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Himanshu Singh (2016CE10203)

Sanchit Sharma (2016CE10207)
Ashutosh Raj (2016CE10211)
Adarsh Agrawal (2016CE10213)
Suresh (2016CE10215)
Sourabh Kumar Singh (2016CE10223)
Anoop Bishnoi (2016CE10227)
Adarsh Kumar Sonu (2016CE10231)
Prateet Garg (2016CE10235)
Kushal Kumar (2016CE10255)
Suresh (2016CE10267)
S. Sai Kumar (2016CE10275)
Table of contents Page No.
➢ Objective 2

➢ Introduction and background 2

➢ Relevance and Importance 2

➢ Relevant Standards 2
➢ Description of apparatus 2

➢ Test Procedure 5

➢ Observation and Calculation 5

➢ Result 5
➢ Discussion 6
➢ Interpretation of result 6

➢ Significance of test 6
➢ Appendices 6
➢ References 7

❖ List of tables

• Table 1 - Specifications for Los Angeles Test 4

• Table 2 - Maximum permissible values of abrasion for different pavements 7

❖ List of figures

• Fig. 1 - Los Angeles Testing Machine 3

Objective:To determine the Los Angeles Abrasion Value in the laboratory.
Introduction and Background:Abrasionisthe process of scuffing, scratching, wearing
down, marring, or rubbing away. Aggregates used in the surface layer of road pavements are
subjected to wear due to vehicles moving over it. The friction between the moving tyre and the
road surface results in abrasion of aggregates. Therefore, the aggregates should bear enough
resistance against abrasion. This property is evaluated by Abrasion Value Test.

Los Angeles Abrasion Value is determined as weight of fraction passing 1.7mm sieve as the
percentage of total material taken.

Wt. of fraction passing 1.70 mm sieve

Los Angeles Abrasion Value = -----------------------------------------------
Wt. of Total Material

Relevance and Importance:

Los Angeles test is more commonly adopted since the test values of aggregates have been
correlated with the performance studies. Resistance to wear is an essential property for road
aggregates and road stones should be hard enough to resist the abrasion due to traffic. Steel
tyres of animal drawn vehicles which rub against the stones can cause considerable abrasion of
the stones on the road surface. Hence in order to test the suitability of road stones to resist the
abrading action due to traffic, tests are carried out.

Relevant Standards:
1. IS:2386(1963) Part 4 - Methods of Tests For Aggregates.
2. ASTM C 131 - Resistance to Degradation of Small-Size Coarse Aggregate by
Abrasion in the Los Angeles Machine

Description Of Apparatus:
1. Los Angeles Machine ,conforming in all essential characteristics to the design shown in
Fig. 1, shall be used. The machine shall consist of a hollow steel cylinder, with a wall
thickness of not less than 12.4 mm closed at both ends, having an inside diameter of
711mm, and an inside length of 508 mm. The cylinder shall be mounted on stub shafts
attached to the ends of the cylinder but not entering it and rotates on a horizontal axis.
A suitable, dust tight cover shall be provided for the opening through which test sample
shall be introduced, with means for bolting the cover in place. A steel shelf is provided
inside the cylinder which is projected radially 89 mm into the cylinder and it is along the
length and parallel to the horizontal axis. It is located exactly at 1270 mm
circumferentially in the direction of rotation from the opening.
Fig. 1 - Los Angeles Testing Machine

2. Sieve (IS sieve) size of 1.70 mm. The other sieve size is dependent on the type of
grading selected
3. Balance or scale accurate within 0.1% of test load over the range required for this test.
4. Charge shall consist of steel spheres averaging approximately 46.8 mm in diameter and
each having a mass of between 390 and 445 gm. 12 such are required. The number is
dependent on the type of grading selected.

The test was conducted using the grading B. Therefore, IS sieves of size 20 mm, 12.5 mm
and 10 mm were required. A total of 2.5 kg of the material passed through 20 mm sieve and
retained on 12.5 mm sieve was taken and also 2.5 kg of the material passed through 12.5 mm
sieve and retained on 10mm sieve was taken.

Table 4 - Specifications for Los Angeles Test

Grading Weight in grams of each test sample in the size range, mm Weight Number
(passing and retained on square holes) of of
charge spheres
80 - 63 - 50 - 40 - 25 - 20 - 12.5 10 6.3 - 4.75
63 50 40 25 20 12.5 - 10 - 4.75 -

6.3 2.36

A - - - 1250 1250 1250 1250 - - - 5000 12


B - - - - - 2500 2500 - - - 4584 11

C - - - - - - - 2500 2500 - 3330 8
D - - - - - - - - - 5000 2500 6
E* 2500 2500 5000 - - - - - - - 5000 12

F* - - 5000 5000 - - - - - - 5000 12


G* - - - 5000 5000 - - - - - 5000 12


*Tolerance of +2% is permitted.

Test Procedure:
❏ The oven-dried material was first accurately weighed as per the grading specified and the
reading was noted down as W1
❏ Corresponding to the selected grading, abrasive charge was taken. For grading B, 11
balls were needed.
❏ Before starting the test, the cylinder of the machine was ensured to be clean from inside.
Then the aggregate sample, along with the abrasive charge was placed in the cylinder.
❏ The cover was fixed firmly in the position. Then, the machine was switched on.
The machine was allowed to run at a speed of 30 to 33 rotations per minute.
❏ The machine was to be rotated for 500 revolutions for grading A,B,C,D and
1000 revolutions for grading E,F or G.
❏ Since the grading selected was B, the sample was subjected to 500 revolutions.
During the movement, the aggregates were subjected to abrasion by the steel balls.
❏ After the test was completed, the steel cover was opened. The crushed material was
removed within the cylinder.
❏ Then, the crushed material was sieved through 1.70 mm sieve. The fraction that retained
on the sieve was weighed to an accuracy of 1 gm and was noted down as W 2.

Observations and Calculations:

Weight of the specimen W1= 5000 gm.
Weight of the specimen retained on 1.70 mm sieve after test W2= 3256 gm.
Percentage wear = ------------ x100
5000 - 3256
= ------------------ x 100

= --------- x 100

= 34.88%

Result :
Hence, The Los Angeles Abrasion Value is 34.88

❏ In the test, steel spherical balls are used to rub against the aggregate, besides there is a
pounding action too. Thus, both abrasion and impact occur during this test. Therefore,
this test simulates field condition better than any other such test.
❏ Since, there might be some loss in the fine particles during sieving, instead of weighing
the passed one the retained material on the 1.70 mm sieve is weighed and is subtracted
from the total weight of the material.
❏ The experimental value of percentage wear is 34.88% and is within the permissible
❏ It seldom happens, that the aggregates desired for a certain construction project has
the same grading as any one of the specified gradings. In all cases the standard
grading or gradings nearest to the gradation of the selected aggregates may be chosen.
Interpretation of Result:
From the experiment, we get the value is 34.88% more than the requirement of JKR’s;
30%. Aggregate physical property is higher Los Angeles abrasion is less tough and less
resistance to abrasion.
Significance of Test:
The Los Angeles (L.A.) abrasion test is a common test method used to indicate aggregate
toughness and abrasion characteristics. Aggregate abrasion characteristics are important because
the constituent aggregate in HMA must resist crushing, degradation and disintegration in order to
produce a high quality HMA
The Los Angeles abrasion test is important to:
1. Determine the Los Angeles abrasion value
2. Find the suitability of aggregates for use in road construction

A) Maintenance of Shelf:

1. The shelf of the Los Angeles machine is subjected to severe surface wear and impact.
With use, the working surface of the shelf is peened by the balls and tends to develop a
ridge of metal parallel to and about 32 mm from the junction of the shelf and inner
surface of the cylinder. If the shelf is made from a section of rolled angle, not only may
this ridge develop but the shelf itself may be bent longitudinally or transversely from its
proper position.
2. The shelf should be inspected periodically to determine that it is not bent either
lengthwise or from its normal radial position with respect to the cylinder. If either
condition is found, the shelf should be repaired or replaced before further tests are made.
The influence on the test result of the ridge developed by peening of the working face of
the shelf is not known. However, for uniform test conditions, it is recommended that the
ridge be ground off if its height exceeds 2 mm.
B) Table 2 - Maximum permissible values of abrasion for different pavements

S.No Type of Pavement Layer Max. Permissible abrasion

value in %

1 Water Bound Macadam, and 60

base course

2 WBM base course with 50

bituminous surfacing

3 Bituminous bound 50

4 WBM surfacing course 40

5 Bituminous penetration 40

6 Bituminous surface dressing, 35

cement concrete surface

7 concrete surface 30

Abrasion Test on aggregates are generally carried out by any one of the following methods:
1. Los Angeles Abrasion Test
2. Deval Abrasion Test
3. Dorry Abrasion Test.

 IS 2386: (online; Accessed on 19/1/2018)
 IS 5640: (online;
Accessed on 19/1/2018)
 (online; Accessed on

Q1: What is aggregate?
Ans: It is a broad category of coarse to medium grained particulate material used
in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic
aggregates. Aggregates are also used as base material under foundations, roads, and railroads. In
other words, aggregates are used as a stable foundation or road/rail base with predictable,
uniform properties.

Q2: Types of aggregates?

Fine and coarse aggregates:
 Fine aggregates are smaller than
 Coarse aggregates are mostly larger
than 5mm and usually between
9.5mm and 37.5mm
 Fine and coarse aggregates together
make 60% to 75% of volume (70% to
85% by mass)
 Fine aggregate is usually 35% to 45%
of total aggregate content (volume or

Q3: What is gradation?

 Grading is the particle size distribution of the aggregate as determined by sieve analysis
 Sieves with square openings are used
 Sizes of the squares are defined in standards

Q4: How aggregates are graded?

Ans: Aggregates are classified into different grades using sieve analysis on the basis of their
sizes. A convenient weight of the sample is taken and sieved through a set of sieves

Q5: Give desirable properties of aggregates on road construction.

 Strength
 Hardness
 Toughness
 Durability
 Shape of aggregates
 Adhesion with bitumen