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What is geometric modeling

Geometric Modeling is the field that discusses the mathematical methods behind
the modeling of realistic objects for computer graphics and computer aided design
2. What are Transformations? What are the basic possible transformations in geometric
Changes in orientation, size and shape are accomplished with geometric transformations
that alter the coordinate descriptions of the objects. The basic geometric transformations
are translation, rotation, and scaling. Other transformations that are often applied to
objects include reflection and shear.
3. What is translation transformation?
A translation is applied to an object by repositioning it along a straight line path from one
coordinate location to another. We translate a two-dimensional point by adding translation
distances, tx and ty, to the original coordinate position (x,y) to move the point to a new
position (x',y')
4. What is Rotation transformation?
A two-dimensional rotation is applied to an object by repositioning it along a circular path in
the x-y plane. When we generate a rotation we get a rotation angle (θ) and the position
about which the object is rotated (xr , yr) this is known as rotation point or pivot point.
5. What is scaling?
Scaling is a kind of transformation in which the size of an object is changed. Remember the
change is size does no mean any change in shape. This kind of transformation can be carried
out for polygons by multiplying each coordinate of the polygon by the scaling
factor. Sx and Sy which in turn produces new coordinate of (x,y) as (x',y').
6. What is Reflection?
Reflection is nothing more than a rotation of the object by 180o. In case of reflection the
image formed is on the opposite side of the reflective medium with the same size.
Therefore we use the identity matrix with positive and negative signs according to the
situation respectively.
7. What is a wire frame model?
A wireframe model is an edge or skeletal representation of a real-world 3D object using
lines and curves. Wireframe models consist only of points, lines, and curves that describe
the edges of the object.
8. What is meant by solid modeling?
Solid modeling (or modelling) is a consistent set of principles for mathematical and
computer modeling of three-dimensional solids. Solid modeling is distinguished from
related areas of geometric modeling and computer graphics by its emphasis on physical
9. What is meant by Surface modeling?
Surface modeling is a more complex method for representing objects than
wireframe modeling, but not as sophisticated as solid modeling. Surface modeling is widely
used in CAD (computer-aided design) for illustrations and architectural renderings.
10. What are analytical and synthetic curves ? Give examples.
Analytic curves are defined as those that can be described by analytic equations such as
lines, circles, and conics. Synthetic curves are the ones that are described by a set of data
points (control points) such as splines and Bezier curves.
Analytical surfaces Eg. Plane surfaces, sphere, ellipsoid
Synthetic surfaces Eg. Bicubic surface, Bezier surface
11. What do you mean by Bezier curves?
Bézier curves employ at least three points to define a curve. The two endpoints of
the curve are called anchor points. The other points, which define the shape of the curve,
are called handles, tangent points, or nodes.
12. What are the important properties of Bezier curve?
They generally follow the shape of the control polygon, which consists of the segments
joining the control points. They always pass through the first and last control points. They
are contained in the convex hull of their defining control points.
13. What is a Hermite curve?
In numerical analysis, a cubic Hermite spline or cubic Hermite interpolator is aspline where
each piece is a third-degree polynomial specified in Hermite form: that is, by its values and
first derivatives at the end points of the corresponding domain interval.
14. What is a B spline?
In the mathematical subfield of numerical analysis, a B-spline, or basis spline, is
aspline function that has minimal support with respect to a given degree, smoothness, and
domain partition. Any spline function of given degree can be expressed as a linear
combination of B-splines of that degree.
15. What is the convex hull property of Bezier curve?
A Bezier curve will always be completely contained inside of the Convex Hull of the control
points. For planar curves, imagine that each control point is a nail pounded into a board.
The shape a rubber band would take on when snapped around the control points is the
convex hull.
16. What is a Nurb?
Non-uniform rational basis spline (NURBS) is a mathematical model commonly used in
computer graphics for generating and representing curves and surfaces. It offers great
flexibility and precision for handling both analytic (surfaces defined by common
mathematical formulae) and modeled shapes.
17. What is a cubic spline?
A cubic spline is a spline constructed of piecewise third-order polynomials which pass
through a set of control points. The second derivative of each polynomial is commonly set
to zero at the endpoints, since this provides a boundary condition that completes the
system of equations.
18. Compare Bezier & B-Spline curves.
Both Bezier and B-Spline curves are used for drawing and evaluating smooth curves,
especially in computer graphics and animations. B-Spline are considered a special case of
Bezier curves. B-Spline offer more control and flexibility than Bezier curves.
19. What is CAPP?
Computer-aided process planning (CAPP) is the use of computer technology to aid in the process
planning of a part or product, in manufacturing. CAPP is the link between CAD and CAM in that it
provides for the planning of the process to be used in producing a designed part.
20. Write down ‘Bernstein’ polynomial.
The Bernstein polynimial can be described as

21. List out techniques of assembly modeling.

Bottom-up assembly model
Top-down assembly model
22. Define Bottom-up assembly design.
In a ‘bottom up’ assembly design, complex assemblies are divided into minor subassemblies and parts. Every
part is considered as individual part by one or more designers. The parts can be archived in a library in one or
more 3D Files. This is the high effective way to generate and manage complex assemblies.
23. Define Top-down assembly design
In a ‘top down’ assembly design all parts are classically designed by the similar person within a single part.
3D assembly handles ‘top down’ method by allowing to design and creation of a component while work in
the active part. Hence, the active part will be an assembly part.
24. Describe parent – child relationship in assembly design.
When components are additional to an assembly, parent and child relationships are created. These
relationships are displayed by graphically as an assembly tree. Parts are parametrically connected by position
constraints. These constraints have data about how a part should be placed within the assembly hierarchy
and how it should respond if other components are edited.
25. List out the international organizations involved to develop the graphics standards:
ACM ( Association for Computer Machinery )
ANSI ( American National Standards Institute )
ISO ( International Standards Organization )
GIN ( German Standards Institute )
26. List out the various standards in graphics programming
IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification)
DXF (Drawing / Data Exchange Format)
STEP (Standard for the Exchange of Product model data)
27. Define Graphics Kernel System (GKS)
The Graphical Kernel System (GKS) was the first ISO standard for computer graphics in lowlevel, established
in 1977. GKS (Graphics Kernel System) provides a set of drawing features for two-dimensional vector
graphics suitable for charting and similar duties.