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This paper expands the triangle of Pascal by extending the meaning of the binomial coefficients to negative values. Thus, in return this creates Egreteau's triangle. Then we go on to construct out of sequences, as for example the Fibonacci's $-$, different kind of triangles before we construct p$-$nomial triangle vector spaces and come to a compactification of all possible p$-$nomial triangles.

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M. N. G. EINSTEIN

B. EGRETEAU

Abstract. This paper expands the triangle of Pascal by extending the mean-

ing of the binomial coefficients to negative values. Thus, in return this creates

Egreteau’s triangle. Then we go on to construct out of sequences, as for exam-

ple the Fibonacci’s −, different kind of triangles before we construct p−nomial

triangle vector spaces and come to a compactification of all possible p−nomial

triangles.

Contents

1. Pascal’s Triangle 2

2. Egreteau’s Triangle 4

2.1. Egreteau’s ∆ Triangle 9

2.2. Egreteau’s ∇ Triangle 11

3. Different Triangles 14

3.1. Fibonacci’s Triangle 14

3.2. N’s Triangle 17

3.3. nκ ’s Triangles 19

3.4. Triangle’s Characteristics 22

4. Triangle Vector Spaces 23

5. All possible p−nomial Triangles 30

References 31

1

2 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

1. Pascal’s Triangle

Definition 1.1. Let n, k ∈ N, then the entry in the n−th row and k−th column

of Pascal’s triangle is denoted with:

n n!

:=

k k!(n − k)!

n n−1 n−1

= +

k k−1 k

for all k, n ≥ 1. With those binomial coefficients the triangle can be visualized

as follows:

0

0

1 1

0 1

2 2 2

0 1 2

3 3 3 3

0 1 2 3

their values, which are as follows

1

1 1

1 2 1

1 3 3 1

THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 3

n

X n

= 2n

k

k=0

n n

n n

X n k n−k X n

2 = (1 + 1) = 1 1 =

k k

k=0 k=0

The series describes a row in the triangle of Pascal.

Remark 1.3. Pascal’s triangle has many applications and is fundamental to com-

binatorics. In combinatorial number theory it takes a pivotal role as it describes

the distribution of the (natural appearing) combinatorial trigonometric series of the

second kind.

Remark 1.4. We point out, that Pascal’s triangle has a symmetry:

n n

=

k n−k

4 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

2. Egreteau’s Triangle

We come now to an expansion of the binomial coefficients, which allow us to use

them for negative numbers.

Definition 2.1. The entry in the n−th row and k−th column of Egreteau’s triangle

is denoted with:

−n −n

⇐⇒

−k −k E

We set for n ≥ 1:

0 −n −n

:= 0 := −1 := −1

0 0 −n

−n − 1 −n −n

= −

−k − 1 −k −k − 1

for all k, n ≥ 2. With the above binomial coefficients the triangle can be visual-

ized as follows:

... ... ... ... ...

−3 −3 −3 −3

0 −1 −2 −3

−2 −2 −2

0 −1 −2

−1 −1

0 −1

0

0

their values, which are as follows:

... ... ... ... ... ...

−1 0 −2 2 −1

−1 −1 1 −1

−1 0 −1

−1 −1

0

THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 5

in between

the binomial coefficients of minus − and plus

±xi ±zi

one, denoted by and are zero after the definition.

±yi ±yi

Let n ∈ N. Then with the established binomial coefficients and − rule Egreteau’s

triangle has similar characteristics to the one of Pascal’s −. The most obvious one

is for n ≥ 1:

0 if | − n| is even

−n

=

−1 −1 if | − n| is odd

and for n ≥ 2:

−n

= | − n| − 2

−n + 1

| − n| − 1

if | − n| is odd

−n

2

=

−2 | − n|

− if | − n| is even

2

!2

| − n| − 1

− if | − n| is odd

−n

2

=

−3

| − n|

| − n|

· − 1 if | − n| is even

2 2

Theorem 2.3. Let n ∈ N. Then we have:

n

X −n

= −2

−k

k=0

−n − 1 −n −n

= −

−k − 1 −k −k − 1

6 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

n n n n!

:= λ ∧ := λ ∧ λ := λ

0 n k k!(n − k)!

n

n

X n n−k k

λ(x + y) = λ x y

k

k=0

and:

±n ±n ±n

:= ±λ ∧ := ±λ ∧ λ := λ comq

0 comq ±n comq ±k comq

resulting in:

X n

r v

X ±n

(2.13) λ By x = λ xv y r

comBvr k=0

±k comq

comrv

binom with a scalar.

Proof. If we multiply each binomial coefficient of the series with λ we get:

n n n n−1 1 n n

λ x +λ x y + ··· + λ y = λ[(x + y)n ] = λ(x + y)n

0 1 n

n n

= λ and =λ

0 n

multiplication with λ yields: λ · 1 = λ. Since the polynomials are constructed in

the same way the proof is completed.

Remark 2.5. We point out, that the series described by the binomial coefficients

for Egreteau’s triangle, depend on the definition made in the first place. Therefore

we state the binom here as an combinatorial binom with which every possibility is

covered.

Notation 2.6. A polynomial given by equation 2.13 we will call a combinatorial

binom and denote it as follows:

X n

X ±n

λ ±By r xv = λ xv y r := λ(x ± y)comn

com k=0

±k comq

Bvr

comrv

THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 7

Remark 2.7. The discovered binomials λ(x ± y)comn simply reflect the connection

of diluting the underlying triangle. For example, if we would choose to start with:

n n n n

= := 2 instead of = := 1

0 n 0 n

then each value of the binomial coefficients of Pascal’s triangle doubles. The

same is true of course for Egreteau’s triangle. If for example we would choose:

n n

= := 3

0 n

The binomial coefficients that are equal to zero stay of course zero independently of

λ.

8 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

n −n −n −n −n −n

∆k=0 := − − − ··· −

−k 0 −1 −2 −n

Theorem 2.9. Let n ∈ N and ∆ be the difference operator. Then we have:

n −n

∆k=0 =0

−k

−n − 1 −n −n

= −

−k − 1 −k −k − 1

THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 9

Definition 2.10. The entry in the n−th row and k−th column of Egreteau’s ∆

triangle is denoted by:

−n

−k ∆

We set:

0 −n −n

:= 0 := −1 := 1

0 ∆ 0 ∆ −n ∆

−n − 1 −n −n

= +

−k − 1 ∆ −k ∆ −k − 1 ∆

for every k, n ≥ 2. With the above binomial coefficients the triangle can be

visualized as follows:

... ... ... ... ...

−3 −3 −3 −3

0 ∆ −1 ∆ −2 ∆ −3 ∆

−2 −2 −2

0 ∆ −1 ∆ −2 ∆

−1 −1

0 ∆ −1 ∆

0

0 ∆

are:

... ... ... ... ... ...

−1 −2 0 2 1

−1 −1 1 1

−1 0 1

−1 1

0

10 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

With the established binomial coefficients and rule, Egreteau’s ∆ triangle has

similar characteristics for k, n ≥ 2 as the prior triangles. The most obvious one is:

−n

= −n + 2

−1 ∆

and:

−n

= | − n| − 2

−n + 1 ∆

−n −n

=

−k −n + |k|

except for:

−n

=0

− n2

if | − n| is even.

Theorem 2.11. Let n ∈ N. Then we have:

n

X −n

=0

−k ∆

k=0

−n − 1 −n −n

= +

−k − 1 ∆ −k ∆ −k − 1 ∆

made statement.

We revoke once again the definition:

n −n −n −n −n −n

∆k=0 := − − − ··· −

−k ∆ 0 ∆ −1 ∆ −2 ∆ −n ∆

Theorem 2.12. Let n ∈ N and ∆ be the difference operator. Then we have:

n −n

∆k=0 =0

−k ∆

−n − 1 −n −n

= +

−k − 1 ∆ −k ∆ −k − 1 ∆

THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 11

Definition 2.13. The entry in the n−th row and k−th column of Egreteau’s ∇

triangle is denoted by:

−n

−k ∇

We set:

0 −n −n

:= 0 := −1 := 1

0 ∇ 0 ∇ −n ∇

−n − 1 −n −n

= −

−k − 1 ∇ −k ∇ −k − 1 ∇

for all k, n ≥ 2. With the stated binomial coefficients the triangle can be

visualized as follows:

... ... ... ... ...

−3 −3 −3 −3

0 ∇ −1 ∇ −2 ∇ −3 ∇

−2 −2 −2

0 ∇ −1 ∇ −2 ∇

−1 −1

0 ∇ −1 ∇

0

0 ∇

are:

... ... ... ... ... ...

−1 −2 4 −4 1

−1 1 −3 1

−1 −2 1

−1 1

0

12 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

With the established binomial coefficients and rule, Egreteau’s ∇ triangle has

some analogous characteristics as those triangles we have already encountered. The

most obvious one is:

−2 if | − n| is even

−n

=

−1 ∇ 1 if | − n| is odd

for n ≥ 2 and:

−n

= −n

−n + 1 ∇

| − n| − 1

−3 if | − n| is odd

−n 2

=

−2 ∇ | − n|

| − n| +

− 2 if | − n| is even

2

for n ≥ 2.

Theorem 2.14. Let 2 ≤ n ∈ N. Then we have:

n

X −n

= −2

−k ∇

k=0

Proof. This is a direct consequence of:

−n − 1 −n −n

= −

−k − 1 −k −k − 1

which creates an alternating pattern of the sign within the triangle. Those values

then annihilate each other. Therefore by induction follows automatically the made

statement.

We revoke one more time the definition:

−n −n −n −n −n

∆nk=0 := − − − ··· −

−k ∆ 0 ∆ −1 ∆ −2 ∆ −n ∆

Theorem 2.15. Let 2 ≤ n ∈ N and ∆ be the difference operator. Then we have:

n −n

∆k=0 =0

−k ∇

−n − 1 −n −n

= −

−k − 1 ∇ −k ∇ −k − 1 ∇

THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 13

all to polynomials as does Pascal’s −. They are as follows. For Egreteau’s triangle

we have:

−a − b

−a2 − b2

−a3 − a2 b + ab2 − b3

...

−a + b

−a2 + b2

−a3 − a2 b + ab2 + b3

...

−a + b

−a2 − 2ab + b2

−a3 + a2 b − 3ab2 + b3

...

14 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

3. Different Triangles

We want now to show, that there are much more triangles; we also want to show

how they are constructed.

3.1. Fibonacci’s Triangle.

Definition 3.1. The entry in the n−th row and k−th column of Fibonacci’s tri-

angle is denoted with:

n −n

∧

k F −k F

0 ±n ±n

:= 0 := ±fn := ±fn

0 F 0 F ±n F

n+1 n n −n − 1 −n −n

= ± ∨ = ±

k+1 F k F k+1 F −k − 1 F −k F −k − 1 F

for all k, n ≥ 2. With those binomial coefficients the triangles can be visualized

as follows:

... ... ... ... ...

±3 ±3 ±3 ±3

0 F ±1 F ±2 F ±3 F

±2 ±2 ±2

0 F ±1 F ±2 F

±1 ±1

0 F ±1 F

0

0 F

THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 15

can be visualized as follows:

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

13 21 32 41 41 32 21 13

8 13 19 22 19 13 8

5 8 11 11 8 5

3 5 6 5 3

2 3 3 2

1 2 1

1 1

The triangle continues of course with the values of fn , whereby it fulfills the

construction rule:

n+1 n n

= +

k+1 F k F k+1 F

for all k, n ≥ 2. On the other hand, the triangle that suffices the construction

rule:

n+1 n n

= −

k+1 F k F k+1 F

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

8 3 3 −6 11 −11 8

5 2 −1 5 −6 5

3 1 2 −3 3

2 1 −1 2

1 0 1

1 1

0

16 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

We mention, that Fibonacci’s triangle refers to binomials as does Pascal’s − and

Egreteau’s −. The binomials for the triangle, with the addition rule and the positive

− coefficients, are as follows:

a+b

a2 + 2ab + b2

...

THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 17

Definition 3.2. The entry in the n−th row and k−th column of N’s triangle is

denoted with:

n −n

∧

k N −k N

0 ±n ±n

:= 0 := ±N := ±N

0 N 0 N ±n N

n+1 n n −n − 1 −n −n

= ± ∨ = ±

k+1 N k N k+1 N −k − 1 N −k N −k − 1 N

for all k, n ≥ 2.

With those binomial coefficients the triangles can be visualized as follows:

... ... ... ... ...

±3 ±3 ±3 ±3

0 N ±1 N ±2 N ±3 N

±2 ±2 ±2

0 N ±1 N ±2 N

±1 ±1

0 N ±1 N

0

0 N

can be visualized as follows:

... ... ... ... ... ...

4 7 8 7 4

3 4 4 3

2 2 2

1 1

0

18 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

The triangle continues of course with the values of n, whereby it fulfills the

construction rule:

n+1 n n

= +

k+1 N k N k+1 N

for all k, n ≥ 2. The triangle with the binomial coefficients for N = 1, that

suffices the construction rule:

n+1 n n

= −

k+1 N k N k+1 N

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

7 4 −4 18 −30 32 −20 7

6 2 6 −12 18 −14 6

5 3 −3 9 −9 5

4 1 4 −5 4

3 2 −2 3

2 0 2

1 1

THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 19

3.3. nκ ’s Triangles.

Definition 3.3. The entry in the n−th row and k−th column of nκ ’s triangle is

denoted with:

n −n

∧

k nκ −k nκ

We set:

0 ±n ±n

:= 0 := ±nκ := ±nκ

0 nκ 0 nκ ±n nκ

n+1 n n −n − 1 −n −n

= ± ∨ = ±

k + 1 nκ k nκ k + 1 nκ −k − 1 nκ −k nκ −k − 1 nκ

for all k, n ≥ 2. With those binomial coefficients the triangles can be visualized

as follows:

... ... ... ... ...

±3 ±3 ±3 ±3

0 nκ ±1 nκ ±2 nκ ±3 nκ

±2 ±2 ±2

0 nκ ±1 nκ ±2 nκ

±1 ±1

0 nκ ±1 nκ

0

0 nκ

Let κ = 2. Then the values of binomial coefficients can be visualized as follows:

... ... ... ... ... ...

16 15 12 15 16

9 6 6 9

4 2 4

1 1

0

20 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

The triangle continues of course with the values of n2 , whereby it suffices the

construction rule:

n+1 n n

= +

k + 1 n2 k n2 k + 1 n2

for all k, n ≥ 2. The triangle for κ = 2, that fulfills the construction rule:

n+1 n n

= −

k + 1 n2 k n2 k + 1 n2

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

36 14 14 −24 50 54 36

25 11 −3 21 −29 25

16 5 8 −13 16

9 4 −4 9

4 0 4

1 1

We point out, that N’s and nκ ’s triangles refer to binomials as did Pascal’s −,

Fibonacci’s − and Egreteau’s triangle. They are as follows. For N’s triangle, with

positive binomial coefficients and which fulfills the addition rule, we have:

a+b

a2 + 2ab + b2

...

THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 21

For N’s triangle, with positive binomial coefficients and that suffices the subtrac-

tion rule, we have:

a+b

2a2 + 2b2

...

For nκ ’s triangle with κ = 2, positive binomial coefficients and which fulfills the

addition rule, we have:

a+b

...

and for nκ ’s triangle with κ = 2, with positive binomial coefficients and that

suffices the addition rule, we have:

a+b

4a2 + 4b2

...

22 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

0 n n

:= 0 := fn := fn

0 F 0 F n F

0 n n

:= 0 := N := N

0 N 0 N n N

0 n n

:= 0 := nκ := nκ

0 nκ 0 nκ n nκ

n+1 n n

= +

k+1 Ω k Ω k+1 Ω

triangles have some similar characteristics as those we have encountered already.

The most obvious one is, that the symmetry:

n n

=

k Ω n−k Ω

for n ≥ 2 is conserved for all three triangles. Further, we have for Fibonacci’s

triangle the following characteristics:

n

= fn+1

1 F

n

= fn+1

n−1 F

for n ≥ 2.

THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 23

We want now to see, what operations between different triangles can be con-

structed.

Theorem 4.1. Let A and B be both some p−nomial triangles, whereby 1 < p ∈ N.

Then the operations:

L

A B := C ∧ A B := D

N

A B := E ∧ A B := F

are well defined, whereby each operation is taken row by row, respectively p−nomial

coefficient by p−nomial coefficient, the p−nomial triangle C, D and E exists, and

F only exists if no entry in B equals zero.

Proof. It is a enough to give an example for each operation. Then the rest follows

by induction. Let now A be Egreteau’s − and B equal Pascal’s triangle, which we

denote with E, respectively with P .

L L

Example 4.2 (E P ). For E P = C we can write also:

M

n n n

=

k E k k C

1

0 0

0 2 0

0 4 2 0

0 6 4 4 0

0 8 6 12 4 0

24 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

n n n

=

k E k k D

−1

−2 −2

−2 −2 −2

−2 −2 −4 −2

−2 −2 −8 −4 −2

−2 −2 −14 −8 −6 −2

N N

Example 4.4 (E P ). For E P = G we can write also:

O

n n n

=

k E k k G

0

−1 −1

−1 0 −1

−1 3 −3 −1

−1 8 −12 0 −1

−1 15 −40 20 −5 −1

THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 25

n n n

=

k E k k F

0

−1 −1

−1 0 −1

1 1

−1 − −1

3 3

1 1

−1 − 0 −1

2 3

3 2 1 1

−1 − − −1

5 5 5 5

Definition 4.6. Let 1 < p ∈ N and n, ki ∈ Z for all i. Then we denote with:

p

Tcom

triangle, Qp of the set Tcom

p

we denote with:

±n

Qp := ∈R

±k1 , ± k2 , . . . , ± kp comp

nki

whereby for p = 2 we have the binomial coefficients. The p−nomial unit triangle

we denote with:

±n

U p := =1

±k1 , ± k2 , . . . , ± kp

and with:

p ±n

O := =0

±k1 , ± k2 , . . . , ± kp

we denote the p−nomial zero triangle for all n and ki , whereby ki is a well defined

sequence sufficing the condition:

p

X

|ki | = n

i=1

26 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

p p

L

E P = C ⊂ Tcom E P = D ⊂ Tcom

p p

N

E P = G ⊂ Tcom E P = F ⊂ Tcom

p

each outcome produces a triangle that is a subset of Tcom as we have only specified

the p−nomial coefficients and not the patterns, respectively combinations, itself.

Theorem 4.8. 1 < p ∈ N. Then it exist a p−nomial unit triangle such that

U p ⊂ Tcom

p

and it exist a p−nomial zero triangle such that Op ⊂ Tcom

p

.

Proof. Let Qp ⊂ Tcom

p

be an arbitrary p−nomial triangle with no zeros in it. After

theorem 4.1 we can simply set then:

Qp Qp = U p =⇒ U p ⊂ Tcom

p

and:

Qp Qp = Op =⇒ Op ⊂ Tcom

p

Remark 4.9. We specifically point out, that theorem 4.8 is a much stronger propo-

sition than a defintion of the unity − and zero p−nomial triangle would have been.

p

Before we move on, we are interested in the cardinality of the set Tcom .

p

Theorem 4.10. Let 1 < p ∈ N. Then the cardinality of Tcom is at least:

p

]|Tcom | ≥ ]|R|

p

. After theorem 4.12, the

expansion of theorem 2.4, this results to:

λU p ∈ R

for all λ, since λ ∈ R and U p is the p−nomial unit triangle. Thus, each set of

p−nomial triangles has at least the cardinality of R.

Theorem 4.11 (multinomial theorem). Let m, n, ki ∈ N for all i. Then:

m

Y

X n

n

(x1 + x2 + . . . +xm ) = xkt

k1 , k2 , . . . , km t=1 t

k1 +k2 +···+km =n

where:

n n!

=

k1 , k2 , . . . , km k1 !k2 ! · · · km !

is a multinomial coefficient.

Proof. It follows by induction for m as it is the generalization of the binomial

theorem from binomials to multinomials.

THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 27

ki ∈ Z for all i and 2 ≤ p ∈ N. Then:

Yp

X r

r

(4.22) λ(x1 + x2 + . . . +xp ) = λxut t

u +u +···+u =r

u1 , u2 , . . . , up t=1

1 2 p

whereby:

r r!

=

u1 , u2 , . . . , up u1 !u2 ! · · · up !

p

X

ui = r

i=1

and:

X Y

X n

(4.23) λ Bi xni = λxkt t

comni

k1 , k2 , . . . , kp comt

|k1 |+|k2 |+···+|kp |=|n|

p

X

(4.24) |ki | = |n|

i=1

plication of the multinom with a scalar.

Proof. The equation 4.22 follows after theorem 4.11. This of course does not change

for any multinomial combinatorial series and since we have already shown in 2.4,

that a multiplication of a binomial coefficient with a scalar holds the proof is com-

pleted.

Remark 4.13. It is important to mention, that the sequence ki in theorem 4.12

is not combinatorially constructed as it still represents one row in/of a p−nomial

triangle.

Remark 4.14. The condition of the absolute value in equation 4.24 is a result of

letting the values of the sequence ki be an element of Z for all i. This however is a

consequence of having p−nomial coefficients with either positive or negative values

as a representation of the values of the p−nomial triangle.

28 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

Remark 4.15. As we had already encountered in theorem 2.4 for the combinatorial

binoms, where the sum:

n

X ±n

λ xv y r

k=0

±k comq

comrv

runs consequently over an entire row (while the combination/variation runs over

the exponents), we recognize that the sum:

Y

X n

λxkt t

k1 , k2 , . . . , kp com

|k1 |+|k2 |+···+|kp |=|n| t

Example 4.16. The inverse element of Pascal’s triangle is:

−1

−1 −1

−1 −2 −1

−1 −3 −3 −1

−1 −4 −6 −4 −1

−1 −5 −10 −10 −5 −1

0 n n

:= −1 := −1 := −1

0 P̄ 0 P̄ n P̄

n n−1 n−1

= +

k P̄ k − 1 P̄ k P̄

whereby each entry in the n−th row and k−th column of the inverse of Pascal’s

triangle is denoted with:

n

k P̄

THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 29

p

Theorem 4.17. Let 1 < p ∈ N. Then Tcom is for every p a (real) vector space.

p

Proof. To qualify as a vector space, the set Tcom and the operations of addition

and multiplication must adhere to the following axioms:

(A1) ap , bp , cp p

∈ Tcom (ap + bp ) + cp = ap + (bp + cp )

p p p

(A2) a ,b ∈ Tcom a p + bp = bp + a p

(A3) ap , O p p

∈ Tcom Op + ap = ap

p p p

(A4) a , −a ∈ Tcom a + (−ap ) = 0

p

p p

(S1) a, b ∈ R, c ∈ Tcom a(bcp ) = ab(cp )

(S2) 1 ∈ R, ap p

∈ Tcom 1ap = ap

p p p

(S3) a ∈ R, b , c ∈ Tcom a(b + cp ) = abp + acp

p

p p

(S4) a, b ∈ R, c ∈ Tcom (a + b)cp = acp + bcp

The associativity − (A1), commutativity − (A2) and the existence of the iden-

tity element of addition (A3) follows by simple computation. The existence of the

inverse elements of addition (A4) follows by theorem 4.1, 4.8 and 4.10. The com-

patibility of scalar multiplication with field − (S1), the identity element of scalar

− (S2), the distributivity of scalar multiplication with respect to vector addition

− (S3) and the distributivity of scalar multiplication with respect to field addition

(S4) follows by theorem 4.12 and − 4.10.

Remark 4.18. Theorem 4.17 might come as a surprise, despite the prior estab-

lishments of the four operations on p−nomial triangles, the foundings of the unit −

and the zero p−nomial triange, the establishment of the inverse of − and the scalar

multiplication with p−nomial triangles.

Remark 4.19. Although theorem 4.17 seems very arbitrary, it is of course not. To

see that, we have to go back to the starting point of the p−nomial triangles, which

was the binom:

n

X n k n−k

(x1 + x2 )n = x x

k 1 2

k=0

and the binomial expansion where n ∈ N. This can be expanded via the multino-

mial theorem to:

m

Y

X n

n

(x1 + x2 + . . . +xm ) = xkt

k1 , k2 , . . . , km t=1 t

k1 +k2 +···+km =n

But polynomials can appear in a great variety, where they might be compactified

as a binom or not.

30 M. N. G. EINSTEIN B. EGRETEAU

p

We can compactify all possible p−nomial triangles Tcom , with 1 < p ∈ N, in the

following way.

Theorem 5.1. Let 1 < p ∈ N and let n, ki ∈ Z for all i. Then all possible

p

p−nomial triangles Tcom can be compactified as follows:

±n

:= compnk ∈ R

±ki comp

nki

Proof. We can simply construct every possible p−nomial triangle by setting the

p−nomial coefficients to:

0 ±n p ±n

:= 0 := comn0 := compnn

0 comp 0 comp ±n compnn

00 n0

and:

±n

:= compnki

±ki comp

nki

whereby it suffices:

p

X

|ki | = n

i=1

n+1 n n

= ±

ki + 1 comp ki comp ki + 1 comp

nki nki nk i

−n − 1 −n −n

= ±

−ki − 1 comp −ki comp −ki − 1 comp

nki nki nk i

p p p p p p

L

: Tcom × Tcom → Tcom ∧ : Tcom × Tcom → Tcom

p p p p

N

:R × Tcom → Tcom ∧ :R × Tcom → Tcom

every possible triangle can be constructed, since compnki can be any sequence or

combination and the operations produce even triangles that can not be constructed

other than via a definition.

THEORY OF P−NOMIAL TRIANGLES 31

Theorem 5.2. Let 1 < p ∈ N and let n, ki ∈ Z for all i. Then the set of all possible

p

p−nomial triangles Tcom contain more triangles then any multinominal system can

produce.

Proof. The proof is almost trivial at this point. After the multinomial theorem we

have:

p

Y

X n

n

(x1 + x2 + . . . +xp ) = xkt

k1 , k2 , . . . , kp t=1 t

k1 +k2 +···+kp =n

These can be produced without any problem with compnki , but it can also produce

polynomials that cannot be part of any multinomial representations. We have

shown this already with the various triangles from section 2 onwards to − 3.3.

References

[1] M. N. G. Einstein. Combinatorial Number Theory.

[2] M. N. G. Einstein. Combinatorial Algebraic Number Theory.

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