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Problem 1

1 Problem Description:
Here, we will analyse the motion of a charged paricle in presence of electric field or
magnetic field or both. We use MatLab’s ODE solver to solve the differential equations.

2 Assumptions:
1. No air resistance

2. No variation in g with height

3 Mathematical Model:
3.1 Differential Equations:
Suppose that the particle is initially at the origin O of the coordinate system. Let its mass
be m and its charge be q. Let the electric field be E ~ and the magnetic field be B.
~ So, due
to the Lorentz force, acceleration of the body is

v q ~
d~ ~
= (E + v~ × B) (1)
dt m
Componentwise, we have following three equations:

dvx q
= (Ex + vy Bz − vz By ) (2)
dt m
dvy q
=(E + vz Bx − vx Bz ) (3)
dt m y
dvz q
= (Ez + vx By − vy Bx ) (4)
dt m
and
dx
= vx (5)
dt
dy
= vy (6)
dt
dz
= vz (7)
dt

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3.2 Fixed Parameters:
1. q = 1C

2. m = 1kg

3. g = 9.8m/s

4 Case Studies:
4.1 ~ field
Case 1: Static and Uniform E
Here the differential equations reduce to

v qE
d~ ~
= (8)
dt m
d~r
= v~ (9)
dt

4.1.1 Initial Conditions:


~ = (1, 0, 0)N /C
E
v~0 = (1, 1, 1)m/s

4.1.2 Analytical Solution:


~
qEt
v~ = v~0 +
m
~ 2
qEt
~r = v~0 t +
2m

4.1.3 Results:
Here are the results we obtained:

4.1.4 Observations:
1. The trajectory is a parabola as can be seen from equation for ~r.

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Figure 1: Trajectory

4.2 ~ field
Case 2: Static and Uniform B
Here the differential equations reduce to

v q
d~ ~
= (~
v × B) (10)
dt m
d~r
= v~ (11)
dt
For simplicity let there be magnetic field only in Z− direction. So,

Bx = By = 0

So, the first equation reduces to following equation written componentwise:

dvx qvy Bz
= (12)
dt m
dvy −qvx Bz
= (13)
dt m
dvz
=0 (14)
dt

4.2.1 Initial Conditions:


~ = (0, 0, 1)T
B
We will take three different initial velocities. These are shown in the results section.

4.2.2 Analytical Solution:


vx = vx (0)cos(ω0 t) + vy (0)sin(ω0 t) (15)
vy = −vx (0)sin(ω0 t) + vy (0)cos(ω0 t) (16)
vz = vz (0) (17)

3
vx (0) vy (0) vy (0)
x= sin(ω0 t) − cos(ω0 t) + (18)
ω0 ω0 ω0
vx (0) vy (0) v (0)
y= cos(ω0 t) + sin(ω0 t) − x (19)
ω0 ω0 ω0
z = vz (0)t (20)
qBz
where ω0 = m

4.2.3 Results:
Here are the results we obtained:

Figure 2: Trajectory for v~(0) = (0, 0, 1)

Figure 3: Trajectory for v~(0) = (1, 0, 0)

4.2.4 Observations:
~ So no force acts on the
1. In the first case initial velocity is in the same direction as B.
particle and it moves in a straight line.
~ are mutually perpendicular and so the trajectory is a
2. In the second case v~ and B
circle as expected.

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Figure 4: Trajectory for v~(0) = (1, 0, 1)

3. In the third case there is a component of B ~ in the direction of B~ and along that
direction there will be no force. So, the particle moves the with a constant velocity
~ Also, the component of velocity perpendicular to B
in the direction of B. ~ makes
the particle undergo circular motion in XY − plane. So, the resultant trajectory is a
helix.

4.3 ~ and B
Case 3: Static and Uniform E ~ field
Here the differential equations take no simple form. So,for simplicity let there be electric
field only in X− direction, magnetic field only in Z− direction and initial velocity only in
Y − direction. So,
Bx = By = 0; Bz = B0
Ey = Ez = 0; Ex = E0
vx (0) = vz (0) = 0; vy (0) = v0
So, the first equation reduces to following equation written componentwise:

dvx q
= (Ex + vy Bz ) (21)
dt m
dvy −qvx Bz
= (22)
dt m
dvz
=0 (23)
dt

4.3.1 Initial Conditions:


~ = (0, 0, 1)T
B
~ = (1, 0, 0)N /C
E
We will take two different initial velocities. These are shown in the results section.

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4.3.2 Analytical Solution:
qB0
vx = sin(ω0 t) (24)
mω0
E E
vx = (v0 + 0 )cos(ω0 t) − 0 (25)
B0 B0
vz = 0 (26)
ω t
E0 2sin2 ( 20 )
x = (v0 + ) (27)
B0 ω0
E0 sin(ω0 t) E0 t
y = (v0 + ) − (28)
B0 ω0 B0
z=0 (29)
qB0
where ω0 = m

4.3.3 Results:
Here are the results we obtained:

Figure 5: Trajectory for v~(0) = (0, 1, 0)

Figure 6: Trajectory for v~(0) = (0, −1, 0)

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4.3.4 Observations:
1. When initial velocity is − BE00 , the particle trajectory is a straight line as can be seen
from the equations for x and y. This is because the force due E ~ in positive X−
direction and force due to B ~ in negative X− direction balance each other exactly
and so the resultant force on the particle is zero.

4.4 ~ field and under gravitational force


Case 4: Static and Uniform B
Since we need to examine the motion of only a single charged particle, the effect of g can
~ in the direction of g.
be modelled simply by having a static and uniform electric field E

mg = qE

So,
mg
E=
q
So,
~ = − mg jˆ
E
q
Now, this problem is same as the problem for case3. Again, for simplicity let us assume
~ to be only inY − direction.
B
Bx = Bz = 0; By = B0
mg
Ex = Ez = 0; Ey = −
q

4.4.1 Initial Conditions:


~ = (0, 1, 0)T
B
v~(0) = (1, 0, 0)m/s
We will take two different masses. These are shown in the results section.

4.4.2 Results:
Here are the results we obtained:

4.4.3 Observations:
1. The particle trajectory is similar to that of helix as expected but the pitch of the
helix is increasing with time. This is due to constant acceleration g.
mv
2. As mass of the particle increases, its radius increases as expected. (R = qB )

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Figure 7: Trajectory for m = 1kg

Figure 8: Trajectory for m = 2kg

4.5 ~ field
Case 5: Static and Non-uniform B
~ is not uniform, we obtain the solutions only computationally. Also, here
Here, since B
~ = ~0.
E

4.5.1 Initial Conditions:


~ = (0, 0, x)T
B
v~(0) = (1, 1, 1)m/s

4.5.2 Results:
Here are the results we obtained:

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Figure 9: Trajectory for m = 1kg