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Rev. Bras. Frutic., Jaboticabal - SP, v. 38, n.

3 : e-770 1/9
ISSN 0100-2945 http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0100-29452016770

YIELD AND QUALITY OF ‘PERA’ SWEET ORANGE


GRAFTED ON DIFFERENT ROOTSTOCKS
UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS1
Antonio Hélder Rodrigues Sampaio2, Maurício Antonio Coelho Filho3,
Laercio Duarte Souza3, Ralph Bruno França Brito4,
Roberval Oliveira da Silva4

ABSTRACT- This study aimed to evaluate, under field conditions, different combinations between ‘Pera’
sweet orange and eight rootstocks: ‘Rangpur’ lime (RL), ‘Volkamer’ lemon (VL), ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin
(CM), ‘Sunki Maravilha’ mandarin (SMM), ‘Indio’ and ‘Riverside’ citrandarins, and VL x RL (‘Rangpur’
lime)-010 and TH-051 hybrids. The soil water matric potential (Ѱm) was characterized for all scion-rootstock
combinations at distance of 1.0m from the trunk at the plant row direction and depths of 0.25 m, 0.50 m 0.90
m in the dry and wet seasons. For two years, fruit production parameters and fruit quality were assessed.
Differences of Ym among scion-rootstock combinations were observed during the dry season (p≤0.05). The
lowest Ym values for RL and the highest for TH-051 indicate the existence of different intrinsic mechanisms
affecting the water extraction of each scion-rootstock combination. Rootstocks have influenced fruit yield
and quality (p≤0.05). The best combinations for fruit quality and production were sweet orange grafted on
‘Riverside’, ‘Indio’ and TH-051 rootstocks.
Index terms: Citrus, matric potential, drought tolerance, rootstock.

PRODUÇÃO E QUALIDADE DE FRUTOS DA LARANJEIRA-‘PERA’


EM COMBINAÇÃO COM DIFERENTES PORTA-ENXERTOS
EM CONDIÇÕES DE SEQUEIRO

RESUMO- Este trabalho objetivou avaliar, em condição de campo, combinações entre a copa laranjeira
‘Pera’ e oito diferentes porta-enxertos: limoeiro ‘Cravo’ (LCR), limoeiro ‘Volkameriano’ (LVK), tangerineira
‘Cleópatra’ (CLEO), tangerineira ‘Sunki Maravilha’ (TSKMA), citrandarins ‘Indio’ e ‘Riverside’, híbridos
LVK x LCR (limoeiro ‘Cravo’)-010 e HTR (híbrido trifoliado)-051. Foi estimado o potencial matricial do solo
(Ѱm) para todas as combinações copa-porta-enxerto na posição a 1,0 m do tronco, na linha de plantas, nas
profundidades de 0,25 m, 0,50 m e 0,90 m, nos períodos secos e úmidos. Durante dois anos, foram avaliadas
a produção e a qualidade dos frutos. Foram observadas diferenças entre as combinações copa-porta-enxertos
em relação ao Ѱm (p≤0,05) apenas para o período seco. O menor valor de Ѱm para limoeiro ‘Cravo’ e o
maior para o HTR (híbrido trifoliado)-051 indicaram a existência de diferentes mecanismos intrínsecos de
cada combinação estudada que influenciaram na extração de água do solo, na posição avaliada. Em relação
à produção e à qualidade de frutos, os porta-enxertos ‘Riverside’, ‘Indio’ e HTR (híbrido trifoliado)-051
destacaram-se como as melhores combinações com a laranjeira ‘Pera’.
Termos para indexação: Citros, potencial mátrico, tolerância à seca, porta-enxertos.

1
(Trabalho 048-15). Recebido em: 22-01-2015. Aceito para publicação em: 03-11-2015. This work is part of the first author’s Doctoral
Thesis at the Graduate Program in Agricultural Sciences of UFRB.
2
Professor at the Federal Institute of Science, Education and Technology, PI. Email: helderahronomo@hotmail.com
3
Researcher at Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, CNPq Fellowship, Rua Embrapa, s/n CP. 07, Cruz das Almas-BA. Emails: mauricio-
antonio.coelho@embrapa.br; laercio.souza@embrapa.br
4
Agronomy Student at UFRB, PIBIC Trainee at Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura. Email: ralph_agro@hotmail.com; prole.oliveira@
gmail.com

Rev. Bras. Frutic., v. 38, n. 3: (e-770) DOI 10.1590/0100-29452016770 May/ June 2016 Jaboticabal - SP
2 A. H. R. Sampaio et al.

matric potential in dry and wet periods in ‘pera’ sweet


INTRODUCTION orange grafted on eight different rootstocks under
rainfed conditions, in Cruz das Almas, Bahia.
The need for diversification in the use of the
Brazilian citrus rootstock for different production
systems and environmental conditions is currently a MATERIAL AND METHODS
major challenge to ensure the sector’s growth with
reduction of risks caused by biotic and abiotic factors. The work was carried out in citrus experimental
According to Passos et al. (2006), this diversification field of Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das
is imperative because the citrus industry has faced Almas, Bahia (12º40’39 “S, 39º06’23’’W, 225m asl),
many threats, mainly due to pathogens affecting between July 2010 and December 2012. Adult ‘Pera’
orchards grafted with Rangpur lime (Citrus limonia sweet orange plants were evaluated [C. sinensis (L.)
Osbeck), the rootstock most widely used in the Osbeck] in 9-year-old orchard grown in spacing of
country (STUCHI et al., 2004; PRUDENTE et al, 6m x 4m grafted on eight rootstocks: ‘Rangpur’ lime
2004). (RL), ‘Volkamer’ lemon (VL), ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin
The citrus cultivation in Brazil is (CM), ‘Sunki Maravilha’ mandarin (SMM), ‘Indio’
predominantly without irrigation, being necessary the and ‘Riverside’ citrandarins, and VL x RL (‘Rangpur’
use of drought tolerant scion-rootstock combinations lime)-010 and TH-051 hybrids.
in view of the occurrence of temporary water The soil of the experimental area is a
shortage in various citrus regions (ORTOLANI et dystrophic cohesive yellow latosol, flat relief, with
al., 1991; Ribeiro et al., 2006). In this sense, plants the following horizons: Ap: 0-0.09 m; AB: 0.09-
grafted on Rangpur lime are considered more tolerant 0.38 m; Bw1: 0.38-0.72 m and Bw2: 0.72-1.20 m,
to drought, with mechanisms of greater development LAd3 reference in Souza and Souza (2001). Grain
of the root system, coupled with the high hydraulic size, water holding capacity, saturated hydraulic
conductivity of roots (MAGALHAES FILHO et conductivity, density, porosity and soil chemical
al, 2008; SUASSUNA et al, 2012; MEDINA et al., analyses were performed at the Laboratories of
1998). Physics and Chemistry of Embrapa Mandioca e
The substitution of traditional rootstocks in Fruticultura (Tables 1, 2 and 3). At the beginning of
citrus such as ‘Volkamer’ lemon (C. volkameriana the experiment, dolomitic lime was applied (1.3 t ha-1)
V. It. & Pasq.), ‘Rough’ lemon (C. jambhiri Lush.) to raise to 70% the soil base saturation and, according
and Rangpur lime must be made with caution to the rainfall, cover fertilizations were carried out
because in addition to virtues in relation to tolerance at the canopy projection area with nitrogen sources
to pathogens, new genotypes should be adapted to (600 g of urea per plant) and potassium (300 g of
adverse environmental conditions such as higher air potassium chloride per plant), installments twice a
temperature and soils with low water availability, and year (Azevedo, 2003).
also tolerate changes in edaphic factors connected Information on rainfall and air temperature
to the chemical and physical soil properties, and was obtained from the automatic station of the
ultimately, with increased production and fruit National Institute of Meteorology (INMET),
quality. located at Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, for
Breeding programs of citrus, like those the definition of dry and wet periods from the water
developed by Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura balance in the soil, according to the method of
have made efforts to provide new rootstock varieties Thornthwaite and Mather (1955). The depth of 1.2
resistant to biotic and abiotic factors as alternatives m was considered for soil water storage calculation,
to increase the genetic basis for the protection of and limits for soil water retention, field capacity (-10
national citrus production. The formation of lemon, kPa) and wilting point (-1500 kPa) were determined
mandarin and Poncirus trifoliata hybrids will be in laboratory with Richards’ extractors (Richards,
able to meet the current need for new materials, 1965) for available water calculations (AW).
like promising tests already carried out with TH- Soil volumetric moisture was measured in dry
051 and TH-069 (Cerqueira et al., 2004; Peixoto et and wet periods through TDR probes (Time Domain
al. 2006; Soares et al, 2015), SMFL x CTTR-017 Reflectometry), made with three stainless steel rods
(SUASSUNA et al, 2012) and VL x RL-10 hybrids fixed to a polyester resin block and connected to a
(CARVALHO et al, 2012). 50 ohms coaxial cable. These were calibrated for
In order to propose the use of new rootstocks each soil horizon at the Laboratory of Soil Physics
in rainfed condition, this study evaluated fruit of Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura according
production and quality and estimated the soil water to methodology described in Santos et al. (2010)

Rev. Bras. Frutic., v. 38, n. 3: (e-770) DOI 10.1590/0100-29452016770 May/Jun 2016 Jaboticabal - SP
YIELD AND QUALITY OF ‘PERA’ SWEET ORANGE... 3

for sample with non-deformed structure. Samples analysis and ten fruits per plant for analysis of the
were placed on the ground at depths of 0.25 m, 0.50 physicochemical quality. Data were submitted to
m 0.90 m, representing the average depths of AB analysis of variance and Skott-Knott test at 5%
(0.09-0.38m), Bw1 (0.38-0.72m) and Bw2 horizons probability.
(0.72-1.20m), respectively, and positioned 1.0 m
from the stem on the planting row, in two plants for
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
each rootstock. This distance was chosen because
the effective distance of the citrus root system is The climatic conditions in the experimental
approximately 1.5 m (SOUZA et al., 2007, COELHO period followed the trend of historical averages for
et al., 2002;) and studies involving spatial distribution the Reconcavo Baiano region (D’ANGIOLELLA et
of the root system of citrus plants every 0.5 m, al., 2012) in years 2010 and 2011, with the wet season
corresponding to the median point. between April and July and the dry season between
The soil water matric potential (Ѱm) of each months of October and March and annual rainfall
scion-rootstock combination was estimated using of 1,251 mm and 1,269 mm, respectively (Figure
the Van Genuchten model (1980) from soil moisture 1). The year 2012 was considered atypical for the
values ​​obtained by TDR. The water available (WA) Reconcavo region, with longer dry period, which
percentage in soil at the three depths was also resulted in annual rainfall of 739 mm (Figure 1).
determined according to methodology of Coelho There was no significant interaction (p =
et al. (2010). Four Ѱm determinations in the dry 0.05) between rootstock factors and soil depth, in
season were held on October 27 and November 24, which the soil matric potential was estimated. Only
2010, January 26 and February 11, 2011, when the in the dry season, there were significant differences
AW percentage in soil was less than 30%. Similarly, (p = 0.05) between Ѱm values ​​estimated for each
in the wet season, four determinations were carried scion-rootstock combination. In this period, the ym
out, on April 28, May 26, June 17 and July 28, 2011, values ​​were lower for RL rootstock, and higher for
when the soil WA was greater than 50%. TH, and this was not significantly different from
Fruit yield (kg plant -1) was recorded in other genotypes (Table 4), while the average water
harvests performed in June and December 2011 and availability value (WA) in the three depths evaluated
2012. To determine fruit quality, fruits collected was 7.6% for RL and 31.9% for soil profile monitored
in June 2011 were used, which were selected in in TH plants.
external position of the canopy, following the criteria The lower Ym in the dry period of the RL
of uniformity of samples from the skin color. The rootstock compared to TH confirms the mechanism
following physical parameters were determined: of increased use of soil water in the position to 1.0
height (cm), diameter (cm), fruit weight (g) and m from the stem by Rangpur lime, which is probably
juice yield [JY = (juice weight / fruit weight) x 100]. associated to a greater root growth under water
The following chemical parameters were also deficit, according to findings of Magalhaes Filho et
determined: total soluble solids (TSS), measured al. (2008) and Suassuna et al. (2012) and to a greater
in ºBrix by means of reading in refractometer with hydraulic conductivity of roots found by Medina et
values corrected ​​for 20°C; titratable acidity (TA) of al. (1998). On the other hand, the greater Ym of soil
the juice, determined by titration with 0.1 N NaOH water observed for TH characterizes this rootstock as
and a phenolphthalein indicator (AOAC, 1990), the conservative genotype associated with lower soil
with results being expressed as g / 100 g citric acid. water extraction, which is related to its small size,
The study also determined the TSS / TTA ratio and as reported by Cerqueira et al. (2004) and Peixoto
the technological index (TI), corresponding to the et al. (2006).
amount of soluble solids in the juice (kg) in a 40.8 The distinct mechanisms observed in the
kg fruit crate, obtained by the following formula: TI interaction grafted ‘Pera’ sweet orange and RL and
= (RS x TSS x 40.8) / 104 (Di Giorgi et al., 1990). TH rootstocks bring the following question: the ideal
The experimental design was completely rootstock is one that has higher water extraction
randomized, considering for Ѱm of soil water 8 x 3 capacity or that presenting savings in its use under
factorial, eight rootstocks and three depths, analyzing drought conditions? The answer to this question
separately for dry and wet periods, with n = 2x4, involves several edaphic and phytotechnical factors
two monitored plants and four evaluations for each related to drought tolerance such as water deficit
period. For fruit analysis, the design consisted of intensity and duration, soil type and depth, planting
eight rootstocks as treatments and four replicates. spacing, root system characteristics, sensitivity to
The experimental plot was one plant for productivity biotic factors and compatibility with the canopy and

Rev. Bras. Frutic., v. 38, n. 3: (e-770) DOI 10.1590/0100-29452016770 May/Jun 2016 Jaboticabal - SP
4 A. H. R. Sampaio et al.

increased fruit production capacity. relation to total soluble solids (TSS), the lowest
In relation to fruit production capacity, values were
​​ observed for ‘Pera’ fruits grafted onto VL
significant differences were found among scion- x RL, RL, SMM and CM (Table 6). The differences
rootstocks combinations for fruit production, fruit observed for total acidity and oBrix can be attributed
weight and fruit size parameters (Table 5). In the to the early fruit formation induced by rootstock.
2011 harvest, ‘Riverside’, SMM, ‘Indio’ and TH Except for ‘Pera’-CM, ATT / SST ratio greater
genotypes stood out with best performances in than 8.0 was observed for other scion-rootstock
relation to production. The ‘Pera’-RL combination, combinations, exceeding the minimum required
even presenting feature of increased water use, for fresh consumption (LEDO et al., 1999). The
did not show better performance, demonstrating ‘Pera’-VL combination had the highest ATT / SST
that this is not the only determining factor for fruit ratio, and’ Pera’-CM, the lowest value, suggesting
production. Regarding the average fruit length and that the first rootstock can provide earlier harvests in
weight, the highest averages were observed for ‘Pera’ relation to others. Regarding the technological index,
sweet orange grafted on VL x RL, ‘Indio’ and TH which demonstrates greater ability of producing juice
rootstocks (Table 5). of high oBrix content from a fruit crate, the ‘Pera’-
In the 2012 harvest, in which only 739 mm SMM and’ Pera’ - VL x RL combinations had lower
annual rainfall were recorded, again ‘Riverside’, performance, with values ​​below those observed for
‘Indio’ and TH rootstocks along with CM and VL citrus, which are 2.49 to 2.86 kg TSS fruit crate -1
x RL showed higher canopy production. This year, (DI GIORGI et al., 1990).
it was observed that the longer dry season caused a Some reasons explain the differences of TTA
reduction in fruit production in all scion-rootstock and TSS for the same canopy grafted onto different
combinations, compared to the previous year, except rootstocks. According to Stuchi et al. (1996), more
for ‘Pera’-CM combination. The largest reduction vigorous rootstocks are better soil water extractors and
in fruit production occurred for SMM, VL and RL keep plant well hydrated, being the most important
rootstocks (Table 5). reason for induction of low TSS concentrations
The good performance of CM rootstock with in the fruit. For Castle (1995), differences in TSS
‘Pera’ canopy was also observed by Donadio et al. concentration can be explained by the influence of
(1993) in Bebedouro-SP, with higher productivity the rootstock on the number of canopy leaves that
in 7m x 2m spacing in the dry period, contrary to perform the synthesis of carbohydrates translocated
expectations of being drought intolerant, unlike to fruits. Ledo et al. (1999) studied the production
Rangpur lime. These authors also reported that the of ‘Pera’ CNPMF D-6, between the 4th and 7th years
initial ‘Cleopatra’ production were very low, only and observed a trend of increased fruit production,
reaching a reasonable level in 5th year of planting. lower oBrix and total acidity for combination with
The low performance of VL and RL ‘Rangpur’ lime rootstock compared to ‘Cleopatra’
rootstocks diverge from results already reported mandarin and other rootstocks such as ‘Sunki ‘and
with the ‘Pera’ sweet orange canopy (MOURÃO ‘Carrizo’ citrange, differing from this study only in
FILHO et al., 1991; LEDO et al., 1999; STUCHI fruit production parameter.
et al., 2004). Mourao Filho et al. (1991) studied in
younger orchard, ‘Pera’ orange production on eight
rootstocks, among which RL, VL, CM, ‘Sunki’
and ‘Trifoliata’, showing in the first three years of
production, higher yields for combinations with RL
and VL, and CM and ‘Sunki’ rootstocks showing
intermediate production and higher than ‘Trifoliata’.
‘Indio’, VL x VL and RL rootstocks, which
led to greater length and average fruit weight of
‘Pera’ sweet orange, did not influence juice yield
compared to other rootstocks (Table 6). With the
exception of juice yield, parameters total acidity
(TTA), total soluble solids (TSS), TSS / TTA ratio and
technological index were significantly determined (p
≤ 0.05) by rootstocks (Table 6).
Lower TTA in ‘Pera’ fruits was observed
when grafted onto VL and VL x RL (Table 6). In

Rev. Bras. Frutic., v. 38, n. 3: (e-770) DOI 10.1590/0100-29452016770 May/Jun 2016 Jaboticabal - SP
YIELD AND QUALITY OF ‘PERA’ SWEET ORANGE... 5

Figure 1- Monthly water balance (WB) and rainfall (R) from January 2010 to December 2012, data from
the meteorological station of Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas-Bahia.

Table 1-Particle size of Ap (0-0,09m), AB (0.09-0.38m), Bw1 (0.38-0.72m), Bw2 (0.72-1.20m) horizons
and textural classification of dystrophic cohesive yellow latosol, Embrapa Mandioca e
Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas-Bahia.
Grain size composition (g kg-1)
_____________Sand_____________ Textural Classification

Horizon VT T M F VF Total Silt Clay


Ap 34 97 139 193 34 497 154 349 sandy clay
AB 32 111 158 244 62 607 147 246 sandy clay loam
Bw1 35 111 127 179 48 500 128 372 sandy clay
Bw2 22 88 116 168 23 417 170 413 sandy clay
Note: VT - very thick, T - thick, M - medium, F - fine, VF - very fine.

Table 2- Water retention in soil held by the relationship between potential and volumetric moisture (ϴ),
saturated hydraulic conductivity (KϴSat), density (Ds) and porosity of Ap (0-0.09m), AB
(0.09- 0.38m), Bw1 (0.38-0.72m) and Bw2 horizons (0.72-1.20) of a dystrophic cohesive
yellow latosol, Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultur experimental field, Cruz das Almas-Bahia.
____Potential (kPa) x ϴ (cm cm-3)_____ KϴSat Ds Porosity (%)
10 33.3 100 300 1500 mm h-1 kg dm-3 Macro Micro
Ap 0.206 0.190 0.190 0.179 0.156 463 1.52 11.6 24.6
AB 0.179 0.162 0.161 0.157 0.134 23 1.56 9.8 22.0
Bw1 0.245 0.227 0.236 0.213 0.185 7 1.63 5.3 26.8
Bw2 0.228 0.209 0.183 0.178 0.166 34 1.46 12.8 26.1

Rev. Bras. Frutic., v. 38, n. 3: (e-770) DOI 10.1590/0100-29452016770 May/Jun 2016 Jaboticabal - SP
6 A. H. R. Sampaio et al.

Table 3- Chemical analysis of soil, Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultur experimental field, Cruz das Almas-
Bahia.

Depth pH P K Ca Mg Al Na H+Al SB CTC V M.O


(m) H2O mg dm-3 cmolc dm-3 % g kg-1
0 - 0.25 5.2 58 0.23 1.70 0.70 0.2 0.03 2.75 2.66 5.41 49 4.86
0.25 - 0.50 4.9 13 0.12 1.10 0.80 0.2 0.03 2.42 2.05 4.47 46 6.73

Table 4-Soil water matric potential (Ѱm,kPa) and available water (WA,%) at depths of 0.25m, 0.50m and
0.90m in ‘Pera’ sweet orange on eight rootstocks: ‘Rangpur’ lime (RL), ‘Volkamer’ lemon
(VL), ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin (CM), ‘Sunki Maravilha’ mandarin (SMM), ‘Indio’ and ‘Riverside’
citrandarins, and VL x RL (‘Rangpur’ lime)-010 and TH-051 hybrids estimated from moisture
measurements (n = 2x4) in the dry and wet periods.
Depth Dry period Wet period
Rootstocks (m) Ѱm WA Ѱm WA
0.25 -837 13.6 -46 66.5
RL 0.50 -1500 0.0 -357 30.0
0.90 -702 9.3 -49 57.0
Mean -1013 a 7.6 -150 a 51.2
0.25 -514 23.7 -27 86.1
VL 0.50 -877 21.2 -75 59.1
0.90 -169 31.6 -25 80.9
Mean -520 ab 25.5 -42 a 75.34
0.25 -524 23.3 -23 93.0
CM 0.50 -885 21.1 -59 63.8
0.90 -222 27.3 -38 65.1
Mean -543 ab 23.9 -40 a 73.9
0.25 -783 15.0 -18 100.0
SMM 0.50 -834 21.9 -240 36.2
0.90 -773 7.8 -37 65.9
Mean -797 ab 15.0 -98 a 67.4
0.25 -771 15.3 -15 100.0
Indio 0.50 -1157 17.7 -80 58.0
0.90 -788 7.5 -29 74.8
Mean -905 ab 13.5 -41 a 77.5
0.25 -294 35.4 -14 100.0
Riverside 0.50 -851 21.6 -239 36.2
0.90 -740 8.5 -49 57.0
Mean -628 ab 21.8 -100 a 64.4
0.25 -650 18.9 -15 100.0
VL x RL 10 0.50 -799 22.4 -117 50.3
0.90 -109 38.5 -25 80.8
Mean -519 ab 26.6 -52 a 77.1
0.25 -216 41.8 -22 95.0
TH-051 0.50 -864 21.4 -70 60.4
0.90 -160 32.49 -27 77.7
Mean -413 b 31.9 -39 a 77.7
(*) Means followed by the same letter do not differ by the Tukey test (P ≤ 0.05).
 

Rev. Bras. Frutic., v. 38, n. 3: (e-770) DOI 10.1590/0100-29452016770 May/Jun 2016 Jaboticabal - SP
YIELD AND QUALITY OF ‘PERA’ SWEET ORANGE... 7

Table 5- Annual production, average weight, length, diameter and number of seeds in ‘Pera’ sweet orange
fruits on eight rootstocks: ‘Rangpur’ lime (RL), ‘Volkamer’ lemon (VL), ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin
(CM), ‘Sunki Maravilha’ mandarin (SMM), ‘Indio’ and ‘Riverside’ citrandarins, and VL x
RL (‘Rangpur’ lime)-010 and TH-051, Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultur experimental field,
Cruz das Almas, Bahia, in 2011 and 2012.
Production
Average Length Diameter Seeds/
Rootstocks (kg planta-1)
weight (g) (cm) (cm) fruit
2011 2012
RL 22.13 b 16.07 b 173.30 b 6.52 b 6.75 5.90
VL 34.76 b 24.25 b 174.47 b 6.51 b 6.71 5.40
CM 21.82 b 36.75 a 167.10 b 6.38 b 6.63 5.63
SMM 50.21 a 13.27 b 167.27 b 6.40 b 6.70 5.80
Indio 47.98 a 32.85 a 188.83 a 6.68 a 6.90 5.23
Riverside 65.28 a 41.35 a 179.17 b 6.55 b 6.84 5.37
VL x RL 38.49 b 32.25 a 206.30 a 6.90 a 7.10 5.13
TH 55.06 a 29.55 a 188.37 a 6.79 a 6.90 5.63
* Equal letters belong to the same group by the Skott-Knott test (p = 0.05).

Table 6- Yield (Juice yield), titratable acidity (TTA), total soluble solids (TSS), TSS / TTA ratio and
technological index of ‘Pera’ orange juice on eight rootstocks: ‘Rangpur’ lime (RL), ‘Volkamer’
lemon (VL), ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin (CM), ‘Sunki Maravilha’ mandarin (SMM), ‘Indio’ and
‘Riverside’ citrandarins, and VL x RL (‘Rangpur’ lime)-010 and TH-051, Embrapa Mandioca
e Fruticultur experimental field, Cruz das Almas, Bahia, in 2011 and 2012.
Juice yield TTA TSS (%) TSS / Technological
Rootstock (%) Citric acid g/100g TTA index
RL 59.68 1.25 a 10.60 b 8.51 c 2.58 a
VL 56.71 1.04 b 11.13 a 10.76 a 2.58 a
CM 58.92 1.36 a 10.67 b 7.85 c 2.56 a
SMM 52.11 1.26 a 10.60 b 8.41 c 2.25 b
Indio 58.01 1.22 a 11.20 a 9.16 c 2.65 a
Riverside 54.70 1.27 a 11.27 a 8.92 c 2.51 a
VL x RL 54.84 1.09 b 10.53 b 9.67 b 2.36 b
TH 57.96 1.19 a 11.40 a 9.62 b 2.69 a
* Equal letters belong to the same group by the Skott-Knott test (p = 0.05).

Rev. Bras. Frutic., v. 38, n. 3: (e-770) DOI 10.1590/0100-29452016770 May/Jun 2016 Jaboticabal - SP
8 A. H. R. Sampaio et al.

COELHO, E.F.; SILVA, A.J.P.; MIRANDA, J.H.


CONCLUSIONS Definição do posicionamento de sensores para
In the dry season, the lower soil water matric monitoramento da água no solo em bananeira irrigada
potential for Rangpur lime in relation to TH (hybrid por diferentes sistemas de irrigação localizada.
trifoliate) -051, under ‘Pera’ orange canopy indicates Engenharia Agrícola, Jaboticabal, v.30, n.4, p.608-
differences in water extraction in the position at 1.0 618, 2010.
m from the stem.
Under rainfed condition, ‘Riverside’ COELHO, E.F.; OLIVEIRA, F. das C.; ARAÚJO,
rootstock, followed by ‘Indio’ and TH-051 rootstocks E.C.E.; VASCONCELOS, L.F.L. Distribuição das
are the most promising, as they provide ‘Pera’ orange raízes de laranja ‘Pêra’ sob sequeiro e irrigação
canopy higher fruit production. por microaspersão em solo arenoso. Pesquisa
‘Sunki Maravilha’ rootstock (SMM) was Agropecuária Brasileira, Brasília, v.37, p.603-611,
the most sensitive to drought and the genotype with 2002.
increased susceptibility to climate risks.
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