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THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES

M. N. G. EINSTEIN

B. EGRETEAU

Abstract. This paper expands the triangle of Pascal by extending the mean-
ing of the binomial coefficients to negative values. Thus, in return this creates
Egreteau’s triangle. Then we go on to construct out of sequences, as for exam-
ple the Fibonacci’s −, different kind of triangles before we construct p−nomial
triangle vector spaces and come to a compactification of all possible p−nomial
triangles.

Contents
1. Pascal’s Triangle 2
2. Egreteau’s Triangle 4
2.1. Egreteau’s ∆ Triangle 9
2.2. Egreteau’s ∇ Triangle 11
3. Different Triangles 14
3.1. Fibonacci’s Triangle 14
3.2. N’s Triangle 17
3.3. nκ ’s Triangles 19
3.4. Triangle’s Characteristics 22
4. Triangle Vector Spaces 23
5. All possible p−nomial Triangles 30
References 31

1
2 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

1. Pascal’s Triangle
Definition 1.1. Let n, k ∈ N, then the entry in the n−th row and k−th column
of Pascal’s triangle is denoted with:
 
n n!
:=
k k!(n − k)!

which fulfills the rule:


     
n n−1 n−1
= +
k k−1 k

for all k, n ≥ 1. With those binomial coefficients the triangle can be visualized
as follows:
 
0
0
   
1 1
0 1
     
2 2 2
0 1 2
       
3 3 3 3
0 1 2 3

... ... ... ... ...

which continues with n = 4, 5, . . . ; equivalent to the binomial coefficients are


their values, which are as follows
1

1 1

1 2 1

1 3 3 1

... ... ... ... ...

Those entries continue as well.


THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 3

Corollary 1.2. Let n ∈ N, then we have:


n  
X n
= 2n
k
k=0

Proof. We use the binomial theorem:


n   n  
n n
X n k n−k X n
2 = (1 + 1) = 1 1 =
k k
k=0 k=0


The series describes a row in the triangle of Pascal.
Remark 1.3. Pascal’s triangle has many applications and is fundamental to com-
binatorics. In combinatorial number theory it takes a pivotal role as it describes
the distribution of the (natural appearing) combinatorial trigonometric series of the
second kind.
Remark 1.4. We point out, that Pascal’s triangle has a symmetry:
   
n n
=
k n−k

that is not always preserved throughout the following triangles.


4 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

2. Egreteau’s Triangle
We come now to an expansion of the binomial coefficients, which allow us to use
them for negative numbers.
Definition 2.1. The entry in the n−th row and k−th column of Egreteau’s triangle
is denoted with:
   
−n −n
⇐⇒
−k −k E

We set for n ≥ 1:
     
0 −n −n
:= 0 := −1 := −1
0 0 −n

Further, Egreteau’s triangle fulfills the subtraction rule:


     
−n − 1 −n −n
= −
−k − 1 −k −k − 1

for all k, n ≥ 2. With the above binomial coefficients the triangle can be visual-
ized as follows:
... ... ... ... ...
       
−3 −3 −3 −3
0 −1 −2 −3
     
−2 −2 −2
0 −1 −2
   
−1 −1
0 −1
 
0
0

which continues with n = 4, 5, . . . ; equivalent to the binomial coefficients are


their values, which are as follows:
... ... ... ... ... ...

−1 0 −2 2 −1

−1 −1 1 −1

−1 0 −1

−1 −1

0
THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 5

Remark 2.2. The  gaps


 in between
  the binomial coefficients of minus − and plus
±xi ±zi
one, denoted by and are zero after the definition.
±yi ±yi
Let n ∈ N. Then with the established binomial coefficients and − rule Egreteau’s
triangle has similar characteristics to the one of Pascal’s −. The most obvious one
is for n ≥ 1:
0 if | − n| is even
  
−n
=
−1 −1 if | − n| is odd

and for n ≥ 2:
 
−n
= | − n| − 2
−n + 1

This yields for n ≥ 2:



| − n| − 1
if | − n| is odd
  

−n 
 2 
=
−2 | − n|
− if | − n| is even


2

which brings us to:


 !2

 | − n| − 1
− if | − n| is odd
  

−n 
2
=
−3 
 | − n|

| − n|

· − 1 if | − n| is even


2 2

for n ≥ 3. From here on the values take a difficult form to describe.


Theorem 2.3. Let n ∈ N. Then we have:
n  
X −n
= −2
−k
k=0

Proof. This is a direct consequence of:


     
−n − 1 −n −n
= −
−k − 1 −k −k − 1

By induction follows automatically the made statement. 


6 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

Theorem 2.4. Let λ ∈ R. Then:


     
n n n n!
:= λ ∧ := λ ∧ λ := λ
0 n k k!(n − k)!

with which follows:


n  
n
X n n−k k
λ(x + y) = λ x y
k
k=0

and:
     
±n ±n ±n
:= ±λ ∧ := ±λ ∧ λ := λ comq
0 comq ±n comq ±k comq

resulting in:
 X  n  
r v
X ±n
(2.13) λ By x = λ xv y r
comBvr k=0
±k comq
comrv

a change in the ground binomial coefficients is equivalent to a multiplication of the


binom with a scalar.
Proof. If we multiply each binomial coefficient of the series with λ we get:
     
n n n n−1 1 n n
λ x +λ x y + ··· + λ y = λ[(x + y)n ] = λ(x + y)n
0 1 n

Hence, everything that remains is to show that:


   
n n
= λ and =λ
0 n

As a result of both binomial coefficients being by definition equal to one, a


multiplication with λ yields: λ · 1 = λ. Since the polynomials are constructed in
the same way the proof is completed. 
Remark 2.5. We point out, that the series described by the binomial coefficients
for Egreteau’s triangle, depend on the definition made in the first place. Therefore
we state the binom here as an combinatorial binom with which every possibility is
covered.
Notation 2.6. A polynomial given by equation 2.13 we will call a combinatorial
binom and denote it as follows:
 X  n  
X ±n
λ ±By r xv = λ xv y r := λ(x ± y)comn
com k=0
±k comq
Bvr
comrv
THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 7

Remark 2.7. The discovered binomials λ(x ± y)comn simply reflect the connection
of diluting the underlying triangle. For example, if we would choose to start with:
       
n n n n
= := 2 instead of = := 1
0 n 0 n

then each value of the binomial coefficients of Pascal’s triangle doubles. The
same is true of course for Egreteau’s triangle. If for example we would choose:
   
n n
= := 3
0 n

then all values triple.


The binomial coefficients that are equal to zero stay of course zero independently of
λ.
8 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

Definition 2.8. We call:


         
n −n −n −n −n −n
∆k=0 := − − − ··· −
−k 0 −1 −2 −n

the difference operator.


Theorem 2.9. Let n ∈ N and ∆ be the difference operator. Then we have:
 
n −n
∆k=0 =0
−k

Proof. This is a direct consequence of:


     
−n − 1 −n −n
= −
−k − 1 −k −k − 1

By induction follows automatically the made statement. 


THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 9

2.1. Egreteau’s ∆ Triangle.


Definition 2.10. The entry in the n−th row and k−th column of Egreteau’s ∆
triangle is denoted by:
 
−n
−k ∆

We set:
     
0 −n −n
:= 0 := −1 := 1
0 ∆ 0 ∆ −n ∆

for all n ≥ 1. Further, Egreteau’s ∆ triangle fulfills the addition rule:


     
−n − 1 −n −n
= +
−k − 1 ∆ −k ∆ −k − 1 ∆

for every k, n ≥ 2. With the above binomial coefficients the triangle can be
visualized as follows:
... ... ... ... ...
       
−3 −3 −3 −3
0 ∆ −1 ∆ −2 ∆ −3 ∆
     
−2 −2 −2
0 ∆ −1 ∆ −2 ∆
   
−1 −1
0 ∆ −1 ∆
 
0
0 ∆

which continues with 4, 5, . . . ; equivalent to the binomial coefficients their values


are:
... ... ... ... ... ...

−1 −2 0 2 1

−1 −1 1 1

−1 0 1

−1 1

0
10 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

With the established binomial coefficients and rule, Egreteau’s ∆ triangle has
similar characteristics for k, n ≥ 2 as the prior triangles. The most obvious one is:
 
−n
= −n + 2
−1 ∆
and:
 
−n
= | − n| − 2
−n + 1 ∆

This yields the following symmetry:


   
−n −n
=
−k −n + |k|

except for:
 
−n
=0
− n2

if | − n| is even.
Theorem 2.11. Let n ∈ N. Then we have:
n  
X −n
=0
−k ∆
k=0

Proof. This is a direct consequence of:


     
−n − 1 −n −n
= +
−k − 1 ∆ −k ∆ −k − 1 ∆

which creates a harmonic symmetry. By induction follows automatically the


made statement. 
We revoke once again the definition:
         
n −n −n −n −n −n
∆k=0 := − − − ··· −
−k ∆ 0 ∆ −1 ∆ −2 ∆ −n ∆

of the difference operator.


Theorem 2.12. Let n ∈ N and ∆ be the difference operator. Then we have:
 
n −n
∆k=0 =0
−k ∆

Proof. This is a direct consequence of:


     
−n − 1 −n −n
= +
−k − 1 ∆ −k ∆ −k − 1 ∆

By induction follows automatically the made statement. 


THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 11

2.2. Egreteau’s ∇ Triangle.


Definition 2.13. The entry in the n−th row and k−th column of Egreteau’s ∇
triangle is denoted by:
 
−n
−k ∇

We set:
     
0 −n −n
:= 0 := −1 := 1
0 ∇ 0 ∇ −n ∇

for n ≥ 1. Further, Egreteau’s ∇ triangle fulfills the subtraction rule:


     
−n − 1 −n −n
= −
−k − 1 ∇ −k ∇ −k − 1 ∇

for all k, n ≥ 2. With the stated binomial coefficients the triangle can be
visualized as follows:
... ... ... ... ...
       
−3 −3 −3 −3
0 ∇ −1 ∇ −2 ∇ −3 ∇
     
−2 −2 −2
0 ∇ −1 ∇ −2 ∇
   
−1 −1
0 ∇ −1 ∇
 
0
0 ∇

which continues with 4, 5, . . . ; equivalent to the binomial coefficients their values


are:
... ... ... ... ... ...

−1 −2 4 −4 1

−1 1 −3 1

−1 −2 1

−1 1

0
12 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

With the established binomial coefficients and rule, Egreteau’s ∇ triangle has
some analogous characteristics as those triangles we have already encountered. The
most obvious one is:
−2 if | − n| is even
  
−n
=
−1 ∇ 1 if | − n| is odd

for n ≥ 2 and:  
−n
= −n
−n + 1 ∇

for n ≥ 1. This yields:   


| − n| − 1
  
 −3 if | − n| is odd
−n  2
=  
−2 ∇  | − n|
| − n| +
 − 2 if | − n| is even
2

for n ≥ 2.
Theorem 2.14. Let 2 ≤ n ∈ N. Then we have:
n  
X −n
= −2
−k ∇
k=0

For n = 0 and n = 1 the sum equals obviously to zero.


Proof. This is a direct consequence of:
     
−n − 1 −n −n
= −
−k − 1 −k −k − 1

which creates an alternating pattern of the sign within the triangle. Those values
then annihilate each other. Therefore by induction follows automatically the made
statement. 
We revoke one more time the definition:
         
−n −n −n −n −n
∆nk=0 := − − − ··· −
−k ∆ 0 ∆ −1 ∆ −2 ∆ −n ∆

for the difference operator.


Theorem 2.15. Let 2 ≤ n ∈ N and ∆ be the difference operator. Then we have:
 
n −n
∆k=0 =0
−k ∇

Proof. This is a direct consequence of:


     
−n − 1 −n −n
= −
−k − 1 ∇ −k ∇ −k − 1 ∇

By induction follows automatically the made statement. 


THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 13

We point out, that Egreteau’s −, Egreteau’s ∆ − and Egreteau’s ∇ triangle refer


all to polynomials as does Pascal’s −. They are as follows. For Egreteau’s triangle
we have:
−a − b

−a2 − b2

−a3 − a2 b + ab2 − b3

−a4 − 2a2 b2 + 2ab3 − b4

...

for Egreteau’s ∆ triangle we receive:


−a + b

−a2 + b2

−a3 − a2 b + ab2 + b3

−a4 − 2a3 b + 2ab3 + b4

...

and lastly for Egreteau’s ∇ Triangle we have:


−a + b

−a2 − 2ab + b2

−a3 + a2 b − 3ab2 + b3

−a4 − 2a3 b + 4a2 b2 − 4ab3 + b4

...
14 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

3. Different Triangles
We want now to show, that there are much more triangles; we also want to show
how they are constructed.
3.1. Fibonacci’s Triangle.
Definition 3.1. The entry in the n−th row and k−th column of Fibonacci’s tri-
angle is denoted with:
   
n −n

k F −k F

whereby fn means the Fibonacci sequence. We set:


     
0 ±n ±n
:= 0 := ±fn := ±fn
0 F 0 F ±n F

for n ≥ 1. Further, Fibonacci’s triangle suffices one of the four rules:


           
n+1 n n −n − 1 −n −n
= ± ∨ = ±
k+1 F k F k+1 F −k − 1 F −k F −k − 1 F

for all k, n ≥ 2. With those binomial coefficients the triangles can be visualized
as follows:
... ... ... ... ...
       
±3 ±3 ±3 ±3
0 F ±1 F ±2 F ±3 F
     
±2 ±2 ±2
0 F ±1 F ±2 F
   
±1 ±1
0 F ±1 F
 
0
0 F
THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 15

which continues with 4, 5, . . . . The values of the positive binomial coefficients


can be visualized as follows:
... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

13 21 32 41 41 32 21 13

8 13 19 22 19 13 8

5 8 11 11 8 5

3 5 6 5 3

2 3 3 2

1 2 1

1 1

The triangle continues of course with the values of fn , whereby it fulfills the
construction rule:
     
n+1 n n
= +
k+1 F k F k+1 F

for all k, n ≥ 2. On the other hand, the triangle that suffices the construction
rule:
     
n+1 n n
= −
k+1 F k F k+1 F

for all k, n ≥ 2, has the values:


... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

8 3 3 −6 11 −11 8

5 2 −1 5 −6 5

3 1 2 −3 3

2 1 −1 2

1 0 1

1 1

0
16 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

and continues of course with the sequence of fn .


We mention, that Fibonacci’s triangle refers to binomials as does Pascal’s − and
Egreteau’s −. The binomials for the triangle, with the addition rule and the positive
− coefficients, are as follows:
a+b

a2 + 2ab + b2

2a3 + 3a2 b + 3ab2 + 2b3

3a4 + 5a3 b + 6a2 b2 + 5ab3 + 3b4

...
THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 17

3.2. N’s Triangle.


Definition 3.2. The entry in the n−th row and k−th column of N’s triangle is
denoted with:
   
n −n

k N −k N

whereby N means an element of the natural numbers. We set:


     
0 ±n ±n
:= 0 := ±N := ±N
0 N 0 N ±n N

for n ≥ 1. Further, N’s triangle suffices one of the four rules:


           
n+1 n n −n − 1 −n −n
= ± ∨ = ±
k+1 N k N k+1 N −k − 1 N −k N −k − 1 N

for all k, n ≥ 2.
With those binomial coefficients the triangles can be visualized as follows:
... ... ... ... ...
       
±3 ±3 ±3 ±3
0 N ±1 N ±2 N ±3 N
     
±2 ±2 ±2
0 N ±1 N ±2 N
   
±1 ±1
0 N ±1 N
 
0
0 N

which continue with 4, 5, . . . . The values of the binomial coefficients for N = 1


can be visualized as follows:
... ... ... ... ... ...

4 7 8 7 4

3 4 4 3

2 2 2

1 1

0
18 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

The triangle continues of course with the values of n, whereby it fulfills the
construction rule:
     
n+1 n n
= +
k+1 N k N k+1 N

for all k, n ≥ 2. The triangle with the binomial coefficients for N = 1, that
suffices the construction rule:
     
n+1 n n
= −
k+1 N k N k+1 N

for all k, n ≥ 2, can be visualized as follows:


... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

7 4 −4 18 −30 32 −20 7

6 2 6 −12 18 −14 6

5 3 −3 9 −9 5

4 1 4 −5 4

3 2 −2 3

2 0 2

1 1

whereby it continues of course with the values of n.


THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 19

3.3. nκ ’s Triangles.
Definition 3.3. The entry in the n−th row and k−th column of nκ ’s triangle is
denoted with:
   
n −n

k nκ −k nκ

whereby nκ means the sequence of natural numbers with a constant power κ ∈ N.


We set:
     
0 ±n ±n
:= 0 := ±nκ := ±nκ
0 nκ 0 nκ ±n nκ

for n ≥ 1. Further, nκ ’s triangle suffices one of the four rules:


           
n+1 n n −n − 1 −n −n
= ± ∨ = ±
k + 1 nκ k nκ k + 1 nκ −k − 1 nκ −k nκ −k − 1 nκ

for all k, n ≥ 2. With those binomial coefficients the triangles can be visualized
as follows:
... ... ... ... ...
       
±3 ±3 ±3 ±3
0 nκ ±1 nκ ±2 nκ ±3 nκ
     
±2 ±2 ±2
0 nκ ±1 nκ ±2 nκ
   
±1 ±1
0 nκ ±1 nκ
 
0
0 nκ

which continue with n = 4, 5, . . . .


Let κ = 2. Then the values of binomial coefficients can be visualized as follows:
... ... ... ... ... ...

16 15 12 15 16

9 6 6 9

4 2 4

1 1

0
20 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

The triangle continues of course with the values of n2 , whereby it suffices the
construction rule:
     
n+1 n n
= +
k + 1 n2 k n2 k + 1 n2

for all k, n ≥ 2. The triangle for κ = 2, that fulfills the construction rule:
     
n+1 n n
= −
k + 1 n2 k n2 k + 1 n2

for all k, n ≥ 2, can be visualized as follows:


... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

49 22 0 38 −74 104 −90 49

36 14 14 −24 50 54 36

25 11 −3 21 −29 25

16 5 8 −13 16

9 4 −4 9

4 0 4

1 1

whereby it continues of course with the values of n2 .


We point out, that N’s and nκ ’s triangles refer to binomials as did Pascal’s −,
Fibonacci’s − and Egreteau’s triangle. They are as follows. For N’s triangle, with
positive binomial coefficients and which fulfills the addition rule, we have:
a+b

a2 + 2ab + b2

3a3 + 4a2 b + 4ab2 + 3b3

4a4 + 7a3 b + 8a2 b2 + 7ab3 + 4b4

...
THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 21

For N’s triangle, with positive binomial coefficients and that suffices the subtrac-
tion rule, we have:
a+b

2a2 + 2b2

3a3 + 2a2 b − 2ab2 + 3b3

4a4 + 1a3 b + 4a2 b2 − 5ab3 + 4b4

...

For nκ ’s triangle with κ = 2, positive binomial coefficients and which fulfills the
addition rule, we have:
a+b

4a2 + 2ab + 4b2

9a3 + 6a2 b + 6ab2 + 9b3

16a4 + 15a3 b + 12a2 b2 + 15ab3 + 16b4

...

and for nκ ’s triangle with κ = 2, with positive binomial coefficients and that
suffices the addition rule, we have:
a+b

4a2 + 4b2

9a3 + 4a2 b − 4ab2 + 9b3

16a4 + 5a3 b + 8a2 b2 − 13ab3 + 16b4

...
22 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

3.4. Triangle’s Characteristics. Let n ∈ N. Then with the binomial coefficients:


     
0 n n
:= 0 := fn := fn
0 F 0 F n F
     
0 n n
:= 0 := N := N
0 N 0 N n N
     
0 n n
:= 0 := nκ := nκ
0 nκ 0 nκ n nκ

for n ≥ 1 and κ ≥ 1 and the rule:


     
n+1 n n
= +
k+1 Ω k Ω k+1 Ω

which is fulfilled for all k, n ≥ 2 and whereby Ω is either F, N or nκ , all three


triangles have some similar characteristics as those we have encountered already.
The most obvious one is, that the symmetry:
   
n n
=
k Ω n−k Ω

for n ≥ 2 is conserved for all three triangles. Further, we have for Fibonacci’s
triangle the following characteristics:
 
n
= fn+1
1 F
 
n
= fn+1
n−1 F

for n ≥ 2.
THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 23

4. Triangle Vector Spaces


We want now to see, what operations between different triangles can be con-
structed.
Theorem 4.1. Let A and B be both some p−nomial triangles, whereby 1 < p ∈ N.
Then the operations:
L
A B := C ∧ A B := D
N
A B := E ∧ A B := F

are well defined, whereby each operation is taken row by row, respectively p−nomial
coefficient by p−nomial coefficient, the p−nomial triangle C, D and E exists, and
F only exists if no entry in B equals zero.
Proof. It is a enough to give an example for each operation. Then the rest follows
by induction. Let now A be Egreteau’s − and B equal Pascal’s triangle, which we
denote with E, respectively with P .
L L
Example 4.2 (E P ). For E P = C we can write also:
  M   
n n n
=
k E k k C

and for C we have/this results to:


1

0 0

0 2 0

0 4 2 0

0 6 4 4 0

0 8 6 12 4 0

... ... ... ... ... ... ...


24 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

Example 4.3 (E P ). For E P = D we can write also:


     
n n n
=
k E k k D

and for D we have/this results to:


−1

−2 −2

−2 −2 −2

−2 −2 −4 −2

−2 −2 −8 −4 −2

−2 −2 −14 −8 −6 −2

... ... ... ... ... ... ...


N N
Example 4.4 (E P ). For E P = G we can write also:
  O   
n n n
=
k E k k G

and for G we have/this results to:


0

−1 −1

−1 0 −1

−1 3 −3 −1

−1 8 −12 0 −1

−1 15 −40 20 −5 −1

... ... ... ... ... ... ...


THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 25

Example 4.5 (E P ). For E P = F we can write also:


     
n n n
=
k E k k F

and for F we have/this results to:


0

−1 −1

−1 0 −1

1 1
−1 − −1
3 3
1 1
−1 − 0 −1
2 3
3 2 1 1
−1 − − −1
5 5 5 5

... ... ... ... ... ... ...


Definition 4.6. Let 1 < p ∈ N and n, ki ∈ Z for all i. Then we denote with:
p
Tcom

the set of all possible p−nomial triangles. An element, respectively a p−nomial


triangle, Qp of the set Tcom
p
we denote with:
 
±n
Qp := ∈R
±k1 , ± k2 , . . . , ± kp comp
nki

whereby for p = 2 we have the binomial coefficients. The p−nomial unit triangle
we denote with:
 
±n
U p := =1
±k1 , ± k2 , . . . , ± kp

and with:
 
p ±n
O := =0
±k1 , ± k2 , . . . , ± kp

we denote the p−nomial zero triangle for all n and ki , whereby ki is a well defined
sequence sufficing the condition:
p
X
|ki | = n
i=1
26 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

Remark 4.7. We can see now, that:


p p
L
E P = C ⊂ Tcom E P = D ⊂ Tcom

p p
N
E P = G ⊂ Tcom E P = F ⊂ Tcom

p
each outcome produces a triangle that is a subset of Tcom as we have only specified
the p−nomial coefficients and not the patterns, respectively combinations, itself.
Theorem 4.8. 1 < p ∈ N. Then it exist a p−nomial unit triangle such that
U p ⊂ Tcom
p
and it exist a p−nomial zero triangle such that Op ⊂ Tcom
p
.
Proof. Let Qp ⊂ Tcom
p
be an arbitrary p−nomial triangle with no zeros in it. After
theorem 4.1 we can simply set then:
Qp Qp = U p =⇒ U p ⊂ Tcom
p

and:
Qp Qp = Op =⇒ Op ⊂ Tcom
p


Remark 4.9. We specifically point out, that theorem 4.8 is a much stronger propo-
sition than a defintion of the unity − and zero p−nomial triangle would have been.
p
Before we move on, we are interested in the cardinality of the set Tcom .
p
Theorem 4.10. Let 1 < p ∈ N. Then the cardinality of Tcom is at least:
p
]|Tcom | ≥ ]|R|

Proof. Without loss of generality we can take U p ∈ Tcom


p
. After theorem 4.12, the
expansion of theorem 2.4, this results to:
λU p ∈ R

for all λ, since λ ∈ R and U p is the p−nomial unit triangle. Thus, each set of
p−nomial triangles has at least the cardinality of R. 
Theorem 4.11 (multinomial theorem). Let m, n, ki ∈ N for all i. Then:
 m
 Y
X n
n
(x1 + x2 + . . . +xm ) = xkt
k1 , k2 , . . . , km t=1 t
k1 +k2 +···+km =n

where:
 
n n!
=
k1 , k2 , . . . , km k1 !k2 ! · · · km !

is a multinomial coefficient.
Proof. It follows by induction for m as it is the generalization of the binomial
theorem from binomials to multinomials. 
THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 27

Theorem 4.12 (expansion of theorem 2.4). Let λ ∈ R, r, ui ∈ N0 for all i, let n,


ki ∈ Z for all i and 2 ≤ p ∈ N. Then:
  Yp
X r
r
(4.22) λ(x1 + x2 + . . . +xp ) = λxut t
u +u +···+u =r
u1 , u2 , . . . , up t=1
1 2 p

whereby:
 
r r!
=
u1 , u2 , . . . , up u1 !u2 ! · · · up !

is a multinomial coefficient sufficing the condition:


p
X
ui = r
i=1

and:
 X    Y
X n
(4.23) λ Bi xni = λxkt t
comni
k1 , k2 , . . . , kp comt
|k1 |+|k2 |+···+|kp |=|n|

is a multinomial coefficient sufficing the condition:


p
X
(4.24) |ki | = |n|
i=1

stating that a change in the ground p−nomial coefficients is equivalent to a multi-


plication of the multinom with a scalar.
Proof. The equation 4.22 follows after theorem 4.11. This of course does not change
for any multinomial combinatorial series and since we have already shown in 2.4,
that a multiplication of a binomial coefficient with a scalar holds the proof is com-
pleted. 
Remark 4.13. It is important to mention, that the sequence ki in theorem 4.12
is not combinatorially constructed as it still represents one row in/of a p−nomial
triangle.
Remark 4.14. The condition of the absolute value in equation 4.24 is a result of
letting the values of the sequence ki be an element of Z for all i. This however is a
consequence of having p−nomial coefficients with either positive or negative values
as a representation of the values of the p−nomial triangle.
28 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

Remark 4.15. As we had already encountered in theorem 2.4 for the combinatorial
binoms, where the sum:
n  
X ±n
λ xv y r
k=0
±k comq
comrv

runs consequently over an entire row (while the combination/variation runs over
the exponents), we recognize that the sum:
  Y
X n
λxkt t
k1 , k2 , . . . , kp com
|k1 |+|k2 |+···+|kp |=|n| t

in theorem 4.12 does the same.


Example 4.16. The inverse element of Pascal’s triangle is:
−1

−1 −1

−1 −2 −1

−1 −3 −3 −1

−1 −4 −6 −4 −1

−1 −5 −10 −10 −5 −1

... ... ... ... ... ... ...

It is established for n ≥ 1 via:


     
0 n n
:= −1 := −1 := −1
0 P̄ 0 P̄ n P̄

with the rule:


     
n n−1 n−1
= +
k P̄ k − 1 P̄ k P̄

whereby each entry in the n−th row and k−th column of the inverse of Pascal’s
triangle is denoted with:
 
n
k P̄
THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 29

p
Theorem 4.17. Let 1 < p ∈ N. Then Tcom is for every p a (real) vector space.
p
Proof. To qualify as a vector space, the set Tcom and the operations of addition
and multiplication must adhere to the following axioms:

(A1) ap , bp , cp p
∈ Tcom (ap + bp ) + cp = ap + (bp + cp )
p p p
(A2) a ,b ∈ Tcom a p + bp = bp + a p
(A3) ap , O p p
∈ Tcom Op + ap = ap
p p p
(A4) a , −a ∈ Tcom a + (−ap ) = 0
p
p p
(S1) a, b ∈ R, c ∈ Tcom a(bcp ) = ab(cp )
(S2) 1 ∈ R, ap p
∈ Tcom 1ap = ap
p p p
(S3) a ∈ R, b , c ∈ Tcom a(b + cp ) = abp + acp
p
p p
(S4) a, b ∈ R, c ∈ Tcom (a + b)cp = acp + bcp

The associativity − (A1), commutativity − (A2) and the existence of the iden-
tity element of addition (A3) follows by simple computation. The existence of the
inverse elements of addition (A4) follows by theorem 4.1, 4.8 and 4.10. The com-
patibility of scalar multiplication with field − (S1), the identity element of scalar
− (S2), the distributivity of scalar multiplication with respect to vector addition
− (S3) and the distributivity of scalar multiplication with respect to field addition
(S4) follows by theorem 4.12 and − 4.10. 
Remark 4.18. Theorem 4.17 might come as a surprise, despite the prior estab-
lishments of the four operations on p−nomial triangles, the foundings of the unit −
and the zero p−nomial triange, the establishment of the inverse of − and the scalar
multiplication with p−nomial triangles.
Remark 4.19. Although theorem 4.17 seems very arbitrary, it is of course not. To
see that, we have to go back to the starting point of the p−nomial triangles, which
was the binom:
n  
X n k n−k
(x1 + x2 )n = x x
k 1 2
k=0

and the binomial expansion where n ∈ N. This can be expanded via the multino-
mial theorem to:
 m
 Y
X n
n
(x1 + x2 + . . . +xm ) = xkt
k1 , k2 , . . . , km t=1 t
k1 +k2 +···+km =n

But polynomials can appear in a great variety, where they might be compactified
as a binom or not.
30 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

5. All possible p−nomial Triangles


p
We can compactify all possible p−nomial triangles Tcom , with 1 < p ∈ N, in the
following way.
Theorem 5.1. Let 1 < p ∈ N and let n, ki ∈ Z for all i. Then all possible
p
p−nomial triangles Tcom can be compactified as follows:
 
±n
:= compnk ∈ R
±ki comp
nki

whereby ki is a sequence with p elements.


Proof. We can simply construct every possible p−nomial triangle by setting the
p−nomial coefficients to:
     
0 ±n p ±n
:= 0 := comn0 := compnn
0 comp 0 comp ±n compnn
00 n0

and:
 
±n
:= compnki
±ki comp
nki

whereby it suffices:
p
X
|ki | = n
i=1

Together (but not necessarily) with either rule:


     
n+1 n n
= ±
ki + 1 comp ki comp ki + 1 comp
nki nki nk i

     
−n − 1 −n −n
= ±
−ki − 1 comp −ki comp −ki − 1 comp
nki nki nk i

and or with the operations:


p p p p p p
L
: Tcom × Tcom → Tcom ∧ : Tcom × Tcom → Tcom

p p p p
N
:R × Tcom → Tcom ∧ :R × Tcom → Tcom

every possible triangle can be constructed, since compnki can be any sequence or
combination and the operations produce even triangles that can not be constructed
other than via a definition. 
THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 31

Theorem 5.2. Let 1 < p ∈ N and let n, ki ∈ Z for all i. Then the set of all possible
p
p−nomial triangles Tcom contain more triangles then any multinominal system can
produce.
Proof. The proof is almost trivial at this point. After the multinomial theorem we
have:
 p
 Y
X n
n
(x1 + x2 + . . . +xp ) = xkt
k1 , k2 , . . . , kp t=1 t
k1 +k2 +···+kp =n

These can be produced without any problem with compnki , but it can also produce
polynomials that cannot be part of any multinomial representations. We have
shown this already with the various triangles from section 2 onwards to − 3.3. 

References
[1] M. N. G. Einstein. Combinatorial Number Theory.
[2] M. N. G. Einstein. Combinatorial Algebraic Number Theory.