be developed by using Facebook Group Media, which is
provided more space for the learning outside the classroom, but with the
consideration that the learners still in touch with their social environment, as
well as friends, teachers, or even English native speakers or writers.
As well as a complex subject, English writing has so large scope to
be covered to, and therefore would be impossible conducting research on all
aspect of it. Nevertheless, considering time limitation, participants’ basic
competence, I have to limit the writing scope into two authentic basic writing,
that are; writing comment, and writing a paragraph.
In order to help the participants learn successfully, I provided the
instructional process by using scaffolding approach, which was started
from the lower level to the next. In this situation, I would start the learning
process from the comment writing, and then paragraph writing. To guide the

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participants to gain better achievement, along with those writing instruction,


I provided a slight explanation and basic links, and a rubric, so that they
could monitor their learning, as well as their peer learning.
In recent years, interest in students’ autonomy has grown considerably
in the field of language education (e.g., Benson, 2003). Furthermore, along with
the development of internet and its usage, there are also many studies that
figured out about how is the internet usage can be adopted to the learning
process, or facilitated the learning. Facebook as the most popular Social Net­
working Site (SNS) in the world now day also gained the attention of academic
researchers, especially in the language learning issues.
Albertson (2011) studied the influence of Facebook to students’
grammatical and pragmatic awareness; he did this study among Japanese
learners of English that showed Facebook can lead students to be more aware
about the grammatical and pragmatic used in daily communication. It is
emphasized by Wu P. and Hsu L’s study that deal with the connection of
Facebook and EFL Learning (n.d). In their action research they got the result
that Facebook improve students’ language competence, as well as improving
their motivation. Their research is in a line with Nowland’s study which
more focuses on students’ motivation and autonomous learning. His result
suggests the teacher to not only “teach a language, but to also inform and
instruct how to study outside the classroom,” and Facebook gladly provide
it if the teacher understands to lead the students use it wisely. In addition,
Blattner and Fiori (2009) conducted study more specific on Facebook usage
in the classroom activities which was also resulting good conclusion on Face­
book usage.
Obviously, if that circumstance was happening, the English learning
process by using Facebook will become useless. As Wu P. and Hsu L. (n.d)
concluded that the external factors, such as; “1) Audience, 2) quantity and
quality of feedback from peers, 3) Topic preference, 4) Upcoming assignment
and examination and 5) novelty effect,” will become the disturbance of the
learning process.

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Research design

Participants
We conducted the research at the second grade students of Madrasah
AliyahNegeri (MAN) Model Banda Aceh. The population of the research
was 130 students. However, there was only 114 students participated in
answering questionnaires.
Nevertheless, to get the detail of qualitative data, we limited the samples
into six participants purposively; by giving them the questionnaires to select
the appropriateness. The researchers distributed questionnaires to explore of
how often they signed in Facebook, Facebook group, their writing passion,
and their writing interest which is proved by how often they write a diary or
anything a day.

Data collection
This study applied a descriptive qualitative approach. It explores under­
standing of a central phenomenon. There were three major procedures in
collecting the data. They were observations, interviews and documents
analysis. The research was carried on the Facebook group that the researchers
created for this study purpose. Then research samples were added through
their Facebook account into the group developed. To begin the conversation
flow, the researchers started the conversation through simple and free topics
started from free writing to introduce them. They research respondents were
free to write anything they would like to such as their activities, and so on. To
support the collection of the detail qualitative data, the learning activities were
done merely in Facebook Group environment for 30 days. The observation
activities were carried out on Facebook Group.
The learning process in the Facebook group was activated through
“posting” as the instructional learning, and “comment” as the learning response
to one another. To attract students, topics posted in the group were different
from regular classroom learning process. It maintains more approaching
to the basic learning of writing; which is more authentic and more needed
as a base of their learning writing development, such as writing a good
comment on the internet, and writing a good paragraph. Therefore, any of
the participants’ posting, both assignment and free posting, and comment

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in the Facebook Group were the document that would be analyzed for the
research need.

Discussion

The result of observation and document analysis


The primary data for this research was the observation data from the Facebook
group environment, which was more detail and comprehensive. Therefore,
all of the participants’ postings and comments in Facebook group were data
of the research.
Actually, according to Thanasaulas’s (2000), autonomous learning
emphasized as the “path” of the learning process in which the learners go
through, and it was not a product that can be produced, moreover in the very
short period of time. It means, it is adequate hard to measure the autonomous
learning. Therefore, in order to analyze and measure the participants’ auto­
nomous learning of English writing development during one month learning
activities, we adopted Reinder’s (2010) Eight-Stages of autonomous learning
process as the patron for this measurement. Each of the stages highlights
the learners in learning autonomously. The eight-stages were as cycle that
could not be torn up each other. Those stages are; identifying needs, selecting
goals, planning learning, selecting resources, selecting learning strategies, practice,
monitoring the progress, and the last was assessment and revision.
Furthermore, in order to analyze those stages thoroughly, I will explain
them separately;

1. Identifying needs
In this stage, before the learning was starting, the learners were asked to
decide what they need to learn, and what condition they need in order to learn
better. Therefore, we asked them to decide the rules of this group learning
activities that need to be obeyed by all of the participants. In order to stimulate
their opinion involvement; we suggested 3 rules to be applied; 1) be active and
participate enthusiastically, 2) be respectful to each other by using well or polite
language, and 3) be brave to talk and do not afraid of making mistake. However,
those rules were opened to be eliminated or accepted, as well as the full
opportunity for them to add other rules that theyneed. In this identifying

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needs stage, only two participants (C and No) who decided what they need
by adding other rules through their comments, but other participants (V, Na, I,
and R) gave no responses.
v C: “I should add? no. 4. do not neglect the task given by admin. no.5
not active at night always, but when the sun is not setting too n often
comment on and make suggestions. and that’s all I can say. participation
please!”
v No: “I agree with chohaekyungevilmagnae but, sorry maybe I can’t
active at night without the participation of its members will be difficult
to realize that learning to our liking with”

2. Selecting goals
In this stage, the learners were asked to decide what the goals of our learning
in this group are. They need to know and elaborate what they want to learn,
in short, what kind of writing they want to master in through this learning
media. Therefore, to help them think, we suggested them to learn about
descriptive and/or narrative paragraph, but also with the same consideration
that they might choose and decide their own. However, they had to elaborate
why they need to learn and how.

3. Planning of learning
At this stage, there were no other participants were responding, the
conclusion that other participants also agreed with those needs and goals that
had been settled by C and No. Therefore, the learning process was started. It
began with the writing comment learning. We posted a brief basic knowledge
about how to write a good comment on the internet. Then, they explored
their writing comment competency by commenting on other people’s English
posting, and reported them to the group, as well as their analysis of other
comments in that posting. Then, every of them had to comment and revise
each other report about writing comment.
Trying to understand the postings and the link given about comment,
all of the participants have their own way in learning, as well as their strategy
to plan their own learning. The participants wrote a reflection on the problem,
the feeling toward the learning, etc. one of the participant reflected as follows;
“I like study about write comment, because I can know new vocabulary
from other, but sometimes I can’t understand all”

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Nevertheless, in the next learning topic, learning about writing


paragraph, almost all of the participants wrote their reflection about learning
of writing paragraph.
In this reflection writing section, a participant, V reflected based on the
reflection guideline, but she misunderstood the “planning learning” meaning
in this context which was talking about the planning about how to learn the
materials, but she talked about “the future plan.” She explained about her
future plans as “2. My plan after this I can learn to practice in daily life and
I plan one more I want to learn to speak like a tourist, they understand my
language and I can understand their language as well.”
Fortunately, in this turn C understood the instruction well, but she wrote
shorter reflection than the previous one. There are only several questions were
covered in No’s reflection, but it was very confusing answer about planning
learning question; “lesson planning is done well, but to realize in need of sacrifice
and hard work of both the recipient and the giver. Not all of the planning we can do
well or according to plan lots of obstacles in this regard occurred.”

4. Selecting resources
The learners selected their own learning sources. The participants were free
to check and search any others as many as they wanted to. According to
the explanation in stage 3, at this stage, there were only three participants (C,
V, and No) explained their selecting resource process, while two others (Na
and I) were only talking about their feeling and one participant was giving
no response. In this stage, C elaborated that she did not visit any other link
because she felt that the link given was adequate for her learning as follows;

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Otherwise, V said that she visit other link to help her understand what
she read in the given link, as she said “I’ve also seen other people’s links, if
I am unsure of my mind, I saw it aims to correct my mistakes.” however,
unluckily, she did not mention the links she had visited to. This is in
accordance with No’s thought, which was visiting other links because she
thought that learning something was not enough by visiting one link, as she
said “of course because we can understand the learning of a variety of things not just
one link only goal that we get more banyak pengetahuan.”

5. Selecting learning strategies.


The detail of those three participants’ learning strategies were C elaborated
in her first reflection that her learning strategies were by speaking, reading,
writing, and listening, but in the second reflection she wrote that arranging
time is her strategy in learning, as she said “to arrange a time to learn.” Otherwise,
V explained that her learning strategies was by trying to understand the
materials giving by guessing and if she failed to guest, she would ask me
directly, and she really did it, as she said “I am attempting guessing yourself what
tasks the teacher, if I do not understand also recently asked directly at the teacher.”
The last is No, which was writing her learning strategies by trying to find
the meaning of the material, and therefore she tried to look at the digital
dictionary, AlFA link, and asking her friends, and very rare she asked me.

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6. Practice
In this stage, the learners are asked to practice their learning by writing based
on the task given.The task that was given had been designed based on the
autonomous learning development consideration. Therefore, their partici­
pation in fulfilling the task by writing showed how their autonomous learning
in writing developed.
To help them practice writing, in the beginning of the learning, I asked
the participants to do free writing about themselves as the introduction. For
this activity, all of the participants (C, V, Na, No, I, and R) were participating
very well. Indeed, before the learning was started, three participants (C, No,
and V) had been starting writing by asking other participants’ condition and/
or just saying hello and good night, and Na also participated commenting on
those posting.
Furthermore, in the activity of “how to write a good comment” material
posted the participants practiced writing comment by exploring comments
of other people outside the group and posted its report in the group, even
though those posting did not meet the deadline that had been settled together
before. However, there are two participants (C and R) who were merely
analyzing other people’s comment, but they did not providing any comment
in that posting.

7. Monitoring progress
The “monitoring progress” not only can be explored through the “seen
check,” it also can be seen from their opinion about the learning. Therewas
one participant (C) who showed her opinion about the writing comment
learning, as she said “oh come on guys .... please, further comments.. do not be quiet
like this.. I’m bored -_-“
Interestingly 100% students participated at this stages, but with the
detail that 69% of participant were highly participated observing others’
posting, and only 15% who were critically giving opinion about the learning
progress and 52% were participating well, because they missed the last 5
posting and they did not give any opinion through the learning progress.

8. Assessment and revision.


In this last stage, the learners were asked to assess their peers learning as

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well as theirs. Therefore, their feedbacks for other participants were observed
through their comments, but the feedbacks that assess others’ posting will only
be counted.
In this stage, the participants’ participation decreased than previous
stages. There were only three participants (C, V and R) who provided feedback
to assess other participants’ posting, but others were giving none. However,
each of them only wrote one feedback in each learning step; C only wrote
one feedback for writing comment learning in No’s posting, but she did not
provide any feedback for the writing paragraph learning. Otherwise, V and
R did not provide any assessment feedback in writing comment learning, but
they gave a feedback for their pair in the writing paragraph learning.
Furthermore, after assessment process (assessing others’ posting and
their own posting) the participants were asked to revise their posting according
to the assessment. Nevertheless, for the revision process, only one participant
(V) who did; she revised her paragraph, and others did none; even I and No
whose paragraph was revised by the participants above.

Data interpretation
The result of Facebook group observation and document analysis shows
that Facebook group media promotes students autonomous learning. The
“practice” stages are considered as the main stages in writing learning,
where all of the participants (100%) fully engaged participating. All of
the participants actively practice writing. In addition, all of the participants
also showed full involvement in monitoring the progress. In addition, the
interviews data exposed participants enjoy the learning process and the
practice through media (Facebook Group).
Of six other stages, the participants showed different level of partici­
pation. Where for “selecting resources, selecting learning strategies”, and
assessment, there were only three participants showed the engagement, and
for “planning learning, setting goals, and identifying needs” there were only
two participants showed the involvement.
Nevertheless, from the Facebook observation and document analysis,
there is one participant (C) who was actively participated in the group, and
fulfilled all of the eight stages of autonomous learning, but she did not realized
that the Facebook group had promote her to learn writing autonomously. It

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can be seen from her interview answer that “the learning activity we had done
in the group was not motivated me to love English writing.” Otherwise, other
participants’ participation level is; V fulfilled 6 stages, No fulfilled 5 stages, R
fulfilled 3, and the last Na and I fulfilled 2 stages.
In fact, the interviews data reflected the only factor of their problem in
participating the learning in the group is the timing which students had timing
conflict between participating in the research and completing the school
assignments. Since “selecting goals, selecting learning, and assessment” had
to be written in their reflection and it was done in the last time of the learning,
it was approaching to their final examination timing and therefore they could
not participate actively.
The participants stated that they love this type of learning which is more
fun and relax. Even R and “I” that was fulfilling only two stages, they answered
that they loved this kind of learning which was providing a lot advantages,
especially for developing their English vocabulary, writing comment, and
writing a paragraph. Indeed, “I” showed high enthusiasm of this learning
and said that she wanted to be a member in other Facebook groups that
provides English learning. Actually her answer and the participation in the
group were contradictory, but then she explained that she got problem in
accessing the internet connection. Therefore, it can be concluded that the
Facebook group promote students’ autonomy in learning writing, even though
it was not significant.

Conclusion

This study concludes that the Facebook group promoted students’ autonomy
in learning English writing. It promotes students to practice writing more often,
and also promotes students monitor the learning process. One of the reasons
that the learners felt learning writing in the Facebook group as more fun and
relax compared to routine classroom situation. However, for the selecting
learning resources, selecting learning strategies, assessment, identifying
needs, and setting goals the learners suffered from difficulty due to final
examination and school assignments of students. Therefore, it is urgent to
consider Facebook Group as a media in learning language mainly. The fact that

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it could promote autonomy; moreover, teacher should take consideration in


a way to motivate students.

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&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Ftlvconf.files.wordpress.
com%2F2011%2F04%2Ftlv-paper-wu.pdf&ei=DGdRUeWgIoaKrgeOx
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98 REGISTER, Vol. 7, No. 1, Juni 2014


The Interlanguage Interference on the Difficulties of Building
Question Sentences by the Second Year Students of MA As
Soorkaty Salatiga

Sari Famularsih
English Department of Educational Faculty
State Islamic Studies Institute (STAIN) Salatiga
Jl. Tentara Pelajar No. 2 Salatiga, Central Java, Indonesia
sarifamularsih01@gmail.com

Abstract
This study is aimed to elaborate the interlanguage interference of the difficulties
which are faced by 40 second year students of MA As Soorkaty Salatiga in academic
year of 2004-2005 in building question sentences and the sources of difficulties. The
research is conducted by such kind of test. The total number of test are 20 items,
consist of 5 yes-no questions, 5 W-H questions, and 10 tag questions which is done
in a written essay form. Based on the analysis, the result shows some conclusions.
Firstly, the researcher finds the types of difficulties problems are faced by the students
in building question mastery, such as: (1) building yes-no question sentences in
translation the word “apakah”, that is related with the use of to be. (2) Building
interrogative word question sentences in translation the words “apa”, “kapan”,
“milik siapa”, etc. That are related with the use of “what”, “when”, “whose”, etc. (3)
Completing the tag question sentences with the proper auxiliary based on tense of
the sentences. The most difficulties in building question sentences are especially
in yes-no question form by using the word “apakah”. In the term of interlanguage,
the students’ errors are mostly included in expressing meaning by the words and
grammar of the first language. The source of difficulties which have been analyzed
are mostly caused by inter lingual and intra lingual transfer.

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Keywords: interlanguage, question sentence, interlingual transfer, intralingual


transfer

Introduction

Teaching English in any grades of institutions cannot leave one element,


which support the students’ mastery that is grammar. It plays important roles
to control students in using sentences or phrases. Their mastery in English
grammar will make their sentences comprehensible and acceptable. The
students are able to fit the words in sentences with others.
In syntactical construction the students have to know the appropriate
form suits with meaning and context. The students understand that learning
English needs to understand the rules of grammar. The grammar is integral
part of learner’s knowledge. It is related with other subject. Grammar is a
body of empirical rules which explain and regulate the structure of English
sentences. Structure serves as a guide for students in building English sentences
correctly (Mahani and Siswantoro, 1987: 53).
The systematical rules of English grammar have become integral
part of the students’ knowledge. It will enhance them to provide English
sentences that are grammatically acceptable and therefore comprehensible.
Some rules are extremely complex, including question sentences. It is one of
the subject matter that the students learn in school. There are three kinds of
question sentences of English; they are yes-no question, interrogative words,
and tag questions (Nuryanto, 1986: 118-123). Seeing the kinds of question
sentences above, it is understood that most of students find the difficulties in
mastery of building and construction question sentences. It can be seen in the
phenomenon such as: “Where we eat?” It should be: “Where do we eat?”, or they
may write “Who book own?” It should be: “Whose is it?”
Based on their English proficiency level, the students have learned about
question sentences from junior up to senior high school. The students find
many problems in building question sentence. Here the writer wants to
elaborate the difficulties faced by the students in building questions and the
sources of difficulties in building sentences.

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Interlanguage of Second and Foreign Language Learners


The term interlanguage (IL) was introduced by the American linguist Larry
Selinker to refer to the linguistic system evidenced when an adult second
language learner attempts to express meanings in the language being learned.
The interlanguage is viewed as a separate linguistic system, clearly different
from both the learner’s ‘native language’ (NL) and the ‘target language’ (TL)
being learned, but linked to both NL and TL by interlingual identifications
in the perception of the learner. A central characteristic of any interlanguage
is that it fossilizes – that is, it ceases to develop at some point short of full
identity with the target language. Thus, the adult second-language learner
never achieves a level of facility in the use of the target comparable to that
achievable by any child acquiring the target as a native language. There is thus
a crucial and central psycholinguistic difference between child NL acquisition
and adult second language (L2) acquisition: children always succeed in
completely acquiring their native language, but adults only very rarely succeed
in completely acquiring a second language. The central object of interlanguage
research is to explain this difference – essentially, to describe and explain
the development of interlanguages and also to explain the ultimate failure of
interlanguages to reach a state of identity with the target language (Tarone,
2006: 747).
According to Richards (1992: 186), interlanguage is the type of language
produced by second and foreign language learners who are in the process
of learning a language. In language learning, learner’s errors are caused
by several different processes. These include: (1) borrowing patterns from
the mother tongue; (2) extending patterns from the target language; and
(3) expressing meanings using the words and grammar which are already
known.

Foreign Language Learner Difficulties


In learning foreign language, learner will encounter some problems in
mastering the rule of language. They often produce erroneous utterances
whether in their speech or their writing. Exactly those problems are caused of
differences between the rule of the mother tongue and the foreign language.
So, this matter makes difficulties to them in learning the target language. One

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of the difficult terms related with this research is building question sentences.
There are two sources of difficulties in building question sentences namely inter
lingual transfer and intra lingual transfer. Inter lingual transfer is caused by
the interference of the learners’ mother tongue. Interference from the mother
tongue is clearly a major source of difficulties in second language learning.
In consequence, a lot of mistake in studying foreign language is caused by
mother tongue. While intralingual is the negative transfer of item within the
target language. Ricard states the intra lingual errors consist of four categories,
namely (1) over generation, (2) ignorance, (3) incomplete application of the
rules, and (4) semantic error (Richards, 1976: 35). Fourth of this big enough
matter is influence in studying foreign language. In consequence, studying
foreign language is very important to be emphasized on this matter.

English Question Sentence


Question can be divided into three major classes according to the types of
answer that expect (Qirk, 1973: 191), they are yes-no question (that expect only
affirmation or rejection), W-H question (that expect a reply supplying an
item of information), and tag question (that invite the listener to respond the
question).
1. Yes-no question
These are the simple questions elicit the answer yes or no only (Frank,
1972: 88). Usually all of these questions begin with an auxiliary or a
single form of be that has been reversed with the subject.
2. Tag question
These are also yes-no question, but the special form into which they are
put, shows of these two answers is actually expected. If the statement
part of the question is positive, the question part is negative. If the
statement part is negative, the question part is positive.
3. W-H question
These are questions that elicit specific information of a person, place,
time, etc. As in negation, the verb in each of these questions is handled
differently depending on whether the verb is or is not accompanied by
an auxiliary in the declarative sentences. W-H questions are formed
with the aid of the following interrogative words (question words),

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who for persons, whom for object, whose for possessive, which for things
or subject or object (Thomson and Martinet, 1986: 71). Some experts also
mention W-H question as interrogative word question, as Frank stated
(1972: 88).

The Rules of Building Question


Yes-no Question

The pattern of an interrogative sentences as follows: auxiliary + subject


adverb + verb + C / Adjunct + modal.

Verbal Pattern
Examples: 1) Does your friend study hard?
Yes, he does. / No, he doesn’t.
2) Shall she give us the book?
Yes, she shall. / No, she shan’t.

Non-verbal Pattern
Examples: 1) Are the nurses always busy?
Yes, they are. / No, they aren’t.
2) Is one of the students sick?
Yes, he is. / No, he isn’t.

For the verbal pattern, there must be an agreement between subject and
auxiliary used. When the subject is singular, it uses auxiliary does and verb with
s is omitted. For instance, there is a statement “She runs alone every morning.”,
its interrogative sentence will be “Does she run alone every morning?”. The do
auxiliary is accompanied with the simple present which follows its verb with
s. For example, there is a statement “I have much money.”. In interrogative
sentence form will be “Do you have much money?” Then, modal auxiliary
generally has no s suffix for third person and no infinitive there is used for
singular and plural subject. For example the statement “They can climb the
mountain carefully.”. It will be “Can they climb the mountain carefully?”
In addition to personal pronoun, the expletives there and it may also
appear in a short answer to yes-no question.

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Is there my father? Yes, there is.


In negative yes-no question, not is contracted with the auxiliary that starts the
question. In formal usage, not is placed in adverbial position right after the
reversed auxiliary and subject.
Isn’t Sari reading? Didn’t Sari read newspaper?
Is Sari not reading? Did Sari not read newspaper?
In highly informal conversation, the auxiliary and the subject of a yes-
no question are frequently omitted.
Get lunch? for Do you get lunch?
Thinking serious problem? for Are you thinking serious problem?

Tag Question

The tag question consists of operator plus pronoun, without a negative partite,
if the super ordinate clause is positive, the tag is negative, and vice versa
(Frank, 1972: 88-91). For example, “He likes his job, doesn’t he?”, the meaning
of this sentence, like its form, involve a statement and question, each of them
asserts something then invites the listeners response to it. Azar said that a tag
question added at the end of a sentence (1993: 16). Speaker uses tag question
chiefly to make sure their information is correct or seek agreement. Tag
question may be spoken:
- With a rising intonation if the speaker as truly speaking to ascertain
information, idea, believe, is correct. Example: Ann is in apartment,
doesn’t she?
- With a falling intonation if the speaker is expressing an idea which is
almost certain listener will agree. Example: It’s nice day today, isn’t it?

Tag question expects agreement with the statement (Frank, 1972: 89). It’s
containing the regular question auxiliary plus the personal pronoun that
stand the subject. For example, “It’s not raining, is it? No, it isn’t.”
Krohn writes his pattern (1984: 21) as follow:

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Table 1.
Non Verbal Tag Question

Statement Negative Tag


There are birds, aren’t there?
They are clever, aren’t they?
Tuti is diligent, isn’t she?

Table 2.
Non Verbal Tag Question (negative statement)

Negative Statement Affirmative Tag


You aren’t sick, are you?
It is not your book, is it?
Hari is not in the home, is he?

Table 3.
Verbal Tag Question

Statement Negative Tag


He went to school, didn’t he?
She runs alone, doesn’t she?
We write a letter, don’t we?

Table 4.
Verbal Tag Question (negative statement)

Negative Statement Affirmative Tag


Annie didn’t read well, did she?
Toni doesn’t go to school, does he?
They don’t bring my book, do they?

Interrogative Word Question

Interrogative word question is question begin with either interrogative adverb


(why, when, where, how) or pronoun (who, whom, what, which) (Frank,

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1972: 91). This type of question begins with a question word (such as who,
what, when, or where), the rest of word order pattern is auxiliary is placed
before the subject (Krohn, 1984: 67). Below is the usage spread:
v Who substitutes for a noun phrase which refers to a person.
v Who substitutes for a noun phrase which refers to thing.
v When substitutes for an adverbial which refers to time.
v When substitutes for an adverbial which refers to place.
v Why substitutes for part of the predicate phrase.
v The question words as substitutes for the subject.
(Note: Who in this pattern is informal standard English. It is used in
conversation also in notes or letters to friends and relatives. Whom is
formal standard English. It is used in speech and formal writing, such
as papers which students write in college.)

Nuryanto notes that the question word question may function as the
interrogative pronoun (1986: 21). The interrogative adverbs consist of when
(adverb of time), where (adverb of time), how (adverb of manner) may be
combined with preposition. For instance, the interrogative pronoun of who,
what, whom, and whose are normally used for person. What is used for things,
which is used for thing and person when a choice involved.

The Use of Word Questions

Azar gives some explanations about the use of word question (1981: 1-3) as
in the table below:

Table 5.
Kinds of Word Question and its Function

Word
Function Example
Question
When It is used to ask question about When will you come?
time.
Where It is used to ask question about Where I get ticket for the show?
place.

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Why It is used to ask question about Why do you go?


reason.
How It is generally ask about manner, How does he drive?
but has many idiomatic uses.
It is used with many and much. How much money does it cost?
It also used with adjective and How old are you?
adverb. How fast were you driving?
How long asks about length of How long have you been in this
time. city?
How often asks about frequency. How often do you write in
home?
How far asks about distance. How far is to Miami from here?
Who It is used ask the subject of a Who wants to come with me?
question.
Whom It is used ask the object of a verb Whom did you see?
or preposition.
Whose It is used ask the question about Whose book did you borrow?
possession.
What It is used at the subject of a What made you are angry?
question. It refers to things.
It is also used as an object. What do you need?
It sometimes accompanied a What classes are you talking?
noun.

The Interrogative Sentence with Auxiliaries


There are three types of auxiliaries, each of them serve different purpose:

Tense Auxiliary

It consist of be, have, will, and shall. The tense auxiliaries perform a structural
function only. Be occur with the –ing present participle in the progressive forms
on the tenses and with –ed in the passive tenses. Have is used for the perfect
tense. Will and shall are used for the future tense.

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Do Auxiliary

The do auxiliary is accompanied with the simple form of the verb (infinitive
without to). It is used only in simple present tense (do or does offer) and simple
past tense (did offer). It provides an auxiliary less verbs to enable then to
function in the following grammatical patterns.
a. Question
Do you like a new hat?
b. Negative statement
I don’t like your new hat.
c. Abridgment-omission or substation
I don’t like your coffee and neither does my wife.
d. Emphasis
My teacher thinks I didn’t study for my test, but I did study.
e. Entreaty
Do come to the party tonight.

Modal Auxiliary

Frank said that modal auxiliaries are added to the verb as special semantic
component such as ability, obligation, and possibility (1981: 94). Some of
them express the same kinds of semantic coloring of verbs in the subjective
mood. In general, they have no –s suffix for third person and no infinitive of
participle form. They have only two formal tenses, the present and the past,
which are used with the simple form of the lexical verb. Modal auxiliary does
not change their form for person or number, that is, there is ni –s form for the
third person singular. The modal position in the sentence is after the subject
and before the rest of the sentence (Krohn, 1974: 109).

Research Methodology

The data of the research was taken from the students’ sentences about yes-
no questions, W-H questions, and tag questions which were made by the
students in building question sentences through translation and complete the
sentence according to each type of question. Their sentence was done through

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examination in the classroom of 40 second year students of MA As Soorkaty


Salatiga along the research. The research was conducted on 1-12 June 2004 in
the effective learning time from 07.00 a.m. to 01.00 p.m. The sources of data
were taken based on the result of the test.
The research was conducted by quantitative and qualitative study
respectively. A quantitative was used to calculate the number of errors of each
kind of sentences. Than qualitative one was used to analyze the source of
difficulties and its cause of errors. In this research, the writer used a test as
the instrument in collecting the data. By giving the test, she wanted to know
the difficulties that faced by the students in building question sentences
construction. The total number of test were 20 items, consist of 5 yes-no
questions, 5 W-H questions, and 10 tag questions. The test was done by the
students in a written essay form in the piece of paper prepared.
To make easier in classification of the test, the writer classified the
data based on the kinds of English questions. She wrote and calculated the
total number of errors of each kind of question sentences. Then, she tried to
conclude the difficulties in building question sentences construction which
are related to the question sentences element. At last, the writer analyzed the
source of difficulties based on the final test result which were presented in
percentage formula:

P= x 100 % P = Percentage
F = Number of individual
N = Frequency (Anas, 1994: 40)

Discussion and Finding

Based on the analysis, the writer found that the students mostly done the
errors on translating the meaning from native language to target language.
They were remain used the words and grammar from the mother tongue. In
the term of interlanguage, it was included in the third type of error that was
expressing meaning using the words and grammar which are already known.
The writer separated the difficult points into three points of description result,
they were:

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The Difficulties in Building Yes-no Question Sentence


In this type of question, the learners built yes-no question through translation.
Based on the data involved, it can be analyzed that they have difficulties in
building yes-no question through translation from Indonesia into English
sentence, namely (1) apakah / what and (2) choosing to be.

Apakah / what
In translation the word “apakah”, the students have made error repeatedly. It
is influenced by their mother tongue to translate “apakah”. The learners tend
to make addition, it is an error which characterized by the presence of an item
which is not appear in a well form utterance. They tend to translate “apakah”
in yes-no question sentences with the word “what”. Such kind of error is
categorized include into addition because the students rise an item which not
appear in correct form of English contraction.

Examples :
1) Apakah mereka siswa MA As Soorkaty Salatiga?
2) Apakah kamu kemarin makan di restoran itu?

The students’ translation :


a) What are they student MA As Soorkaty Salatiga?
b) What are you eat in restaurant yesterday?

Seeing the students’ translation above, the learners are very poor in translation
mastery from Indonesia into English sentence. It is not similar to translate
from Indonesia into English. The students prefer to use word “what” to
translate Indonesian word of “apakah”. It is not appear in well form utterance.
The students should put auxiliary verb for the target language “apakah”, so the
correct forms are as follow:

1) Are they students MA As Soorkaty Salatiga?


2) Did you eat in restaurant yesterday?

Choosing to be

The second difficulties in building yes-no question sentences through tran­


slation is choosing to be on auxiliary verb with the subject used in the sentences.

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The learners are still obvious in using was, were, is, are, do, does, etc.

Examples :
1) Apakah mereka siswa MA As Soorkaty Salatiga?
2) Apakah dia seorang perawat?

The students’ translation :


a) What are they student MA As Soorkaty Salatiga?
b) What does she a nurse?

The learners do not pay attention in using to be from the example (a) the
students made errors in choosing to be which must be related with the time or
action happened. They should not put “are” for the example above, because
the adverb of time which is used is past tense. In the example (b) the students
also made error in choosing to be. They should not put “does” in the sentence,
because the students above are not verbal pattern. They should put to be
according to the subject used, so the correct sentence are:

1) Are they students MA As Soorkaty Salatiga?


2) Is she a nurse?

Table 6.
The Result of Yes-no Question Translation from Indonesia to English

The Sum and The Sum and


No. Test Item Percentage of Percentage of
Correct Answer Wrong Answer
1. Apakah dia seorang perawat?
2. Apakah kita datang ke kantor
15 37,5 % 25 62,5 %
kemarin?
10 25 % 30 75 %
3. Apakah kamu kemarin makan di
12 30 % 28 70 %
restoran itu?
17 42,5 % 23 57,5 %
4. Apakah mereka siswa MA As
Soorkaty Salatiga?
11 27,5 % 29 72,5 %
5. Apakah kita akan belajar bersama di
rumahku besok?

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The Difficulties in Building W-H Question Sentence


In this type of question, the learners built W-H question through translation.
Based on the data involved, it can be analyzed that they have difficulties in
building W-H question through translation from Indonesia into English
sentence, namely (1) choosing word question and (2) choosing to be.

Choosing word question

The learners of MA As Soorkaty Salatiga are still bad to translate from


Indonesia into English. In this type of question, the word questions which
are used should suit and relate with an adverb of time and place. There are
some words question in English such as who, whose, whom, where, when, etc.
each of them has function according to the right person. It is not correct to use
“who belong” to transfer the meaning of “milik siapa”.

Examples :
1) Milik siapa buku ini?
2) Milik siapa buku-buku di sana?
The students’ translation :
a) Who belong book is this?
b) Who belong books is there?

The students have mistakes in using the word question “whose”. Many
students use “who belong” to translate Indonesian words “milik siapa”. It is
influenced by their mother tongue to transfer from L-1 to L-2. They think to
everything in L-1“milik siapa” consist of two words, then they translate it word
by word “who belong”. The students tend to presence the items which are
not appear in correct pattern, so the correct form will be:

1) Whose book is this?


2) Whose books are there?

Choosing to be

The second difficulties in building question sentences through translation is


refer to choosing to be. Besides the learners have difficulties to use “who”,
they also make an error in choosing to be.

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Example :
Milik siapa buku-buku di sana?
The students’ translation :
Who belong books is there?

The learners’ translation is still far from perfect. The learners should not
put “is” in the form of plural noun. Such kind of error is made because they
have not paying attention with “-s” added at the end of the word “books”.
They should put “are” for its to be, so the correct sentence will be:
Whose books are there?

Table 7.
The Result of W-H Question Translation from Indonesia to English

The Sum and The Sum and


Percentage Percentage
No. Test Item
of Correct of Wrong
Answer Answer
1. Apa yang dia makan? 14 35 % 26 65 %
2. Milik siapa buku ini? 8 20 % 32 80 %
3. Milik siapa buku-buku di sana? 14 35 % 36 65 %
4. Kapan kamu mengerjakan PR ini? 20 50 % 20 50 %
5. Berapa jam kamu belajar dalam sehari? 18 45 % 22 55 %

The Difficulties in Completing Tag Question Sentence


In this type of question, the learners completed the tag question follow the
sentences. Based on the data involved, it can be analyzed that they have
difficulties in completing the tag question follow the sentences, namely
choosing auxiliary verb.

Choosing auxiliary verb

The learners are still obvious and confuse in using suitable auxiliary verb
based time form in the sentences, such as is, am, are, do, does (present), was,
were, did (past), will, shall, should, etc. (future), etc.

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Examples :
1) You like coffee, . . . ?
2) They arrived yesterday, . . . ?

The student’s translation :


a) You like coffee, doesn’t you?
b) They arrived yesterday, don’t they?

The learners do not pay attention in using auxiliary verb. From the example
(a) the students made error in choosing auxiliary verb which must be related
with the time or action happened. They should not put “does” for the example
above though the adverb of time indicates of present tense form. They did not
consider that the subject is “you”. It is a plural subject, so the proper auxiliary
is “do”. In the example (b) the students also made error in choosing auxiliary
verb. They should not put “do” in the negative tag, because the adverb of
time which is used is in past tense, so the correct sentences are:
1) You like coffee, don’t you?
2) They arrived yesterday, didn’t they?

Table 8.
The Result of Completing Tag Question Based on Sentences

The Sum and The Sum and


Percentage Percentage
No. Test Item
of Correct of Wrong
Answer Answer
1. They arrived yesterday, . . . ? 20 50 % 20 50 %
2. You have heard about that, . . . ? 25 62,5 % 15 37,5 %
3. You like coffee, . . . ? 18 45 % 22 55 %
4. I may speak to him, . . . ? 16 40 % 24 60 %
5. You’d rather I didn’t say anything, . . . ? 17 42,5 % 23 57,5 %
6. He didn’t have to speak to me, . . . ? 25 62,5 % 15 37,5 %
7. I have to buy some matches, . . . ? 14 35 % 26 65 %
8. He was not fall down, . . . ? 27 67,5 % 13 32,5 %
9. You will come, . . . ? 21 52,5 % 19 47,5 %
10. You would like the window to open, . . . ? 20 50 % 20 50 %

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From the finding result above, it can be conclude that there are two
sources of difficulties in building question sentences namely interlingual
transfer and intralingual transfer.

Interlingual Transfer
The learners have made interlingual error because of the mother tongue
interference. They usually transfer the system of their mother tongue into
foreign language in placing what for the each want “apakah”.
Examples :
1. False : What is she a nurse?
True : Is she a nurse?
2. False : What we will study together in my house?
True : Do we will study together in my house tomorrow?

From the examples, these are transfer from L-1 (first language / mother tongue).
The errors are such kind of interlingual transfer, because the students admit
one of the element of the correct sentences in building yes-no question.

Intralingual Transfer
It is the negative transfer of items within the tongue language or put another
way the incorrect generalization of the rule within the target language.
It has been found that the early stages of language are characterized by a
predominance of interlingual transfer is manifested. Negative intralingual
transfer can be illustrated in utterance.
Examples :
1. False : Who belong books is this?
True : Whose book is this?
2. False : When you do homework?
True : When do you do this homework?

According to Dulay, the constructive diction where the structure in the first
language would be product (1982: 97). It is influenced by the first language
habit. In other word, the students’ difficulty is by an interference of the learners
that are used to think himself by using their mother tongue. The sentences
above are errors in the use of grammar because the students still cannot re­
cognized the subject and put “are” for its to be.

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Conclusion

Based on the analysis, the result shows some conclusions. Firstly, the
researcher finds the types of difficulties problems are faced by the students
in building question mastery, such as: (1) building yes-no question sentences
in translation the word “apakah”, that is related with the use of to be. (2)
Building interrogative word question sentences in translation the words
“apa”, “kapan”, “milik siapa”, etc. That are related with the use of “what”,
“when”, “whose”, etc. (3) Completing the tag question sentences with the
proper auxiliary based on tense of the sentences. Those are related with
choosing suitable to be or auxiliary. The most difficulties in building question
sentences are especially in yes-no question form by using the word “apakah”.
The source of difficulties which have been analyzed are mostly caused by
inter lingual and intra lingual transfer. The errors of inter lingual transfer
is affected by the students’ mother tongue interference. It is a major source
of difficulty in second language learning. While the errors of intra lingual
transfer is caused by the students’ lack of knowledge about grammar. In the
term of interlanguage, the students’ errors are mostly included in expressing
meaning by the words and grammar of their mother tongue.

Reference

Azar, Betty Schrampfer. 1993. Understanding and Using English Grammar.


Prentice Hall Regent: New Jersey.
Dulay. 1982. Language Two. Oxford University Press. New York.
Frank, Marcella. 1972. Modern English: a Practical Reference Guide. Englewood
Cliffs: New Jersey.
_____________ . 1981. Modern English: a Practical Reference Guide. Englewood
Cliffs: New Jersey.
Krohn, Robert. 1984. English Sentence Structure. The University of Michigan
Press: New York.
Mahani, Setyo and Siswantoro. 1987. Pengkajian Kurikulum SMA. Universitas
Sebeles Maret: Surakarta.
Murphy, Raymond. 1985. English Grammar in Usage. Cambridge University
Press: Cambridge.

116 REGISTER, Vol. 7, No. 1, Juni 2014


Nuryanto. 1986. Essential of English Sentence Structure. Yayasan IKK: Yogyakarta.
Qirk. 1973. A University Grammar of English. Longman: England.
Richards, Jack C. 1976. Error Analysis. Columbia University Press: New York.
_______ et.al. 1992. Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied Linguistics.
Longman: UK.
Sudjiono, Anas. 1994. Pengantar Statistik Pendidikan. Raja Grafindo: Jakarta.
Tarone, E. 2006. Interlanguage. University of Cartenbury: New Zealand.
Thomson, A. J. and A.V. Martinet. 1986. A Practical English Grammar. Oxford
University Press: Hongkong.

REGISTER, Vol. 7, No. 1, Juni 2014 117


118 REGISTER, Vol. 7, No. 1, Juni 2014
SUBMISSION GUIDELINES

REGISTER is a forum of discussion that focuses on language (linguistics and


literature) as well as language teaching studies. It aims at enhancing critical
studies on the various actual phenomena from different perspectives.
The editors invite articles from teachers, linguists, and those who
concerns with language, literature and language teaching under the following
submission guidelines:
1. The editors will be pleased to publish research and non research original
articles that deal with linguistics, literature, and language teaching.
2. The article has not been published or is not being considered for
publication elsewhere (either in the actual or modified form)
3. Full-length articles should not exceed 11000 words and should not
be less than 2000 words typed in A4 paper of 1.5 spaces, Times New
Roman 12, in MS Word.
4. The title should be concise and informative
5. Write the author’s name, affiliation, affiliation address and the e-mail
address of the author below the title.
6. The abstract should be concise, informative, and in 100 – 350 words.
7. Key words should have 3 - 5 words or phrases
8. References should be written as the example:
Wilis, J. 1996. A Framework for Task- Based Learning. Longman: London
Carr, Kathryn S. 1990. How Can We Teach Critical Thinking? Retrieved
from http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-9218/critical.htm
Stadler, Stefanie. 2011. Intercultural communication and East Asian
politeness. In Kadar, Daniel Z. and Sara Mills (eds). Politeness in
East Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
9. Research articles comprise: (a) title; (b) writer’s name (without any
title); (c) abstract; (d) key words; (e) introduction including theoretical
review and / or research purposes; (f) research methodology; (g)
discussion; (h) conclusion; (i) reference.
10. Non research articles comprise: (a) title; (b) writer’s name (without any

REGISTER, Vol. 7, No. 1, Juni 2014 119


title); (c) abstract; (d) key words; (e) introduction; (f) discussion; (g)
conclusion; (h) reference.
11. Submit a soft copy of the article to the editors or send it via e-mail.

REGISTER published by English Department of Educational Faculty, State


Islamic Studies Institute (STAIN) of Salatiga, Jl. Tentara Pelajar No. 2 Salatiga,
Central Java, Indonesia, 57012.
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