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1. Al Melting point 658 °C Aluminum


This is the most powerful, very frequently used deoxidizing and
also de-triding agent. As a result, it also has an extremely
favorable effect on resistance to ageing. Small additions assist
fine-grained structure. As Al forms very hard nitndos with nitrogen,
it is usually an alloying element in nitriding steels. It increases
scaling resistance and is therefore frequently added to alloy ferritic
heat resistant steels. With unalloyed carbon' steels,' scaling
resistance can be promoted by calorizing (introduction of
aluminum into the surface). Al very sharply restricts the gamma
phase.
On account of the very pronounced increase in coercive field
intensity, Al is an alloying element in iron-nickel-cobalt-aluminum
permanent magnet alloys.
2. As Melting point 817 °C under pr. -Arsenic
Also restricts the gamma phase and is a steel parasite, as it
possesses a strong tendency to segregation, in a similar way to
phosphorus. Elimi- nation of segregation due to differential
annealing is however even more difficult than is the case with
phosphorus. In addition, it increases temper brittleness, sharply
reduces toughness and impairs weldability.
3. B Melting point 2300 °C Boron
As boron possesses a high cross section for neutron absorption, it
is used to alloy steels to controllers and shields of atomic energy
plants. Austenic 18/8 Cr Ni steels can be raised to increased yield
point and strength with boron by means of precipitation hardening,
but corrosion resistance is reduced in the process Precipitation
induced by boron Increases the strength properties of nigh
temperature Austenic steel types in the high temperature range. In
structural steels, this element improves through hardening and
thus causes an increase in core strength in case-hardening steels.
A reduction in weldability must be expected in boron alloyed
steels.
4. Be Melting point 1280 °C Beryllium
Copper beryllium alloys are used to make clock springs, which are
hardly magnetizable and withstand a much higher number of load
cycles than steel springs. Ni-Be alloys are very hard and corrosion
resistant. Used in surgical instruments. Very pronounced
restriction of the gamma phase. With Be it is possible to carry out
precipitation hardening, but toughness is reduced in the process.
Pronouncedly deoxidizing, considerable affinity
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for sulfur.
5. C Melting point 3540 °C Carbon
Carbon is the most important and influential alloying element in
steel. In addition to carbon however, any unalloyed steel will
contain silicon, manganese, phosphorus and sulfur, which occur
unintentionally during manufacture. The addition of further alloying
elements to achieve special effects and intentional increase in the
manganese and silicon contents result in alloy steel. With
increasing C content, the strength and hardenability of the steel
increase, but its ductility, forge ability, weldability and machinability
(using cutting machine tools) are reduced. Corrosion resistance to
water, acids and hot gases are practically unaffected by the
carbon.

6. Ca Melting point 850 °C Calcium


Used together with Si in the form of silica-calcium for de-oxidation.
Ca increases scaling resistance of heating conductor materials.

7. Ce Melting point 775 °C Cerium


Has a purifying action, as it deoxidizes pronouncedly and
promotes de-sulfurization. It is frequently used in conjunction with
lanthanum, neodymium, praseocymium and other rare earth
metals as a composite metal. In high alloy steels, to some extent
promotes hot forming properties and improves scale resistance in
heat resisting steels. Fe-Ce alloys with approximately 70% Ce are
pyrophonc (flint stones). Addition to spheroidal graphite cast iron.

8. Co Melting point 1492 °C Cobalt


Co does not form any carbides, it inhibits grain growth at elevated
temperatures and pronouncedly improves retention of temper and
high temperature strength. Therefore, used frequently as alloying
element in high speed steels, hot forming tool steels, creep-
resistant and high temperature materials. Promotes graphite
formation. In large quantities, increases remanence, coercive field
intensity and thermal conductivity.
Therefore, alloying base for super high quality permanent magnet
steels and alloys. Under the influence of neutral irradiation, the
pronouncedly radioactive isotope^, Co is formed, for which reason
Co is undesirable in steels for atomic reactors.

9. Cr Melting point 1920 °C Chromium


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Cr renders steels oil and air-harden able. By reduction of the


critical rate of cooling necessary for martensite formation, it
increases hardenability, thus improving its susceptibility to
hardening and tempering. Notch toughness is reduced however,
but ductility suffers only very slightly. Weldability decrease;; in pure
chromium steels with increasing Cr content.
The tensile strength of the steel increases by 80-100 N/mm2 per 1
% Cr.
Cr is a carbide former. Its carbides increase the edge-holding
quality and wear resistance.
High temperature strength and high-pressure hydrogenation
properties are promoted by chromium. Whilst increasing Cr
contents improve scaling resistance, a minimum content of about
13%.chromium is necessary for corrosion resistance of steels; this
must be dissolved in the matrix. The element restricts the gamma
phase and thus extends the ferrite range. It does however stabilize
the austenite in austenitic Cr-Mn and Cr-Ni steels. Thermal and
electrical conductivity are reduced. Thermal expansion is reduced
(alloys for glass sealing). With simultaneously increased carbon
content, Cr contents up to 3% increase remanence and coercive
field intensity.

10. Cu Melting point 1084 °C Copper


Copper is added to very few steel alloys, as it concentrates under
the layer of scale and through penetrating into the grain boundary,
causes high surface sensitivity in hot forming processes, for which
reason it is regarded as a steel parasite. The yield point and the
yield point/strength ratio are increased. Contents above 0.30% can
cause precipitation hardening. Hardenability is improved.
Weldability is not affected by copper. In alloy and low alloy steels,
Cu produces significant improvement in weathering resistance. In
acid resistant high alloy steels, a Cu content above 1 % produces
improvement in resistance to hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid.

11. H Melting point -262 °C Hydrogen


is a steel parasite because it causes embrittlement through
reduction of ductility and necking without increasing yield point and
tensile strength. It is the cause of undesirable flaking and promotes
the occurrence of ghost lines. Atomic hydrogen occurring during
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pickling penetrates the steel, forming pitting. Moist hydrogen de-


carbonizes at elevated temperatures.

12. Mg - Melting point 657 °C Magnesium


Promotes spheroidal graphite formation in cast iron.

13. Mn . Melting point 1221 °C Manganese


Mn deoxidizes. It compounds with sulfur to form Mn sulfide, thus
reducing the undesirable effect of the iron sulfide. This is of
particular importance in free-cutting steel; it reduces the risk of red
shortness. Mn very pronouncedly reduces the critical cooling rate,
thus increasing hardenability. Yield point and strength are
increased by addition of Mn and, in addition, Mn favorably affects
forge ability and weldability and pronouncedly increases hardness
penetration depth. Contents > 4% also lead with slow cooling to
formation of brittle Martensitic structure,
so that the alloying range is hardly used. Steels with Mn contents >
12% are austenitic if the C content is also high, because Mn
considerably extends the gamma phase. Such steels are prone to
very high degree of strain hardening where the surface is
subjected to impact stress, whilst the core remains tough. For this
reason, they are highly resistant to wear under the influence of
impact. Steels with Mn contents of 2:18% remain unmagnetizable
even after relatively pronounced cold forming and are used as
special steels as well as steels remaining tough at subzero
temperatures which are subjected to low temperature stress. The
coefficient of thermal expansion increases as a result of Mn, whilst
thermal and electrical conductivity are reduced.

14. Mo Melting point 2622 °C Molybdenum


Mo is usually alloyed together with other elements. Reducing the
critical cooling rate improves hardenability. Mo significantly
reduces temper brittleness, for example in the case of CrNi and
Mn steels, promotes fine grain formation and also favorably affects
weldability. Increase in yield point and strength. With increased Mo
content, forgeability is reduced. Pronounced carbide former;
cutting properties with high speed steel are improved thereby. It
belongs to the elements which increase corrosion resistance and
is therefore used frequently with high alloy Cr
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steels and with austenitic CrNi steels. High Mo contents reduce


susceptibility to pitting Very severe restriction of the gamma phase.
Increased high temperature strength, scaling resistance is reduced

15. N Melting point-210 °C Nitrogen


This element can occur both as a steel parasite and as an alloying
element. Parasitic because of the reduction in toughness through
precipitation processes, causing susceptibility to ageing and blue
brittleness (deformation in the blue heat range of 300-350 °C) and
on account of the possibility of initiation of inter-crystalline stress
cracks in unalloyed and low alloy steels. As an alloying element, N
extends the gamma phase and stabilizes the austenitic structure.
In austenitic steels increases strength and above all the yield point
plus mechanical properties in heat. As a result of nitride formation
during nitriding, N permits high surface hardness to be achieved
(nitriding).

16. Nb/Cb Melting point 2468 °C


Niobium/Columbium
17. Ta Melting point 3030 "C Tantalum
These elements occur almost exclusively together and are very
difficult to separate from one another, so that they are usually used
together. Very pronounced carbide formers, thus alloyed
particularly as stabilizers
of chemical resistant steels. Both elements are ferrite formers and
thus reduce the gamma phase. On account of the increase in high
temperature strength and creep rupture strength due to Nb, it is
frequently alloyed to nigh-temperature austenitic boiler steels. Ta
has a neutron high ab- sorption cross-section; only low-Ta Nb is
considered for use for reactor steels.

18. Ni Melting point 1453 "C Nickel


With structural steels produces significant increase in notch
toughness, even in the low temperature range, and is therefore
alloyed for increasing toughness in case-hardening, heat-treatable
and subzero toughness steels. All transformation points (A< - A4)
are lowered by Ni; it is not a carbide former. As result of
pronounced extension of the gamma phase, Ni in contents of > 7%
imparts austenitic structure to chemically resistant steels down to
well below room temperature. Ni on its own only makes the steel
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rust resistant, even in high percentages, but in austenitic Cr Ni


steels results in resistance to the effect of reducing chemicals.
Resistance of these steels in oxidizing substances is achieved by
means of Cr. At temperatures above 600 °C, austenitic steels have
greater high temperature strength, as their re-crystallization
temperature is high. They are practically un-magnetizable.
Thermal and electrical conductivity are significantly reduced. High
Ni contents in precisely defined alloying ranges lead to physical
steels with certain physical properties, low thermal expansion
(Invar types).

19. 0 Melting point-218.7 °C Oxygen


Steel parasite; important for its specific effect are nature and
composition of its compounds in steel as well as form and
distribution. The mechanical properties, particularly notch
toughness, especially in transverse direction, are reduced, whilst
the tendency to ageing brittleness, red shortness, fibrous fracture
and fish-scale fracture is increased.

20. P Melting point 44 °C Phosphorus


Is usually regarded as a steel parasite, as P produces pronounced
primary segregation on solidification of the melt and the possibility
of secondary segregation in solid state due to the pronounced
restriction of the gamma phase. As a result of the relatively low
rate of diffusion, both in the alpha- and in the gamma crystal,
segregation which has occurred can only be corrected with
difficulty. As it is hardly possible to achieve honogeneous
distribution of the P, an attempt is made to keep the P content very
low and accordingly, with high grade steels, to strive for an upper
limit of 0.03-0.05%. The extent of segregation cannot be
determined with certainty. Even in the smallest quantities, P
increases proneness to temper embrittlement. P embrittlement
increases with the rise in C content, with rising hardening
temperature, with grain size and with decrease of the ratio of
reduction by forging. Embrittlement occurs as cold shortness and
sensitivity to impact stress (tendency to brittle fracture). In low alloy
structural steels with C contents of about 0.1 %, P increases
strength and corrosion resistance to atmospheric effects. Cu
assists the improvement in corrosion resistance (rust resistant
steels).
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In austenitic Cr-Ni steels, additions of P can cause increases in


yield point and achieve precipitation effects.

21. Pb Melting point 327.4 °C Lead


Is added to free-cutting steels in contents of about 0.2-0.5% as, by
virtue of its extremely fine suspension-like distribution, formation of
shorter chips and clean faces of cut are achieved, thus improving
mechinability. The lead contents stated hardly affect the
mechanical properties of the steels at all.

22. S Melting point 118 "C . Sulfur


Produces the most pronounced segregation of all steel
accompanying elements. Iron sulfide, leads to red shortness or hot
shortness, as the low melting point sulfide eutectics surround the
grains in reticular fashion, so that only slight cohesion of the latter
occurs and during hot forming the grain boundaries tend to break
down. This is further increased by the action of oxygen. As sulfur
possesses a considerable affinity for manganese, it is combined in
the form of Mn sulfide, as this is the least dangerous of all existing
inclusions, being present distributed in point form in the steel.
Toughness in transverse direction is reduced significantly by S. S
is added intentionally to steels for automatic machining up to 0.4%,
as the friction on the tool cutting edge reduced by the lubrication
action permits increased life between work-piece and tool. In
addition, short chips occur when free-cutting steels are machined.
S increases susceptibility to welding cracks.

23. Sb Melting point 630 "C


Antimony
A steel parasite, as it generally significantly reduces toughness
properties; restricts the gamma phase.

24. Se .. Melting point 217 °C - Selenium


Used in free-cutting steels in a similar way to S, it being intended ti
improve machinability even more effectively. In corrosion resistant
steels it reduces resistance to a lesser degree than S.
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25. Si Melting point 1414 °C • Silicon


Si is contained in all steel in the same way as manganese, as Iron
ore incorporate a quantity of it according to their composition. In
steel production itself, silicon is absorbed into the melt from the
refractor furnace linings. But only those steels are called silicon
steels which have an Si content of > 0.40%. Si is not a metal, but a
metalloid as are also for example, phosphorus and sulfur. Si
deoxidizes. It promotes graphitic precipitation and restricts the
gamma phase significantly, increase; strength and wear resistance
(Si-Mn heat treatable steels); significant increase in the elastic
limit, thus useful alloying element in spring steels It significantly
increases scale resistance, so that heat resisting steel are alloyed
with it. The possible content is limited however on account of its
impairing hot and cold formability. With 12% Si, acid resistance
achieved to a large extent, but such grades can only be produced
a very hard, brittle steel castings which can be machined only by
grinding
On account of significant reduction of electrical conductivity,
coercive field intensity and low wattage loss, Si is used in steels for
electrics quality sheet.

26. Sn Melting point 231.8 °C Tin


Steel parasite as it concentrates like Cu under the scale film,
penetrates along the grain boundaries and causes cracking and
solder brittleness Sn tends towards pronounced segregation and
restricts the gamma phase.

27. Ti Melting point 1727 °C Titanium


On account of its very strong affinity for oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur
and carbon, has a pronounced deoxidizing, pronounced de-
nitriding, sulfide bonding and pronounced carbide forming action.
Used widely in stainless steels as carbide former for stabilization
against inter-crystalline corrosion Also possesses grain refining
properties. Ti restricts the gamma phase very pronouncedly. In
high concentration, it leads to precipitation processes and is added
to permanent magnet alloys on account of achieving high coercive
field intensity. Ti increases creep rupture strength through
formation of special nitrides. Finally, Ti tends pronouncedly to
segregation and banding.
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28. V Melting point 1726 °C Vanadium


Refines the primary grain and thus the casting structure.
Pronounced carbide former, thus providing increase in wear
resistance, edge holding quality and high temperature strength. It
is used therefore primarily as additional alloying element in high
speed, hot forming and creep resistance steels. Significant
improvement in retention of temper, reduction of overheating
sensitivity. As V refines the grain and inhibits air hardening as a
result of carbide formation, it promotes the weldability of heat
treatable steels. Increase in resistance to compressed hydrogen or
account of carbide formation. V restricts the gamma phase and
shifts the Curie point at elevated temperatures.

29. W Melting point 3380 "C Tungsten


Wolfram is a very pronounced carbide former (its carbides are very
hard and restricts the gamma phase. It improves toughness and
prevents grain growth. W increases high temperature strength and
retention of temper as well as wear resistance at high
temperatures (red heat) and thus cutting ability. It is therefore
alloyed primarily to high speed and hot forming tool steels, as well
as creep-resistant steel types and to ultra-hard steels. Significant
increase in coercive field intensity, thus alloying element of
permanent magnet steel alloys. W impairs scaling resistance Its
high specific gravity is particular noticeable in high W-alloy high
speed and hot forming tool steels.

30. zr Melting point 1860 °C Zirconium


Carbide former: metallurgical use as alloying element for de-
oxidation de-nitriding and de-sulfurization, as it leaves minimal de-
oxidation products behind. Additions or Zr to fully deoxidized
sulfur-bearing free-cutting steels have a favorable effect on sulfide
formation and thus prevention of red shortness. It increases the life
of heating conductor materials and produces restriction of the
gamma phase.

31. Al Melting point 658 °C Aluminum


This is the most powerful, very frequently used deoxidizing and
also de-triding agent. As a result, it also has an extremely
favorable effect on resistance to ageing. Small additions assist
fine-grained structure. As Al forms very hard nitndos with nitrogen,
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it is usually an alloying element in nitriding steels. It increases


scaling resistance and is therefore frequently added to alloy ferritic
heat resistant steels. With unalloyed carbon' steels,' scaling
resistance can be promoted by calorizing (introduction of
aluminum into the surface). Al very sharply restricts the gamma
phase.
On account of the very pronounced increase in coercive field
intensity, Al is an alloying element in iron-nickel-cobalt-aluminum
permanent magnet alloys.
32. As Melting point 817 °C under pr. -
Arsenic
Also restricts the gamma phase and is a steel parasite, as it
possesses a strong tendency to segregation, in a similar way to
phosphorus. Elimi- nation of segregation due to differential
annealing is however even more difficult than is the case with
phosphorus. In addition, it increases temper brittleness, sharply
reduces toughness and impairs weldability.
33. B Melting point 2300 °C Boron
As boron possesses a high cross section for neutron absorption, it
is used to alloy steels to controllers and shields of atomic energy
plants. Austenic 18/8 Cr Ni steels can be raised to increased yield
point and strength with boron by means of precipitation hardening,
but corrosion resistance is reduced in the process Precipitation
induced by boron Increases the strength properties of nigh
temperature Austenic steel types in the high temperature range. In
structural steels, this element improves through hardening and
thus causes an increase in core strength in case-hardening steels.
A reduction in weldability must be expected in boron alloyed
steels.
34. Be Melting point 1280 °C Beryllium
Copper beryllium alloys are used to make clock springs, which are
hardly magnetizable and withstand a much higher number of load
cycles than steel springs. Ni-Be alloys are very hard and corrosion
resistant. Used in surgical instruments. Very pronounced
restriction of the gamma phase. With Be it is possible to carry out
precipitation hardening, but toughness is reduced in the process.
Pronouncedly deoxidizing, considerable affinity
for sulfur.
35. C Melting point 3540 °C Carbon
Carbon is the most important and influential alloying element in
steel. In addition to carbon however, any unalloyed steel will
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contain silicon, manganese, phosphorus and sulfur, which occur


unintentionally during manufacture. The addition of further alloying
elements to achieve special effects and intentional increase in the
manganese and silicon contents result in alloy steel. With
increasing C content, the strength and hardenability of the steel
increase, but its ductility, forge ability, weldability and machinability
(using cutting machine tools) are reduced. Corrosion resistance to
water, acids and hot gases are practically unaffected by the
carbon.

36. Ca Melting point 850 °C Calcium


Used together with Si in the form of silica-calcium for de-oxidation.
Ca increases scaling resistance of heating conductor materials.

37. Ce Melting point 775 °C Cerium


Has a purifying action, as it deoxidizes pronouncedly and
promotes de-sulfurization. It is frequently used in conjunction with
lanthanum, neodymium, praseocymium and other rare earth
metals as a composite metal. In high alloy steels, to some extent
promotes hot forming properties and improves scale resistance in
heat resisting steels. Fe-Ce alloys with approximately 70% Ce are
pyrophonc (flint stones). Addition to spheroidal graphite cast iron.

38. Co Melting point 1492 °C Cobalt


Co does not form any carbides, it inhibits grain growth at elevated
temperatures and pronouncedly improves retention of temper and
high temperature strength. Therefore, used frequently as alloying
element in high speed steels, hot forming tool steels, creep-
resistant and high temperature materials. Promotes graphite
formation. In large quantities, increases remanence, coercive field
intensity and thermal conductivity.
Therefore, alloying base for super high quality permanent magnet
steels and alloys. Under the influence of neutral irradiation, the
pronouncedly radioactive isotope^, Co is formed, for which reason
Co is undesirable in steels for atomic reactors.

39. Cr Melting point 1920 °C Chromium


Cr renders steels oil and air-harden able. By reduction of the
critical rate of cooling necessary for martensite formation, it
increases hardenability, thus improving its susceptibility to
hardening and tempering. Notch toughness is reduced however,
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but ductility suffers only very slightly. Weldability decrease;; in pure


chromium steels with increasing Cr content.
The tensile strength of the steel increases by 80-100 N/mm2 per 1
% Cr.
Cr is a carbide former. Its carbides increase the edge-holding
quality and wear resistance.
High temperature strength and high-pressure hydrogenation
properties are promoted by chromium. Whilst increasing Cr
contents improve scaling resistance, a minimum content of about
13%.chromium is necessary for corrosion resistance of steels; this
must be dissolved in the matrix. The element restricts the gamma
phase and thus extends the ferrite range. It does however stabilize
the austenite in austenitic Cr-Mn and Cr-Ni steels. Thermal and
electrical conductivity are reduced. Thermal expansion is reduced
(alloys for glass sealing). With simultaneously increased carbon
content, Cr contents up to 3% increase remanence and coercive
field intensity.

40. Cu Melting point 1084 °C Copper


Copper is added to very few steel alloys, as it concentrates under
the layer of scale and through penetrating into the grain boundary,
causes high surface sensitivity in hot forming processes, for which
reason it is regarded as a steel parasite. The yield point and the
yield point/strength ratio are increased. Contents above 0.30% can
cause precipitation hardening. Hardenability is improved.
Weldability is not affected by copper. In alloy and low alloy steels,
Cu produces significant improvement in weathering resistance. In
acid resistant high alloy steels, a Cu content above 1 % produces
improvement in resistance to hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid.

41. H Melting point -262 °C Hydrogen


is a steel parasite because it causes embrittlement through
reduction of ductility and necking without increasing yield point and
tensile strength. It is the cause of undesirable flaking and promotes
the occurrence of ghost lines. Atomic hydrogen occurring during
pickling penetrates the steel, forming pitting. Moist hydrogen de-
carbonizes at elevated temperatures.

42. Mg - Melting point 657 °C Magnesium


Promotes spheroidal graphite formation in cast iron.
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43. Mn . Melting point 1221 °C Manganese


Mn deoxidizes. It compounds with sulfur to form Mn sulfide, thus
reducing the undesirable effect of the iron sulfide. This is of
particular importance in free-cutting steel; it reduces the risk of red
shortness. Mn very pronouncedly reduces the critical cooling rate,
thus increasing hardenability. Yield point and strength are
increased by addition of Mn and, in addition, Mn favorably affects
forge ability and weldability and pronouncedly increases hardness
penetration depth. Contents > 4% also lead with slow cooling to
formation of brittle Martensitic structure,
so that the alloying range is hardly used. Steels with Mn contents >
12% are austenitic if the C content is also high, because Mn
considerably extends the gamma phase. Such steels are prone to
very high degree of strain hardening where the surface is
subjected to impact stress, whilst the core remains tough. For this
reason, they are highly resistant to wear under the influence of
impact. Steels with Mn contents of 2:18% remain unmagnetizable
even after relatively pronounced cold forming and are used as
special steels as well as steels remaining tough at subzero
temperatures which are subjected to low temperature stress. The
coefficient of thermal expansion increases as a result of Mn, whilst
thermal and electrical conductivity are reduced.

44. Mo Melting point 2622 °C Molybdenum


Mo is usually alloyed together with other elements. Reducing the
critical cooling rate improves hardenability. Mo significantly
reduces temper brittleness, for example in the case of CrNi and
Mn steels, promotes fine grain formation and also favorably affects
weldability. Increase in yield point and strength. With increased Mo
content, forgeability is reduced. Pronounced carbide former;
cutting properties with high speed steel are improved thereby. It
belongs to the elements which increase corrosion resistance and
is therefore used frequently with high alloy Cr
steels and with austenitic CrNi steels. High Mo contents reduce
susceptibility to pitting Very severe restriction of the gamma phase.
Increased high temperature strength, scaling resistance is reduced

45. N Melting point-210 °C Nitrogen


This element can occur both as a steel parasite and as an alloying
element. Parasitic because of the reduction in toughness through
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precipitation processes, causing susceptibility to ageing and blue


brittleness (deformation in the blue heat range of 300-350 °C) and
on account of the possibility of initiation of inter-crystalline stress
cracks in unalloyed and low alloy steels. As an alloying element, N
extends the gamma phase and stabilizes the austenitic structure.
In austenitic steels increases strength and above all the yield point
plus mechanical properties in heat. As a result of nitride formation
during nitriding, N permits high surface hardness to be achieved
(nitriding).

46. Nb/Cb Melting point 2468 °C


Niobium/Columbium
47. Ta Melting point 3030 "C Tantalum
These elements occur almost exclusively together and are very
difficult to separate from one another, so that they are usually used
together. Very pronounced carbide formers, thus alloyed
particularly as stabilizers
of chemical resistant steels. Both elements are ferrite formers and
thus reduce the gamma phase. On account of the increase in high
temperature strength and creep rupture strength due to Nb, it is
frequently alloyed to nigh-temperature austenitic boiler steels. Ta
has a neutron high ab- sorption cross-section; only low-Ta Nb is
considered for use for reactor steels.

48. Ni Melting point 1453 "C Nickel


With structural steels produces significant increase in notch
toughness, even in the low temperature range, and is therefore
alloyed for increasing toughness in case-hardening, heat-treatable
and subzero toughness steels. All transformation points (A< - A4)
are lowered by Ni; it is not a carbide former. As result of
pronounced extension of the gamma phase, Ni in contents of > 7%
imparts austenitic structure to chemically resistant steels down to
well below room temperature. Ni on its own only makes the steel
rust resistant, even in high percentages, but in austenitic Cr Ni
steels results in resistance to the effect of reducing chemicals.
Resistance of these steels in oxidizing substances is achieved by
means of Cr. At temperatures above 600 °C, austenitic steels have
greater high temperature strength, as their re-crystallization
temperature is high. They are practically un-magnetizable.
Thermal and electrical conductivity are significantly reduced. High
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Ni contents in precisely defined alloying ranges lead to physical


steels with certain physical properties, low thermal expansion
(Invar types).

49. 0 Melting point-218.7 °C Oxygen


Steel parasite; important for its specific effect are nature and
composition of its compounds in steel as well as form and
distribution. The mechanical properties, particularly notch
toughness, especially in transverse direction, are reduced, whilst
the tendency to ageing brittleness, red shortness, fibrous fracture
and fish-scale fracture is increased.

50. P Melting point 44 °C Phosphorus


Is usually regarded as a steel parasite, as P produces pronounced
primary segregation on solidification of the melt and the possibility
of secondary segregation in solid state due to the pronounced
restriction of the gamma phase. As a result of the relatively low
rate of diffusion, both in the alpha- and in the gamma crystal,
segregation which has occurred can only be corrected with
difficulty. As it is hardly possible to achieve honogeneous
distribution of the P, an attempt is made to keep the P content very
low and accordingly, with high grade steels, to strive for an upper
limit of 0.03-0.05%. The extent of segregation cannot be
determined with certainty. Even in the smallest quantities, P
increases proneness to temper embrittlement. P embrittlement
increases with the rise in C content, with rising hardening
temperature, with grain size and with decrease of the ratio of
reduction by forging. Embrittlement occurs as cold shortness and
sensitivity to impact stress (tendency to brittle fracture). In low alloy
structural steels with C contents of about 0.1 %, P increases
strength and corrosion resistance to atmospheric effects. Cu
assists the improvement in corrosion resistance (rust resistant
steels).
In austenitic Cr-Ni steels, additions of P can cause increases in
yield point and achieve precipitation effects.

51. Pb Melting point 327.4 °C Lead


Is added to free-cutting steels in contents of about 0.2-0.5% as, by
virtue of its extremely fine suspension-like distribution, formation of
shorter chips and clean faces of cut are achieved, thus improving
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mechinability. The lead contents stated hardly affect the


mechanical properties of the steels at all.

52. S Melting point 118 "C . Sulfur


Produces the most pronounced segregation of all steel
accompanying elements. Iron sulfide, leads to red shortness or hot
shortness, as the low melting point sulfide eutectics surround the
grains in reticular fashion, so that only slight cohesion of the latter
occurs and during hot forming the grain boundaries tend to break
down. This is further increased by the action of oxygen. As sulfur
possesses a considerable affinity for manganese, it is combined in
the form of Mn sulfide, as this is the least dangerous of all existing
inclusions, being present distributed in point form in the steel.
Toughness in transverse direction is reduced significantly by S. S
is added intentionally to steels for automatic machining up to 0.4%,
as the friction on the tool cutting edge reduced by the lubrication
action permits increased life between work-piece and tool. In
addition, short chips occur when free-cutting steels are machined.
S increases susceptibility to welding cracks.

53. Sb Melting point 630 "C


Antimony
A steel parasite, as it generally significantly reduces toughness
properties; restricts the gamma phase.

54. Se .. Melting point 217 °C - Selenium


Used in free-cutting steels in a similar way to S, it being intended ti
improve machinability even more effectively. In corrosion resistant
steels it reduces resistance to a lesser degree than S.

55. Si Melting point 1414 °C • Silicon


Si is contained in all steel in the same way as manganese, as Iron
ore incorporate a quantity of it according to their composition. In
steel production itself, silicon is absorbed into the melt from the
refractor furnace linings. But only those steels are called silicon
steels which have an Si content of > 0.40%. Si is not a metal, but a
metalloid as are also for example, phosphorus and sulfur. Si
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deoxidizes. It promotes graphitic precipitation and restricts the


gamma phase significantly, increase; strength and wear resistance
(Si-Mn heat treatable steels); significant increase in the elastic
limit, thus useful alloying element in spring steels It significantly
increases scale resistance, so that heat resisting steel are alloyed
with it. The possible content is limited however on account of its
impairing hot and cold formability. With 12% Si, acid resistance
achieved to a large extent, but such grades can only be produced
a very hard, brittle steel castings which can be machined only by
grinding
On account of significant reduction of electrical conductivity,
coercive field intensity and low wattage loss, Si is used in steels for
electrics quality sheet.

56. Sn Melting point 231.8 °C Tin


Steel parasite as it concentrates like Cu under the scale film,
penetrates along the grain boundaries and causes cracking and
solder brittleness Sn tends towards pronounced segregation and
restricts the gamma phase.

57. Ti Melting point 1727 °C Titanium


On account of its very strong affinity for oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur
and carbon, has a pronounced deoxidizing, pronounced de-
nitriding, sulfide bonding and pronounced carbide forming action.
Used widely in stainless steels as carbide former for stabilization
against inter-crystalline corrosion Also possesses grain refining
properties. Ti restricts the gamma phase very pronouncedly. In
high concentration, it leads to precipitation processes and is added
to permanent magnet alloys on account of achieving high coercive
field intensity. Ti increases creep rupture strength through
formation of special nitrides. Finally, Ti tends pronouncedly to
segregation and banding.

58. V Melting point 1726 °C Vanadium


Refines the primary grain and thus the casting structure.
Pronounced carbide former, thus providing increase in wear
resistance, edge holding quality and high temperature strength. It
is used therefore primarily as additional alloying element in high
speed, hot forming and creep resistance steels. Significant
improvement in retention of temper, reduction of overheating
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sensitivity. As V refines the grain and inhibits air hardening as a


result of carbide formation, it promotes the weldability of heat
treatable steels. Increase in resistance to compressed hydrogen or
account of carbide formation. V restricts the gamma phase and
shifts the Curie point at elevated temperatures.

59. W Melting point 3380 "C Tungsten


Wolfram is a very pronounced carbide former (its carbides are very
hard and restricts the gamma phase. It improves toughness and
prevents grain growth. W increases high temperature strength and
retention of temper as well as wear resistance at high
temperatures (red heat) and thus cutting ability. It is therefore
alloyed primarily to high speed and hot forming tool steels, as well
as creep-resistant steel types and to ultra-hard steels. Significant
increase in coercive field intensity, thus alloying element of
permanent magnet steel alloys. W impairs scaling resistance Its
high specific gravity is particular noticeable in high W-alloy high
speed and hot forming tool steels.

60. zr Melting point 1860 °C Zirconium


Carbide former: metallurgical use as alloying element for de-
oxidation de-nitriding and de-sulfurization, as it leaves minimal de-
oxidation products behind. Additions or Zr to fully deoxidized
sulfur-bearing free-cutting steels have a favorable effect on sulfide
formation and thus prevention of red shortness. It increases the life
of heating conductor materials and produces restriction of the
gamma phase.

Explanation to steel names formed by chemical composition


according to DIN EN 10027
The preceding number indicates the average carbon content x
100, subsequently followed by the added alloy-elements in short
designation. The
figure immediately following, indicates the average content of alloy
added as stated on the under-mentioned factor.
Factor for Co, Cr, Mn, Ni,Si,W =x4
Factor for Al, Cu, Mo, Ti, V, Nb, Ta, Be, Pb, Zr = x 10
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Factor for N, P, S, Ce = x 100


Factor for B = x 1000
Provided that Al 0.1%, Cud.25%, Mn 1.0%, Si 0.5% and Ti 0.1%
are not exceeded, the steel concerned is unalloyed. Low alloy
steels contain as
a rule not more than 5% of alloy elements, while high alloy steels
contain them in a proportion higher than 5%.
With alloy contents 5% upwards the multiplication falls away and
an X is put in front of the carbon content. :

Explanation to steel names formed by chemical composition


according to DIN EN 10027
The preceding number indicates the average carbon content x
100, subsequently followed by the added alloy-elements in short
designation. The
figure immediately following, indicates the average content of alloy
added as stated on the under-mentioned factor.
Factor for Co, Cr, Mn, Ni,Si,W =x4
Factor for Al, Cu, Mo, Ti, V, Nb, Ta, Be, Pb, Zr = x 10
Factor for N, P, S, Ce = x 100
Factor for B = x 1000
Provided that Al 0.1%, Cud.25%, Mn 1.0%, Si 0.5% and Ti 0.1%
are not exceeded, the steel concerned is unalloyed. Low alloy
steels contain as
a rule not more than 5% of alloy elements, while high alloy steels
contain them in a proportion higher than 5%.
With alloy contents 5% upwards the multiplication falls away and
an X is put in front of the carbon content. :
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The chemical composition of steel


Steel is basically an alloy of iron and carbon , with carbon content
ranging up to about 1.5% ( in cast irons , the amount of carbon present
can vary between about 2% and about 4% by weight ) .However , steel
typically contains small amounts of other elements. Sometimes they find
their way into the steel during the extraction and refining processes.
The most common elements present in steels are listed below…

Carbon
This is usually present in solid solution or as carbides. Free carbon is not
normally found in steels ( but is often present as graphite in cast irons and
pig irons )
The terms FERRITE ( α ) and AUSTENITE ( γ ) refer to the solid
solutions of carbon in the body – centered and face – centered cubic
forms of iron respectively the solubility of carbon in austenite is much
greater than in ferrite . if austenite is cooled rapidly the precipitation of
carbide as it transforms to ferrite can be prevented . the excess carbon in
the ferrite results in a distortion of the body – centered cubic structure
which produces a phase termed MARTENSITE.
By suitable alloying additions , austenite can be stabilized at room
temperature ( this forms the basis of the austenitic stainless steels ) in the
absence of alloying elements the carbide formed in steels is
CEMENTITE Fe3c , the form of which can vary greatly depending on the
amount of carbon present and the heat treatment received by the steel
(characteristic structures are referred to as : pearlitic , bainitic ,
spheroidised , etc ).
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Depending on the chemical composition of the steel and the heat


treatment , the relative proportions of the various phases mentioned can
be varied to produce a wide range of mechanical properties.
In the presence of certain alloying elements carbides other than fe3c may
be formed … eg carbides of titanium , molybdenum , niobium , tungsten ,
vanadium and chromium.
Typical carbon levels are as follows:-

Wrought iron 0.05 % max.


Mild steel 0.25 % max.
Engineering steels 1.5 % max.
High speed tool steel 0.3-0.8 %
Carbon chrome steels 2.0
Stainless (austenitic ) 0.1 % max.
Stainless (cutlery) 0.4
Stainless (razar) 0.6 to 1.0 %
Manganese steel 1.1-1.4 %
Cast iron 2.2-4.5 %
Malleable iron 2.2 – 3.5 %

Silicon
Can be added to steel for deoxidation purposes , but in certain cases it is
added as an alloying element to obtain specific properties .
Silicon addition will improve the tensile strength of iron and amounts as
high as 4% are added to certain steels to give increased electrical
resistivity .
Adding 0.5% - 4% silicon to stainless steels increases the resistance to
oxidation at high temperatures.
Silicon is present in steels mainly in solid solution. Small amount may
occur in inclusions but there are not plentiful (except in wrought
irons,where significant amounts of entrapped slag are present ).
Material type Amount of silicon %
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Pig irons / cast irons Up to 3.5


Low alloy steels Up to 0.35
Stainless steels Up to 0.8
Silica –manganese spring 2.0
steels
Silica –chrome valve steels 3.5
Transformer irons 4.0

MANGANESE
Is nearly always present in ferrous materials. It is added to steel as an
alloying element and also as a deoxidizing agent. Manganese has an
affinity for sulphur , forming manganese sulfide , thus preventing the
formation of an inter-crystalline film of brittle , low melting-point iron
sulfide which would significantly spoil the properties of the steel.
In plain and low-alloy steels it is usually less than 1%

Material type Amount of manganese %


Pig irons / cast irons Up to 1.5
Tool steels Up to 0.5
Silica-manganese steels 0.7-1.0
Manganese –molybdenum 1.2-1.7
steels
Nickel-chrome stainless Up to 2.0
steels
Austenitic manganese steel 12-14
Heat resisting stainless steel 6-9
The last two special steels have exceptionally large contents of
manganese for metallurgical reasons.
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Sulfur
Is almost always present in steel as an undesirable residual impurity
rather than as an intentional addition. In general , sulfur has a detrimental
effect on the steels properties and is kept to levels less than 0.035%.
tighter limits than this may be imposed, however (eg steels for aircraft
construction are 0.01 % max. ) .
In the absence of manganese , the sulfur combines with the iron to give
an embrittlement effect on the steel in both the hot and the cold condition
. at room temperature iron sulfide is very brittle and at steel hot working
temperatures it is molten , allowing inter granular fissures to open up
inside the steel.
Manganese sulfide is much more plastic than iron sulfide and it forms as
globules in the steel rather than around the grains.

Material type Amount of sulfur %


Cast irons 0.35 max.
Carbon steels 0.05 max.
Alloy steels 0.03 max.
Special steels 0.01 max.
Free-machining steels 0.15 to 0.6

Phosphorus
Is generally present as a lift-over impurity from iron making.
It is undesirable in that it is prone to segregation (which is then difficult
to remove by heat treatment or working ) and tends t lead to stratified
macrostructures with poor directional properties.
It is usually present in solid solution but might form phosphides.
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Material type Amount of phosphorus %


Cast irons 0. 5 max.
Special "fluid" cast iron Up to 2.0
General steels 0.035 max.
Constructional steels Up to 0.1 max.
Aircraft steels 0.015 max.

Chromium
Is added as an alloying element , often in conjunction with other
elements, to give improved mechanical and metallurgical properties eg
hardness , magnetic characteristics , wear – and corrosion resistance.
It exists in steels in solid solution and also as carbides .

Material type Amount of chromium %


Pig iron and carbon steels Less than 0.1
Low alloy chrome steel 0.2 to 1.2
Low alloy nickel-chrome 0.5 to 1.5
steel
Low alloy chrome- 1.0
vanadium steel
Chrome – molybdenum 1.0 to 5.0
steels
Ball bearing steels 1.5
High speed tool steels 3.0 to 5.5
Silica-chrome valve steels 9.0
Stainless steels 12 to 20
Duplex. & super alloy More than 22
Heat-resisting steels 18 to 30

Molybdenum
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Is added to many steels for improved mechanical properties, resistance to


certain corrosive environments or modification to the steels response to
certain heat treatment procedures. Its most extensive use is in low alloy
steels where it has three main effects.
• It increases hardenability , allowing thicker sections to be heat
treated and\or less severe quench rates;
• It increases resistance to tempering, allowing the use of the steel to
higher temperatures before softening occurs;
• It greatly reduces " temper brittleness " (especially in the nickel
chrome steels) when cooling after tempering.
Austenitic stainless steels sometimes have up to 4% molybdenum added
to improve resistance to acidic or chloride corrosion and their low carbon
copper-bearing steels have molybdenum added to improve their
resistance to atmospheric corrosion.
Molybdenum is often an important constituent of steels used at high
temperature where creep may be a problem ( steels of the molybdenum-
vanadium and chromium-molybdenum –vanadium type are often used
here ).
It is a carbide forming element but it also dissolves in the iron matrix.,
roughly equal amounts of molybdenum occur in each form.

Material type Amount of


molybdenum %
Carbon-molybdenum spring 0.4 to0.7
steel
Chrome-nickel-molybdenum 0.5
spring steel
Chromium-vanadium steels 0.2 to 1.2
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Nickel – molybdenum steel 0.15 to 0.35


Creep resistance steel 0.4 to 1.2
Austenitic stainless steel 2.0 to 4.0
High speed tool steels 6.0

Nickel
Is used extensively as an alloying addition. It promotes hardenability in
the low alloy steels and in particular it improves toughness .
The nickel – chromium, nickel-molybdenum, chromium-nickel-
molybdenum steels of the low alloy type (containing 0.2 to 0.4 % carbon
) find many application as forgings , stampings , gears , crank shafts ,
rotors, etc…
Nickel levels of 2 to 5% are used for case hardening where a tough metal
core is needed as well as a wear resisting surface.
nickel tends to stabilized the high – temperature form of iron , austenite ,
and is added to stainless steels up to about 20% for this purpose.
It rarely enters the carbides and is usually found dissolved in the iron.

Material type Amount of nickel %


Plain nickel steels 0.5 to 5.0
Low alloy steels 1.5 to 5.0
Austenitic stainless 3 to 35
Alnico magnet steel 11 to 32
Cryogenic steel 9

Copper
This element can have a serious deleterious effect on the hot working of
steel unlees nickel is also present … copper is more resistant to oxidation
than iron and most other alloying elements which can lead to a copper-
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rich layer forming on the steel surface underneath the scale; this layer can
melt at hot working temperatures causing surface cracking (called "red
hot shrtness" and accentuated by some elements such as tin and antimony
).
On the other hand, a useful precipitation-hardening effect can be obtained
with copper in steel , producing an increase in strength and hardness
although with a corresponding decrease in ductility also copper increases
resistance to atmospheric corrosion.
Copper is usually present in most steels as a residual element , being
introduced with the scrap. It does not form carbides and is nearly always
present as a solid solution in the matrix.

Material type Amount of copper %


Residual copper in steel Up to 0.35
Precipitation hardening 2 to 4
stainless
"corten" plain-carbon steel 0.5
High strength low alloy Up to 0.75
steels

Niobium ( columbium )
This is sometimes used for grain refinement , accomplished by a finely
dispersed precipitation of Fe3nb2 without the undesirable oxide inclusions
which are obtained with other grain refiners which are also strong
deoxidizers . in controlled rolled steels , the finishing temperature is
carefully controlled to achieve the right amount and type of precipitate to
ensure a fine grain size counteracting softening.
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An addition of 25 times the carbon content of niobium improves the creep


strength of low carbon steels.
Steels with high hardenability may air-harden on cooling after welding.
The resulting transformation may result in cracking in the heat affected
zone of the parent plate . niobium additions to tie up the carbon reduce
hardenability and can avoid this tendency to cracking.
Intergranular corrosion (weld decay) which occur in stainless steels

Titanium
Because of its strong affinities , titanium is found in steels in the form of
carbides , carbonitrides and carbosulfides ( as well as within the
inclusions ) .

Material type Amount of titanium %


Stabilized stainless steels 5*carbon content min.
Maraging steels 0.15 to 1.5% titanium
Nimonic alloys 0.2 to 3

Vanadium
This strong carbide former tends to promote secondary hardening and
grain refinement but it also goes into solution in low alloy steels
producing a stronger tougher metal matrix.
Medium carbon steels containing manganese or chromium together with
0.1 to 0.15% vanadium are used for forgings requiring a good
combination of strength and toughness.
Vanadium improve wear resistance in the low alloy steels and aids creep
resistance in the chromium –molybdenum steels .
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Material type Amount of vanadium %


Manganese vanadium forging 0.15
steels
Chrome-vanadium spring steel 0.1 to 0.2
Cast bearing steel 0.15
Manganese vanadium tool 0.2 to 0.5
steels
Low alloy tool steel 0.1 to 0.2
Chisel steels 0.1 to 0.3
Die steels 0.3 to 1.0
High speed tool steels 0.6 to 4.0
Finishing tool steels 0.3
Creep resisting steels 0.3
Martensitic stainless steels 0.2

Aluminum

Is added to steel in a very small amounts as deoxidizer.


It is a grain refiner for improved toughness.

Dissolved gases

Hydrogen (H2) , oxygen ( O2 ) and nitrogen (N2) all dissolve in molten


steel and can embrittle steel if not removed
Steel refining processes are designed to eliminate as much of these gases
as possible .
Special fluxes or shielding gases are used to prevent their solution in the
weld metal
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Characteristic of alloying elements

Abstract:
Very important elements for alloy steels are manganese,
nickel, chromium, molybdenum, vanadium, tungsten,
silicon, copper, cobalt and boron. All commercial steels
contain 0,3-0,8% manganese, to reduce oxides and to
counteract the harmful influence of iron sulphide. There is
a tendency nowadays to increase the manganese content
and reduce the carbon content in order to get a steel with
an equal tensile strength but improved ductility. Nickel
and manganese are very similar in behaviour and both
lower the eutectoid temperature. Nickel steels are noted
for their strength, ductility and toughness, while
chromium steels are characterized by their hardness and
resistance to wear. Chromium can dissolve in either
alpha- or gama-iron, but, in the presence of carbon, the
carbides formed are cementite (FeCr)3C in which
chromium may rise to more than 15%; chromium
carbides (CrFe)3C2 (CrFe)7C3 (CrFe)4C, in which
chromium may be replaced by a few per cent, by a
maximum of 55% and by 25% respectively. The chrome
steels are used wherever extreme hardness is required,
such as in dies, ball bearings, plates for safes, rolls, files
and tools. The combination of nickel and chromium
produces steels having all these properties, some
intensified, without the disadvantages associated with the
simple alloys. Molybdenum dissolves in both alpha- or
gama-iron and in the presence of carbon forms complex
carbides (FeMo)6C, Fe21Mo2C6, Mo2C. Molybdenum is
also a constituent in some high-speed steels, magnet
alloys, heat-resisting and corrosion-resisting steels.

Manganese

All commercial steels contain 0,3-0,8% manganese, to


reduce oxides and to counteract the harmful influence of
iron sulfide. Any manganese in excess of these
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requirements partially dissolves in the iron and partly


form Mn3C which occurs with the Fe3C. There is a
tendency nowadays to increase the manganese content
and reduce the carbon content in order to get a steel with
an equal tensile strength but improved ductility

If the manganese is increased above 1,8% the steel tends


to become airhardened, with resultant impairing of the
ductility. Up to this quantity, manganese has a beneficial
effect on the mechanical properties of oil hardened and
tempered 0,4% carbon steel. The manganese content is
also increased in certain alloy steels, with a reduction or
elimination of expensive nickel, in order to reduce costs.
Steels with 0,3-0,4% carbon, 1,3-1,6% manganese and
0,3% molybdenum have replaced 3% nickel steel for
some purposes.

Non-shrinking tool steel contains up to 2% manganese,


with 0,8-0,9% carbon. Steels with 5 to 12% manganese
are martensitic after slow cooling and have little
commercial importance.

Hadfield's manganese steel contains 12 to 14% of


manganese and 1,0% of carbon. It is characterized by a
great resistance to wear and is therefore used for railway
points, rock drills and stone crushers. Austenite is
completely retained by quenching the steel from 1000°C,
in which soft condition it is used, but abrasion raises the
hardness of the surface layer from 200 to 600 VPN (with
no magnetic change), while the underlying material
remains rough. Annealing embrittles the steel by the
formation of carbides at the grain boundaries. Nickel is
added to electrodes for welding manganese steel and 2%
Mo sometimes added, with a prior carbide dispersion
treatment at 600°C, to minimize initial distortion and
spreading.
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Nickel

Nickel and manganese are very similar in behavior and


both lower the eutectoid temperature. This change point
on heating is lowered progressively with increase of nickel
(approximately 10°C for 1% of nickel), but the lowering of
the change on cooling is greater and irregular. The
temperature of this change (Ar1) is plotted for different
nickel contents for 0,2% carbon steels in Fig. 1, and it will
be seen that the curve takes a sudden plunge round about
8% nickel. A steel with 12% nickel begins to transform
below 300°C on cooling, but on reheating the reverse
change does not occur until about 650°C. Such steels are
said to exhibit pronounced lag or hysteresis and are called
irreversible steels. This characteristic is made use of in
maraging steels and 9% Ni cryogenic steel. The addition
of nickel acts similarly to increasing the rate of cooling of
a carbon steel. Thus with a constant rate of cooling the 5-
8% nickel steels become troostitic; at 8-10% nickel,
where the sudden drop appears, the structure is
martensitic, while above 24% nickel the critical point is
depressed below room temperature and austenite
remains. The lines of demarcation are not so sharp as
indicated by Fig. 1, but a gradual transition occurs from
one constituent to another.
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Figure 1. Effect of nickel on change points and mechanical


properties of 0,2% carbon steels cooled at a constant rate

The mechanical properties change accordingly as shown in


the lower part of Fig. 1. Steels with 0,5% nickel are
similar to carbon steel, but are stronger, on account of the
finer pearlite formed and the presence of nickel in solution
in the ferrite. When 10% nickel is exceeded the steels
have a high tensile strength, great hardness, but are
brittle, as shown by the Izod and elongation curves. When
the nickel is sufficient to produce austenite the steels
become non-magnetic, ductile, tough and workable, with
a drop in strength and elastic limit.
Carbon intensives the action of nickel and the change
points shown in Fig. 1 will vary according to the carbon
content. The influence of carbon and nickel on the
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structure are shown in the small inset (Guillet) diagram in


Fig. 1, for one rate of cooling. Steels containing 2 to 5%
nickel and about 0,1% carbon are used for case
hardening; those containing 0,25 to 0,40% carbon are
used for crankshafts, axles and connecting rods.
The superior properties of low nickel steels are best
brought out by quenching and tempering (550-650°C).
Since the Ac3 point is lowered, a lower hardening
temperature than for carbon steels is permissible and also
a wider range of hardening temperatures above Ac3
without excessive grain growth, which is hindered by the
slow rate of diffusion of the nickel. Martensitic nickel
steels are not utilized and the austenitic alloys cannot
compete with similar manganese steels owing to the
higher cost. Maraging steels have fulfilled a high tensile
requirement in aero and space fields. High nickel alloys
are used for special purposes, owing to the marked
influence of nickel on the coefficient of expansion of the
metal. With 36% nickel, 0,2% carbon, 0,5% manganese,
the coefficient is practically zero between 0° and 100°C.
This alloy ages with time, but this can be minimized by
heating at 100°C for several days. The alloy is called Inver
and it is used extensively in clocks, tapes and wire
measures, differential expansion regulators, and in
aluminium pistons with a split skirt in order to give an
expansion approximating to that of cast iron.
A carbon-free alloy containing 78,5% nickel and 21,5%
iron has a high permeability in small magnetic fields.

Chromium

Chromium can dissolve in either alpha- or gama-iron, but,


in the presence of carbon, the carbides formed are
cementite (FeCr)3C in which chromium may rise to more
than 15%; chromium carbides (CrFe)3C2 (CrFe)7C3
(CrFe)4C, in which chromium may be replaced by a few
per cent, by a maximum of 55% and by 25% respectively.
Stainless steels contain Cr4C. The pearlitic chromium
steels with, say, 2% chromium are extremely sensitive to
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rate of cooling and temperature of heating before


quenching; for example:

Critical Hardening Rate


Temp. of Initial Heating,
(Mins to cool from 836° to
°C
546°C)
836 3,5
1010 6,5
1200 13

The reason is that the chromium carbides are not readily


dissolved in the austenite, but the amount increases with
increase of temperature. The effect of the dissolved
chromium is to raise the critical points on heating (Ac)
and also on cooling (Ar) when the rate is slow. Faster
rates of cooling quickly depress the Ar points with
consequent hardening of the steel. Chromium imparts a
characteristic form of the upper portion of the isothermal
transformation curve.
The percentage of carbon in the pearlite is lowered. Hence
the proportion of free cementite (hardest constituent) is
increased in high carbon steel and, when the steel is
properly heat-treated, it occurs in the spheroidised form
which is more suitable when the steel is used for ball
bearings. The pearlite is rendered fine.
When the chromium exceeds 1,1% in low-carbon steels
an inert passive film is formed on the surface which
resists attack by oxidizing reagents. Still higher chromium
contents are found in heat-resisting steel.
Chromium steels are easier to machine than nickel steels
of similar tensile strength. The steels of higher chromium
contents are susceptible to temper brittleness if slowly
cooled from the tempering temperature through the range
550/450°C. These steels are also liable to form surface
markings, generally referred to as "chrome lines".

The chrome steels are used wherever extreme hardness is


required, such as in dies, ball bearings, plates for safes,
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rolls, files and tools. High chromium content is also found


in certain permanent magnets.

Nickel and chromium

Nickel steels are noted for their strength, ductility and


toughness, while chromium steels are characterized by
their hardness and resistance to wear. The combination of
nickel and chromium produces steels having all these
properties, some intensified, without the disadvantages
associated with the simple alloys. The depth of hardening
is increased, and with 4,5% nickel, 1,25% chromium and
0,35% carbon the steel can be hardened simply by cooling
in air.
Low nickel-chromium steels with small carbon content are
used for casehardening, while for most constructional
purposes the carbon content is 0,25-0,35%, and the
steels are heat-treated to give the desired properties.
Considerable amounts of nickel and chromium are used in
steel for resisting corrosion and oxidation at elevated
temperatures.
Embattlement. The effects of tempering a nickel-
chromium steel are shown in Fig. 2, from which it will be
noticed that the Izod impact curve No. 1 reaches a
dangerous minimum in the range 250-450°C in common
with many other steels. This is known as 350°C
embattlement. Phosphorus and nitrogen have a significant
effect while other impurities (As, Sb, Sn) and manganese
in larger quantity may also contribute to the
embattlement.
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Figure 2. Effect of tempering on the mechanical properties


of nickel-chromium steel, C 0,26, Ni 3, Cr 1,2, 29 mm
diam, bars hardened in oil from 830°C. Izod (2) for steel
with 0,25% molybdenum added

Temper brittleness is usually used to describe the notch


impact intergranular brittleness (Grain boundaries are
revealed in temper brittle samples by etching in 1 gm
cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide; 20 gm picric acid;
100 cc distilled water, 100 cc ether. Shake mixture, allow
to stand for 24 hrs; use portion of top layer and return to
tube afterwards) induced in some steels by slow cooling
after tempering above about 600°C and also from
prolonged soaking of tough material between about 400°
and 550°C. Temper brittleness seems to be due to grain
boundary enrichment with alloying elements-Mn, Cr, Mo-
during austenitising which leads to enhanced segregation
of embattling elements P, Sn, Sb, As-by chemical
interaction on slow cooling from 600°C. The return to the
tough condition, obtained by rehearing embattled steel to
temperatures above 600°C and rapidly cooling, is due to
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the redistribution and retention in solution of the


embattling segregation. Antimony (0-001 %), phosphorus
(0-008 %), arsenic, tin, manganese increase, while
molybdenum decreases the susceptibility of a steel to
embattlement. 0-25 % molybdenum reduces the
brittleness as shown by Izod curve No. 2. Table 1
illustrates the effect rate of cooling after tempering and
the influence of an addition of 0-45 % molybdenum:

Table 1. Steel 0,3% C, 3,5 % Ni, 0,7%, Cr, tempered at


630°C

Cooling TS Izod Izod


Steel Elongation RA
Rate MPa ft lbf J
Ni-Cr Oil 896 18 60 64 87
Ni-Cr Furnance 880 18 60 19 25
Ni-Cr-Mo Furnance 896 18 61 59 80

Molybdenum
Molybdenum dissolves in both alpha- and gama-iron and
in the presence of carbon forms complex carbides
(FeMo)6C, Fe21Mo2C6, Mo2C.
Molybdenum is similar to chromium in its effect on the
shape of the TTT-curve but up to 0,5% appears to be
more effective in retarding pearlite and increasing bainite
formation. Additions of 0,5% molybdenum have been
made to plain carbon steels to give increased strength at
boiler temperatures of 400°C, but the element is mainly
used in combination with other alloying elements.
Ni-Cr-Mo steels are widely used for ordnance, turbine
rotors and other large articles, since molybdenum tends to
minimize temper brittleness and reduces mass effect.
Molybdenum is also a constituent in some high-speed
steels, magnet alloys, heat-resisting and corrosion-
resisting steels.
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Vanadium

Vanadium acts as a scavenger for oxides, forms a carbide


V,C, and has a beneficial effect on the mechanical
properties of heat-treated steels, especially in the
presence of other elements. It slows up tempering in the
range of 500-600°C and can induce secondary hardening.
Chromium-vanadium (0,15%) steels are used for
locomotive forging, automobile axles, coil springs, torsion
bars and creep resistance.

Tungsten

Tungsten dissolves in gama-iron and in alpha-iron. With


carbon it forms WC and W2C, but in the presence of iron
it forms Fe3W3C or Fe4W2C. A compound with iron-
Fe3W2-provides an age-hardening system. Tungsten
raises the critical points in steel and the carbides dissolve
slowly over a range of temperature. When completely
dissolved, the tungsten renders transformation sluggish,
especially to tempering, and use is made of this in most
hot-working tool ("high speed") and die steels. Tungsten
refines the grain size and produces less tendency to
decarburisation during working. Tungsten is also used in
magnet, corrosion- and heat-resisting steels.

Silicon

Silicon dissolves in the ferrite, of which it is a fairly


effective hardener, and raises the Ac change points and
the Ar points when slowly cooled and also reduces the
gama-alpha volume change.
Only three types of silicon steel are in common use-one in
conjunction with manganese for springs; the second for
electrical purposes, used in sheet form for the
construction of transformer cores, and poles of dynamos
and motors, that demand high magnetic permeability and
electrical resistance; and the third is used for automobile
valves.
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C Si Mn
1. Silico-manganese 0,5 1,5 0,8
2. Silicon steel 0,07 4,3 0,09
3. Silichrome 0,4 3,5 8

It contributes oxidation resistance in heat-resisting steels


and is a general purpose deoxidizes.

Other elements

Copper

dissolves in the ferrite to a limited extent; not more than


3,5% is soluble in steels at normalizing temperatures,
while at room temperature the ferrite is saturated at
0,35%. It lowers the critical points, but insufficiently to
produce martensite by air cooling. The resistance to
atmospheric corrosion is improved and copper steels can
be temper hardened.

Cobalt

has a high solubility in alpha- and gama-iron but a weak


carbide-forming tendency. It decreases hardenability but
sustains hardness during tempering. It is used in "Stellite"
type alloys, gas turbine steel, magnets and as a bond in
hard metal.

Boron.

In recent years, especially in USA, 0,003-0,005% boron


has been added to previously fully killed, fine-grain steel
to increase the hardenability of the steel. The yield ratio
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and impact are definitely improved, provided advantage is


taken of the increased hardenability obtained and the
steel is fully hardened before tempering. In conjunction
with molybdenum boron forms a useful group of high
tensile bainitic steels. Boron is used in some hard facing
alloys and for nuclear control rods.

Influence of Alloying Elements on Steel Microstructure

Abstract:

It is a long-standing tradition to discuss the various


alloying elements in terms of the properties they confer on
steel. For example, the rule was that Chromium (Cr) makes
steel hard whereas Nickel (Ni) and Manganese (Mn) make
it tough. In saying this, one had certain types of steel in
mind and transferred the properties of particular steel to
the alloying element that was thought to have the greatest
influence on the steel under consideration. This method of
reasoning can give false impressions and the following
examples will illustrate this point.

It is a long-standing tradition to discuss the various alloying


elements in terms of the properties they confer on steel. For
example, the rule was that Chromium (Cr) makes steel hard
whereas Nickel (Ni) and Manganese (Mn) make it tough. In
saying this, one had certain types of steel in mind and
transferred the properties of particular steel to the alloying
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element that was thought to have the greatest influence on


the steel under consideration. This method of reasoning can
give false impressions and the following examples will
illustrate this point.

When we say that Cr makes steel hard and wear-resisting


we probably associate this with the 2% C, 12% Cr tool steel
grade, which on hardening does in fact become very hard
and hard-wearing. But if, on the other hand, we choose a
steel containing 0,10% C and 12% Cr, the hardness
obtained on hardening is very modest.

It is quite true that Mn increases steel toughness if we have


in mind the 13% manganese steel, so-called Hadfield steel.
In concentrations between l% and 5%, however, Mn can
produce a variable effect on the properties of the steel it is
alloyed with. The toughness may either increase or
decrease.

A property of great importance is the ability of alloying


elements to promote the formation of a certain phase or to
stabilize it. These elements are grouped as austenite-
forming, ferrite-forming, carbide-forming and nitride-
forming elements.

Austenite-forming elements
The elements C, Ni and Mn are the most important ones in
this group. Sufficiently large amounts of Ni or Mn render a
steel austenitic even at room temperature. An example of
this is the so-called Hadfield steel which contains 13% Mn,
1,2% Cr and l% C. In this steel both the Mn and C take
part in stabilizing the austenite. Another example is
austenitic stainless steel containing 18% Cr and 8% Ni.

The equilibrium diagram for iron-nickel, Figure 1, shows


how the range of stability of austenite increases with
increasing Ni-content.
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Figure 1. Fe-Ni equilibrium diagram

An alloy containing 10% Ni becomes wholly austenitic if


heated to 700°C. On cooling, transformation from g to a
takes place in the temperature range 700-300°C.

Ferrite-forming elements
The most important elements in this group are Cr, Si, Mo,
W and Al. The range of stability of ferrite in iron-chromium
alloys is shown in Figure 2. Fe-Cr alloys in the solid state
containing more than 13% Cr are ferritic at all temperatures
up to incipient melting. Another instance of ferritic steel is
one that is used as transformer sheet material. This is a
low-carbon steel containing about 3% Si.
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Figure 2. Cr-Fe equilibrium diagram


Multi-alloyed steels
The great majority of steels contain at least three
components. The constitution of such steels can be deduced
from ternary phase diagrams (3 components). The
interpretation of these diagrams is relatively difficult and
they are of limited value to people dealing with practical
heat treatment since they represent equilibrium conditions
only. Furthermore, since most alloys contain more than
three components it is necessary to look for other ways of
assessing the effect produced by the alloying elements on
the structural transformations occurring during heat
treatment.

One approach that is quite good is the use of Schaeffler


diagrams (see Figure 3). Here the austenite formers are set
out along the ordinate and the ferrite formers along the
abscissa. The original diagram contained only Ni and Cr but
the modified diagram includes other elements and gives
them coefficients that reduce them to the equivalents of Ni
or Cr respectively. The diagram holds good for the rates of
cooling which result from welding.
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Figure 3. Modified Schaeffler diagram

A 12% Cr steel containing 0,3% C is martensitic, the 0,3%


C gives the steel a nickel equivalent of 9. An 18/8 steel
(18% Cr, 8% Ni) is austenitic if it contains 0-0,5% C and
2% Mn. The Ni content of such steels is usually kept
between 9% and 10%.

Hadfield steel with 13% Mn (mentioned above) is austenitic


due to its high carbon content. Should this be reduced to
about 0,20% the steel becomes martensitic.

Carbide-forming elements
Several ferrite formers also function as carbide formers. The
majority of carbide formers are also ferrite formers with
respect to Fe. The affinity of the elements in the line below
for carbon increases from left to right.

Cr, W, Mo, V, Ti, Nb, Ta, Zr.

Some carbides may be referred to as special carbides, i.e.


non-iron-containing carbides, such as Cr7C3 W2C, VC,
Mo2C. Double or complex carbides contain both Fe and a
carbide-forming element, for example Fe4W2C.

High-speed and hot-work tool steels normally contain three


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types of carbides, which are usually designated M6C, M23C6


and MC. The letter M represents collectively all the metal
atoms. Thus M6C represents Fe4W2C or Fe4Mo2C; M23C6
represents Cr23C6 and MC represents VC or V4C3.

Carbide stabilizers
The stability of the carbides is dependent on the presence of
other elements in the steel. How stable the carbides are
depends on how the element is partitioned between the
cementite and the matrix. The ratio of the percentage, by
weight, of the element contained in each of the two phases
is called the partition coefficient K. The following values are
given for K:

Al Cu P Si Co Ni W Mo Mn Cr Ti Nb Ta
0 0 0 0 0,2 0,3 2 8 11,4 28 Increasing

Note that Mn, which by itself is a very weak carbide former,


is a relatively potent carbide stabilizer. In practice, Cr is the
alloying element most commonly used as a carbide
stabilizer.

Malleable cast iron (i.e. white cast iron that is rendered soft
by a graphitizing heat treatment called malleablizing) must
not contain any Cr. Steel containing only Si or Ni is
susceptible to graphitization, but this is most simply
prevented by alloying with Cr.

Nitride-forming elements
All carbide formers are also nitride formers. Nitrogen may
be introduced into the surface of the steel by nitriding.

By measuring the hardness of various nitrided alloy steels it


is possible to investigate the tendency of the different
alloying elements to form hard nitrides or to increase the
hardness of the steel by a mechanism known as
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precipitation hardening.

The results obtained by such investigations are shown in


Figure 4, from which it can be seen that very high
hardnesses result from alloying a steel with Al or Ti in
amounts of about 1,5%.

Figure 4. Effect of alloying element


additions
on hardness after nitriding
Base composition:
0,25% C, 0,30% Si, 0,70% Mn

On nitriding the base material in Figure 4, hardness of about


400 HV is obtained and according to the diagram the
hardness is unchanged if the steel is alloyed with Ni since
this element is not a nitride former and hence does not
contribute to any hardness increase.
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