Electronic
Technology
www.macmillancaribbean.com
The author has asserted their right to be identified as the author of this work in accordance with the
Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988.
LIST OF CONTENTS
Paper 01
Jl hours
2
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
1. This paper consists of THIRTY questions arranged in THREE sections. Each section
is based on a Module of the syllabus. Candidates must attempt ALL questions.
4. Each candidate MUST enter his/her school code and registration number in the space
provided on the answer booklet.
MODULE1
CIRCUIT THEORY
1. For the circuit shown in Figure L, calculate the value of the current '/' .
SV 2.Q 3V
I "M I
/(
3.Q lOV
Figure 1
[3 mat·ks]
(a) 11
(b) /2
3A
Figure 2
[3 marks]
10 k.Q
10 k .Q
Figut·e 3
[4 mar·ks]
lOV
Figure 4
[4 marks]
6. Calculate the flux generated in Fig ure 5, if the reluctance (R ) of the material is 5 X 1o2 A t/ Wb.
Figure 5
[3 marks]
SOmH 10 k .Q
lOV
F igure 6
[3 marks
300 .Q 400 .Q
Figure 7
[3 marks]
10. Draw and label a circuit whic h will implement a high pass filter. [3 marks]
MODULE 2
11. Draw the c irc uit for a f ull wave rectifie r. Inc lude a s moothing capacitor and load resistor in
your circ uit.
[3 marks]
12. For the c irc uit in Figure 8, 18 = 0.5 J..l A, and f3(hre) = 100.
SV
lOkQ
c
Figure 8
(a) Calculate lc
13. Identify the c irc ui t shown in Figure 9 and state the re latio nshi p be tween the in put a nd the o ut
put.
c
Figure 9
[3 marks]
14. For the c ircuit shown in Fig ure 10, explain what happens to the diode C whe n the s witch is
moved from position A to position B .
IOV
?
c
Figure 10
[1 mark]
15. Exp lain the terms ' natural' and 'forced' commutati on with respect to a thyristor.
[3 marks]
17. For the circuit s hown in Figure 11, w rite dow n the Boolean ex pression fo r the output X.
Figure 11
[3 marks]
18. Figure 12 is an incomple te tab le for an SR flipflop. Fi ll in the missing row shown in the table.
s R Qn Qn+ l
0 0 X
0 l X
l 0 X
I l X
Figure 12
[3 marks]
20. Explain, with the aid of diagrams, the difference be tween amplitude and frequency modulation.
[4 marks]
MODULE3
21. Ide ntify two variables on which losses due to the contact resistance between the brushes and the
commutator segments of a de dynamo depend. [2 marks]
24. Li st TWO advantages and TWO disadvantages of a sy nchronous motor compared with an
induction motor. [4 marks]
25. Describe the principle of operation of a shaded pole inducti on motor. [4 marks]
26. Sketch a diagram of a thermal overload relay and label the parts. [4 marks]
27. With the aid of a diag ram, describe a sys tem whic h could be used to transmit information/data
along a high voltage power line. Name the system. [4 marks]
GO ON TO T HE NEXT PAG E
02 ll 70 10/CAPE 2005
' .
 8 
28. The torque versus armature current characteristics for FOUR configurations of de motors are
shown in Figure 13. Identify the curve for EACH configuration.
Figure 13
[4 marks]
END OF TEST
02 11 70 10/CAPE 2005
TEST CODE 02117020
FORM TP 2005196 MAY/JUNE 2005
Paper 02
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
1. This paper consists of SIX questions arranged in THREE sections. Each section is
based on a Module of the syllabus. Candidates must attempt ALL questions.
4. Each candidate MUST enter his/her school code and registration number in the space
provided on the answer booklet.
MODULE 1
CIRCUIT THEORY
1. (a) For the circui t shown i n Figure 1, determine the currents 11 and 12 .
2Q
10 V 15 v
Figure 1
[10 marks]
(i i) For the network show n in Figure 2, the swi tch is placed in position 1 for 0.2
seconds. Determ ine the charge stored by the capac itor w hen the switch is in
position 1. (Assume that the sw itch was prev iously in position 2 for a very long
time.)
(ii i) After 0.2 seconds the switch is placed in position 2. Calculate the time it takes
for the capacitor to lose half its charge.
100 kQ
1 2
20V
1
I
0.1 11F
1 ISO kQ
F igure 2
[15 marks]
Total 25 marks
GO ON TO T H E NEXT PAGE
02 117020/CAPE 2005
 3 
2. (a) A current of 2.0 A flow s through a capacito r of 10 )J.F when an alternating voltage of
220 V (rms) is app li ed across it.
Ca lcul ate
(ii ) the resistance to be connected in series w ith the capacitor to reduce the current
to 1.0 A
Determine
( i) the f requency
(i i) the peri od
(v) the energy dissipa ted w hen the c urre nt fl ows th roug h a 100 Q resisto r fo r
5 mi nutes. [10 marks]
Total 25 mar ks
GO ON TO T HE NEXT PAGE
02 1L7020/CAPE 2005
 4 
MODULE2
~~ lOV
20 kQ =R I
c,
r~1 ~~ ~ =100
hre = 100
10 k.Q
Figure 3
[12 marks]
(b) A circuit is required to give hig h o utput when at least 2 of the 3 inputs are hi gh.
(iii) Draw a circ uit di agra m to imple ment the c irc uit.
[13 marks]
Total 25 marks
(ii) Derive the relationship between the input and output vo ltage.
Figm·e 4
[11 marks]
(b) For the circuit shown in Fig ure 5, data is ente red into the flipflop one key at a time. Data
is read o ut of the flipflo ps simultaneously. Examine the circuit and answer the foll ow ing
questi ons giving a reason for EACH answer.
(i) Which buttons must be pressed to enter d ata into the fli pflo ps?
(ii ) Whi ch butto n must be pressed to read data f rom the flipflops?
[12 marks]
GO ON TO TH E NEXT PAGE
02117020/CA PE 2005
 6 
MODULE3
(b) Explain TWO metho ds that could be e mployed to start a synchronous mo tor.
' ' [ 4 marks]
(c) Identify FOU R uses of the synchro no us dynamo. Include at least TWO indus tri al uses.
[ 4 marks]
(e) A 115 V, 2po le, 50 Hz s ing le phase re lucta nce start induc tance mo tor is rated at..!. hp,
6
2750 rpm and has a full load effi cie ncy of75 per cent. Calculate:
Total 25 marks
(b) With aid of a diag ra m, expl ain how you would prod uce a no ninductive coil.
[ 4 marks]
(c) The inductance of a coil is di rec tl y proportional to the square of the number of turns and
the crosssectio nal area a nd is inversely proportio na l to the length of the magnetic
circuit. Restate thi s theorem in a formul a. [ 2 marks]
(d) Sketch the vari atio n of mag ne tic flu x w ith magnetizing current for a compl ete cycle for
an initi all y unmag netized spec imen. Label the axes and curve. [ 4 marks]
(e) If the current through a coil having an induc tance of 0.8 henrys is reduced fro m 8 A to
5 A in 0.05 seconds , calcul ate the mean value o f the e mf induced in the coil.
[ 6 marks]
Total 25 marks
END OF TEST
02 11 7020/CA PE 2005
TEST CODE02117010
FORM TP 2006201 MAY/JUNE 2006
Unit 1 Paper 01
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions arranged in THREE sections. Each section
is based on a Module of the syllabus. Candidates must attempt ALL questions.
MODULE 1
AC CIRCUIT THEORY
20v
Figure 1
(a) '•
(b) /2
(c) / 3'
4A 6Q
Figure 2
[6 marks]
3. For the circuit shown in Figure 3, write down but do not solve a pair of simultaneous equations
which could be used to determine i 1 and i 2 •
Figure 3
[6 marks]
4. For the circuit shown in Figure 4, determine the current i in the circuit 0.4 seconds after the
switch sl is closed.
6H
Figure 4
[6 marks]
s. (a) The power dissipated across a 40 .Q resistor is 2.4 kW. What is the value of the current
that flows? [2 marks]
(b) The resistance of the field winding (coil) a motor changes from 50 .Q to 55 .Q after the
motor has been running for some time. If the temperature coefficient of resistance of
the coils is 0.005 QfC, find the temperature rise experienced by the coil. [4 marks]
Total 30 marks
MODULE2
6. (a) Draw a circuit that will implement a full wave rectifier with a smoothing capacitor
included. [4 marks]
(b) The square wave shown in Figure 5 (a) is applied to the input of the circuit in the Figure
5 (b). Sketch the output V0 . [2 marks]
I
V;
l
FigureS (a) FigureS (b)
SOOkQ
I Yo
1
Figure 6
(a) Find the base current / 8 through the 500 k.Q resistor.
8. In Figure 7 a sinusoidal voltage with peak value 0.5 V and frequency 10Hz is applied to the
input V. . Make TWO sketches showing the input and the output, showing clearly the relationship
Ill
IOOkQ
Figure 7
[6 marks]
(b) State a typical application or use of each part given at (a) above. [6 marks]
10. Explain with the aid of sketches TWO differences between amplitude modulation (AM) and
frequency modulation (FM). [6 marks]
Total 30 marks
MODULE3
INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.
11. (a) Sketch and label the crosssection of a d.c. motor. [3 marks]
(b) (i) Sketch and label the speed load c haracteristics for a series connec ted d.c. motor.
(ii) Explain the speedload characteristics for the motor indicated at (i) above.
[3 marks]
12. (a) With the aid of a diagram, illustrate Faraday's law. [3 marks]
(b) Calculate the emf generated in a conductor of length 1 m which moves perpendicular to
a uniform magnetic field of 2.5 teslas at a speed of 25 m s 1 • [3 marks]
13. (a) Explain the function and operation of a cartridge fuse. [4 marks]
(b ) Sketch and label the inverse characteristics of the cartridge fuse. [2 marks]
14. (a) State TWO adv antages of using digital d ata communication compared with using
a nalogue communicati on. [2 marks]
(b) Explain, with the aid of a sketch, how electronic communication can be accomplished
on power lines. [4 marks]
15. (a) The torque versus speed characteristics of a machine with a low resistance rotor is shown
in Figure 8. Redraw the diagram to show the torque versus slip. [2 marks]
0 O)n1 O)s
Speed ~
Figure 8
(b) Explain the concept of armature reaction as applied to the d.c. motor. [4 marks]
Total 30 marks
ENDOFTEST
02 117010/CAPE 2006
~
Unit 1 Paper 02
2 hours 30 minutes
1. This paper consists of NINE questions. Candidates must attempt SIX questions.
2. The paper consists of THREE modules, each having THREE questions. Candidates
must answer Questions 1, 4 and 7 and ONE other question from EACH Module.
MODULE!
DC CIRCUIT THEORY
You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other from this Module.
(b) (i) Find the Thevenin 's equivalent for the circui t shown in Figure 1.
lSOQ lOOQ
son
20V=:._
30Q
Figure 1
(ii) If the load across AB is 60 .Q, determine the power di ssipated by the load.
[12marks]
(c) For the circuit shown in Fi gure 2 determine the currents I amperes and /? amperes.
I 
lOQ
lOV==
Figure 2
[9 marks]
Total 30 marks
(b) (i) For the network shown in Figure 3, the switch is pl aced in position 1 for 0.02
seconds. Determine the charge stored by the capacitor when the switch is in this
position.
(ii) After 0.2 seconds, the sw itch is placed in position 2. Calculate the time it takes
for the capacitor to lose 50% of its charge.
lOOkQ 1 2
20V= lSOkQ
Figure 3
[10 marks]
2
(c) The area of the interface of a capacitor constructed with two parallel plates is 12 cm .
The pl ates are separated by a di stance of 0.2 mm and carry a pd of 50 Y. Calculate the
following:
Total 20 marks
(b) With aid of a di agram, explain how you would produce a noninductive coil.
[4 marks]
(c) The inductance of a coil is proportiona l to the square of the number of turns and the
crosssectio nal area and is inversely proportiona l to the length of the magnetic circuit.
Restate this theorem in a formula. [3 marks]
(d) Sketch and label the variation of magnetic flux with magnetizing current for a closed
iron circuit. [3 marks]
(e) The current through a coil having an inductance of 0.8 henry is reduced from 8 A to 5 A
in 0.05 seconds. Calculate the mean value of the emf induced in the coil.
[3 marks]
(f) Calculate the value of the total inductance in the circuit shown in Figure 4.
12H
8H
v
Figure 4
[3 marks]
Total 20 marks
MODULE2
You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this Module.
Figure 5
[tO marks]
(b) A carrier wave fc =400kHz is modulated by an audio tone, fm = 3 kHz. What are the
THREE frequencies present in the modulated signal? [6 marks]
(c) (i) Explain the difference between space waves, sky waves and ground waves.
(ii) Give examples of typical applications where EACH type of wave identified in
(i) would be useful. [9 marks]
(d) With the aid of diagrams, show how Amplitude Modulation and Frequency Modulation
is achieved. [5 marks]
Total 30 marks
5. (a) For the transistor amplifier shown in Figure 6 draw the equivalent h  Parameter circui t.
[8 marks]
~~0+IOV
CJ
RL hfc = 100
IOkQ (Load) hie= 2kQ
lb = 40j.!A
Figure 6
(b) Given that heI C = 100, h.IC = 2 k.Q , 18 = 40 J..tA, and h0C is infinite, calculate
Total 20 marks
6. (a) (i) Show that the voltage gain (Av) of a noninverting amplifie r is given by
Rr
Av = 1 + R.
in
[4 marks]
56kQ
V; = 6mV
i
Figure 7
[4 marks]
(b) For the circuit shown in Figure 8, calculate the output voltage, V0 .
200kQ
i
=
Figure 8
[6 marks]
(ii) Write the expression for the frequency of oscill ation. [6 marks]
Total20 marks
MODULE3
You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this Module.
7. (a) Explain the difference between overload current and fau lt current. [4 marks]
(b) (i) Draw a labelled diagram of a thermal overload relay connected to a load that is
controlled by it. [5 marks]
(c) Draw a diagram of a typical residental power distribution system and show where fuses
and circuit breakers will be located. [8 marks]
(e) Give TWO advantages and TWO disadvantages associated with using a circui t breaker
to protect a circuit. [4 marks]
Total 30 marks
(b) (i) With the aid of di agrams, explain the magnetic effect on a current carrying
conductor.
(c) (i) Identify THREE factors which affect the magnitude of electromagnetic force
on a current carrying conductor.
(ii) State the equation w hich expresses the relation between electromagnetic force
on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field. [5 marks]
(d) The flux per pole of a 4 po le generator is 10 x 106 lines. If it is driven at a speed of
1800 rpm in order to induce 20 V per coil , calculate the number of conductors required
to generate 120 V. [7 marks]
Total20 marks
9. (a) What is the ' residual magnetic field ' in a d.c. motor? [2 marks]
(b) (i) Draw and label the circuit diagram for a compound generator.
(ii) On the circuit diagram, indicate THREE elements that contribute significantly
to losses in this machine. [6 marks]
(c) ( i) Make sketches and label the TWO configurations of windings that are used in
construction of armatures.
(ii) State the difference between the two winding types. [4 marks]
(d) ( i) Identify THREE major losses that contribute to decreased efficiency in d.c.
machines.
(ii) A 50 hp motor operating on 240 V d .c. takes 166.67 Amperes when operating at
rated conditio ns. Determine the efficiency of the machine. [6 marks]
(e) Motors are classified by the ir s peedload c haracteris tic s. Ide ntify TWO such
classifications for d .c. motors. [2 marks]
Total 20 ma rks
END OF TEST
02117020/CAPE 2006
TEST CODE 02217010
FORM TP 2006203 MAY/JUNE 2006
Unit 2 Paper 01
11 hours
( 14 JUNE 2006 (p.m.) )
2. The paper consists of THREE modules, Each having FIVE questions. Each Module
is worth 30 marks.
MODULE I
DC CIRCUIT THEORY
V = 5 sin 20 nt.
(a) Make a sketch of the wave showing its amplitude and time period.
(b) Calculate the rms value of the wave given above. [6 marks]
2. A coil which has a reactance of 160 Q is in series with a 100 Q resistor. The pair is connected
across a 100 V rms supply. Calculate
3. The voltage supplied to the circuit shown in Figure 1 has a frequency of 50 Hz.
Figure 1
[6 marks]
200Q
l.O).!F
llOV, 50Hz
Figure 2
[6 marks]
2kQ
l>'\1\/V,....I.l
1
5
· _
r_ ___.._
_ _)..1F1 _
Figure 3
[6 marks]
Total 30 marks
MODULE2
DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND DATA COMMUNICATIONS
6. For the transistor circuit shown in Fi gure 4, explain, using sketch of graphs of V0 against time,
the effect of increasing V; slowly and linearly from 0 to 6 V.
6V
Figure 4
[6 marks]
7. Construct the truth table for the combination of logic gates shown in Figure 5.
Figure 5
[6 marks]
8. (a) Draw a circuit diagram showing how NAND or NOR gates can be used to implement a
SR flipflop.
(b) Draw a circ uit showing how you would convert a SR flipflop toaD flipflop.
[6 marks]
9. For the D/ A circuit shown in Figure 6, determine the analogue output for a digital input 1102 .
Notes:  R1 = 10 k.Q
 R = 10 k.Q
 A logic (1 ) or a high corresponds to 5 Volts.
~ o'v'\/'v,
Figure 6
[6 marks]
10. (a) Explain the following terms used in communication systems and give an example of
EACH type of system.
(i) Simplex
(ii) Duplex
(b) Draw diagrams to show EACH of the following types of computer networks:
(i) Ring
(ii) Star [6 marks]
Total 30 marks
MODULE3
INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES
11. (a) With the aid of a diagram, define primary and secondary windings for a transformer.
[3 marks]
(b) A 10 KVA transformer has an iron loss of 150 watts and a copper loss of 35 watts.
Determine its efficiency. [3 marks]
12. (a) Describe the essential features of construction of the rotor for a squirrel cage induction
motor. [4 marks]
(b) If the resistance of the winding of an ac machine is 0.45 .Q./phase and the reactance per
phase is 4.5 .Q./phase, determine the synchronous impedance of the machine.
[4 marks]
14. (a) Draw and label the equivalent circu it of an ideal transformer. [4 marks]
(b) Why are transformers rated in KVA rather than watts or kW? [2 marks]
(b) Sketch a labelled diagram of the typical slip versus torque characteristics of an induction
~~ ~~~
Total 30 marks
END OF TEST
02217010/CAPE 2006
TEST CODE 02217020
FORM TP 2006204 MAY/JUNE 2006
Unit 2 Paper 02
2 hours 30 minutes
1. This paper consists of NINE questions. Candidates must attempt SIX questions.
2. The paper consists of THREE modules, each having THREE questions. Candidates
are required to answer Questions 1, 4 and 7 and ONE other question from EACH
Module.
MODULE I
DC CIRCUIT THEORY
You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this Module.
1. (a) Use a diagram or diagrams to explain how the power factor of a circuit can be improved
or corrected by using a capacitor or an inductor. [5 marks)
Resistor = 24Q
impedance
current
voltage across each device
the phase difference between the voltage and the current.
(iv) Draw the phasor diagram for the circuit, showing how the phase difference can
be determined from the di agram.
Total 30 marks
2. (a) Explain, with the aid of drawings, the sinusoidal waveforms for both current and voltage
in a purely inductive circui t. [5 marks)
(c) A circuit consists of a resistor of 6 Q , an inductor of 0.4 henry and a variable capacitor
connected in series across a 120 V, 50 Hz supply. Calculate
(ii) the voltage across the capacitor and the inductor. [8 marks]
(d) The capacitor in the circuit was replaced with a 30 ~tF fixed capacitor. What value
inductor would be needed to achieve resonance? [4 marks]
Total20 marks
(c) Sketch and label the freque ncy response of EACH of the FOU R fi lters li sted at (b)
above. [8 marks]
(d) The inductor and resistor values of the filter shown in the Figure 1 are 0.15 rnH and
2.5 kQ respectively. Dete rmine the c utoff frequency of the fi lte r.
I
vI
0.15 mH v
0
1 1
Figure 1
[2 marks]
Total 20 marks
MODULE2
DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND DATA COMMUNICATIONS
You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this Module.
4. A transistor is employed as a saturated swi tch, controlling current through a lamp. The lamp is
required to light when the circuit in Figure 2 is switched to the '1' position .
..~c=12V
F Lamp 12V, 3W
h fe =so
Figure 2
(b) Calculate the current 18 required to cause the required c urrent /c to switch on the lamp.
[2 marks]
(c) Calculate the value of the resistance R I , R2 and R 3 which will cause the lamp to be
sw itched on. [5 marks]
(d) Write down the truth table showing how the output of the lamp varies with inputs A, B
and C. [10 marks]
(e) Draw the c ircuit w hich wi ll cause the transistor to behave like a NOT gate, that is, the
lamp will onl y be on when A= B = C = 0; otherwise the lamp will be off.
[6 marks]
(f) Draw the circuit diagram of a three bit serial shift regis ter using SR flip flops.
[5 marks]
Total 30 marks
5. In Figure 3, data is entered into the hi stables (fl ipflops) from a keypad, one key at a time. Data
in all the histables can the n be sent down the data highway or BUS. Study the diagram and
answer the questions below.
Figure 3
(a) Which button(s) must be pressed to e nter data into the flipflops? [3 marks]
(b) Explain how pressing button E e nables data to be read from the flipflop.
[5 marks]
(c) What is the largest number that can be stored in the register? State your answer in base
10. [4 marks]
Total 20 marks
6. (a) The follow ing questions are based on the truth table shown in F igure 4.
A B c X
0 0 0 1
0 0 1
0 1 0
0 1 1
1 0 0
1 0 1
1 1 0
1 1 1
Figure 4
(i) Copy and complete the truth table given in Figure 4 w hich will implement an
even pari ty detector, that is the output X is hi gh when there is an odd number of
ones.
(ii) Use your truth table to write down the Boolean expression for the output X.
Total 20 marks
MODULE3
INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES
You are required to answer Question 7 and one other question from this Module.
7. (a) (i) Define the term 'transformation ratio' as applied to the transformer.
(b) Identify SIX parameters that constitute the practical transformer. [6 marks]
(c) (i) State TWO conditions under which it is possible to operate a 60Hz transformer
on 50 Hz.
(ii) E xplain what is likely to occur if the 60Hz transformer is allowed to operate at
full load at its designated voltage on a 50 Hz supply. [6 marks]
(d) The primary side of a transformer is separate from the secondary side and has
1000 turns. The secondary side has 200 turns. An alternating supply of 240 Volts is
applied to the primary and a load of 5 .Q is connected to the secondary.
secondary voltage
secondary current
primary current
primary input impedance. [lOmarks]
Total 30 marks
8. (a) Sketch and label the crosssection of a salient pole synchronous dynamo.
[7 marks]
(b) Use sketches with brief explanations to differentiate between lap and wave windings.
[4 marks]
(c) An a.c. generator has eight poles and operates at a speed of 900 r.p.m. Calculate
(ii) the speed of the prime mover required to generate a frequency of 50 Hz.
[9 marks]
Total 20 marks
9. (a) How would you reverse the direction of rotation of a splitphase motor?
[3 marks]
(b) For a splitphase, resistancestart, induc tion motor, sketch and label
(c) The locked rotor resistance of a sixpole 60Hz Squirrel Cage Induction Motor (SCIM)
is three times the rotor resistance per phase. Calcul ate the
(i) slip
(i i) speed
(iii) rotor freque ncy at which max imum torque is developed.
[9 marks]
Total 20 marks
END OF TEST
02217020/CAPE 2006
TESTCODE02117010
FORM TP 2008184 MAY/JUNE 2008
Unit 1 Paper 01
1; hours
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions arranged in THREE sections. Each section
is based on a Module of the syllabus. Candidates must attempt ALL questions.
2. The paper consists of THREE Modules, each having FIVE questions. EACH Module
is worth 30 marks.
MODULE 1
DC CIRCUIT THEORY
1. (a) A copper rod 5 m long and 10 mm diameter has a resistance of 0.0005 £2.
Calculate the resistivity of the copper rod. [4 marks]
Total 6 marks
6Q 4Q
AA/V V W
5Q 9Q
AAA/ W V
Figure 1
Total 6 marks
5A
5Q.
C *10 Q
20 V
40 V T >10 £2
Loop 1 Loop 2
Figure 2
(a) Use a mesh equation to find the current, i , flowing in Loop 2. [4 marks]
Total 6 marks
3iF 6fiF
SMF
o o~
A B
Figure 3
(b)find find
the energy stored
the energy if a 20
stored if aV20
supply is connected
V supply across
is connected AB. AB
across [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
5. Explain,
Explain, with
with the
the aid
aid of
of diagrams,
diagrams, the
the terms
terms
Total 6 marks
MODULE2
lOkQ
h
r1
cl
c, I
vout
vin
20kQ
l l
Figure 4
Total 6 marks
8
12 V, 50 Hz
Figure 5
Assuming that the diodes are ideal in the circuit Shown in Figure 5,
Total 6 marks
8. (a) Explain how the curvature of the earth creates problems for the transmission of radio
waves and explain how the use of a communication satellite can overcome this difficulty
[4 marks]
(b) Explain the process by which electromagnetic waves are received by an antenna.
[2 marks]
Total 6 marks
Figure 6
(a) State the MAXIMUM and MINIMUM voltages that can be obtained from the opamp.
[2 marks]
(b) Calculate the voltage at the input that will give rise to the MINIMUM voltage.
[4 marks]
Total 6 marks
10. An audio signal with amplitude 5 mV and frequency 5Hz is to be imposed on a carrier with
amplitude 8 mV and frequency 500Hz.
(a) Make a sketch of the transmitted signal if the signal is amplitude modulated.
[3 marks]
Total 6 marks
MODULE3
11. (a) Use a labelled diagram to explain what will happen when a permanent magnet is moved
relative to an electromagnetic coil connected across a resistor. [4 marks]
(b) Name the scientist who discovered the phenomenon which occurs when a permanent
magnet is moved rel ative to an electromagnetic coil. In which year was this discovery
made? [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
12. (a) Define the term 'permeability offree space' and indicate the symbol used to denote this
quantity. [3 marks]
(c) Give the symbol which is used to represent relative permeability. [1 mark]
Total 6 marks
13. (a) What is the difference in construction between a d.c. motor and a d.c. generator ?
[1 mark]
(b) Sketch and label the magnetization curve of a d.c. shunt machine. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
14. (a) Draw a labelled line diagram of a power system which constitutes a 24 kVA line which
supplies transformers 220/1 10 V for a residential system. Indicate on the diagram where
fuses and circuit breakers will be used. [4 niarks]
(b) Give TWO advantages of using fuses over circuit breakers. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
15. (a) Identify THREE communication methods employed between the feed and control room
of a power system . [3 marks]
Total 6 marks
END OF TEST
02117010/CAPE 2008
TEST CODE 22117010
FORM TP 2008184 MAY/JUNE 2008
Unit 1  Paper 01
1; hours
MODULE!
DC CIRCUIT THEORY
(i) TWO which will produce an increase in resistance when the temperature is
increased
(ii) ONE which will NOT reflect an increase in resistance when the temperature is
increased
(iii) ONE which will produce a decrease in resistance when the temperature is
increased. [4 marks]
TABLE 1
# MATERIAL
1 Carbon
2 Polyviny1 chloride
3 Magnesium
4 Silver
5 Aluminium
6 Zinc
(b) A coil of copper wire has a resistance of 150 Q when its average temperature is 0 °C.
Determine its resistance when its average temperature is 75 °C. (The temperature
coefficient of copper is 0.00428/ °C.) [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
2. (a) A circuit consists of two capacitors 8 )..LF and 10 )..LF respectively, connected in series
across a 300 V supply. Calculate
(b) (i) Identify TWO types of capacitors which are suitable for high voltage (HV)
operations.
(ii) What feature accounts for their suitability for HV operations? [3 marks]
Total 6 marks
(b) A coil of 200 turns, wound on a core of nonmagnetic material, has an inductance of
10 mH. Calculate the flux produced when a current of 5 A is applied to the coil.
[3 marks]
Total 6 marks
4. (a) Calculate the average power stored by the circuit shown in Figure 1.
8mH
SmH Lz
4mH
2A
~0 v o~
Figure 1
[3 marks]
Figure 2
[3 marks]
Total 6 marks
5. (a) State Kirchoff's current law and use a diagram to illustrate this law. [3 marks]
(b) For the circuit shown in Figure 3, determine the voltage across R r
4Q
3Q
I 6Q
v
= IOV
Figure 3
[3 marks]
Total 6 marks
MODULE2
6. (a) Draw the circuit diagram of a fullwave voltage stabilized power supply, which utilises
a bridge rectifier, a CRC filter and a Zener diode. [4 marks]
(b) What is the function of a ' bleeder' resistor in a power supply? [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
(b) Show how the modulation factor can be determined from the waveform of a signal.
[3 marks]
Total 6 marks
Figure 4
Total 6 marks
(i) V N
Figure 5
[4 marks]
Total 6 marks
10. (a) Explain the operation of a light emitting diode (LED). [4 marks]
Total 6 marks
..
 7 
MODULE3
(b) A magnetic flux of 500 )..lwb passing through a coil of 1000 turns is reversed in
0.1 second. Calculate the average emf induced in the coil. [3 marks]
Total 6 marks
12. (a) Draw a labelled diagram of the circuit used to produce the magnetization curve of a
machine. [3 marks]
(b) Sketch and label the magnetization curve that will be generated from the circuit drawn
at 12 (a) above. Indicate the point of saturation on the curve. [3 marks]
Total 6 marks
13. (a) Sketch and label the inverse characteristic curve of a typical cartridge fuse.
[3 marks]
Total 6 marks
14. (a) Identify THREE advantages of digital communication over analogue communication
in power system control. [3 marks]
(b) Describe a communication system employed by power plants to transmit data and other
information via the power lines between the power stations and central control.
[3 marks]
Total 6 marks
Total 6 marks
END OF TEST
22117010/CAPE 2008
TEST CODE 02217010
FORM TP 2008186 MAY/JUNE 2008
Unit 2  Paper 01
1 ~ hours
1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions. Candidates .must attempt ALL questions.
2. The paper consists of THREE Modules, each having FIVE questions. Each Module
is worth 30 marks.
MODULE I
AC CIRCUIT THEORY
1. (a) Draw and label the phasor diagram for a purely capacitive circuit. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
2. (a) Draw and label circuit diagrams for TWO types of symmetrical unbalanced filters .
[4 marks]
(b) A 'T' type low pass filter has an inductance of value 200 mH and a capacitance of value
0.5 J..lf. Determine the cutoff frequency. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
3. Sketch and label frequency responses and phase shift curves for the following filters:
Total 6 marks
4. A circuit consists of~ 150 Q resistor in parallel with a 20 1lf capacitor and is connected to a 250 V
50 Hz supply. Calculate the following:
Total 8 marks
5. An a.c. generator supplies a load of 250 kW at a power factor of 0.6 lagging. If the power
factor is raised to unity, how much more kW can the generator supply for the same kilo volt
ampere loading? [4 marks]
MODULE2
6. (a) For the circuit shown in Figure 1, copy and complete the table to show the output X
when the input A is OV and 5 V.
Figure 1
[4 marks]
(b) Give the symbol and state the logic gate that corresponds to the transistor circuit shown.
[2 marks]
Total 6 marks
A B X
0 0 1
0 1 0
1 0 1
1 1 1
Draw a logic circuit that will implement the above table. [6 marks]
Total 6 marks
8. (a) State TWO differences between ROM and RAM memory systems. [4 marks]
(b) Give an example of a device or application that uses ROM and one that uses RAM.
[2 marks]
Total 6 marks
9. (a) Explain the difference between 'synchronous' and 'asynchronous' data communication.
[4 marks]
(b) Give ONE example of a simplex communication system and ONE example of a duplex
communication system. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
10. (a) Draw the circuit diagram for the SR flipflop using NAND or NOR gates.
[3 marks]
(b) Explain, using truth tables, the difference between aSRand a JK flipflop.
[3 marks]
Total 6 marks
MODULE3
INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES
You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.
(b) Give the relationships between primary and secondary turns, voltages and currents.
[3 marks]
Total 6 marks
12. (a) Sketch and label diagrams to illustrate the interaction of fluxes which results in armature
reaction in dynamos. [4 marks]
(b) Draw a labelled diagram of the resulting phasor of the fluxes in (a). [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
13. (a) illustrate how you would differentiate between the types of windings in a synchronous
dynamo. [3 marks]
(b) Identify THREE methods used for compensating for armature reaction. [3 marks]
Total 6 marks
14. (a) What physical features would you use to identify a woundrotor induction motor?
[3 marks]
(b) Explain the function of the rotor winding in a woundrotor induction motor.
[3 marks]
Total 6 marks
(i) Calculate the speed at which it would operate if the supply voltage is 250 V at
50 Hz. [2 marks]
(ii) If the supply voltage is increased by 10% what would be the resulting speed of
the motor? [1 mark ]
Total 6 marks
END OF TEST
Unit 2 Paper 01
1; hours
MODULE1
AC CIRCUIT THEORY
1. With the aid of a graph, explain the term 'resonance of an RLC circuit'. [6 marks]
Total 6 marks
(i) capacitance
(b) Identify the basic difference between a low pass filter and a high pass filter.
[2 marks]
Total 6 marks
3. The circuit of Figure 1 shows a resistor, a capacitor and an inductor connected in series. The
circuit is connected to a 110 V 50 Hz supply.
L R
0.201J.F lmH SQ
nov
50Hz
L        i N I        __...J
Figure 1
Total 6 marks
4. (a) Calculate the cutoff frequency of a first order low pass filter for a circuit of resistance
R = 1.2 k.Q and capacitance, C = 0.02 J..IF. [4 marks]
(b) Define the term 'frequency response'. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
s. (a) Draw circuit diagrams of aT type AND a 1t type low pass filter. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
MODULE2
(b) MOSFETs may be described as either enhancement mode devices or as depletion mode
devices. State the essential difference between the TWO modes of operation.
[2 marks]
Total 6 marks
7. The quantity R = A.B.C is R = (A.B.C) and is NOT the same as X= A.B.C where
  
X = (A).(B).(C) . With the use of a truth table, prove that the quantities are different.
[6 marks]
Total 6 marks
Total 6 marks
Total 6 marks
(b) Draw the symbols and state the Boolean expression for
Total 6 marks
MODULE3
mTRODUCTIONTOACMAC~
11. (a) Use a labelled diagram to explain the general arrangement of a transformer.
[3 marks]
Total 6 marks
12. (a) Define 'voltage regulation of a transformer'. Give the formula for this quantity.
[4 marks]
(b) Determine the voltage regulation of a transformer having a noload voltage of 120 V
and a full load voltage of 110 V. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
(b) Determine the synchronous impedance of an alternator having an armature short circuit
current of 250 A and an open circuit voltage of 500 V. [3 marks]
Total 6 marks
14. (a) Explain the construction of a rotor for a squirrel cage induction motor. [4 marks]
Total 6 marks
15. (a) Sketch and label typical torqueslip characteristics for an induction motor.
[4 marks]
Total 6 marks
END OF TEST
22217010/CAPE 2008
TEST CODE 02117020
FORM TP 2008185 M AY /JUNE 2008
Unit 1  Paper 02
1
2y hours
1. This paper consists of NINE questions. Candidates must attempt SIX questions.
2. The paper consists of THREE Modules, each having THREE questions. Candidates
must answer Questions 1, 4 and 7 and ONE other question from EACH Module.
MODULE1
DC CIRCUIT THEORY
You are required to ~nswer Question 1 and ONE other question from this Module.
..roA
6Q 3Q
36V
~~~oB
Figure 1
[20 marks]
(b) Use the Thevenin circuit to find the Norton equivalent. [ 4 marks]
(c) State the value of the load resistance connected across AB at which MAXIMUM power
is transferred. [ 2 marks]
(d) Calculate the MAXIMUM power that can be transferred to the load. [ 4 marks]
Total 30 marks
150 kQ 1 2
~ lswoITC,H
3V :
___:_ 0.2f!F
_l 200 kQ
Figure 2
(a) If the switch is closed onto Position 1 when t = 0 and then moved to Position 2 when
t =20 x 103 seconds, determine the voltage across the capacitor when t = 30 x 103
seconds. [10 marks]
(b) A capacitor consists of 2 metal plates, each 400 x 400 mm, spaced 6 rnm apart. The
space between the metal plates is filled with paper with relative permittivity, E = 2.
Given E0 = 8.85 X IQ12, F m1
(ii) calculate the electric field strength if a charge of 40 j..tC is stored by the capacitor.
[5 marks]
Total 20 marks
3H
Figure 3
(ii) If a current of 2 A flows through the network calculate the energy stored.
[2 marks]
(iii) the value of the current 0.5s after the supply is connected. [6 marks]
(c) Explain what would happen to the inductance of a coil if its diameter was decreased by
half while its length was doubled. [5 marks]
Total20 marks
MODULE 2
100kQ
0.1J..l.F
hre = 100
h.1e =soon
1/hoe =50 kQ
Figure 4
(a) For the circuit shown, draw the h parameters equivalent circuit. [8 marks]
(c) If the input is 10 mV, determine the power dissipated by the load RL where RL = 10 kQ.
[7 marks]
Total 30 marks
5. (a) Show that the amplifier circuit shown in Figure 5 has a gain given by
A= 1 + !!i_
R.
Ill
Figure 5
[ 7 marks]
(b) For the opamp circuit shown at Figure 6, calculate the voltages (i) V 1 (ii) V 2 •
B
sv
Figure 6
[ 8 marks]
(c) (i) Draw the circuit for a sine wave oscillator which incorporates an opamp.
[ 2 marks]
(ii) State the frequency of oscillation of the circuit you have drawn. [ 3 marks]
Total 20 marks
(ii) State, in terms offc and f5 , the frequencies of the waves in the transmitted signal.
[3 marks]
t r r
/
Figure 7
(v) The frequency of the audio signal is 10 kHz and the frequency of the carrier is
5 MHz. What are the MINIMUM possible bandwidths of the
a) r.f amplifier?
b) a.f amplifier?
Total 20 marks
MODULE3
You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this Module.
7. (a) The general arrangement of a four pole d.c. machine is shown in Figure 8.
Figure 8
On the Figure:
(i) Sketch the field windings on the poles and indicate the polarity. [4 marks]
(iii) Sketch the electromagnetic flux paths showing the direction of the flux.
[4 marks]
(b) Identify the TWO winding configurations used in armature construction shown in
Figure 9.
(a) (b)
Figure 9
[2 marks]
(c) An eight pole armature is wound with 640 conductors. An e.m.f. of 108 Vis generated
in each conductor and each conductor is capable of carrying 100 Amperes at rated speed
and flux. Calculate the following:
Total 30 marks
(d) (i) Draw and label a diagram to show how the magnetization curve for steel could
be determined using a toroid. [3 marks]
(ii) The magnetization characteristics of a number of soft magnetic materials are
shown in Figure 10.
Bff
2.0
1.75
1.5
1.25
1.0
0.75
0.5
0.25
HIA/m
Figure 10
Indicate which curve is LIKELY to be that of
ferrite
mild steel
silicon steel
cast iron [4 marks]
(e) A mild steel ring has a cross sectional area of 500 mm2 and a mean circumference of
450 mm. A coil of250 turns that is wound around it produces a flux of 1000 )..l Wb in the
ring. Calculate
(i) the reluctance of the ring [3 marks]
(ii) the current required to produce the flux of 1000 )..l Wb in the ring. [2 marks]
FOR STEEL:
Permeability 800 750 380 200 201
Flux Density 1.0 1.4 1.6 2.0 2.2
Total 20 marks
9. (a) A dedicated, appropriately sized circuit breaker supplies power to a machine which
trips instantaneously when the machine is switched on. Which of the following is
LIKELY to be the reason for the trip?
(b) With the aid of a labelled diagram, explain the operation of a typical circuit breaker.
[7 marks]
(c) Give THREE reasons why you would use a fuse instead of a circuit breaker to protect
circuits in some operations. [3 marks]
(d) Sketch and label the characteristic curve of an over current relay. [3 marks]
Total 20 marks
END OF TEST
02117020/CAPE 2008
        
Unit 1 Paper 02
I
22hours
MODULE!
DC CffiCUIT THEORY
You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this Module.
(b) For the network shown in Figure 1, calculate the potential difference between A and B.
30Q lOQ
V 1 =30V
20Q 32Q
(c) Outline TWO conditions necessary for maximum power to be transferred to a load.
[ 2marks]
(d) Two batteries, A and B, with emfs of 8.0 and 10.0 Volts respectively are connected in
parallel across a load of 30 Q . If the internal resistance of battery A is 2.0 Q and that of
B is 1.2 Q
(ii) use the Superposition Theorem to determine the current through the load.
[14marks]
Total 30 marks
2. (a) Define the term 'capacitance' and state its unit. [ 3 marks]
(b) A 3 J..Lf capacitor in series with a 1.5 M Q resistor is connected across a 250 V de supply.
Calculate
(iii) the time taken for the voltage across the capacitor to grow lo 180 V
(iv) the voltage across the capacitor 4.5 seconds after it is connected to the supply.
[14marks]
(c) Sketch the variation of current and potential difference of a capacitor during discharge.
[ 3 marks]
Total 20 marks
( iii) the value of the current 2.0 seconds after the switch is closed. [ Smarks]
(c) When two coils are connected in series their effective inductance is 10.0 H. When the
connections are reversed, the effective inductance is 6 H. If the coefficient of coupling
is 0.6, calculate
Total 20 marks
MODULE2
4. (a) State the function of the circuit shown in Figure 2 and indicate where it is normally
used. [ 6 marks]
(b) Sketch the shape of the output voltage waveform of the circuit shown in Figure 2.
[ 4 marks]
• •
Figure 2. A Clipping Circuit
(e) State what is meant by the term 'avalanche breakdown' as it relates to a Zener diode.
[ 6 marks]
(f) (i) What are majority charge carriers and minority charge carriers in n type
semiconductor materials?
(ii) What are the functions of majority and minority charge carriers? [ 6 marks]
Total 30 marks
5. (a) PNP and NPN transistors are to be used in the common emitter configuration. Explain
with the aid of symbols, how the elements of the transistors must be biased to ensure the
correct polarity of the bias voltage at EACH element. [ 5 marks]
(b) Calculate the input impedance, the current gain and the voltage gain of a common emitter
amplifier which uses a transister with h.1e = 2 k.Q and hFe = 60 with a load resistance of
12 kQ. [ 6 marks]
(i) modulation
Total 20 marks
(b) Draw an amplifier response curve where the gain of both power and voltage is plotted to
a base of frequencies. [ 6 marks]
Total 20 marks
MODULE3
You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this Module.
(ii) Name FOUR critical groups of components and for EACH group describe its
function. [12 marks]
(b) Draw a circuit diagram to show how the THREE windings of the d.c. dynamo are
connected as a generator in the long shunt configuration. [ 8 marks]
Total 30 marks
8. (a) Draw the diagram of a typical thermal overload relay and identify the parts.
[ 7 marks]
(b) Explain the operation of the thermal overload relay. [ 6 marks]
Total 20 marks
9. (a) With the aid of diagrams explain the magnetic effect on a current carrying conductor.
[ 6 marks]
(ii) reluctance
(c) (i) Draw the diagram of a typical circuit that will produce the B  H characteristics
of a thoroid. [ 5 marks]
Total 20 marks
END OF TEST
22117020/CAPE 2008
TEST CODE 02217020
FORM TP 2008187 MAY/JUNE 2008
Unit 2  Paper 02
2 ~ hours
1. This paper consists of NINE questions. Candidates must attempt SIX questions.
2. The paper consists of THREE Modules, each having THREE questions. Candidates
are required to answer Questions 1, 4 and 7 and ONE other question from EACH
Module.
MODULE I
AC CIRCUIT THEORY
You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this Module.
Figure 1
(a) Use the axes provided to plot a complete sinusiodal waveform of a voltage of 250 V at
50 Hz. [5 marks]
(b) Calculate the following and identify them on the sine wave plotted in (a).
(i) Amplitude
(ii) rms voltage
(iii) Peak voltage
(iv) Average voltage over ~ cycle
(v) Instantaneous voltage
...~v.tv.il (1~'rnonoonrr~,
IOQ 0.2J1( 2 mH ·I
~oo 2V ~o~
Figure 2
Calculate:
Total 30 marks
2. (a) A single pole motor rated at 8 kW operates on a 220 V, 50 Hz supply with an efficiency
of 86% and a power factor of 0.8 lagging.
Calculate
(b) Calculate the capacitance required in parallel with the motor in (a) to raise the power
factor to 0.9lagging. [ 8 marks]
Total 20 marks
3. (a) In relation to filters , define the following and illustrate using suitable diagrams.
(ii) Determine the cutoff frequency for aRC low pass filter when
(c) Figure 3 shows a threeway speaker system which needs a filter for its midrange speaker
for proper operation.
Cl
c2
Ll
Amplifier
output L2
Figure 3
(ii) Determine the impedance of the capacitor at the high frequency and indicate if
its value would contribute significantly to the impedance of the circuit.
[ 3 marks]
(iii) What is the name of the filter being used for the midrange speaker?
[ 1 mark]
Total 20 marks
MODULE2
You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this Module.
4. (a) (i) Write down the truth table for the half adder circuit. [ 5 marks]
(ii) Draw a circuit diagram showing how you implement the half adder
[ 5 marks]
(i) Draw a truth table to show the output X for the inputs A, B and C.
[ 5 marks]
(ii) Using either Boolean algebra or Karnaugh maps, simplify the expression.
[lOmarks]
Total 30 marks
5. Figure 4 shows a 555 timer used to produce clock pulses and Figure 5 shows the spec sheet for
the 555 timer (shown in Figure 4).
Vee
RA ~ .:!:8.,
7 4r
555
timer
31o
Output
1 5
Figure 4
Figure 5
(a) For a particular application, a high time of 0.006 seconds and a low time of 0.004 seconds
is required.
(i) Use the formulas to calculate the value of R 8 needed to produce the required
low time if a capacitance C = 0.01 ~tF is used in the circuit. [ 2 marks]
(ii) Use the value of R 8 calculated in (i) to calculate RA for the required high time.
[ 3 marks]
(c) Draw a diagram showing how JK flipflops can be used to implement a 3bit serialin,
serialout shift register. [ 4 marks]
.Total 20 marks
(i) What is the analogue voltage for a binary input 101101 2 ? [4 marks]
(ii) Explain what is meant by the term 'resolution' with respect toaD/A converter.
[2 marks]
(iii) What is the percentage resolution of a 10 bit D/A converter? [2 marks]
(b) A digital signal is sent over a long transmission line and is attenuated.
(i) Explain how the original signal can be recovered from the attenuated signal.
[3 marks]
(ii) Explain the method of using even parity for detecting errors in the transmitted
data. [3 marks]
(c) With the aid of diagrams, describe briefly the following networks.
(i) Ring
(ii) Star
(iii) Bus [6 marks]
Total 20 marks
MODULE3
INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES
You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this Module.
7. (a) Draw and label a circuit diagram for a wound rotor induction motor (WRIM) connected
to a variable resistor bank. [6 marks]
(b) Explain what obtains when the rotor resistance of the WR.IM is adjusted. [3 marks]
(c) Define 'rotor slip'. [2 marks]
(d) An eightpole 50 Hz squirrel cage induction motor (SCIM) is loaded to the point where
stalling occurs. If the resistance per phase is 0.3 .Q and the motor stalls at 600 rpm
calculate
Total 30 marks
8. (a) The schematic diagram for a practical transformer is shown in Figure 6. Identify the
parameters numbered 1 to 5 or 4 to 8.
1 2 6 7
4 8
... ... ~  ......
' '
Vi
Figure 6
[ 5 marks]
(b) A 24 000 I 240 V, 500 kVA, 50 Hz step down transformer has the following values:
r, = 0.1 Q
r2 = 0.001 Q
~I = 0.3 Q
~2 = 0.003 Q
(iv) the primary and secondary induced voltages assuming that the terminal and
induced voltages are in phase [ 3 marks]
(v) the ratio of primary to secondary induced voltages and primary to secondary
terminal voltage. [ 3 marks]
Total 20 marks
9. (a) What is the MAIN difference between a synchronous alternator and a d.c. generator?
[3 marks]
(d) A 2300 V, 2500 kVA threephase delta connected alternator has a resistance of 0.1 QJ
phase and a synchronous reactance of 1.5 Q/phase. If the alternator is adjusted to rated
voltage at no load, calculate its terminal voltage when carrying rated current at a power
factor of 0.6lagging. [12 marks]
Total 20 marks
END OF TEST
02217020/CAPE 2008
TEST CODE 22217020
FORM TP 2008187 MAY/JUNE 2008
Unit 2 Paper 02
2; hours
MODULEl
AC CffiCUIT THEORY
You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this Module.
1. (a) With the aid of a diagram and in relation to an AC waveform define the following terms
(i) period
(ii) amplitude
(iii) rms value [ 6 marks]
(b) In Figure 1, OA represents the current in a circuit and OB represents the voltage across
the load. Copy Figure 1 in your answer booklet and answer the following questions
(i) Use the axis provided to plot ONE complete cycle of the voltage waveform.
(ii) On the waveform plotted, identify an instantaneous voltage, the average voltage
over one cycle and the period.
(iii) If the period is 0.02 sec, what is the frequency of the voltage? [ 8 marks]
V,I
Figure 1
(e) What value capacitor could be employed to reduce the phase angle between the current
and the applied voltage to zero? (Show your calculation) [ 4 marks]
Total 30 marks
2. (a) Express in rectangular and polar notations the impedance of a resistor of 50 Q in series
with an inductor of 0.2 H operating on a 50Hz voltage supply. [ 4 marks]
(b) The circuit shown in Figure 2 is connected to a 200 V 50 Hz supply. The resistance
R = 150 Q , capacitance = 200 J..Lf and the inductance = 0.2 H.
Calculate
(iii) the phase angle between the supply current and the supply voltage.
Supply
voltage=
R= lSOQ c =200jlf
200V,S0Hz
Figure 2
[12marks]
(c) Draw the phasor diagram to represent the circuit, assuming the capacitor and inductor
are pure reactances. [ 4 marks]
Total 20 marks
3. (a) (i) With the aid of a diagram explain the function of a band pass filter.
[ 4 marks]
(ii) Describe a technique that could be used to produce a band pass filter
characteristic. [ 3 marks]
(b) Figure 3 shows a RLC circuit:
20Q
Figure 3
MODULE2
You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this Module.
4. (a) With reference to the two transistor analogy shown in Figure 4, explain the operation of
a thyristor. A [15 marks]
Go'
Figure 4
(b) What is meant by the 'holding current of a thyristor' ? [ 3marks]
(c) Explain the operation of the serial shift register shown in Figure 5. [ 8 marks]
OPe
4
·~
4

Input
s
A
Q s
B
Q s
c
Q ~
+ r+ r+
 [>o p Q R Q R Qfe
Clock
Figure 5
Total 20 marks
6. (a) State what are 'counters' and describe their operation. [ 4 marks]
(b) Develop a table to demonstrate the behaviour of a pure binary counter with THREE
outputs, A, B and C, and the number of input pulses received. [ 4 marks]
(c) Three of the basic logic gates are AND, OR and NAND. Choose TWO of these logic
gates and for EACH with three inputs
Total 20 marks
MODULE3
INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES
You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this Module.
7. (a) (i) What is the purpose of the damper winding in a synchronous motor?
[ 1 mark]
(ii) Give another name for the damper winding. [ 1 mark]
Figure 6
(c) Outline the effects of over and under excitation on armature reaction of a synchronous
dynamo. [ 4 marks]
(d) Outline THREE advantages of synchronous motors over induction motors.
[ 6 marks]
(e) (i) Determine the speed of a synchronous motor which has 4 poles and is connected
to a 120 V, 50 Hz supply. [ 3 marks]
(ii) If the motor is retarded 5° (mechanical) from its synchronous position, calculate
the resulting shift in electrical degrees. [ 3 marks]
Total 30 marks
8. (a) With aid of diagrams, describe TWO types of single phase induction motors. In your
description, state how they can be made to reverse their direction of rotation.
[lOmarks]
(b) Sketch and label a typical torque/speed characteristic of a single phase induction motor.
[ 3 marks]
(c) List THREE uses of single phase induction motors. [ 3 marks]
(d) At the instant of starting, aT hp split phase motor draws a current of 4 Amperes lagging
by 15° in its starting winding and a current of 6 Amperes lagging by 40° in its running
winding. Calculate the locked rotor current and the power factor. [ 4 marks]
Total 20 marks
9. (a) Draw and label the equivalent circuit for a practical transformer connected to a load.
[ 8 marks]
(b) The following parameters are associated with a step down transformer.
Calculate EACH of the following for BOTH the primary and the secondary windings.
(i) Currents
(ii) Internal impedances
(iii) Magnitude of the internal voltage drops
(iv) Induced voltages
[12marks]
Total 20 marks
END OF TEST
22217020/CAPE 2008
' I
Unit 1 Paper 01
I; hours
c 15MAY2009(p.m.))
MODULE!
DC CffiCUIT THEORY
1. (a) Explain what is meant by the term ' temperature coefficient of resistance' and write the
symbol. [3 marks]
2.2 k Q 2.2 kQ
L111 J .           _ , 1
120V
Calculate the
Total 6 marks
2. (a) A constant current of 8 rnA charges a 15 ~capacitor for two seconds. Calculate the
voltage across the capacitor. [4 marks]
(b) Three capacitors of values 4 11F, 8 ~ and 16 ~ are connected in series. Calculate the
TOTAL capacitance. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
(b) An aircore coil has 500 turns. The inductance of the coil is 0.2 Hand a current of 4 A
is allowed to flow through the coil. Calculate the flux in the coil. [2 marks]
(c) State TWO factors on which the inductance of a coil depends. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
(b) Determine the energy stored in a 6 J..LF capacitor when the voltage between its terminals
is 50 V. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
5. (a) Explain THREE ways in which the inductance of an aircored coil can be significantly
increased. [3 marks]
(b) Two coils L 1 = 500 mH and L 2 = 800 mH have a coefficient of coupling, K, equal to
0.3. Calculate the mutual inductance. [3 marks]
Total 6 marks
MODULE2
ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATIONS
You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.
6. (a) Describe the function of a light emitting diode (LED) and state TWO applications.
[3 marks]
(b) Figure 2 shows a light emitting diode connected across a 10 V supply.
Figure 2
(i) What would be the voltage across R? [1 mark]
(ii) Calculate the value of resistor R and its power rating. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
=150
c~
h Fe
VBE =0.7 v
~11/J'
Figure 3
(a) Calculate the
(i) value of the collector current Ic [2 marks]
(ii) value of the voltage Vee· [2 marks]
(b) Sketch and label a typical static characteristic for a npn transistor connected in common
emitter configuration. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
(b) An amplitude modulated wave has a maximum value of 6.5 V and a minimum value of
4.3 V. What is the depth of modulation? [2 marks]
Total6 marks
(b) With regard to radiation from a transmitting aerial, explain what is a "ground wave",
and identify TWO factors on which the range of the wave depends. [3 marks]
Total 6 marks
(b) Identify FOUR factors in an oscillator's circuit that can cause a change in its operating
frequency. [4 marks]
Total 6 marks
 6 
MODULE3
12. (a) State ONE difference between a d.c. generator and a d.c. motor. [1 mark]
(c) Identify and describe TWO categories of commutator losses in d.c. machines.
[3 marks]
Total6 marks
13. (a) Draw a c ircuit which can be used to demonstrate Lenz's law and explain its operation.
[4 marks]
(b) With a flux of 300 )...lWb through an area of 0.0005 m 2 , what is the flux density of the
circuit in tesla units? [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
14. (a) Identify and state the function of TWO subsystems of a SCADA system.
[4 marks]
(b) Explain what is meant by 'half duplex communication'. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
(b) State what is a 'circuit breaker', and explain how a thermally actuated circuit breaker
operates . [4 marks]
Total 6 marks
END OF TEST
02117010/CAPE 2009
, I
Unit 2 Paper 01
1; hours
MODULE!
AC CIRCUIT THEORY
1. With the aid of a labelled diagram of an a.c. sine wave, explain the
Total 6 marks
(i) Reactance
(b) Figure 1 shows a parallel circuit with purely resistive and reactive elements.
IR Ic
R=
lrv 47Q
L=
0.22H
120 JlF
nov
60Hz
(i) Draw a phasor diagram to illustrate the phase relationship of the currents
flowing in the circuit. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
(ii) Illustrate, with the aid of a diagram, the frequency response of a notch filter
and state where its GREATEST rate of change occurs. [2 marks]
(b) (i) Draw and label an RLC circuit of a high pass filter.
(ii) What is the function of the high pass filter circuit? [3 marks]
Total 6 marks
(b) An alternating voltage has the equation, 282.8 sin 377t. What is the rms voltage?
[2 marks]
Total 6 marks
5. A coil having a resistance of 20 ohms and an inductance of 0.4 H is connected across a 110 V,
60 Hz supply.
(iv) phase difference between the current and the applied voltage.
[4 marks]
(b) Draw the circuit and sketch its phasor diagram. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
MODULE2
(c) Illustrate the various modes of operation using the transfer characteristic of the MOSFET.
[2 marks]
Total 6 marks
7. (a) Identify the difference between "fanin" and "fanout" as they relate to logic circuits.
[2 marks]
(b) Prepare the truth table for the circuit in Figure 2 and state the type of logic gate it
represents.
>o~F
Total 6 marks
8. (a) State what are 'multivibrators', indicating the names of TWO such devices.
[4 marks]
(b) Describe the operation of the S.R. Flip Flop outlined in Figure 3.
[2 marks]
Total 6 marks
(i) a multiplexer
(b) State the full name of EPROM and PROM memory systems and describe their
difference. [4 marks]
Total 6 marks
(b) Explain the process of differential phase shift keying modulation technique and state
its advantage over phase modulation. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
 6 
MODULE3
INTRODUCT ION TO AC MACillNES
You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.
Total 6 marks
12. (a) With the aid of a labelled diagram, explain the principle of operation of a single phase
transformer and give the turns and voltage ratio relationship. [4 marks]
(b) Draw and label a phasor diagram for the single phase transformer on noload.
[2 marks]
Total 6 marks
14. A 270 kVA, 12000 V I 415 V, 60Hz single phase transformer has 120 turns on the secondary.
Calculate the
(a) primary and secondary currents [2 marks]
(b) number of primary turns [2 marks]
(c) maximum value of flux. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
Unit 1 Paper 02
1
2yhours
MODULE!
DC CIRCUIT THEORY
You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this Module.
(b) ldentify the subunits of capacitance in common usage and provide their values.
[ 3 marks]
(c) What is 'the dielectric of a capacitor '? Name ONE material that could be used to form
the dielectric. [ 2 marks]
(d) Three capacitors C 1, C 2 and C3 are connected in series across a 240 V d.c. supply. The
pd across the capacitors C 1 and C2 are 50 V and 90 V respectively. If the capacitance of
w,
c2is 8 calculate the
(i) voltage across C3 [ 5 marks]
(e) A 6 )...LF capacitor in series with a 500 k.Q resistor is connected across a 125 V d.c. supply.
Draw a diagram of the circuit and calculate the
Total 30 marks
2. (a) Discuss ONE method which could be used to increase the inductance of an aircore coil.
[ 2marks]
(c) Sketch and label a curve which shows the growth of current in a circuit of known
resistance and inductance (assumed constant). [ 5 marks]
(d) The current through a coil having an inductance of 0.8 His reduced from 6 A to 2 A in
0.06 seconds. Calculate the mean value of the e.m.f. induced in the coil.
[ 6 marks]
Total 20 marks
3. (a) Explain the meaning of EACH of the following terms and provide the symbol and units
for EACH:
(b) State Kirchoff's 1st and 2nd laws as applied to an electrical circuit. [ 2 marks]
(c) The resistance of a length of wire is 30 Qat 18 °C. Calculate its resistance if it is
(i) cooled to 0 oc
(Note: oc
0
for iron is 0.006 per °C.) [lOmarks]
(d) State what is meant by the term 'conductivity' and provide the formula which uses the
geometrical factors of the material to calculate conductivity. [ 2 marks]
Total 20 m arks
MODULE2
You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this Module.
nov
+ cl
 220J..LF 9V
(i) the principle of operation of the Zener Diode, with the aid of a characteristic
curve
Total 30 marks
5. (a) Identify THREE general features of an ideal operational amplifier (OP Amp).
[ 3 marks]
(b) Figure 3 shows an operational amplifier circuit.
vin 
~Ill
1
Figure 3. Operational Amplifier
(i) Calculate the voltage gain (Ay).
(ii) Calculate the value of the output signal.
(iii) State the phase relationship of the output signal to the input signal.
[ 7 marks]
(c) (i) Draw the circuit of a Hartley LC Oscillator.
(ii) Discuss the operation of the Hartley LC Oscillator and state the formula for
determining its resonant frequency. [10 marks]
Total 20 marks
6. (a) (i) A carrier frequency of 560 kHz is amplitude modulated by a 6 kHz sine wave.
State the resultant transmitted frequencies and indicate the upper and lower side
band frequencies. [ 4 marks]
(ii) Calculate how much power is contained in the side bands and the carrier
frequency of a Double Side Band (DSB) signal which contains 2.5 kilowatts.
[ 3marks]
(b) What is the modulation index of a frequency modulated (FM) signal, which has a
carrier swing of 15 kHz, when the modulating signal is 9kHz? [ 3 marks]
(d) What is the MAIN advantage of a superheterodyne receiver? State what is meant by
'heterodyning' in this type of receiver. [ 4 marks]
Total 20 marks
MODULE3
You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this Module.
(b) With the aid of a diagram, explain what happens when a coil is wound on a steel rod and
connected to a battery. [ 4 marks]
(c) Give the symbols and explain what is meant by EACH of the following terms:
(ii) Reluctance
(d) Sketch a typical BH curve for a ferromagnetic material and explain the information
that can be derived from the curve. [ 7 marks]
(e) Calculate the magnetomotive force required to produce a flux of 0.025 wb across an air
gap 3.5 mm long, having an effective area of 300 cm2 • [11 marks]
Total 30 marks
(b) Identify the elements that a SCADA system usually include. [ 3 marks]
(c) Identify FOUR industries in which the SCADA system is usually employed.
[ 4 marks]
(f) State THREE advantages of using digital communication when compared to analogue.
[ 3 marks]
Total 20 marks
 7 
9. (a) (i) State a common type of thermal overload relay and explain its operation.
(ii) State the MAIN purpose of using thermal overload relays with electric motors
and state THREE problems thermal overload relays assist in preventing.
(b) Explain the operation of a fuse and state ONE area where it is used. [ 3 marks]
(c) Explain what is meant by the following types of currents in a protection scheme:
Total 20 marks
END OF TEST
02117020/CAPE 2009
TEST CODE 02217020
FORM TP 2009178 MAY/JUNE 2009
Unit 2 Paper 02
2; hours
MODULE!
AC CffiCUIT THEORY
You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this Module.
(c) With the aid of frequency response curves, explain the functions of the following filters:
(d) An LC circuit is resonant at 4000kHz and has a Q of 120. Find the TOTAL bandwidth,
~.and the edge frequencies, F 1 and F 2 • [ 5 marks]
(e) State the effect of a Low or High Q on the bandwidth of a filter. [ 2 marks]
(f) A filter is required to pass all frequencies above 6 kHz and to have a nominal impedance
of 560 Q. Calculate the circuit values for capacitance and inductance for BOTH aT and
n filter section, and design the filter circuit for EACH. [10 marks]
Total 30 marks
2. (a) Draw and label a sinusoidal wave form for one cycle. [ 2 marks]
(c) A coil with an inductance of 0.05 Hand resistance of 10 ohms is connected across a
110 V, 60Hz supply. Draw the circuit diagram and calculate the
(ii) phase angle between the current and the applied voltage
(d) An alternating voltage has an equation, V = 186.5 sin 514t. Calculate the value of the
Total 20 marks
3. (a) Explain the meaning of the term 'resonant frequency ' . [ 2marks]
(d) Draw the phasor diagram of an RLC circuit, and state the current/voltage relationships
above the resonant frequency. [ 2 marks]
Total 20 marks
MODULE2
You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this Module.
4. (a) (i) Draw the symbol of a thyristor and describe its operation. [ 7 marks]
(ii) State THREE ways how the thyristor can be switched into forward conduction.
[ 3 marks]
(iii) Draw and label the static characteristics of the thyristor. [ 3 marks]
(iv) In relation to the thyristor, state what is meant by the term 'forced commuta
tion'. [ 2 marks]
(b) (i) Draw the symbol for TWO main types of bipolar transistors.
2 marks]
(iii) Name the THREE modes in which the transistor can operate.
[ 3 marks]
(c) Draw a block diagram to show the basic process of a DC to DC convertor, and explain
its operation. [ 5 marks]
Total 30 marks
(b) (i) State what is meant by the term 'noise' in communication systems.
(c) With the aid of block diagrams, state how the data flows in EACH of the following
modes of operation of digital information:
(i) Simplex
(d) The input signal to a receiver is 96 J..lV and the internal noise at the input is 12 J..lV.
The signal at the output after being amplified is 3 V and the noise at the output is
0.6 V. Calculate the noise figure (NF). [ 3 marks]
Total 20 marks
6. (a) Explain the meaning of EACH of the following terms as they relate to D/A convertors:
(i) Resolution
(b) What is the reference voltage needed for aTbit D/A convertor to generate a maximum
output voltage of 8 V. [ 3 marks]
(c) Draw a diagram of a twobit binary decoder and explain its operation.
[ 7 marks]
(d) Explain the operation of the closed loop sample and hold circuit shown in Figure 1 and
state ONE major application of the circuit.
Mode
Control
Total 20 marks
MODULE3
INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES
You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this Module.
(ii) State what is meant by the term 'voltage regulation' and provide the formula for
calculating the voltage regulation
(iii) State FOUR methods used in the construction to reduce leakage flux
[11 marks]
(b) The primary and secondary windings of a 440 kVA transformer have resistance of
0.5 Q and 0.0025 Q respectively. The primary and secondary voltage are 11000 V and
450 V respectively and the core loss is 3.6 kilowatts. Assuming the power factor of the
load to be 0.85, calculate the
Total 30 marks
8. (a) State the fundamental differences between the 'squirrelcage' and 'woundrotor '
induction motors. [ 6 marks]
(b) With the aid of a diagram, explain the term SLIP as it relates to an induction motor.
[ 4 marks]
(d) A 14 pole, 60Hz induction motor runs at 440 r/m. Calculate the:
(i) SLIP
Total 20 marks
GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
02217020/CAPE 2009
..
 7 
9. (a) In relation to a synchronous motor, state what is meant by EACH of the following
terms:
(b) Explain what is meant by 'per unit voltage regulation of a generator' and provide the
formula for its calculation. [ 4 marks]
(c) Draw the equivalent circuit of a synchronous generator, state what the elements repre
sent, and how the synchronous impedance can be derived. Give the formula used.
[ 6marks]
(d) State TWO principal advantages and THREE disadvantages of a synchronous motor.
[ 5 marks]
Total 20 marks
END OF TEST
02217020/CAPE 2009
TEST CODE 02117010
FORM TP 2010168 MAY/JUNE 2010
Unit 1 – Paper 01
1 ½ hours
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions arranged in THREE sections. Each section
is based on a Module of the syllabus. Candidates must attempt ALL questions.
2. The paper consists of THREE Modules, each having FIVE questions. EACH Module
is worth 30 marks.
MODULE 1
DC CIRCUIT THEORY
1. (a) The total resistance of the circuit shown in Figure 1 is 380 Ω. What is the value of R4?
(b) What is the current through R4 if the supply voltage is 20 V d.c.? [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
2. (a) Define the term ‘capacitance’ and give its unit. [2 marks]
(b) (i) Determine the charge stored by a capacitor having a capacitance of 100 µF when
it is connected across a 500V d.c. supply. [2 marks]
(ii) If the thickness of the dielectric between the plates of the capacitor in (b) (i) is
0.3 mm, determine the electric field strength of the capacitor. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
(b) A coil having 500 turns wound on a nonmagnetic material has an inductance of 10 mH.
Calculate the flux produced by a current of 10 Amperes. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
(b) Use Norton’s Theorem to determine the current in the 18 Ω resistor (R3) in Figure 2.
Total 6 marks
5. Define the following terms and give their symbol and units.
Total 6 marks
MODULE 2
6. (a) Explain how the depletion layer in a PN junction diode is developed. Use a diagram to
illustrate your answer. [4 marks]
(b) State what happens to a PN junction diode when a reverse voltage in excess of the peak
inversevoltage (PIV) is applied. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
(a) Describe the central idea of its operation and state TWO reasons for its extensive use in
communication systems. [3 marks]
(b) State the purpose of the automatic gain control (AGC). [2 marks]
(c) State what is meant by the term ‘Sensitivity’ of the receiver. [1 mark ]
Total 6 marks
(b) Determine the voltage gain and the output voltage of the operational amplifier shown in
Figure 3.
Rf
Rin 22 kΩ
2.2 kΩ VO
+
Vin = +4 V
RL 10 kΩ
Total 6 marks
9. (a) Define the following terms as they relate to the propagation of electromagnetic waves and
indicate their wavebands.
(b) State TWO factors that influence the range of a ground wave. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
10. The silicon transistor used in the circuit shown in Figure 4 has a ß d.c. of 100. Calculate the d.c.
voltage between the collector and the emitter.
Total 6 marks
MODULE 3
(b) Use diagrams to illustrate what happens when a straight current carrying conductor is
placed in a magnetic field. [2 marks]
(c) What is the average e.m.f. induced in a coil having 1500 turns if the flux of 500 µWb is
reversed in 0.1 seconds? [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
Total 6 marks
Total 6 marks
(b) Outline the functions of the temperature control relay and explain how temperature
control is accomplished using this device. [3 marks]
Total 6 marks
On one set of axes, sketch and label the torqueload characteristic curves for the following d.c.
15.
motor configurations.
(a) Series
(b) Shunt
(c) Differential compound
[6 marks]
Total 6 marks
END OF TEST
02117010/CAPE 2010
TEST CODE 02117020
FORM TP 2010169 MAY/JUNE 2010
Unit 1 – Paper 02
2 ½ hours
1. This paper consists of NINE questions. Candidates must attempt SIX questions.
2. The paper consists of THREE Modules, each having THREE questions. Candidates
must answer Questions 1, 4 and 7 and ONE other question from EACH Module.
MODULE 1
DC CIRCUIT THEORY
You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this Module.
(b) Indicate the symbol and unit used for electromotive force, (e.m.f.) and state the THREE
principal sources from which an e.m.f. is obtained. [ 8 marks]
(c)
For the circuit shown in Figure 1, calculate the
(i) total current, IT
(ii) branch currents, I1 and I3
(iii) supply voltage, E.
(d) Use Kirchoff’s laws to determine the currents flowing through EACH of the branches in
the circuit shown in Figure 2.
2. (a) Define the following terms as they relate to a capacitor, and state their units.
(i) Relative permittivity
(c) A potential difference of 120 V is maintained across a capacitor which is constructed with
seven metal plates that are separated by sheets of mica each having a thickness of 0.5 mm
and relative permittivity of 4. If So = 8.85 x 10–12 F/M and the area of one side of each
plate is 400 cm2.
Calculate the
(i) capacitance of the capacitor
(ii) charge on the capacitor
(iii) electric field strength
(iv) electric flux density in the dielectric. [10 marks]
Total 20 marks
(b) State THREE factors that determine the inductance of a coil? [ 3 marks]
(c) Calculate the peak current flowing in the circuit shown in Figure 4.
(d) Explain the action of an inductor when the current passing through it changes, and express
the action in a mathematical formula. [ 3 marks]
(e) A coil of 500 turns is uniformly wound on a core consisting of a nonmagnetic material,
and has an inductance of 25 mH. Calculate the
Total 20 marks
MODULE 2
You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this Module.
4. Figure 5 shows the circuit for a full wave power supply connected to a 120 Ω load.
(a) Describe the operation of the circuit. [17 marks]
(c) Sketch the waveforms that would be found at points A and B. [ 2 marks]
Total 30 marks
(b) Draw the block diagram of an FM receiver and state the purpose of any THREE of its
stages. [13 marks]
(c) State how noise is produced and removed from an FM receiver. [ 2 marks]
(i) sidebands
Total 20 marks
6. (a) Explain the construction of a bipolar junction transistor and state how it must be biased
when placed in a circuit to operate as an amplifier. [ 4 marks]
(b) An amplifier stage has a transistor of h parameters hie = 400 Ω, h Fe = 100 and
hoe = 20 µS, and bias components and coupling capacitors of negligible effect. The input
signal consists of an e.m.f. of 50 mV and a source internal resistance of 2.7 kΩ. The total
load at the stage output is 4.7 kΩ. Draw the equivalent amplifier circuit and calculate
Total 20 marks
MODULE 3
You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this Module.
7. (a) Identify FOUR subsystems of a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)
system and outline the function of EACH subsystem [ 8 marks]
(b) Discuss how a GPS system could be used to enhance a SCADA system.
[ 4 marks]
(c) Discuss THREE major security concerns regarding SCADA systems. In your discussion,
outline how these concerns are being addressed by engineers. [ 8 marks]
(d) Draw a labelled diagram that represents a SCADA system designed for managing a power
system. The system should be capable of transmitting data via the power lines, a GPS
link, and an internet link. [10 marks]
Total 30 marks
(iv)
m.m.f. required to produce the total flux across an air gap of 3 mm long and having
an area of 0.02 m2.
[14 marks]
Total 20 marks
(b)
Identify TWO problems introduced in the d.c. dynamo as a result of the communication
process? What actions can be taken to reduce the effects of these problems?
[ 4 marks]
(c) Discuss TWO methods by which an armature reaction can be compensated in d.c. dynamos.
[ 4 marks]
(d) A twopole dynamo rotates at a speed of 1500 rpm. The diameter of the commutator is
160 mm and comprises 50 bars, and the brushes span a linear distance of 20 mm. The
full load armature current is 50 A. Neglecting the thickness of the insulation between the
commutator bars, calculate the
Total 20 marks
END OF TEST
02117020/CAPE 2010
TEST CODE 02217010
FORM TP 2010170 MAY/JUNE 2010
Unit 2 – Paper 01
1 ½ hours
1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions. Candidates must attempt ALL questions.
2. The paper consists of THREE Modules, each having FIVE questions. Each Module
is worth 30 marks.
MODULE 1
AC CIRCUIT THEORY
(b) Sketch a sinusiodal waveform and identify the following on the sketch:
(i) The peak to peak value
(ii) The r.m.s. value [3 marks]
Total 6 marks
2. A resistor of 120 Ω is connected in series with a pure inductor of 280 mH. The circuit is
supplied with a 250 V, 50 Hz, sinusoidal supply.
Total 6 marks
3. Sketch and label the frequency response for EACH of the following filters. In EACH case show
the cutoff frequency.
(a) Low pass
(b) Band pass
(c) Notch
[6 marks]
Total 6 marks
Total 6 marks
5. Two voltages are given by the following quantities:
A = 10 + j 8 Volts
B = 16 + j 4 Volts
(b) Add the two phasors using complex arithmetic and express in polar notation.
[3 marks]
Total 6 marks
MODULE 2
Total 6 marks
(b) Describe the difference between ‘frequency shift keying’ (FSK) and ‘differential
frequency shift keying’ (DFSK) in digital modulation techniques. [4 marks]
Total 6 marks
Total 6 marks
9. (a) Draw the symbol of a threeinput AND gate, construct its truth table and state its Boolean
expression. [3 marks]
(b) Define the term ‘coding’ as it relates to logic circuits. [1 mark ]
(c) State the difference between a ‘min term’ and a ‘max term’ as they relate to logic
circuits. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
10. (a) State TWO features which differentiate between ROM and RAM memory systems.
[2 marks]
(b) Explain the operation of the analogue to digital converter circuit shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Counter (single ramp analogue to digital converter)
[4 marks]
Total 6 marks
MODULE 3
INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES
11. The equivalent circuit for a transformer is shown in Figure 2. Identify the components labelled
1 – 6.
Total 6 marks
12. (a) Identify the losses which occur in a transformer on load. [4 marks]
(b) What condition must be met in order to achieve maximum efficiency in a transformer?
[2 marks]
Total 6 marks
(b) Use diagrams to show the relationships of the variables which constitute the synchronous
impedance. [3 marks]
Total 6 marks
14. Figure 3 displays the torque slip curves for an induction motor.
Total 6 marks
15. Describe THREE methods used for starting a synchronous motor. [6 marks]
Total 6 marks
END OF TEST
02217010/CAPE 2010
TEST CODE 02217020
FORM TP 2010171 MAY/JUNE 2010
Unit 2 – Paper 02
2 ½ hours
1. This paper consists of NINE questions. Candidates must attempt SIX questions.
2. The paper consists of THREE Modules, each having THREE questions. Candidates
are required to answer Questions 1, 4 and 7 and ONE other question from EACH
Module.
MODULE 1
AC CIRCUIT THEORY
You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this Module.
1. (a) Define the following terms, state the formula for calculating each and state their units:
Calculate the
(i) rms voltage
(ii) average value of the voltage
(iii) frequency
(iv) instantaneous voltage when t = 3 ms. [11 marks]
(c) (i) Use a diagram to show the relationship between capacitive reactance ( χC) and
frequency for a variation of χC in a purely capacitive circuit.
[ 4 marks]
(ii) Draw and label the phasor diagram that represents a purely capacitive circuit.
[ 2 marks]
(d)
For the circuit shown in Figure 1, state the formula to calculate the total circuit
impedance and construct the expected phasor diagram in relation to the total impedance.
Total 30 marks
(b) Figure 2 shows a parallel RLC circuit with R = 2.2 kΩ, L = 5 mH, and C = 0.24 µF.
(c) Draw a series circuit with the following components R = 8 Ω, L = 0.25 H and a variable
capacitor (C) connected across a 120 V, 60 Hz supply. Calculate
(ii) the voltages across the capacitor and the inductor at resonance
Total 20 marks
(c) (i) Draw the symbols for a low pass and a high pass filter. [ 2 marks]
(ii) Draw and label the frequency attenuation characteristics for a low pass and a
high pass filter. [ 4 marks]
(iii) Draw labelled diagrams for the π section of a low pass filter and a high pass
filter. [ 4 marks]
(d) A low pass filter is required to produce a nominal impedance of 560 Ω and a cut off
frequency of 1620 Hz.
Total 20 marks
MODULE 2
You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this Module.
4. (a) With the aid of a labelled block diagram, describe a computer network that uses ‘STAR’
topology, stating the factors affecting the choice of interconnecting wires. Outline TWO
MAIN advantages and TWO disadvantages of the STAR topology. [12 marks]
(b) Identify where, in a computer network, a network interface card is used and the factors
that must be considered when choosing the card. [ 3 marks]
(c) State why network technologies are used in computer networks and indicate the names
of the two most popular ones that are used. [ 4 marks]
(d) Compare the quality of the ‘BUS,’ ‘STAR’ and ‘RING’ topologies in terms of their
reliability and efficiency. [ 6 marks]
(i) UART
Total 30 marks
(b) Explain the function of the circuit shown in Figure 3 and state the equation for its output.
Figure 3. 4 – 1 Multiplexer
[ 7 marks]
(i) Static
(ii) Dynamic
Total 20 marks
(d) Draw the symbols and construct truth tables for the following devices:
Total 20 marks
MODULE 3
INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES
You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this Module.
7. (a) With aid of diagram(s) describe the operation of a singlephase, capacitorrun induction
motor which incorporates a centrifugal switch. [ 6 marks]
(b) Draw a diagram to show the phase relations which exist between the variables in the
singlephase, capacitorrun induction motor. [ 6 marks]
(c) Outline SIX general features of the splitphase, capacitorrun motor. [ 6 marks]
(e) A capacitor is added to the auxillary starting winding of a 1 hp, 110 V splitphase
motor which originally draws 4 Amperes lagging the supply voltage by 15° and a
running winding current of 6 Amperes lagging at 40°. The addition of the capacitor
causes the starting winding current to lead the supply voltage by 42°. If the magnitude
of the current remains the same, calculate at the instant of starting.
8. (a) Draw a labelled diagram that represents a practical transformer and explain the function
of EACH component. [ 8 marks]
Total 20 marks
(b) Explain what is the synchronous impedance voltage drop of a synchronous motor. Use
a vector diagram to support your answer. [ 4 marks]
(c) The data obtained from a synchronous alternator under test are:
[10 marks]
Total 20 marks
END OF TEST
02217020/CAPE 2010
TEST CODE 02117010
FORM TP 2011172 MAY/JUNE 2011
UNIT 1 – PAPER 01
1½ hours
MODULE 1
DC CIRCUIT THEORY
(b) The circuit shown in Figure 1 is connected to a d.c. voltage source of 60 volts. Determine
the power dissipated by the 24 Ω resistor. [ 5 marks]
32Ω
12Ω 24Ω 8Ω
16Ω
60V d.c.
2. (a) Determine the total capacitance in a circuit with two capacitors of value 15 μF and
25 μF connected in series. [ 2 marks]
(b) A capacitor consists of two metal plates each of 500 mm × 500 mm spaced 5 mm apart
with paper dielectric having a relative permeability of 2.3. Calculate the
(ii) charge across the capacitor if a voltage of 12 V d.c. is placed across it.
[ 4 marks]
Total 6 marks
3. (a) Identify FOUR types of fixed capacitors and indicate the capacitance range in which
they BEST operate. [ 4 marks]
(b) A 100 μF capacitor is fully charged from a 120 V supply. It is then discharged through
a 75 kΩ resistor. Determine the initial value of the current and sketch a curve showing
how the discharged current varies with time. [ 2 marks]
Total 6 marks
4. (a) State THREE physical factors which determine the inductance of a coil. [ 3 marks]
(b) A coil of 600 turns has an inductance of 15 mH when wound on a core of nonmagnetic
material. Determine the flux it produces when a current of 8A is passed through it.
[ 3 marks]
Total 6 marks
(b) (i) Sketch and label a diagram which can be used to demonstrate mutual inductance.
(ii) State ONE function of the iron core on which the coils are wound.
[ 4 marks]
Total 6 marks
MODULE 2
(b) State what is meant by the ‘dc Beta, βdc, of a transistor’. [ 1 mark ]
(c) In a common emitter circuit, the transistor has a collector current of 20 mA and a base
current IB of 0.2 mA.
Calculate the
Total 6 marks
(b) Name the oscillator shown in Figure 2 and explain its operation. [ 4 marks]
Figure 2: Oscillator
Total 6 marks
(b) Identify the frequency range in which ground waves propagate, and the type of surface
over which they travel furthest. [ 2 marks]
Total 6 marks
Calculate the
Total 6 marks
10. A FM carrier wave (FCS) of 135 MHz is modulated by an audio tone which creates a frequency
deviation FD of 45 kHz.
Calculate the
(b) LOWEST and HIGHEST frequencies that are created by the FM signal.
[ 4 marks]
Total 6 marks
MODULE 3
(b) Use a labelled diagram to illustrate Fleming’s left hand rule. [ 3 marks]
Total 6 marks
12. (a) State TWO of the main features of a wave winding in a d.c. machine. [ 2 marks]
(b) Sketch a labelled diagram showing a coil of the wave winding. [ 2 marks]
Total 6 marks
13. (a) Differentiate between ‘earth fault’ and ‘short circuit fault’. [ 2 marks]
(b) Sketch and label the crosssection of a BS1362 ceramic fuse. [ 4 marks]
Total 6 marks
(b) (i) What is the ʻRemote Terminal Unitʼ (RTU) in a SCADA system? [ 1 mark ]
15. (a) Draw a labelled diagram of a circuit used to determine the opencircuit and noload
characteristics of a separately excited d.c. generator. [ 3 marks]
(b) (i) Sketch the characteristic curve expected from the d.c. generator for increasing
and decreasing excitation. [ 2 marks]
(ii) What accounts for the remaining output voltage when the field current is returned
to zero? [ 1 mark ]
Total 6 marks
END OF TEST
02117010/CAPE 2011
TEST CODE 02117020
FORM TP 2011173 MAY/JUNE 2011
UNIT I – PAPER 02
2½ hours
MODULE 1
DC CIRCUIT THEORY
You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this Module.
(b) Give the symbol for a variable inductor and use a labelled diagram to explain how this
device works. [ 4 marks]
(c) (i) Define the term ‘coefficient of coupling’ as related to inductive coils.
(ii) With reference to coils, explain how low coefficient of coupling occurs and give
the term used to refer to its occurrence. [ 3 marks]
(d) Define the term ‘mutual inductance’ and give its unit and its formula. [ 5 marks]
(e) The inductances of two coils are 30 mH and 18 mH respectively. Together they have
a mutual induction of 8 mH. If the currents through the coils are 0.8 A and 2.2 A
respectively, draw the assembly and calculate the
(i) total energy stored, assuming that the fluxes are in opposition
Total 30 marks
2. (a) Sketch and label curves to show the variation of current and potential difference with
respect to time for a capacitor of 10 μF during charging. [ 4 marks]
(b) The capacitor in (a) is connected in series with a resistor of 0.4 MΩ and the combination
is connected across a 200 V d.c. supply.
(iv) Determine the time taken for the potential difference (p.d.) across the capacitor
to reach 160 volts. [ 5 marks]
(v) Determine the current and the p.d. across the capacitor 4 seconds after it is
connected across the voltage source. [ 4 marks]
Total 20 marks
R1 30 Ω R2 50 Ω
Vs = 48 V A B
R3 20 Ω R4 15 Ω
Calculate the
(iii) If R2 is made of copper, calculate its resistance when its temperature reaches
60 ºC (temperature coefficient of copper = 0.00428). [ 2 marks]
Total 20 marks
MODULE 2
You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this Module.
(b) State the type of impurities used to dope a silicon crystal which creates
(c) With the aid of a block diagram of a PN junction diode, describe electron flow when the
diode is forward biased. [ 7 marks]
(e) A Zener diode has a power rating of 500 mW and a voltage rating of 10 V. Calculate
the current rating of the diode. [ 4 marks]
(f) (i) What is meant by the term ‘ripple’ in a power supply? [ 2 marks]
(iii) State FOUR advantages that a bridge power supply has over a full wave power
supply that utilizes two diodes. [ 4 marks]
Total 30 marks
(b) Draw the symbol for an op amp indicating the noninverting and the inverting inputs.
[ 3 marks]
(c) State the relationship of the phase of the output signal to that of the input signal in the
opamp in the
R1 22 kΩ
V1
RF 220 kΩ
R2 68 kΩ
V2
R3 120 kΩ −
V3 V0
+
V1 = +2.5V
V2 = −5V
V3 = 0.8V
(i) State the name of the type of operational amplifier that the circuit represents.
[ 1 mark ]
Total 20 marks
6. (a) With the aid of a block diagram, outline the structure and operations of a NPN
transistor. [ 8 marks]
(b) State how the NPN transistor MUST be biased for normal operation. [ 2 marks]
(c) The transistor in the circuit shown in Figure 3 has the following small signal hybrid
parameters
VCC
RB RC
220 kΩ 2.2 kΩ
C1
C2
RS Vout
2 kΩ
1 mV
a) input resistance R1
Total 20 marks
MODULE 3
You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this Module.
7. (a) Sketch the crosssection of a d.c. dynamo and label SIX critical parts. [ 8 marks]
(b) Draw labelled connection circuit diagrams for the d.c. generator in the following
configurations:
(c) Explain the function of the diverter resistor in the compound generators drawn at (b).
[ 2 marks]
(d) Sketch and label typical load characteristics for a d.c. generator operating in the cumulative
and compound states. [ 4 marks]
(e) The no load voltage of a separately excited generator is 130 V when the field current is
2.6 amperes and it is driven at 1600 rpm. Assume that it is operating in the linear por
tion of its characteristic curve.
(i) Calculate the generated voltage when the field current is increased to 3.0 amperes.
(ii) Calculate the generated voltage when the speed is increased to 1800 RPM and
the field current reduced to 2.4 amperes.
(iii) If the generator operates as a flat compound generator at rated speed, what will
be the effect on compounding if the speed was increased? [ 8 marks]
Total 30 marks
(b) Using diagrams, explain the effects of a magnetic field on a currentcarrying conductor.
What is the name given to this effect? [ 6 marks]
(c) (i) Identify THREE factors that affect the magnitude of the electromagnetic force
on a currentcarrying conductor in a magnetic field.
(ii) Give the relationship and unit of these factors in relation to the force produced.
[ 4 marks]
(d) A conductor carries 750 amperes at right angles to a magnetic field having a density of
0.5 T.
(i) Calculate the force on the conductor if the effective length is 200 mm.
[ 2 marks]
(ii) If the conductor moves perpendicular to the magnetic field at a rate of 25 m/s
with no current applied to it, what would be the instantaneous e.m.f. induced in
the conductor? [ 3 marks]
Total 20 marks
9. (a) Identify FOUR parts that are critical at the operation of a SCADA system.
[ 4 marks]
(b) List SIX benefits or advantages of the SCADA system. [ 6 marks]
(c) Sketch a labelled diagram of a typical SCADA system which employs a number of
PLCs as controllers for the system. [ 6 marks]
(d) List FOUR security concerns or issues related to the SCADA system. [ 4 marks]
Total 20 marks
END OF TEST
02117020/CAPE 2011
TEST CODE 02217010
FORM TP 2011174 MAY/JUNE 2011
UNIT 2 – PAPER 01
1½ hours
MODULE 1
AC CIRCUIT THEORY
1. (a) Figure 1 represents a typical response curve for a band pass filter.
Indicate the areas represented by 1 – 3 on the response curve. [ 3 marks]
2 3
1
Voltage across load
50 Hz 15 000 Hz
Frequency
(b) Draw and label the circuit diagram of a simple low pass filter and explain how it works.
[ 3 marks]
Total 6 marks
Total 6 marks
3. Express, in rectangular and polar notations, the impedances of the following circuits when
connected to a 110 V, 50 Hz source.
(b) An alternating current completes 500 cycles in one second. Calculate the
(c) Define the term ‘power factor’ and state the formula. [ 2 marks]
Total 6 marks
(a) Explain how the circuit reached its resonant state and describe the correct flow at the resonant
state. [ 2 marks]
(i) current
MODULE 2
6. (a) State what is meant by the acronym ‘UART’, and explain how it is used in the transmission
of information. [ 4 marks]
(b) Define EACH of the following terms as they relate to the UART:
Total 6 marks
7. (a) State what is a ‘shift register’ and the purpose for which it is utilised in digital systems.
[ 2 marks]
(b) (i) What does the term ‘counter’ mean when used in relation to a sequential logic circuit?
(ii) Describe how the counter functions when used in a sequential logic circuit.
[ 4 marks]
Total 6 marks
(ii) Explain the basic difference between ROM and PROM. [ 3 marks]
Total 6 marks
9. Draw the schematic symbols for the following logic gates and derive their truth tables.
Total 6 marks
(b) Use labelled diagrams to explain the construction of junction transistors and show the
symbol for each. [ 3 marks]
Total 6 marks
MODULE 3
INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES
11. (a) Outline TWO functions of the laminated iron core in a power transformer.
[ 2 marks]
(c) Transformers are designed to stepup or stepdown voltages. Name THREE common
types of transformers. [ 3 marks]
Total 6 marks
12. With the aid of sketches, briefly explain the operation of the
Total 6 marks
13. (a) Explain what is meant by the term ‘synchronous impedance’ of a motor. [ 2 marks]
(b) Determine the synchronous impedance of a dynamo if its armature resistance is 0.5 Ω
per phase and its reactance is 5.0 Ω per phase. [ 4 marks]
Total 6 marks
14. The equivalent circuit of a transformer is shown in Figure 3. Write the names of the circuit
elements and FOUR of the parameters.
P S
Supply
V1
To load
15. (a) Draw and label the circuit diagram for an auto transformer that could be used to boost
the voltage at the end of a power line. [ 3 marks]
(b) The total number of turns for the transformer in (a) is 3500 and the adjustable tap is
placed such that it incorporates 66.6% of the number of turns. Determine the output
voltage if the input is 80 volts. [ 3 marks]
Total 6 marks
END OF TEST
02217010/CAPE 2011
TEST CODE 02217020
FORM TP 2011175 MAY/JUNE 2011
UNIT 2 – PAPER 02
2½ hours
02217020/CAPE 2011
 2 
MODULE 1
AC CIRCUIT THEORY
You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this Module.
(b) Explain what is meant by the ‘magnification factor Q’ of a resonant circuit making
reference to the sharpness of resonance. [ 3 marks]
(c) Define the term ‘dynamic resistance’ as it relates to a resonant parallel network, and
state why the network is called a rejector circuit. [ 3 marks]
(d) A series circuit consists of an inductor of 260 μH, and a capacitor is resonant at 0.8 MHz
develops 80 mV across the inductor with a 2 mV input.
(iv) Determine the value of the series resistor, Rs of the circuit. [ 8 marks]
Total 30 marks
2. (a) Describe the operation of the low pass filter shown in Figure 1, and state the formula for the
time constant (t). [ 4 marks]
R
VIN
C
VOUT
(ii) How does attenuation relate to the cutoff frequency? Show this effect on the
response curve of a filter. [ 3 marks]
(d) A filter is required to pass all frequencies above 9 kHz and to have a nominal impedance
of 750 Ω . Calculate the circuit values for both the capacitance and inductance for both
a T and Π filter section, and design the filter circuit of each. [10 marks]
Total 20 marks
3. (a) Sketch the waveform of a sinusoidal varying voltage and indicate on the diagram the
(b) State the meaning of the term ‘reactive power’ as it relates to inductive and capacitive circuits.
[ 2 marks]
c) apparent power
d) active power.
(ii) Sketch the phasor diagram for the circuit. [14 marks]
Total 20 marks
MODULE 2
You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this Module.
4. (a) State what are flip flops and identify TWO applications of flip flops. [ 3 marks]
(b) (i) Draw the symbols for a SR and a JK flip flop. [ 4 marks]
(iii) Develop the truth tables for EACH flip flop drawn. [ 4 marks]
(d) Figure 2 shows a block diagram of a simple shift register. Explain its operation.
Total 30 marks
(c) State what is meant by the ‘threshold voltage’ of the MOSFET. [ 2 marks]
Total 20 marks
6. (a) State what is meant by the term ‘noise’ and give the term which is used to indicate the level
of noise in a communication system. [ 2 marks]
(b) Identify the FOUR categories of noise and define ANY TWO. [ 8 marks]
(c) (i) What do DPSK and FSK represent in digital modulation techniques?
MODULE 3
INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES
You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this Module.
7. (a) With the aid of a labelled diagram, describe the construction of the revolving field
synchronous generator. [10 marks]
(b) Which type of armature windings is usually used on stationary armature synchronous
generators? Why is this used? [ 2 marks]
(c) List FIVE advantages of stationary armature and revolving field construction for a
synchronous dynamo. [ 5 marks]
(d) Define the term ‘synchronous impedance’ and explain its effect in a synchronous
dynamo. [ 3 marks]
(e) A threephase wye connected alternator is rated at 1000 kVA at 10 KV. The armature
resistance is 0.8 Ω and the synchronous reactance is 8 Ω when carrying rated load.
Calculate the generated voltage per phase at a load of 0.8 lagging. [10 marks]
Total 30 marks
8. (a) State the principle on which a transformer operates and explain its operation with the aid
of a labelled diagram. [ 6 marks]
(b) (i) What is the ‘coefficient of coupling’ for a transformer? Give the formula for this
parameter.
(ii) Explain the effect of the value of the coefficient of coupling on the mutual inductance
of a transformer. [ 4 marks]
(c) What is the ‘transformation ratio’ of a transformer? Give the relationships that determine
the transformation ratio. [ 3 marks]
(d) The primary coil side of a transformer has 800 turns while the secondary has 200 turns. The
load current is 15 A.
Calculate the
(e) Draw and label a simplified equivalent circuit for a transformer, assuming negligible
magnetising current. [ 4 marks]
Total 20 marks
9. (a) With the aid of a diagram, describe the principle of operation of the induction motor.
[ 4 marks]
(b) Sketch and label typical torque versus slip curves for an induction motor. [ 4 marks]
(c) A threephase induction motor with four poles is connected to a 415 V, 50 Hz source.
The stator winding is delta connected with 260 conductors per phase, and the rotor
winding is star connected with 52 conductors per phase with a resistance of 0.015 Ω
per phase and leakage reactance of 0.05 Ω per phase at standstill.
Calculate the
(iii) rotor e.m.f. per phase at standstill with the rotor on open circuit
Total 20 marks
END OF TEST
02217020/CAPE 2011
TEST CODE 02117010
FORM TP 2012172 MAY/JUNE 2012
UNIT 1 – Paper 01
1 hour 30 minutes
MODULE 1
DC CIRCUIT THEORY
(b) Draw a diagram to depict any ONE of Kirchoff’s laws and give the expression for the
parameters of the diagram drawn. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
2. (a) Outline the conditions for maximum power transfer in a d.c. circuit. [2 marks]
R2
R3 60 Ω
30 Ω
12 Vd.c. R1 R4
30 Ω 60 Ω
(i) Determine the internal resistance of the source that will facilitate maximum
power transfer to the network.
(ii) Calculate the amount of power that will be transferred to the network.
[4 marks]
Total 6 marks
3. (a) Define the term ‘permittivity of free space’ and state its symbol and unit. [4 marks]
(b) The permittivity of free space is given as 8.85 × 10–12 F/m and the relative permittivity of
polythene is determined to be 2.225. Determine the absolute permittivity of polythene.
[2 marks]
Total 6 marks
4. Five capacitors are connected in the series parallel circuit as shown in Figure 2.
C1 = 4 µF C4 12 µF
200 V R1 C2 C3 C5
17µF 10 µF 4 µF
(a) Determine the value of a single capacitor that may be used to replace those used in this
circuit. [4 marks]
(b) If the value of R1 is 0.47 MΩ, and V = 200 volts, calculate the
Total 6 marks
5. (a) Identify THREE factors that determine the inductance of a coil. [3 marks]
(b) A coil has 400 turns on a nonmagnetic core. If the inductance is 15 mH, calculate the
Total 6 marks
MODULE 2
D1
5:1
110 V RL
(i) a.c. voltage across the secondary winding of the transformer [1 mark ]
(b) State TWO reasons for using the transformer in the circuit. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
(b) State the expected level of the input impedance of an operational amplifier.
[1 mark ]
_
RF
VIN = 2V
30 K
RIN RL VOUT
8 kΩ 12 k Ω
Calculate the
Total 6 marks
(c) Define the term ‘modulation factor’, and state the formula used to calculate the modulation
factor. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
Calculate the
In
(b) State TWO methods that can be used to prevent thermal run away of a transistor when
it is used in an electronic circuit. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
(b) Define EACH of the following terms as they relate to the propagation of a high
frequency wave.
Total 6 marks
MODULE 3
(b) Draw a diagram to illustrate how a compass can be used to plot a single magnetic field
line in the space around a magnet. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
12. (a) Use a labelled diagram to depict Fleming’s left hand rule for the mechanical force exerted
by a currentcarrying conductor. [3 marks]
Total 6 marks
13. (a) Draw and label the circuit for a separately excited d.c. generator. [4 marks]
(b) Draw and label the typical magnetization curve for the circuit sketched at 13 (a).
[2 marks]
Total 6 marks
14. (a) What is the PRIMARY function of a thermal overload relay? [2 marks]
(c) Explain how any ONE of the types of relay mentioned in 14 (b) operates. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
15. (a) What does the acronynm ‘SCADA’ mean and to what does this acronym refer?
[3 marks]
Total 6 marks
END OF TEST
IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.
02117010/CAPE 2012
TEST CODE 02117020
FORM TP 2012173 MAY/JUNE 2012
UNIT 1 – Paper 02
2 hours 30 minutes
MODULE 1
DC CIRCUIT THEORY
You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this Module.
1. (a) With the aid of a labelled diagram, explain the concept of ‘mutual inductance’.
[7 marks]
(b) Explain the concept of ‘coupling coefficient’ for coils, making reference to loosely and
tightly coupled coils. [5 marks]
(c) (i) Draw labelled diagrams to show cumulatively and differentially coupled coils
connected in series.
(ii) Explain how the mutual inductance of two coils can be determined from
measurements of the total inductance of two coils connected cumulatively and
differentially. [7 marks]
(d) (i) Sketch the assembly of a ferromagnetic ring which has a crosssectional area of
2
800 mm and an average radius of 180 mm.
(ii) Two coils of 600 and 800 turns wound on the ring, are connected in series, and
the relative permeability is 1 400.
Calculate the self inductance of EACH coil and the partial inductance of the pair
assuming that there is no flux leakage. [11 marks]
Total 30 marks
2. (a) Use labelled graphs to explain the effect of temperature on the resistance of
(i) copper
(b) Name a class of material which shows very minimal change of resistance for a considerable
variation of temperature. Give TWO examples of the material. [3 marks]
(c) Define the term ‘temperature coefficient of resistance’ and state its symbol. [3 marks]
(d) When a voltage of 12 V d.c. is applied to a coil of copper wire of mean temperature
24 °C, a current of 1.2 A flows through the coil. After some time, the current falls to
1.0 A with no change in the voltage supply. If the temperature coefficient of copper is
3
4.28 × 10 /°C, determine the mean temperature of the coil. [8 marks]
Total 20 marks
3. (a) Define the term ‘capacitance’ and give its unit and symbol. [3 marks]
(b) (i) Sketch and label typical discharge curves for a capacitor discharging through a
resistor, showing the potential difference and the discharge current on the same
time scale.
(ii) If the potential difference across the capacitor changes by δv volts in δt seconds,
state the relationship for the instantaneous current.
(iii) State the formula for calculating the instantaneous current of the circuit that
generates this curve. [8 marks]
(c) A 10 µF capacitor in series with a 800 Ω resistor is connected across a 250 V d.c. supply.
(iv) Determine the energy stored in the capacitor when it is fully charged.
[9 marks]
Total 20 marks
MODULE 2
You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this Module.
4. (a) Explain, with the aid of its characteristic curve, the operation of a zener diode.
[11 marks]
Figure 1 shows a zener regulator circuit.
RS
Unregulated
VIN = 24 V ZD R Zener voltage rating  12 V
d.c. L
(b) Explain the operation of the zener regulator circuit shown in Figure 1 above.
[4 marks]
(c) (i) Draw the symbol for a light emitting diode (LED).
(iii) Outline FOUR key characteristics of a LED as they relate to voltage, current and
wavelength. [10 marks]
D1 R
L
Total 30 marks
ÐVCC
L1
R1
C2
LF
1
R2 CF
LF
2
C3
Feedback
Figure 3. An RC oscillator
(iii) Write the formula for the oscillator frequency and define the variables.
[9 marks]
V
CC
RC RC
1 2
V
Ð out +
V1 V2
Q Q
1 2
Input 1 Input 2
ÐVEE
(ii) State the formula that can be used to determine its output voltage.
[5 marks]
Total 20 marks
+30 V
Ð10 V
R 10 kΩ
C
1.5 M Ω R
B
VBE = 0.7 V
Q β = 120
1
(a) Calculate the d.c. voltage between the collector and the emitter if the transistor has a β
d.c. of 120. [8 marks]
(b) Explain EACH of the following terms as they relate to the characteristic curves of the
operation of a bipolar junctiontransistor:
(i) Saturation
(c) A transistor, with an hie = 1 800 Ω and hfe = 75Ω, is connected in the common emitter
configuration as an amplifier, with a load resistance RL of 10 KΩ. Calculate the
Total 20 marks
MODULE 3
You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this Module.
7. (a) (i) Draw and label a set of diagrams to demonstrate the interaction of the armature
and field fluxes for a twopole d.c. motor.
(ii) Indicate on the appropriate drawing the magnetic neutral plane of the dynamo
and draw the associated vector diagram. [10 marks]
(ii) With the aid of diagrams, describe THREE ways by which armature reaction
can be reduced or eliminated in a d.c. motor. [10 marks]
(d) A d.c. motor draws a current of 120 amperes when connected to a 480 V d.c.. source. The
specifications of the motor are as follows:
V d.c.. = 480
Ra = 0.2 Ω
No. of poles = 6
No. of conductors = 864
Flux per pole = 0.06 Wb
Armature connecton = Lap
Calculate the
(i) speed
Total 30 marks
8. (a) Copy the following table in your answer booklet and complete it to compare electric
with magnetic circuits by providing the missing items labelled 1 to 10.
EMF 1 MMF 2
5 Ampere 6 7
ℓ A/Wb
Resistance =ρ·— ohms 10
A
[10 marks]
2
(b) A mild steel ring has a crosssectional area of 800 mm and a mean circumference
of 500 mm, with 300 turns of coil uniformly wound around it. The flux is 950 µWb.
Calculate the
(iv) current required to produce a flux of 950 µWb in the ring. [10 marks]
Total 20 marks
(b) Identify FOUR of the numbered components of the circuit breaker shown in the
diagram in Figure 6. State the function of EACH component identified. [8 marks]
3
5
1
2
Total 20 marks
END OF TEST
IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.
02117020/CAPE 2012
TEST CODE 02217010
FORM TP 2012174 MAY/JUNE 2012
UNIT 2 – Paper 01
1 hour 30 minutes
MODULE 1
AC CIRCUIT THEORY
1. (a) Define EACH of the following terms as they relate to power in a.c. circuits.
(b) State the meaning of the term ‘instantaneous value’ as it relates to an a.c. waveform.
[2 marks]
Total 6 marks
30 Ω
110 V
60 Hz
0.3 H
Total 6 marks
3. (a) State what are ‘passive filters’ and list the components that they utilise. [2 marks]
(b) Explain the term ‘bandpass filtering’ and sketch its response curve for audio frequencies
from 50 to 15 000 Hz. [4 marks]
Total 6 marks
4. A coil which has a resistance of 15 Ω and inductance of 3.0 mH is connected in series with a
0.25 µF capacitor. The circuit is connected across a 10 V supply of variable frequency. Calculate
the
(b) voltage across the coil and the capacitor at resonance. [4 marks]
Total 6 marks
(c) (i) What is meant by the Qfactor of an RLC resonant circuit? [2 marks]
(i) Write the formula that is used to calculate the Qfactor of an RLC resonant
circuit. [1 mark ]
Total 6 marks
MODULE 2
6. (a) State the meaning of EACH of the following terms as they relate to logic gates:
(i) Fanin
(b) Draw the circuit symbols for EACH of the following gates indicating their outputs.
(i) NAND
(ii) NOR
[4 marks]
Total 6 marks
7. (a) State the function of A/D conversion and state why it is needed. [2 marks]
(c) Define EACH of the following terms as they relate to memory systems:
(i) Dynamic
Total 6 marks
8. (a) State the essential difference of operation between an enhancement mode MOSFET and
a depletion mode MOSFET. [3 marks]
(b) Explain the operation of the d.c. to a.c. converter circuit shown in Figure 3.
[3 marks]
Q
1
V
_ CC
+
Output
Q
2
9. (a) Distinguish between the terms ‘asynchronous’ and ‘synchronous’ as they relate to wave
forms. [2 marks]
(b) The ShannonHartley law can be expressed as a formula. State the formula and identify
what EACH of its elements represents. [4 marks]
Total 6 marks
10. (a) Draw the logic symbol for a D flip flop and provide its truth table. [4 marks]
Total 6 marks
MODULE 3
INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES
11. (a) Draw and label a diagram to show the general layout of a transformer. [4 marks]
Total 6 marks
Total 6 marks
13. (a) Under what condition does an induction dynamo become an asynchronous induction
generator? [2 marks]
(b) An a.c. generator has eight poles and is driven by a prime mover at a speed of
1 200 r.p.m.
Total 6 marks
14. (a) Describe the construction of the rotor for a squirrel cage motor. [3 marks]
Total 6 marks
15. (a) What is the synchronous impedance of a generator or a motor? Give its formula.
[3 marks]
(b) Draw and label an impedance triangle as derived from a vector diagram for a synchronous
generator . [3 marks]
Total 6 marks
END OF TEST
IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.
02217010/CAPE 2012
TEST CODE 02217020
FORM TP 2012175 MAY/JUNE 2012
UNIT 2 – Paper 02
2 hours 30 minutes
02217020/CAPE 2012
 2 
MODULE 1
AC CIRCUIT THEORY
You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this Module.
(c) Outline SIX features of a phasor that are represented on a phasor diagram.
[6 marks]
(ii) phase angle between the current and the applied voltage. [8 marks]
Total 30 marks
2. (a) Explain what is meant by the term ‘resonance’ as applied to an LC circuit. [5 marks]
(b) A series RLC circuit is resonant at 0.5 mHz and develops 150 mV across the
inductance, L, of 350 µH, with an input voltage of 3 mV. Calculate the
Total 20 marks
3. (a) State TWO functions of a band stop filter and explain how this filter is obtained.
[5 marks]
(b) With the aid of frequency response curves, explain the difference between a low pass filter
and a high pass filter. [8 marks]
(c) A LC circuit is resonant at 5 000 kHz and has a magnetification factor, Q, of 150.
Calculate the total bandwidth, ∆F, and the edge frequencies, F1 and F2. [6 marks]
(d) If the Q of the circuit in 3 (c) is made higher, state the resulting effect on the bandwidth.
[1 mark ]
Total 20 marks
MODULE 2
You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this Module.
(b) Describe the process of receiving and transmitting information using the UART.
[6 marks]
(c) With the aid of a block diagram, explain how the 4wire, fullduplex mode, used in the
transmission of digital information, is achieved. [8 marks]
(d) Differentiate between ‘star topology’ and ‘ring topology’ computer networks and state
the MAIN advantage of star topology over ring topology. [8 marks]
Total 30 marks
5. (a) With the aid of a biased circuit diagram, explain the operation of an enhancement mode
MOSFET. [10 marks]
(c) With the aid of a block diagram explain the operation of a d.c. to a.c. converter.
[6 marks]
(d) State THREE ways by which the thyristor can be switched into forward conduction.
[3 marks]
Total 20 marks
+V
(1)
K0
K1
A
K2
BCD
K3 B
encoder
K4
K5 C
K6
K7 D
K8
K9
(a) Explain the operation of the BCD encoder shown in Figure 1. [7 marks]
CK
Counter
B0
B1
Digital O/P
B2
B3
+ _
DAC
VA VD
(d) Explain EACH of the following terms as they relate to memory systems:
(i) EPROM
Total 20 marks
MODULE 3
INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES
You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this Module.
(b) Draw a waveform of magnetic flux versus time and use this waveform to derive the equation
for the e.m.f. [6 marks]
1 2 5
3
VIN 4 Load
Ideal transformer
(i)
State what EACH numbered item represents by writing the number in your answer
booklet and writing beside EACH number what the numbered item represents.
[5 marks]
(ii) State FIVE parameters associated with this circuit when it is connected to an a.c.
voltage and it supplies a load. [5 marks]
(d) A 800 kVA transformer has primary and secondary windings of 0.48 Ω and 0.004 Ω
respectively. The primary voltage is 24 kV while the secondary is 440 V. If the core loss
is 3 kW, and the power factor of the load is 0.8, calculate the efficiency on full load.
[10 marks]
Total 30 marks
8. (a) (i) Copy the axes in Figure 4 in your answer booklet and use them to sketch a
labelled torque vs slip curve for an induction motor. [2 marks]
(ii) Explain the behaviour of the curve for relatively low and high values of slip.
[2 marks]
0.6
0.5
2
R + (sXO )
sR
0.4
2
Torque =
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
per unit slip
(iii) What can you deduce from the curves about the usefulness of the induction motor
for applications requiring frequent starting and stopping? [3 marks]
(b) What is the slip speed of a motor? How is this usually expressed? [4 marks]
(c) A 240 V, 50 Hz squirrelcage motor is rated at 300 kVA. If the motor has four poles and
operates at 1 350 rpm at full load, calculate the
(v) maximum loading speed that would yield a slip of 4%. [9 marks]
Total 20 marks
9. (a) Give FIVE reasons why synchronous machines are constructed with stationary
armature and rotating field poles. [5 marks]
(b) Speed control for split phase motors can be accomplished within limitations. Identify
the TWO techniques used and state THREE limitations associated with the techniques.
[5 marks]
(c) A 600 V a.c. single phase alternator is rated at 150 kVA. If the armature is shortcircuited,
it delivers a current of 420A at a d.c. field excitation of 15A. When the shortcircuit is
removed, the open circuit voltage is 450V. The resistance of the armature was determined
to be 0.12 Ω and the alternator has a ratio of 1.33 for effective to ohmic resistance.
Calculate the
Total 20 marks
END OF TEST
IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.
02217020/CAPE 2012
TEST CODE 02117010
FORM TP 2013172 MAY/JUNE 2013
UNIT 1 – Paper 01
1 hour 30 minutes
1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions, FIVE questions from each module.
Answer ALL questions.
MODULE 1
DC CIRCUIT THEORY
R2
10 Ω
R1 20 Ω
15 V R3 10 Ω
R4 20 Ω
Total 6 marks
(ii) Write the symbol and unit for permittivity of free space. [2 marks]
(b)
Two capacitors having capacitances of 10 µF and 15 µF respectively are connected in
parallel to a 100 V d.c. supply. Calculate the total electrostatic energy stored.
[3 marks]
Total 6 marks
3. (a) State ONE advantage and ONE disadvantage of using an inductor with a ferromagnetic
core. [2 marks]
(ii) Two coils, L1 = 350 mH and L2 = 150 mH, have a mutual inductance M = 68 mH.
Determine the coupling coefficient, K. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
(b)
A coil of copper wire has a resistance of 100 Ω at a temperature of 273 oK. Calculate its
coefficient of resistance given that the resistance of the copper wire is 121.4 Ω at 50 oC.
[3 marks]
Total 6 marks
R1 R2
6Ω 6Ω
R3
6V Vout 12 V
3Ω
Using the superposition theorem, calculate the voltage Vout across the 3 Ω resistor R3 in the resistive
circuit in Figure 2. [6 marks]
Total 6 marks
MODULE 2
6. (a) State TWO factors on which the range of a ground wave depends. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
7. (a) State the meaning of the term, ‘semiconductor’, outlining its special feature. [2 marks]
RS
+
0 RL
_
D1
(i) Identify the type of clipper shown and draw the output waveform. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
Total 6 marks
9. (a) Determine the local oscillator (LO) frequency of an AM superheterodyne receiver, if the
IF frequency is 455 kHz and the received signal is 760 kHz. [2 marks]
(b) State FOUR different sine waves that are produced whenever a modulating frequency (Fm)
amplitude modulates a carrier frequency (Fc ) . [4 marks]
Total 6 marks
(b) An NPN transistor is connected in the common emitter configuration, with a collector
current IC = 120 mA and a base current Ib = 800 µA.
(c) State the MAIN reason why the common emitter amplifier is most often used in electronic
circuits. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
MODULE 3
11. (a) Define the term, ‘magnetic flux density’ and include its symbol and unit. [3 marks]
(b) A conductor, of length 100 cm, carries a current of 100 mA at an angle of 60o to a magnetic
field of 0.5 T. Calculate the force on the conductor. [3 marks]
Total 6 marks
12 (a) State:
Total 6 marks
13. (a) State the role of the following d.c. machine components:
Total 6 marks
14. (a) What is the human machine interface (HMI) in a SCADA system? [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
02117010/CAPE 2013
 7 
Total 6 marks
END OF TEST
IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.
02117010/CAPE 2013
TEST CODE 02117020
FORM TP 2013173 MAY/JUNE 2013
UNIT 1 – Paper 02
2 hours 30 minutes
MODULE 1
DC CIRCUIT THEORY
You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this module.
1. (a) (i) Define the term ‘resistance’ and state its unit. [2 marks]
4Ω 2Ω
I2
V1 R3 3Ω V2 = 10 V
I1 = 5 A
Using Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law, calculate V1 and I2 for the resistive circuit in Figure 1.
[10 marks]
2A 10 Ω 16 Ω
(ii) Determine the Thevenin’s equivalent for the network shown in Figure 2 as seen
from terminals A and B. [5 marks]
(b) A 60 nF multiplate capacitor must be fabricated using square metal plates of side
17.32 cm. Mica sheets of thickness 0.4 mm with a relative permittivity of 5 are used.
Calculate the number of plates required.
C1 C4
60 nF 60 nF
C2 C5
60 nF 60 nF
C3 C6
60 nF 60 nF
100 V
(ii) Draw a graph which shows the potential difference across the capacitor during
discharge. [2 marks]
Total 20 marks
(b) A 200 µH inductor must be fabricated using a nonmagnetic ring of mean diameter 40 cm.
The ring has a crosssectional radius of 80 mm.
(i) Determine the number of turns required to fabricate this inductor. [4 marks]
(d) The measured resistance of a 200 µH inductor is 0.2 Ω. The inductor is connected across
a 1.5 V d.c. battery.
(iv) Sketch and label the curve showing the growth of current for this circuit.
[2 marks]
Total 20 marks
MODULE 2
You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this module.
(b) Identify TWO electronic devices in which the superhet is used. [2 marks]
(c) (i) Explain what is meant by the term ‘selectivity’ as it relates to an AM receiver.
[2 marks]
(ii) State TWO characteristics which are necessary for a receiver to have a high
selectivity. [2 marks]
(d) Explain the major advantage of frequency modulation over amplitude modulation.
[4 marks]
(e) State FOUR advantages of single sideband (SSB) transmission over double sideband
(DSB) transmission used in AM receivers. [4 marks]
(f) Define the term ‘modulation index’, indicating how it is calculated. [2 marks]
(g) Calculate the modulation index of an FM signal which has a 15 kHz carrier swing when
the modulating signal is 10 kHz. [6 marks]
(h) A double sideband (DSB) signal contains 2.5 kW. Determine the amount of power contained
in EACH sideband and carrier frequency. [4 marks]
Total 30 marks
5. (a) With the aid of an illustration, show the effects of sky wave propagation, indicating its
true and virtual heights. [4 marks]
(b) State what is meant by ‘multiple hop transmission’ as it relates to sky wave propagation.
[2 marks]
(c) Identify the THREE natural ways a radio wave can travel after leaving an antenna.
[3 marks]
(d) State the wavebands for EACH ‘natural way’ identified in 5 (c) and give the method of
modulation used for EACH waveband. [6 marks]
(e) Define the term ‘ground wave’ and outline FOUR of its characteristics. [5 marks]
Total 20 marks
6. (a)
State ONE similarity and ONE difference between germanium and silicon semiconductors
and indicate which of the two is the most frequently used semiconductor material.
[3 marks]
D1
T1
R S = 2 kΩ
15 V
110 V D2 + + ZD
60 Hz C1 _ C2 _ R L = 2.2 kΩ
10 V
Total 20 marks
MODULE 3
You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this module.
7. (a) Explain, with the use of a suitable diagram, the principle of mutual induction. [4 marks]
(b) Sketch and label a typical BH curve for a ferromagnetic material. [3 marks]
(c) A current carrying coil of 1 780 turns yields a magnetic flux of 3.53 mWb. Given that the
direction of current flow is reversed within 100 ms, determine the average value of the
e.m.f. induced in the coil. [4 marks]
(d) Explain the following terms, and state their symbols and units:
(e) A coil with 277 turns is wound uniformly over a wooden ring. The ring has a mean radius
of 15 cm and a crosssectional circumference of 13.5 cm. The coil is energized by a cur
rent of 3.8 A.
Total 30 marks
(c) (i)
State the MAIN purpose of using thermal overload relays with electric motors and
state THREE problems that thermal overload relays assist in preventing.
[5 marks]
Total 20 marks
(c) State TWO advantages and TWO disadvantages of digital communications. [4 marks]
Total 20 marks
END OF TEST
IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.
02117020/CAPE 2013
TEST CODE 02217010
FORM TP 2013174 MAY/JUNE 2013
UNIT 2 – Paper 01
1 hour 30 minutes
1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions, FIVE questions from each module.
Answer ALL questions.
MODULE 1
AC CIRCUIT THEORY
(b) Express in the form V = V0 sin ωt, a 400 Hz sinusoidal waveform of rms = 15 V.
[3 marks]
Total 6 marks
Total 6 marks
Total 6 marks
4. (a) A series resonant circuit consists of an inductor of 8 mH, a capacitor, C, and a 10 Ω resistor.
(ii) Calculate the value of capacitor C for a resonant frequency of 1 kHz. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
Total 6 marks
MODULE 2
6. (a) With the aid of a block diagram, explain the operation of a DC to DC convertor.
[6 marks]
Total 6 marks
7. (a) Define the terms ‘minterm’ and ‘maxterm’ as they relate to combinational logic circuits.
[4 marks]
(b) Draw the symbol for the EXOR logic gate and write the Boolean expression.
[2 marks]
Total 6 marks
(b) Calculate the reference voltage needed for a seven bit D/A convertor to generate a maximum
output of 12 volts. [3 marks]
Total 6 marks
Total 6 marks
(b) Explain the operation of a 555 timer when used in the monostable mode. [3 marks]
Total 6 marks
MODULE 3
INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES
11. With the aid of a diagram, describe the operating principles of a transformer. Show its general
arrangement. [6 marks]
Total 6 marks
12. (a) With reference to a synchronous generator, explain the purpose of the
(b) Sketch and label a graph to show the percentage voltage regulation of a synchronous
generator. [4 marks]
Total 6 marks
13. (a) With the aid of a diagram, explain the term ‘slip’ as it relates to an induction motor.
[4 marks]
(b) Give TWO reasons why induction motors are now the preferred choice for industrial
use. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
14. (a) Calculate the percentage efficiency of a transformer with a primary current I1 of 22 amperes
at a voltage of 220 V and the secondary current I2 being 80 amperes at 45 V. [4 marks]
(b) State TWO losses which occur when a transformer is on no load. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
(b) State THREE machines or appliances in which the single phase induction motor is used.
[3 marks]
Total 6 marks
END OF TEST
IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.
02217010/CAPE 2013
TEST CODE 02217020
FORM TP 2013175 MAY/JUNE 2013
UNIT 2 – Paper 02
2 hours 30 minutes
MODULE 1
AC CIRCUIT THEORY
You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this module.
1. (a) Define each of the following terms and provide their symbols and units:
(b) Explain the relationship between voltage and current and identify the load types in circuits
having each of the following characteristics:
(i) Lagging power factor [2 marks]
(c) A load consumes 8.4 kW at a lagging power factor of 0.8 supplied by a 220 V, 60 Hz power
line. Determine the
(ii) capacitance of a capacitor required to connect across the load terminals to correct
the power factor to unity. [5 marks]
(e) Draw and label a sinusoidal wave for two cycles. [2 marks]
Total 30 marks
(iii) state two characteristics of the potential difference across circuit components when
Q >1. [2 marks]
f = 10 kHz V = 100 V
IT
IR R = 1.6 kΩ
IC C = 0.8 μF
IL L = 0.8 mH
Calculate the
Total 20 marks
(b) Sketch and label the frequency response for each of the following filters. In each case
show the cutoff frequency.
(i) Lowpass [2 marks]
(c) (i) Draw the symbols for a lowpass and a highpass filter. [2 marks]
(ii) Explain the function of a highpass filter with a cutoff frequency fo. [2 marks]
(d) (i) Calculate the required components, Ro , for a π section lowpass filter with a
characteristic impedance of 470 Ω and a cutoff frequency of 2 kHz. [4 marks]
(ii) Draw the circuit which will satisfy the specifications outlined in (d) (i) above.
[2 marks]
Total 20 marks
MODULE 2
You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this module.
(c) Draw the equivalent logic circuit of a ‘D’ flip flop and develop a table to show its operation.
[5 marks]
(e) In relation to time, state the main characteristic of a 555 timer when used in the monostable
mode. [2 marks]
+V = 15 V
CC
VCC = 15 volts
PIN 4 PIN 3
R R = 47 KΩ
PIN 3 VOUT
PIN 7 C = 220 µF
555
PIN 6 TIMER C1 = 0.22 µF
PIN 2
TRIGGER C1
(i) State which components determine the output pulse width. [2 marks]
(ii) Calculate:
a) The minimum trigger voltage that can be used to produce an output pulse
[2 marks]
Total 30 marks
5. (a) Explain the basic difference between the simplex, half duplex and full duplex modes of
operation as they relate to the transmission of digital information. [6 marks]
(c) State TWO main advantages and TWO disadvantages of star topology. [4 marks]
(d) A receiver has an input signal of 85 µV with internal noise at the input being 8 µV. The
signal at the output after amplification is 5 volts and the noise at the output is 0.6 volt.
Calculate the noise factor (NF). [3 marks]
(e) Explain the differential phase shift keying (DPSK) modulation technique and state its
advantage over phase modulation. [3 marks]
Total 20 marks
MSB R1 RF
E1 120 K 60 K
20V R2
REF E2 240 K
+ EO
Opamp Analogue
R3 Output
E3 240 K
R4
E4 420 K
LSB
The input code applied to the D/A converter in Figure 3 is 111. Calculate the output
voltage. [8 marks]
(b) Explain the meaning of the term ‘monotonicity’ as it relates to D/A converters.
[2 marks]
_ _
VO
VIN + +
OP1 C OP2
MODE CONTROL
Figure 4. Closedloop sample and hold circuit
(ii) State a major application where the circuit shown in Figure 4 is used. [2 marks]
MODULE 3
INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES
You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this module.
(b) State TWO modes in which a synchronous generator can operate. [2 marks]
(c) Briefly explain what is meant by the term ‘armature reaction’ as it relates to a synchronous
generator. [2 marks]
(d) Draw the equivalent circuit of a synchronous generator, state what the elements represent
and write the formula which can be used to derive the synchronous impedance. [6marks]
(e) The data obtained from a synchronous alternator under test are:
(f) Sketch the impedance triangle related to the data in (e) above. [3 marks]
(h) Explain the term ‘impedance voltage drop’ as it relates to a synchronous motor. Support
your answer with a vector (phasor) diagram. [4 marks]
Total 30 marks
(b) State THREE advantages of EACH of the following types of induction motors:
(c) An induction motor which is wound on 8 poles is supplied from a 60 Hz system. Calculate
the
(iii) rotor frequency when the speed of the rotor is 650 rev/mim. [2 marks]
(d) State the meaning of the term ‘plugging’ as it relates to an induction motor. [2 marks]
Total 20 marks
9. (a) The actual flux in a transformer can be regarded as being due to two components. Identify
the TWO components and state ONE characteristic of EACH. [4 marks]
(b) State what is meant by the term ‘voltage regulation of a transformer’ and provide the
formula for calculating voltage regulation. [4 marks]
(c) A 450 KVA, 15 000 V/550 V, 60 Hz singlephase transformer has 1 800 turns on its primary
winding. Calculate the
Total 20 marks
END OF TEST
IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.
02217020/CAPE 2013
TEST CODE 02117010
FORM TP 2014173 MAY/JUNE 2014
UNIT 1 – Paper 01
1 hour 30 minutes
1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions, FIVE questions from each module.
Answer ALL questions.
MODULE 1
DC CIRCUIT THEORY
(b) A metal oxide resistor has a marking of R58. State its resistance. [1 mark]
(c) A conductor of 0.8 mm diameter wire has a resistance of 400 Ω. Find the resistance of
the same length, if its diameter is reduced by 20%. [3 marks]
Total 6 marks
(b) A capacitor having a capacitance of 0.001 µF consists of two square metal plates of side
500 mm separated 5 mm by a dielectric ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12 F/m.
Total 6 marks
(ii) total energy stored when all capacitors are fully charged. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
4. (a) State what happens when the insulation of an inductor fails. [2 marks]
(b) State the meaning of ‘cumulative coupling’ as it relates to two coils connected in series.
[2 marks]
(c) Calculate the electromotive force (emf) in a 25 mH solenoid when the current decreases
by 0.2 A in 4 ms. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
Determine the Norton equivalent circuit for Figure 2 between terminals x and y. [6 marks]
Total 6 marks
MODULE 2
Total 6 marks
(b) Name the MOST effective conductor which enables a ground wave to travel very far
distances. [1 mark]
Total 6 marks
(b) A 105 MHz Frequency Modulated carrier is modulated by an audio signal which creates
a frequency deviation of 25 kHz. Calculate the
Total 6 marks
(c) Identify THREE general features of an ideal operational amplifier (OP Amp).
[3 marks]
Total 6 marks
Calculate the
Total 6 marks
MODULE 3
11. (a) Draw the magnetic flux lines for the configuration of magnets in Figure 6.
Figure 6. Magnets
[3 marks]
(b) Define the term ‘magnetic flux density’ and give its symbol and unit. [3 marks]
Total 6 marks
12 (a) List THREE differences between a bimetallic relay and a solid state relay. [3 marks]
(b) Sketch and label the cross section of a cylindrical fuse. [3 marks]
Total 6 marks
13. (a) A sixpole DC motor takes an armature current of 100 A at 400 V. The resistance of the
armature circuit is 0.256 Ω. The armature is lap wounded with 936 conductors. The flux
per pole is 0.04 Wb.
(b) State why shuntwound, serieswound and compoundwound machines are referred to as
selfexcited machines. [1 mark]
Total 6 marks
14. (a) State the meaning of EACH of the following terms as it relates to DC machines:
Total 6 marks
15. (a) (i) Define the term ‘power line carrier ’ as applied to power system
communications. [1 mark]
(b) (i) Define the term ‘leased lines’ as applied to power system communications.
[1 mark]
Total 6 marks
END OF TEST
IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.
02117010/CAPE 2014
TEST CODE 02117020
FORM TP 2014174 MAY/JUNE 2014
UNIT 1 – Paper 02
2 hours 30 minutes
MODULE 1
DC CIRCUIT THEORY
You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this module.
(ii) Use the superposition theorem to determine the current I in the circuit in
Figure 1. [7 marks]
(iv) If R3 is made of copper, calcualte its resistance when its temperature reaches
80 °C.
(Note: Temperature coefficient of copper α20 = 0.00392/°C) [3 marks]
(ii) Figure 2 shows a mesh network with two voltage sources. The current in loop 2
is 3.5 A.
Calculate the equivalent internal resistance of this network as seen from terminals
ab. [3 marks]
Total 30 marks
(iii) State why variable capacitors require two sets of rigid plates. [1 mark]
(b) A 10 µF capacitor in series with a 200 kΩ resistor is connected across a 200 V DC supply.
(i) Draw a labelled circuit diagram to show the given details. [2 marks]
(iv) Sketch waveforms for BOTH the pd across the capacitor and the charging current.
[2 marks]
(c) Outline THREE properties of the lines of force in an electric field. [6 marks]
Total 20 marks
(ii) Consider a coil uniformly wound on a core of uniform cross section. List THREE
ways to increase the inductance of the coil. [3 marks]
(iii) A 0.32 H inductor consists of an iron ring of 5 cm mean diameter and 1 cm2
crosssectional area. If the permeability of the iron is 400 times that of free space,
calculate the number of turns of wire for this inductor.
µ0 = 1.26 × 10−6 H/m. [4 marks]
(b) Explain the term ‘coupling coefficient’ as it relates to inductors that are
(c) Three 0.5 H inductors are connected in series and the combination placed across a 3 V
battery whose internal resistance is 1.5 Ω.
(i) Using the information given, draw a labelled circuit diagram. [2 marks]
Total 20 marks
MODULE 2
You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this module.
4. (a) State what is meant by the term‘depletion layer’ when a PN junction is formed.
[2 marks]
(b) State what is meant by the term ‘barrier potential’ of a semiconductor diode and give its
value at room temperature for a silicon diode. [2 marks]
(c) With the aid of a block diagram, explain current flow in a PN junction diode. [8 marks]
(ii) Draw the circuit diagram of a typical resistive filter that can be used with the
rectifier. [3 marks]
(e) State the function of a zener diode when used in a power supply and indicate how it is
placed in the circuit. [2 marks]
Total 30 marks
5. (a) State the formula used to calculate the modulation factor of an amplitude modulated
waveform and indicate what EACH of its symbols represents. [4 marks]
(i) Calculate the frequency of the local oscillator if the IF amplifier is tuned to
450 kHz and the radio signal is 760 kHz. [2 marks]
a) detector [2 marks]
(i) Limiter
(ii) IF amplifier
(d) Noise causes changes in the amplitude of both AM and FM waveforms. State the effects
of both AM and FM changes in amplitude at the receiver. [4 marks]
Total 20 marks
6. (a) Explain how a transistor must be biased for normal operation. [2 marks]
(b) State the formula used to calculate the DC current gain of a transistor in the common
emitter configuration. [2 marks]
Calculate the
(d) Explain what is meant by the term ‘thermal runaway’ as applied to a transistor conected
in the common emitter configuration. [6 marks]
Total 20 marks
MODULE 3
You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this module.
(ii) Sketch and identify the two winding configurations used in the armature construction
of a DC machine. [4 marks]
(b) A fourpole DC armature is wound with 240 conductors. Each conductor is capable of
carrying 150 A full load. The magnetic flux and speed yield an average emf of 1.5 V in
each conductor. The armature has two parallel paths. Rotational losses are 1.8 kW.
Calculate the
(c) (i) Identify an alternative armature winding construction for the DC machine and
state its number of parallel paths. [2 marks]
(ii) State the impact of the alternative armature winding identified in (c) (i) above on
the
(d) (i) On one graph, sketch and label speedcurrent plots for shunt, series and compound
motors. [3 marks]
Total 30 marks
(ii) List FOUR reasons why generators in power systems are equipped with frequency
relays. [4 marks]
(iii) List FOUR conditions which can activate frequency relays. [4 marks]
(b) Distinguish between a fuse and a circuit breaker. Provide ONE example, other than the
electric kettle, of the use of EACH in a typical household. [6 marks]
(c) (i) The fuse of a new household electric kettle was blown upon first time use. Suggest
TWO possible causes for the blown fuse. [2 marks]
Total 20 marks
(c) Define EACH of the following terms and provide symbols and units for each:
(d) A mild steel ring has a circular cross section 7.2 cm in diameter and an inner circumference
of 100 cm. The ring is uniformly wound with a coil of 800 turns.
(i) Using the information in Figure 7, calculate the current in the coil required to
produce a flux density of 1.1 T. [7 marks]
(ii) A 2 mm air gap is now created in the ring. Calculate the reluctance of the air
gap. [3 marks]
Total 20 marks
END OF TEST
IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.
02117020/CAPE 2014
TEST CODE 02217010
FORM TP 2014175 MAY/JUNE 2014
UNIT 2 – Paper 01
1 hour 30 minutes
1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions, FIVE questions from each module.
Answer ALL questions.
MODULE 1
AC CIRCUIT THEORY
1. (a) A resistor of 470 Ω is connected in series with a pure inductor of 560 mH. The circuit is
supplied with a 110 V, 60 Hz sinusoidal supply. Calculate the
(ii) phase angle between circuit current and applied voltage. [2 marks]
(b) Sketch a phasor diagram for the circuit current with reference to the applied voltage.
[1 mark]
Total 6 marks
Calculate the
Total 6 marks
V = 2 + j4 volts
Using complex arithmetric, calculate the circuit impedance Z and express in rectangular
notation. [3 marks]
(b) Define the term ‘Q factor’ and state its formula. [3 marks]
Total 6 marks
Total 6 marks
(b) Draw the symbols for a low pass filter and a high pass filter. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
(c) Draw and label a diagram to show the static characteristics of a thyristor. [3 marks]
Total 6 marks
7. (a) State TWO applications of the ‘D’ type flip flop. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
8. (a) Draw the symbols and state the Boolean expressions for a
(i) three input AND gate [2 marks]
(b) State the difference between ‘FANIN’ and ‘FANOUT’ as related to logic circuits.
[2 marks]
Total 6 marks
9. (a) With reference to D/A converters, explain what is meant by EACH of the following terms:
(b) An 8bit D/A converter has a step size of 10 mV. Calculate its maximum output
voltage. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
10. (a) State the formula used to calculate noise factor as it relates to communication systems.
[1 mark]
(b) Identify where in a computer network, a network interface card is used and state TWO
factors that must be considered when choosing the card. [3 marks]
(c) Explain the term ‘frequency shift keying’ (FSK) used in digital modulation techniques.
[2 marks]
Total 6 marks
GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
02217010/CAPE 2014
 5 
MODULE 3
INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES
11. (a) State what must be done to make a synchronous machine function as either a motor or a
generator. [1 mark]
(b) Explain EACH of the following terms as they relate to a synchronous generator:
Total 6 marks
12. (a) Give ONE reason why the equivalent circuit of a transformer is useful. [1 mark]
(b) With the aid of a diagram, explain how an air core transformer is constructed, and indicate
ONE advantage and ONE disadvantage of using it. [5 marks]
Total 6 marks
13. State THREE advantages and THREE disadvantages of a synchronous motor. [6 marks]
Total 6 marks
14. (a) Define EACH of the following terms as it relates to an induction motor:
(b) List FOUR machines or tools in which single phase induction motors are used.
[4 marks]
Total 6 marks
15. A 220 kVA, 13,000 V/440 V, 60 Hz single phase transformer has 65 turns on its secondary winding.
Calculate the
Total 6 marks
END OF TEST
IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.
02217010/CAPE 2014
TEST CODE 02217020
FORM TP 2014176 MAY/JUNE 2014
UNIT 2 – Paper 02
2 hours 30 minutes
MODULE 1
AC CIRCUIT THEORY
You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this module.
1. (a) Define EACH of the following terms, giving the formula for calculating EACH and the
units for EACH term:
(b) Give TWO reasons why reactive power is sometimes referred to as imaginary power.
[2 marks]
(c) A 60 Hz operated load of 400 kW with a power factor of 0.80 lagging has its power factor
improved to 0.95 lagging by the addition of parallel capacitors.
(ii) Calculate the reactive power supplied by the addition of parallel capacitors.
[6 marks]
Draw a labelled phasor diagram to illustrate phasor determination of the total circuit
impedance at frequency f, such that the capacitive reactance exceeds the inductive reactance.
[3 marks]
(e) Draw two cycles of a 1 kHz 4 V peak to peak sinusoidal waveform. Calculate and label
the
(i) amplitude
(ii) period
Total 30 marks
2. (a) Explain the operation of EACH of the following filters, and sketch and label the frequency
response of EACH:
(b) (i) State the relationship between the ‘Q’ factor and the bandwidth of a filter.
[1 mark]
(ii) An LC circuit is resonant at 8 MHz and has a ‘Q’ factor of 100. Determine the
edge frequencies, F1 and F2. [5 marks]
(c) Draw labelled diagrams for a π section low pass filter and a π section high pass filter.
[4 marks]
(d) A Tsection low pass filter is constructed using components L = 5 mH and C = 4.7 µF.
Calculate the
Total 20 marks
(iii) Calculate the voltage across the capacitor at the resonant frequency. [4 marks]
(c) Explain why a series RLC circuit at resonance is referred to as an acceptor circuit.
[2 marks]
Total 20 marks
MODULE 2
You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this module.
(c) Use a drawing, showing the twotransistor analogy of a thyristor, to explain what is meant
by breakover voltage. [7 marks]
(d) What is the typical range of values for the input resistance of a MOSFET? [2 marks]
(e) State FOUR advantages of using an enhancement mode MOSFET in digital circuits.
[4 marks]
(f) Explain the concept of the ‘Inversion Layer’ for an enhancement type MOSFET.
[2 marks]
sing a drawing of a load line, explain how the transistor can be used as a switch to control
U
large load currents. [5 marks]
Total 30 marks
(b) Give ONE possible reason why errors occur in the signal received in a data communication
system, and state how they can be detected and corrected. [3 marks]
Use the block diagram in Figure 3 to explain the basic operation of a UART.
[4 marks]
(d) Identify TWO types of noise found in amplifiers that are used in communication systems,
and state TWO sources of EACH type of noise identified. [6 marks]
(e) Explain the term ‘differential phase shift keying’ as it relates to modulation techniques.
[3 marks]
Total 20 marks
(b) Sketch the block diagram of a ‘J‒K’ flip flop and develop its truth table. [4 marks]
(e) Figure 5 shows a diagram of a 555 timer used in the monostable mode.
(i) Calculate the minimum trigger voltage that would produce an output pulse, and
the width of the output pulse. [4 marks]
(ii) State the name often given to the 555 timer when it is operating in the monostable
mode, and indicate why it is given that name. [2 marks]
Total 20 marks
MODULE 3
INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES
You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this module.
7. (a) Identify the losses which occur in a transformer when loaded. [4 marks]
(b) Draw and label a phasor diagram for a single phase loaded transformer that has negligible
voltage drop in its windings. [5 marks]
(c) State the condition that must be met in order to achieve maximum efficiency in a
transformer. [1 mark]
(d) The primary winding of a transformer is connected to a sinusoidal voltage. Sketch and
label a typical waveform of flux variation with time in the transformer. [5 marks]
Calculate the
(ii) voltage regulation at full load with a power factor of 0.8 lagging. [7 marks]
Total 30 marks
8. (a) State FOUR reasons why synchronous machines are constructed with stationary armature
and rotating field poles. [4 marks]
(b) Explain the synchronous impedance voltage drop of a synchronous motor. [2 marks]
(c) With the aid of graphs of terminal voltage versus load current for a synchronous generator,
explain how power factor affects regulation. [8 marks]
(d) (i) Draw a labelled diagram of the equivalent circuit of a synchronous generator.
[2 marks]
(ii) State what EACH element represents on the diagram drawn in (d) (i) above and
state how the synchronous impedance can be derived. [3 marks]
(e) State the formula used to calculate the synchronous impedance of the generator.
[1 mark]
Total 20 marks
(b) With the aid of a diagram, describe the operation of a singlephase capacitor run induction
motor which incorporates a centrifugal switch. [7 marks]
(c) State SIX general features of the splitphase capacitor run induction motor. [6 marks]
(d) Figure 6 shows the torque slip curves for an induction motor.
State the relationship between torque and motor resistance, when the resistance is
Total 20 marks
END OF TEST
IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.
02217020/CAPE 2014
TEST CODE 02117010
FORM TP 2015178 MAY/JUNE 2015
UNIT 1 – Paper 01
1 hour 30 minutes
02117010/F 2015
2
MODULE 1
DC CIRCUIT THEORY
Using the superposition theorem, calculate the voltage Vout across the 5 Ω resistor R3 in the resistive
circuit in Figure 2.
Total 6 marks
3. (a) Define the term ‘temperature coefficient of resistance’ and state its symbol. [3 marks]
(b) Explain why some materials which exhibit a negative temperature coefficient of resistance
can suffer from thermal runaway. [3 marks]
Total 6 marks
4. (a) With the aid of a suitable graph, explain Ohm’s law. [3 marks]
(b) A coil with maximum resistance of 0.15 Ω is required to be wound from a 5 m length of
a conductor having a crosssectional area of 2 mm2. Determine which of the following
materials are acceptable for this task.
Material ρ(Ωm) at 0 °C
Total 6 marks
5. Figure 3 shows an RL circuit with a time constant of 0.25 s and a final value current of 3.2 A.
Figure 3. RL circuit
(b) Determine the value of the current 0.5 s after the switch is closed. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
MODULE 2
6. (a) State the FOUR sine waves that are produced when a modulating frequency (fm) amplitude
modulates a carrier frequency (fc). [4 marks]
Total 6 marks
7. (a) Draw the circuit diagram of a halfwave, voltage stabilized power supply which utilizes
a CRC filter and a zener diode. [5 marks]
(b) State the formula that is used to calculate the peak to peak ripple out of the capacitor input
filter of a halfwave power supply. [1 mark]
Total 6 marks
8. (a) Name the method of wave propagation used for radio transmission of EACH of the
following:
(i) Low frequency [1 mark]
(b) Use a labelled diagram to illustrate what is meant by the term ‘skip distance’.
[3 marks]
Total 6 marks
9. (a) State TWO methods that can be used to prevent thermal runaway of a transistor in an
electronic circuit. [2 marks]
(b) Draw and label the hparameter equivalent circuit of a transistor connected in the common
emitter configuration. [4 marks]
Total 6 marks
10. (a) Define the term ‘operational amplifier’ and state THREE of its operating characteristics.
[4 marks]
Calculate the voltage gain of the operational amplifier shown in Figure 4. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
MODULE 3
11. (a) Distinguish between overload current and fault current. [2 marks]
(b) State the main reason for using thermal overload relays with electric motors. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
Total 6 marks
(b) Calculate the flux density of a circuit in tesla, with the circuit having a flux of 400 µWb
through an area of 0.0005 m2. [4 marks]
Total 6 marks
14. (a) Explain why it is necessary to use a commutator in a d.c. machine. [2 marks]
(c)
A d.c. machine having a resistance of 0.45 Ω is connected to a 240 V supply. Calculate
the generated emf when it is functioning as a generator providing current of 65 A.
[2 marks]
Total 6 marks
(c) Determine the average emf induced in a coil having 1600 turns, if the flux of 450 µWb is
reversed in 0.1 seconds. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
END OF TEST
IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.
02117010/F 2015
TEST CODE 02117020
FORM TP 2015179 MAY/JUNE 2015
UNIT 1 – Paper 02
2 hours 30 minutes
5179
02117020/F 2015
2
MODULE 1
DC CIRCUIT THEORY
You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this module.
(iii) Using the Thevenin circuit produced in (b) (ii) above, derive the Norton equivalent
circuit. [3 marks]
(ii) Determine the value of the load resistance which should be connected at terminals
ab in Figure 1 to yield maximum power transfer. [2 marks]
(iii) Calculate the maximum power transferred using the determined value of resistance
in (c) (ii) above. [4 marks]
(iv) Describe the impact on the power transferred, if the magnitude of the voltage
source in Figure 1 is increased. [2 marks]
Total 30 marks
2. (a) (i) Define the term ‘capacitance’ and give its unit and symbol. [4 marks]
(ii) Sketch and label, on the same time scale, charging and discharging curves of
current and potential difference for a capacitor. [6 marks]
(b) A potential difference of 100 V is maintained across a capacitor constructed with ten metal
plates that are separated by sheets of polyethylene, each having a thickness of 0.4 mm and
relative permittivity of 2. Given ∈0 = 8.85 × 10–12 F/m and the area of one side of each
plate is 500 cm2, calculate the
(i) capacitance of the capacitor [4 marks]
Total 20 marks
3. (a) State THREE ways by which the inductance of a coil can be increased. [3 marks]
(d) A ferromagnetic ring of mean radius 120 mm and crosssectional area 500 mm2 has two
series connected windings: one of 300 turns and the other of 500 turns. Assume the relative
permeability is 1000 and there is no flux leakage.
Calculate the
Total 20 marks
MODULE 2
You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this module.
4. (a) With the aid of a suitable block diagram, explain how a bipolar junction transistor is
constructed. [6 marks]
(b) State what is meant by the d.c. beta (βdc) of a transistor and provide the formula used to
calculate it. [2 marks]
(c) A transistor with an hie = 2 200 and hfe = 90 is connected in the common emitter configuration
as an amplifier with the load resistance Rl = 12 kΩ.
Calculate the
(i) input impedance
(d) State the TWO equations by which the small signal hparameters are defined. Indicate
what EACH stated subscript represents. [6 marks]
Calculate the
(f) With the aid of a diagram, explain the term ‘saturation’ as it relates to the characteristic
curves of the operation of a bipolar transistor. [4 marks]
Total 30 marks
Calculate the
(ii) value of the output signal and state the phase relationship of the output signal to
the input signal. [3 marks]
(b) Draw the circuit diagram of a Wien bridge oscillator and state the formula used to calculate
its frequency of oscillation. [7 marks]
(c) List FOUR factors that contribute to the change in frequency of an oscillator.
[4 marks]
Total 20 marks
6. (a) State what is meant by ‘multiple hop transmission’ as it relates to sky propagation.
[2 marks]
(b) Define EACH of the following terms as it relates to the propagation of a high frequency
wave:
(c) Identify the THREE natural ways a radio wave can travel after leaving an antenna.
[3 marks]
(d) With the aid of a diagram, illustrate what is meant by ‘line of sight’ propagation. State
TWO frequency bands where it is utilized. [5 marks]
(f) State TWO factors on which the range of a ground wave depends. [2 marks]
Total 20 marks
MODULE 3
You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this module.
7. (a) Outline the EIGHT steps utilized as the general procedure involved in telemetering.
[8 marks]
(b) State FIVE advantages of using digital communication over analogue communication.
[5 marks]
(c) Distinguish between simplex and duplex systems as applied to data communication.
[2 marks]
(d) Explain briefly how SCADA is used in power systems management. [3 marks]
(f) Identify FOUR subsystems of SCADA and for EACH, outline ONE function.
[8 marks]
Total 30 marks
(b) Describe the construction and operation of EACH of the following types of relays:
(i) Bimetallic [4 marks]
(c) Explain the operation of a fuse and state TWO of its applications. [5 marks]
Total 20 marks
9. (a) List THREE situations where d.c. motors are used. [3 marks]
(b) State ONE difference between a d.c. generator and a d.c. motor. [2 marks]
(c) A shunt motor supplied with 220 V, runs at a speed of 800 r/min when the armature current
is 20 A. The resistance of the armature circuit is 0.35 ohms.
Calculate the resistance required in series with the armature to reduce the speed to
650 r/min, assuming that the armature current is 15 amperes. [5 marks]
(d) With the aid of diagrams, describe EACH of the following machine connections:
(e) Identify ONE problem introduced in the d.c. dynamo as a result of the commutation
process. [1 mark]
Total 20 marks
END OF TEST
IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.
02117020/F 2015
TEST CODE 02217010
FORM TP 2015180 MAY/JUNE 2015
5180
UNIT 2 – Paper 01
1 hour 30 minutes
02217010/F 2015
2
MODULE 1
AC CIRCUIT THEORY
(c) State the main purpose of filters used in communications equipment. [1 mark]
Total 6 marks
(b) Sketch a sinusoidal waveform and identify EACH of the following on the sketch:
Total 6 marks
(ii) Identify the dominant load type, given the orientation of the phasor diagram in
Figure 2. [1 mark]
Total 6 marks
Calculate the
Total 6 marks
MODULE 2
6. (a) State THREE ways by which a thyristor can be switched into forward conduction.
[3 marks]
(b) Identify THREE situations in which the thyristor can be used. [3 marks]
Total 6 marks
(i) State the name of EACH logic gate shown in Figure 3. [2 marks]
(ii) Name the gate produced as a result of the connection of the two gates.
[1 mark]
(c) Draw the symbol of a NAND gate and state its Boolean expression. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
02217010/F 2015
5
8. (a) With the aid of a block diagram, explain the operation of an SR flipflop. [5 marks]
Total 6 marks
9. (a) State the full name of and briefly describe EACH of the following memory systems:
(i)
EPROM [2 marks]
(ii)
PROM [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
10. (a) State what is meant by the term ‘frequency shift keying’ (FSK) as it relates to digital
modulation techniques. [3 marks]
(b) State what is meant by asynchronous and synchronous waveforms as they relate to data
communication. [2 marks]
(c) State the formula used to express the Shannon–Hartley law. [1 mark]
Total 6 marks
MODULE 3
11. With the aid of a diagram, briefly explain the principle of operation of a singlephase, capacitor
run induction motor which incorporates a centrifugal switch.
Total 6 marks
13. The following power information is provided about an induction motor operating at 1742 rpm.
Total 6 marks
14. (a) State the condition to be satisfied for maximum efficiency of a transformer. [2 marks]
(b) A 60 Hz singlephase transformer has a secondary voltage of 230 V and 100 turns on the
secondary winding. Calculate the maximum value of flux. [2 marks]
(c) Sketch a typical hysteresis BH loop for a transformer core. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
15. (a) For the operation of the synchronous generator, identify the purpose and location of the
following:
(b) A synchronous generator has eight poles and operates at 1600 rpm. Calculate the frequency
of the voltage generated. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
END OF TEST
IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.
02217010/F 2015
TEST CODE 02217020
FORM TP 2015181 MAY/JUNE 2015
5181
UNIT 2 – Paper 02
2 hours 30 minutes
02217020/F 2015
2
MODULE 1
AC CIRCUIT THEORY
You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this module.
(b) Draw and label the frequency response characteristics for EACH of the following
filters:
(e) A filter is required to pass all frequencies below 12 kHz and have a nominal impedance
of 980 Ω.
(i) Calculate the required circuit values for BOTH T and π filter arrangements.
[4 marks]
(ii) Draw BOTH completed circuits from (e) (i) above, with the designed values.
[6 marks]
Total 30 marks
(b) Figure 1 shows a series RLC circuit which is connected to a variable frequency supply.
Total 20 marks
3. (a) Define EACH of the following terms and state the symbol and unit for EACH.
(b) A load of 400 kW with power factor 0.70 lagging, has its power factor improved to 0.85
lagging by the inclusion of parallel capacitors.
Calculate the
(i) reactive power required for this improvement in power factor [7 marks]
Total 20 marks
MODULE 2
You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this module.
4. (a) Explain briefly what is meant by EACH of the following terms as it relates to D/A
converters:
Calculate the
(c) State the function of A/D conversion and indicate why it is necessary. [3 marks]
(e) State how identical ROMs can be connected to provide an expanded memory.
[1 mark]
(f) Identify THREE expanded memory possibilities that could be provided by identical
ROMs. [3 marks]
Total 30 marks
5. (a) Define the term ‘truth table’ as it relates to logic gates. [1 mark]
Prepare the truth table for the circuit shown in Figure 3 and state the type of logic gate it
represents. [5 marks]
(e) Draw TWO of the symbols used to represent a threeinput AND gate. State the Boolean
expression for the AND gate. [3 marks]
(f) Determine the decimal numbers that are represented by EACH of the following binary
numbers:
Total 20 marks
(b) Draw a transfer characteristic curve of a MOSFET to illustrate its modes of operation.
[3 marks]
(c) Draw a diagram to show how the N channel depletion mode MOSFET is constructed and
how it must be biased for normal operation. [7 marks]
(d) Describe briefly what a thyristor is, and what it is used for. [2 marks]
Total 20 marks
MODULE 3
INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES
You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this module.
7. (a) State TWO advantages of EACH of the following types of induction motors:
(b) Briefly describe the differences in construction between the squirrel cage and wound rotor
induction motors. [4 marks]
(c) (i) List FOUR types of equipment that use singlephase motors. [4 marks]
(d) The name plate on a 415 V 60 hp, 60 Hz fourpole induction motor, indicates that its speed
at rated load is 1760 rpm. Assuming the motor is operating at rated load, calculate the
(e) Sketch and label a typical torque versus speed curve for an induction motor. [5 marks]
Total 30 marks
8. (a) (i) Identify the core or no load losses of a transformer and state their origins.
[4 marks]
(ii) State FOUR methods used in the construction of a transformer to reduce leakage
flux. [4 marks]
(b)
The following information is provided for a 100 kVA distribution transformer operating
at full load:
Primary copper losses = 358 W
Primary winding resistance Rp = 1.56 Ω
Load power factor = 0.90 lag
Efficiency = 96%
Calculate the
Total 20 marks
9. (a) Define EACH of the following terms as it relates to the synchronous generator:
(i) Armature reaction [2 marks]
(b) (i) Sketch and label a per phase equivalent circuit of a synchronous generator.
[2 marks]
(ii) State the equation for the terminal voltage of a synchronous generator in terms of
its equivalent circuit components. [2 marks]
(c) Explain the method employed to estimate the value of the synchronous impedance for a
synchronous generator. [6 marks]
Total 20 marks
END OF TEST
IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.
02217020/F 2015
TEST CODE 02117010
FORM TP 2016188 MAY/JUNE 2016
UNIT 1 – Paper 01
1 hour 30 minutes
02117010/F 2016
2
MODULE 1
DC CIRCUIT THEORY
1. (a) A metal oxide resistor has a marking of 4R7. State its resistance. [1 mark]
(b) Sketch the characteristic of area, A, versus resistance, R, of a conductor wire. [1 mark]
(c) A current of 4 mA flows through two identical series connected resistors. The total power
dissipated is 128 mW. Calculate the value of EACH resistor. [4 marks]
Total 6 marks
Total 6 marks
2.5 A
40 Ω
Total 6 marks
16 H
4H
4H
(b) Assuming a current I, of 3 mA, flows through the network in Figure 2, calculate the total
stored energy. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
(b) A charged 470 µF mica capacitor is allowed to discharge through a resistor, R, connected
in parallel. The time constant of this discharge is 940 ms.
(i) Calculate the value of resistor R. [3 marks]
(ii) Suggest what the impact would be if the mica capacitor is replaced by a polyester
capacitor of the same value. [1 mark]
Total 6 marks
MODULE 2
(c) In a common emitter circuit, the transistor has a collector current IC of 30 mA and a base
current IB of 0.5 mA. Calculate the
(i) current gain [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
Calculate the
Total 6 marks
_
RF
Vin 2.5 V 28 k Ω
R in RL
Vout
4 kΩ 12 kΩ
Calculate the
Total 6 marks
Total 6 marks
(c) State the frequency spectrum of EACH of the following methods of propagation:
(i) Medium frequency (MF) [1 mark]
Total 6 marks
MODULE 3
11. (a) Determine the average emf induced in a coil having 1200 turns, if the flux of 400 µWb is
reversed in 0.1 s. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
12. (a) Identify ONE common type of thermal overload relay and describe its operation.
[3 marks]
(c) State what is meant by ‘fault current’ as used in a protection scheme. [1 mark]
Total 6 marks
13. (a) State the difference between the ‘generated emf ’ and the ‘terminal voltage’ in EACH of
the following:
(b) Sketch and label on one set of axes, the torque load characteristic curve for EACH of the
following DC motor configurations:
(i) Series
(ii) Shunt
Total 6 marks
14. (a) Explain what is meant by the term ‘half duplex’ communication. [4 marks]
(b) Identify TWO industries where the SCADA system can be used. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
15. (a) Give the symbols for and state what is meant by EACH of the following terms:
(b) A circuit has a flux of 400 µWb through an area of 0.0005 m2. Calculate the flux density
of the circuit in tesla units. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
END OF TEST
IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.
02117010/F 2016
TEST CODE 02117020
FORM TP 2016189 MAY/JUNE 2016
UNIT 1 – Paper 02
2 hours 30 minutes
02117020/F 2016
2
MODULE 1
DC CIRCUIT THEORY
You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this module.
(b) Define EACH of the following terms and state the symbol and unit for EACH:
10 V
C2
20 μF
C4
C1
20 μF 20 μF
C3
20 μF
(d) The charged combination of capacitors in Figure 1 is allowed to discharge through a resistor
R. Sketch the expected variation of current and potential difference. [4 marks]
(e) A capacitor, having a capacitance of 0.133 nF, consists of two square metal plates of side
5 cm, separated 1 mm by a dielectric.
Total 30 marks
2. (a) (i) State what is meant by the term ‘temperature coefficient of resistance’. Give its
symbol and unit. [4 marks]
(c) Figure 2 shows a resistive circuit with resistors R1, R2, R3 and the supply voltage E.
IB IA
R 2 14 Ω
IT V2
R3
12 V V3 E
10 Ω
V1 R 1 10 Ω
Total 20 marks
a) Inductor [1 mark]
(iii) State the MAIN advantage of an air core inductor and identify its impact on
inductance. [2 marks]
(iv) State TWO physical factors which determine the inductance of a coil.
[2 marks]
(b) When two coils (L1 and L2) are connected in series, their effective inductance is 12 H. When
the connections to one coil are reversed, the effective inductance is 8 H. The coefficient
of coupling is 0.8. Calculate the possible values for L2 only. [10 marks]
(c) Explain the term ‘loosely coupled’ as it relates to the coupling coefficient of inductors.
[2 marks]
Total 20 marks
MODULE 2
You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this module.
(b) A 140 MHz frequency modulated carrier (FC) is modulated by an audio signal which creates
a frequency deviation (FD) of 30 kHz. Calculate the
(c) State the FOUR sine waves that are produced when a modulating frequency (FM) amplitude
modulates a carrier frequency (FC). [4 marks]
(d) An amplitude modulated wave has a maximum value of 8 volts and a minimum value of
3.5 volts. Calculate the depth of modulation. [4 marks]
D1
R1
Input C1
signal
(f) Calculate the bandwidth of a narrowband FM signal which is generated by a 5 kHz audio
signal that modulates a 130 MHz carrier. [2 marks]
(h) State TWO benefits that are derived from the use of ‘single sideband’ (SSB) transmission.
[2 marks]
Total 30 marks
(ii) State ONE type of circuitry where clipping circuit processing is useful.
[1 mark]
(c) State the function of a zener diode when used in a power supply (rectifier circuit) and how
it is placed in the circuit. [2 marks]
(e) Name the type of semiconductor produced when a crystal is doped with EACH of the
following:
Total 20 marks
6. (a) State how a bipolar transistor must be biased when placed in a circuit to operate as an
amplifier. [2 marks]
(c) State the MAIN reason why the common emitter amplifier is MOST often used in electronic
circuits. [2 marks]
(d) Explain what is meant by the term ‘thermal runaway’ as applied to a transistor connected
in the common emitter configuration. [7 marks]
(e) A transistor, having an hie = 1500 Ω, hfe = 70, is connected in the common emitter
configuration as an amplifier, with a load resistance of 12 kΩ. Calculate the
Total 20 marks
MODULE 3
You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this module.
7. (a) With the aid of a diagram, explain what happens when a coil is wound on an iron rod and
connected to a battery. [4 marks]
(b) The current in a coil with a ferromagnetic core is increased from zero to a large value.
Sketch and explain the resulting BH curve. [9 marks]
(d) A wooden ring of mean circumference 400 mm and uniform cross sectional area of
300 mm2 has a coil of 300 turns wound uniformly over it. The current through the coil is
3.0 amperes. Determine the
(ii) Draw a circuit which can be used to demonstrate Lenz’s law and explain its
operation. [5 marks]
Total 30 marks
(c) Explain TWO methods used to achieve speed control of a DC motor. [6 marks]
(d) Draw and label the circuit for a separately excited DC generator. [5 marks]
Total 20 marks
9. (a) State what the acronym SCADA means and what it refers to. [3 marks]
(b) Explain the function of the ‘Remote Terminal Unit’ (RTU) subsystem of a SCADA
system. [3 marks]
(c) Describe how information is transmitted in a SCADA system from the remote station to
the master station. [5 marks]
(d) State what is meant by the term ‘power line carrier’. [1 mark]
(e) Identify FOUR advantages of power line carriers for companies using SCADA.
[4 marks]
(f) State what are ‘leased lines’ and list THREE of their disadvantages. [4 marks]
Total 20 marks
END OF TEST
IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.
02117020/F 2016
TEST CODE 02217010
FORM TP 2016190 MAY/JUNE 2016
UNIT 2 – Paper 01
1 hour 30 minutes
02217010/F 2016
2
MODULE 1
AC CIRCUIT THEORY
1. (a) A resistor with marking 4k7 is connected in series with a pure inductor of 10 H. The circuit
is powered with a 115 V, 60 Hz supply. Calculate the
(b) Sketch a phasor diagram for the circuit current above with reference to the applied voltage.
[1 mark]
Total 6 marks
2. (a) State the relationship between the Q factor and the bandwidth of a filter. [1 mark]
(b) An LC circuit has edge frequencies F1 = 10 MHz and F2 = 13 MHz. Determine the Q factor.
[5 marks]
Total 6 marks
3. Define EACH of the following terms and state the symbol and unit for EACH:
Total 6 marks
(b) An alternating current has an equation V = 381 sin 100 t. Calculate the
Total 6 marks
Total 6 marks
MODULE 2
6. (a) Draw the symbol for the EX–OR logic gate and state the Boolean expression for the gate.
[2 marks]
A
B
Logic Gate A Logic Gate B
(ii) State the name of the logic gate produced when the two gates shown in Figure 1
are joined: Gate A to Gate B. [1 mark]
(c) State the meaning of the term ‘truth table’ as it relates to logic gates. [1 mark]
Total 6 marks
+VCC
RL
RB
VIN Q1
(b) Explain how the transistor can be used as a switch to control large load currents.
[3 marks]
Total 6 marks
8. (a) Explain the operation of the 555 timer when used in the monostable mode. [3 marks]
Total 6 marks
9. (a) Determine the reference voltage required for a 7bit DA converter to generate a maximum
output voltage of 9 volts. [2 marks]
(b) State the meaning of ‘A/D conversion’ and indicate why it is necessary. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
10. (a) State the MAIN advantage of ‘star topology’ over ‘ring topology’ computer networks.
[2 marks]
(b) Draw the block diagram of a full duplex 4wire mode operation used in communication
systems. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks
MODULE 3
11. (a) State the condition required to achieve maximum efficiency in a transformer.
[2 marks]
Total 6 marks
(b) A 4pole, 60 Hz induction motor is operating at 1 780 rpm. Calculate the slip.
[3 marks]
Total 6 marks
13. (a) A 50 kVA, 12 000 V/230 V, 60 Hz singlephase transformer has 100 turns on the secondary
winding. Calculate the
(c) State the MAIN reason why transformers use a ferromagnetic core. [1 mark]
Total 6 marks
14. (a) State the meaning of the term ‘synchronous’ as it relates to a synchronous machine.
[2 marks]
Total 6 marks
15. (a) List THREE sources of power losses in an induction motor. [3 marks]
Torque
2 1 _ Slip
0 1
A B C
Total 6 marks
END OF TEST
IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.
02217010/F 2016
TEST CODE 02217020
FORM TP 2016191 MAY/JUNE 2016
UNIT 2 – Paper 02
2 hours 30 minutes
02217020/F 2016
2
MODULE 1
AC CIRCUIT THEORY
You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this module.
I/mA
2.9
(a) Express the waveform in Figure 1 in the form I = I0 sin ωt. [7 marks]
(b) Define the term ‘power factor’ and state its formula. [2 marks]
(c) State the relationship between ‘voltage’ and ‘current’ in circuits for EACH of the following
characteristics. Identify the load type in EACH characteristic.
(d) Identify TWO ways a power utility company can act to improve the power factor.
[2 marks]
(f) A transformer rated at a maximum of 40 kVA supplies a 14 kW load at a power factor 0.65
lagging. Calculate the
(ii) additional unity power factor load that can be safely added to the transformer.
[6 marks]
Total 30 marks
(b) Sketch and label the frequency response for EACH of the following filters. For EACH
filter show the cutoff frequency.
(d)
Design a π section low pass filter to achieve a nominal impedance of 2 000 Ω and a cutoff
frequency of 3 600 Hz. Draw the circuit which will satisfy these specifications.
[6 marks]
Total 20 marks
(ii) State TWO characteristics of the potential difference across circuit components
when Q > 1. [2 marks]
(iv) Sketch the phasor diagram for this circuit at Fr. [2 marks]
Total 20 marks
MODULE 2
You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this module.
4. (a) With the aid of a block diagram, explain the function of a computer network using ‘ring’
topology. [9 marks]
(b) Compare the ‘reliability’ and ‘geographical coverage ability’ features of the BUS, STAR
and RING computer network topologies. [6 marks]
(c) Describe the process of receiving and transmitting information using UART. [4 marks]
(e) The input signal to a receiver is 60 µV and the internal noise at the input is 6 µV. The signal
at the output after being amplified is 3 V and the noise at the output is 0.6 V. Calculate
the noise factor. [3 marks]
(g) Identify TWO types of data that can be transmitted during data communication.
[2 marks]
Total 30 marks
(c) State the production feature in relation to time of a 555 timer when used in the monostable
mode. [2 marks]
J Q
CLK
K Q
(d) Develop the truth table for the J–K flip flop in Figure 2. [4 marks]
Input
S Q S Q S Q
A B C
R Q R Q R Q
Clock
(b) List THREE ways in which a thyristor can be switched on. [3 marks]
(f) List FOUR advantages of using an enhancement mode MOSFET in digital circuits.
[4 marks]
Total 20 marks
MODULE 3
INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES
You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this module.
7. (a) Draw and label, with variables, a complete equivalent circuit of a transformer. State the
meaning of EACH variable used. [11 marks]
(b) (i) State TWO methods used in the construction of transformers to reduce leakage
flux. [2 marks]
(ii) Define the term ‘voltage regulation’ as it relates to a transformer and state its
formula. [3 marks]
Total 30 marks
(b) Define EACH of the following terms as it relates to the synchronous generator:
(c) A threephase, wye connected, synchronous generator is rated at 1200 kVA, 12 kV, 60 Hz.
The armature resistance is 0.5 Ω and the synchronous reactance is 10 Ω. The synchronous
generator is delivering full load at a power factor of 0.7 lagging.
(i) Sketch a labelled per phase equivalent circuit diagram of the synchronous generator.
Include component values. [3 marks]
Total 20 marks
9. (a) Consider the squirrel cage and wound rotor induction motors.
(i) Describe the differences in the construction of squirrel cage and wound rotor
induction motors. [6 marks]
(ii) State TWO advantages of EACH motor described in (a) (i). [4 marks]
(b) The following information is provided for a 36 kW threephase, 4pole, 60 Hz, 400 V star
connected induction motor:
Efficiency = 92.4%
Slip S = 4%
Friction and windage = 200 W
Stator copper loss (per phase) = 600 W
Rotor copper loss (per phase) = 300 W
Total 20 marks
END OF TEST
IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.
02217020/F 2016