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Electrical and

Electronic
Technology

CAPE® PAST PAPERS


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First published 2014


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Cover photograph © Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC ®)
Cover photograph by Mrs Alberta Henry
With thanks to: Kern Anselm
CAPE® Electrical and Electronic Technology Past Papers

LIST OF CONTENTS

Paper 01 (15 June 2005) 4


Paper 02 (24 May 2005) 12
Unit 1 Paper 01 (02 June 2006) 18
Unit 1 Paper 02 (23 May 2006) 24
Unit 2 Paper 01 (14 June 2006) 31
Unit 2 Paper 02 (16 June 2006) 37
Unit 1 Paper 01 (30 May 2008) 45
Unit 1 Paper 01 (07 July 2008) 51
Unit 2 Paper 01 (11 June 2008) 58
Unit 2 Paper 01 (24 June 2008) 63
Unit 1 Paper 02 (20 May 2008) 68
Unit 1 Paper 02 (26 June 2008) 79
Unit 2 Paper 02 (13 June 2008) 86
Unit 2 Paper 02 (30 June 2008) 95
Unit 1 Paper 01 (15 May 2009) 102
Unit 2 Paper 01 (10 June 2009) 108
Unit 1 Paper 02 (19 May 2009) 114
Unit 2 Paper 02 (29 May 2009) 121
Unit 1 Paper 01 (14 May 2010) 128
Unit 1 Paper 02 (18 May 2010) 134
Unit 2 Paper 01 (09 June 2010) 142
Unit 2 Paper 02 (28 May 2010) 148
Unit 1 Paper 01 (13 May 2011) 156
Unit 1 Paper 02 (25 May 2011) 162
Unit 2 Paper 01 (08 June 2011) 170
Unit 2 Paper 02 (27 May 2011) 176
Unit 1 Paper 01 (15 May 2012) 184
Unit 1 Paper 02 (25 May 2012) 191
Unit 2 Paper 01 (08 June 2012) 201
Unit 2 Paper 02 (29 May 2012) 207
Unit 1 Paper 01 (17 May 2013) 217
Unit 1 Paper 02 (09 May 2013) 223
Unit 2 Paper 01 (29 May 2013) 231
Unit 2 Paper 02 (31 May 2013) 236
Unit 1 Paper 01 (16 May 2014) 244
Unit 1 Paper 02 (08 May 2014) 253
Unit 2 Paper 01 (28 May 2014) 263
Unit 2 Paper 02 (30 May 2014) 268
Unit 1 Paper 01 May/June 2015 279
Unit 1 Paper 02 May/June 2015 287
Unit 2 Paper 01 May/June 2015 296
Unit 2 Paper 01 May/June 2015 303
Unit 1 Paper 01 MayJune 2016 313
Unit 1 Paper 02 May/June 2016 321
Unit 2 Paper 01 May/June 2016 331
Unit 2 Paper 02 May/June 2016 340
..

TEST CODE 02117010


FORM TP 2005195 MAY/JUNE 2005

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

Paper 01

Jl hours
2

( 15 JUNE 2005 (p.m.) )

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

1. This paper consists of THIRTY questions arranged in THREE sections. Each section
is based on a Module of the syllabus. Candidates must attempt ALL questions.

2. EACH Module is worth 30 marks.

3. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

4. Each candidate MUST enter his/her school code and registration number in the space
provided on the answer booklet.

Copyright © 2003 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.
021 17010/CAPE 2005
- 2 -

MODULE1

CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

1. For the circuit shown in Figure L, calculate the value of the current '/' .

SV 2.Q 3V
I "M I

/(
3.Q lOV
Figure 1
[3 mat·ks]

2. For the circuit shown in Figure 2, calculate

(a) 11

(b) /2

3A

Figure 2
[3 marks]

3. Calcul ate the power dissipated by the circuit in F igure 3.

10 k.Q
10 k .Q

Figut·e 3

[4 mar·ks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02 11 70 I 0/CAPE 2005
- 3 -

4. State the maximum power transfer theorem. [2 marks]

5. Calcul ate the charge stored by the circuit in Figure 4.

lOV

Figure 4
[4 marks]

6. Calculate the flux generated in Fig ure 5, if the reluctance (R ) of the material is 5 X 1o2 A t/ Wb.

Figure 5

[3 marks]

7. State ONE law of electromagnetic induction. [2 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02 1170 I 0/CA PE 2005
- 4 -

8. For the circuit s hown in F igure 6, calcu late

(a) the time constant

(b) the maximum current in the c ircuit.

SOmH 10 k .Q

lOV

F igure 6

[3 marks

9. Determine the total impedance of the circuit shown in Figure 7.

300 .Q 400 .Q

Figure 7
[3 marks]

10. Draw and label a circuit whic h will implement a high pass filter. [3 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


021 170 10/CA PE 2005
- 5 -

MODULE 2

ANALOGUE AND DIGITAL ELECTRONICS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

11. Draw the c irc uit for a f ull wave rectifie r. Inc lude a s moothing capacitor and load resistor in
your circ uit.
[3 marks]

12. For the c irc uit in Figure 8, 18 = 0.5 J..l A, and f3(hre) = 100.
SV
lOkQ
c

Figure 8

(a) Calculate lc

(b) Calc ulate V CE


[5 marks]

13. Identify the c irc ui t shown in Figure 9 and state the re latio nshi p be tween the in put a nd the o ut-
put.
c

Figure 9
[3 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02 1170 10/CAPE 2005
- 6 -

14. For the c ircuit shown in Fig ure 10, explain what happens to the diode C whe n the s witch is
moved from position A to position B .

IOV

?
c

Figure 10
[1 mark]

15. Exp lain the terms ' natural' and 'forced' commutati on with respect to a thyristor.
[3 marks]

16. Convert 48 10 to a binary number. [3 marks]

17. For the circuit s hown in Figure 11, w rite dow n the Boolean ex pression fo r the output X.

Figure 11
[3 marks]

18. Figure 12 is an incomple te tab le for an S-R flip-flop. Fi ll in the missing row shown in the table.

s R Qn Qn+ l

0 0 X
0 l X
l 0 X
I l X

Figure 12
[3 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02 LL70 I 0/CA PE 2005
- 7 -

19. Explain how a space wave is propagated. [2 marks]

20. Explain, with the aid of diagrams, the difference be tween amplitude and frequency modulation.
[4 marks]

MODULE3

ELECTRICAL ENERGY SYSTEMS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

21. Ide ntify two variables on which losses due to the contact resistance between the brushes and the
commutator segments of a de dynamo depend. [2 marks]

22. Name and define the unit of mutual inductance [2 marks]

23. State two functions of the core in a transformer. [2 marks]

24. Li st TWO advantages and TWO disadvantages of a sy nchronous motor compared with an
induction motor. [4 marks]

25. Describe the principle of operation of a shaded pole inducti on motor. [4 marks]

26. Sketch a diagram of a thermal overload relay and label the parts. [4 marks]

27. With the aid of a diag ram, describe a sys tem whic h could be used to transmit information/data
along a high voltage power line. Name the system. [4 marks]

GO ON TO T HE NEXT PAG E
02 ll 70 10/CAPE 2005
' .
- 8 -

28. The torque versus armature current characteristics for FOUR configurations of de motors are
shown in Figure 13. Identify the curve for EACH configuration.

Armature current (la)

Figure 13

[4 marks]

29. (a) Give an expressio n for the efficiency of a tra nsformer.

(b) At which po int is maxi mum effici ency of a transforme r achieved?


[2 marks]

30. D efine the "slip speed" of an induc tio n motor. [2 marks]

END OF TEST

02 11 70 10/CAPE 2005
TEST CODE 02117020
FORM TP 2005196 MAY/JUNE 2005

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

Paper 02

c 24 MAY 2005 (a.m.))

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

1. This paper consists of SIX questions arranged in THREE sections. Each section is
based on a Module of the syllabus. Candidates must attempt ALL questions.

2. Each Module is worth 50 marks.

3. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

4. Each candidate MUST enter his/her school code and registration number in the space
provided on the answer booklet.

Copyright © 2003 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.
02117020/CAPE 2005
- 2 -

MODULE 1

CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

1. (a) For the circui t shown i n Figure 1, determine the currents 11 and 12 .

2Q

10 V 15 v

Figure 1
[10 marks]

(b) ( i) Define the term 'capacitance.'

(i i) For the network show n in Figure 2, the swi tch is placed in position 1 for 0.2
seconds. Determ ine the charge stored by the capac itor w hen the switch is in
position 1. (Assume that the sw itch was prev iously in position 2 for a very long
time.)

(ii i) After 0.2 seconds the switch is placed in position 2. Calculate the time it takes
for the capacitor to lose half its charge.

100 kQ
1 2

20V
1
I
0.1 11F
1 ISO kQ

F igure 2

[15 marks]

Total 25 marks

GO ON TO T H E NEXT PAGE
02 117020/CAPE 2005
- 3 -

2. (a) A current of 2.0 A flow s through a capacito r of 10 )J.F when an alternating voltage of
220 V (rms) is app li ed across it.

Ca lcul ate

(i) the f reque ncy of the appli ed voltage

(ii ) the resistance to be connected in series w ith the capacitor to reduce the current
to 1.0 A

(iii) the phase ang le of the resulting c ircuit. [15 marks]

(b) A n a lternating c urrent i, is represented by

i = 10 sin 942t amps.

Determine

( i) the f requency

(i i) the peri od

(iii) the time taken for the current to reach 5 A

(iv) the rms current

(v) the energy dissipa ted w hen the c urre nt fl ows th roug h a 100 Q resisto r fo r
5 mi nutes. [10 marks]

Total 25 mar ks

GO ON TO T HE NEXT PAGE
02 1L7020/CAPE 2005
- 4 -

MODULE2

ANALOGUE AND DIGITAL ELECTRONICS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

3. (a) For the amplifi er shown in Fig ure 3:

(i) State the purpose of the capacitors c / and CT

(i i) Determine the input impedance of the c ircuit.

(iii) Determine the output impedance


(hoc o r ~re can be cons idered as infinite.)

~------~---------- lOV

20 kQ =R I
c,
r----~1 ~------~ ~ =100
hre = 100

10 k.Q

Figure 3

[12 marks]

(b) A circuit is required to give hig h o utput when at least 2 of the 3 inputs are hi gh.

(i) Write dow n the truth table fo r thi s circuit.

(ii) Usi ng K a rn a ug h M a ps o r o therw ise, de te rmin e the minimum B oolea n


express io n.

(iii) Draw a circ uit di agra m to imple ment the c irc uit.
[13 marks]

Total 25 marks

GO 0 TO THE NEXT PAGE


02 tl 7020/CAP E 2005
- 5 -

4. (a) ( i) Identify the circuit shown in Figure 4. [ 2 marks]

(ii) Derive the relationship between the input and output vo ltage.

Figm·e 4
[11 marks]

(b) For the circuit shown in Fig ure 5, data is ente red into the flip-flop one key at a time. Data
is read o ut of the flip-flo ps simultaneously. Examine the circuit and answer the foll ow ing
questi ons giving a reason for EACH answer.

(i) Which buttons must be pressed to enter d ata into the fli p-flo ps?

(ii ) Whi ch butto n must be pressed to read data f rom the flip-flops?

(i ii) Which button is pressed to clear the regis ter?

[12 marks]

Figtu·e 5 Total 25 mat·ks

GO ON TO TH E NEXT PAGE
02117020/CA PE 2005
- 6 -

MODULE3

ELECTRICAL ENERGY SYSTEMS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

5. (a) Describe the principle of o peratio n of a synchrono us mo tor. [ 4 marks]

(b) Explain TWO metho ds that could be e mployed to start a synchronous mo tor.
' ' [ 4 marks]

(c) Identify FOU R uses of the synchro no us dynamo. Include at least TWO indus tri al uses.
[ 4 marks]

(d) Identify TWO ad vantages of a synchro no us mo to r over an inducti on motor of similar


size. [ 4 marks]

(e) A 115 V, 2-po le, 50 Hz s ing le phase re lucta nce start induc tance mo tor is rated at..!. hp,
6
2750 rpm and has a full load effi cie ncy of75 per cent. Calculate:

(i) the full load input power


(ii ) the no load speed
(iii ) the full load slip [ 9 marks]

Total 25 marks

6. (a) Explain the concept of 'self inductance.' [ 3 marks]

(b) With aid of a diag ra m, expl ain how you would prod uce a no n-inductive coil.
[ 4 marks]

(c) The inductance of a coil is di rec tl y proportional to the square of the number of turns and
the cross-sectio nal area a nd is inversely proportio na l to the length of the magnetic
circuit. Restate thi s theorem in a formul a. [ 2 marks]

(d) Sketch the vari atio n of mag ne tic flu x w ith magnetizing current for a compl ete cycle for
an initi all y unmag netized spec imen. Label the axes and curve. [ 4 marks]

(e) If the current through a coil having an induc tance of 0.8 henrys is reduced fro m 8 A to
5 A in 0.05 seconds , calcul ate the mean value o f the e mf induced in the coil.
[ 6 marks]

(f) Draw and labe l a basic d iag ram of a transformer. [ 6 marks]

Total 25 marks

END OF TEST

02 11 7020/CA PE 2005
TEST CODE02117010
FORM TP 2006201 MAY/JUNE 2006

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICALAND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

Unit 1 -Paper 01

( 02 JUNE 2006 (p.m.) )

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions arranged in THREE sections. Each section
is based on a Module of the syllabus. Candidates must attempt ALL questions.

2. EACH Module is worth 30 marks.

3. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

Copyright © 2004 Caribbean Examinations Council ®


All rights reserved.
0211 701 0/CAPE 2006
- 2 -

MODULE 1
AC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

1. For the circuit shown in Figure 1:

(a) Calculate the total capacitance. [3 marks]

(b) Calculate the energy stored by the 20 IJ.F capacitor. [3 marks]

20v

Figure 1

2. For the circuit shown in Figure 2, calculate

(a) '•

(b) /2

(c) / 3'

4A 6Q

Figure 2
[6 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


0211701 0/CAPE 2006
- 3 -

3. For the circuit shown in Figure 3, write down but do not solve a pair of simultaneous equations
which could be used to determine i 1 and i 2 •

Figure 3
[6 marks]

4. For the circuit shown in Figure 4, determine the current i in the circuit 0.4 seconds after the
switch sl is closed.

6H

Figure 4
[6 marks]

s. (a) The power dissipated across a 40 .Q resistor is 2.4 kW. What is the value of the current
that flows? [2 marks]

(b) The resistance of the field winding (coil) a motor changes from 50 .Q to 55 .Q after the
motor has been running for some time. If the temperature coefficient of resistance of
the coils is 0.005 QfC, find the temperature rise experienced by the coil. [4 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/CAPE 2006
- 4 -

MODULE2

ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

6. (a) Draw a circuit that will implement a full wave rectifier with a smoothing capacitor
included. [4 marks]

(b) The square wave shown in Figure 5 (a) is applied to the input of the circuit in the Figure
5 (b). Sketch the output V0 . [2 marks]

I
V;

l
FigureS (a) FigureS (b)

7. For the circuit shown in Figure 6, hre = 100 and V8 £ = 0.7V.


9V

SOOkQ

I Yo

1
Figure 6

(a) Find the base current / 8 through the 500 k.Q resistor.

(b) F ind the current through the 3 k.Q resistor. [6 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/CAPE 2006
- 5 -

8. In Figure 7 a sinusoidal voltage with peak value 0.5 V and frequency 10Hz is applied to the
input V. . Make TWO sketches showing the input and the output, showing clearly the relationship
Ill

between the TWO waveforms.

IOOkQ

Figure 7
[6 marks]

9. (a) List the names of THREE parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.

(b) State a typical application or use of each part given at (a) above. [6 marks]

10. Explain with the aid of sketches TWO differences between amplitude modulation (AM) and
frequency modulation (FM). [6 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/CAPE 2006
- 6 -

MODULE3
INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS
You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

11. (a) Sketch and label the cross-section of a d.c. motor. [3 marks]

(b) (i) Sketch and label the speed load c haracteristics for a series connec ted d.c. motor.

(ii) Explain the speed-load characteristics for the motor indicated at (i) above.
[3 marks]

12. (a) With the aid of a diagram, illustrate Faraday's law. [3 marks]

(b) Calculate the emf generated in a conductor of length 1 m which moves perpendicular to
a uniform magnetic field of 2.5 teslas at a speed of 25 m s- 1 • [3 marks]

13. (a) Explain the function and operation of a cartridge fuse. [4 marks]

(b ) Sketch and label the inverse characteristics of the cartridge fuse. [2 marks]

14. (a) State TWO adv antages of using digital d ata communication compared with using
a nalogue communicati on. [2 marks]

(b) Explain, with the aid of a sketch, how electronic communication can be accomplished
on power lines. [4 marks]

15. (a) The torque versus speed characteristics of a machine with a low resistance rotor is shown
in Figure 8. Redraw the diagram to show the torque versus slip. [2 marks]

0 O)n1 O)s
Speed ~

Figure 8

(b) Explain the concept of armature reaction as applied to the d.c. motor. [4 marks]

Total 30 marks

ENDOFTEST

02 117010/CAPE 2006
~--

TEST CODE 02117020


FORM TP 2006202 MAY/JUNE 2006

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICALAND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

Unit 1 -Paper 02

2 hours 30 minutes

( 23 MAY 2006 (a.m.) )

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. This paper consists of NINE questions. Candidates must attempt SIX questions.

2. The paper consists of THREE modules, each having THREE questions. Candidates
must answer Questions 1, 4 and 7 and ONE other question from EACH Module.

3. Each Module is worth 50 marks.

4. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

Copyright © 2004 Caribbean Examinations Council ®


All rights reserved.
02117020/CAPE 2006
- 2 -

MODULE!

DC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other from this Module.

1. (a) (i) State Thevenin 's Theorem.

(ii) State Norton's Theorem. [4 marks]

(b) (i) Find the Thevenin 's equivalent for the circui t shown in Figure 1.

lSOQ lOOQ

son
20V-=:._

30Q

Figure 1

(ii) If the load across AB is 60 .Q, determine the power di ssipated by the load.
[12marks]

(c) For the circuit shown in Fi gure 2 determine the currents I amperes and /? amperes.
I -

lOQ

lOV-==-

Figure 2
[9 marks]

(d) A cellular telephone requires a n operating voltage of 12 V at 24 rnA. Determine the


value of the series dropping resistor required to operate thi s dev ice from a 27 Volt source.
[5 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2006
- 3 -

(a) Define the term 'capacitance '. [2 marks]


2.

(b) (i) For the network shown in Figure 3, the switch is pl aced in position 1 for 0.02
seconds. Determine the charge stored by the capacitor when the switch is in this
position.

(ii) After 0.2 seconds, the sw itch is placed in position 2. Calculate the time it takes
for the capacitor to lose 50% of its charge.

lOOkQ 1 2

20V-=- lSOkQ

Figure 3
[10 marks]

2
(c) The area of the interface of a capacitor constructed with two parallel plates is 12 cm .
The pl ates are separated by a di stance of 0.2 mm and carry a pd of 50 Y. Calculate the
following:

(i) The capacitance of the capacitor with air as the dielectrics


(ii) The magnitude of the field strength between the plates
(i ii) The flux density between the plates
(iv) The energy stored by the capacitor
[8 marks]

Total 20 marks

3. (a) Explain the concept of 'self inductance' . [4 marks]

(b) With aid of a di agram, explain how you would produce a non-inductive coil.
[4 marks]

(c) The inductance of a coil is proportiona l to the square of the number of turns and the
cross-sectio nal area and is inversely proportiona l to the length of the magnetic circuit.
Restate this theorem in a formula. [3 marks]

(d) Sketch and label the variation of magnetic flux with magnetizing current for a closed
iron circuit. [3 marks]

(e) The current through a coil having an inductance of 0.8 henry is reduced from 8 A to 5 A
in 0.05 seconds. Calculate the mean value of the emf induced in the coil.
[3 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/C APE 2006
- 4 -

(f) Calculate the value of the total inductance in the circuit shown in Figure 4.

12H

8H

v
Figure 4
[3 marks]

Total 20 marks

MODULE2

ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this Module.

4. (a) For the diagram shown in Figure 5

(i) identify the circuit

(ii) explain the function of the sections A, B and C.

Figure 5
[tO marks]

(b) A carrier wave fc =400kHz is modulated by an audio tone, fm = 3 kHz. What are the
THREE frequencies present in the modulated signal? [6 marks]

(c) (i) Explain the difference between space waves, sky waves and ground waves.

(ii) Give examples of typical applications where EACH type of wave identified in
(i) would be useful. [9 marks]

(d) With the aid of diagrams, show how Amplitude Modulation and Frequency Modulation
is achieved. [5 marks]
Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2006
- 5 -

5. (a) For the transistor amplifier shown in Figure 6 draw the equivalent h - Parameter circui t.
[8 marks]

~------~-------------0+IOV

CJ

RL hfc = 100
IOkQ (Load) hie= 2kQ
lb = 40j.!A

Figure 6

(b) Given that heI C = 100, h.IC = 2 k.Q , 18 = 40 J..tA, and h0C is infinite, calculate

(i) the input impedance [4 marks]

(ii) the output impedance [4 ma rks]

(iii) the voltage gain. [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

6. (a) (i) Show that the voltage gain (Av) of a non-inverting amplifie r is given by
Rr
Av = 1 + R.
in

[4 marks]

(ii) Calculate the output, V0 , for the circuit shown in Figure 7.

56kQ

V; = 6mV
i

Figure 7
[4 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02 117020/CAPE 2006
- 6 -

(b) For the circuit shown in Figure 8, calculate the output voltage, V0 .

200kQ

i
=
Figure 8
[6 marks]

(c) (i) Draw the circuit for a Wein Bridge Oscillator.

(ii) Write the expression for the frequency of oscill ation. [6 marks]

Total20 marks

MODULE3

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS

You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this Module.

7. (a) Explain the difference between overload current and fau lt current. [4 marks]

(b) (i) Draw a labelled diagram of a thermal overload relay connected to a load that is
controlled by it. [5 marks]

(ii) Explain how a thermal overload relay works. [3 marks]

(c) Draw a diagram of a typical residental power distribution system and show where fuses
and circuit breakers will be located. [8 marks]

(d) (i) State THREE uses of a voltage surge protector/suppressor.

(i i) Explain the operation of a voltage surge protector/suppressor.


[6 marks]

(e) Give TWO advantages and TWO disadvantages associated with using a circui t breaker
to protect a circuit. [4 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2006
- 7 -

8. (a) State Lenz's law. [2 marks]

(b) (i) With the aid of di agrams, explain the magnetic effect on a current carrying
conductor.

(ii) What is the name g iven to this action? [6 marks]

(c) (i) Identify THREE factors which affect the magnitude of electromagnetic force
on a current carrying conductor.

(ii) State the equation w hich expresses the relation between electromagnetic force
on a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field. [5 marks]

(d) The flux per pole of a 4 po le generator is 10 x 106 lines. If it is driven at a speed of
1800 rpm in order to induce 20 V per coil , calculate the number of conductors required
to generate 120 V. [7 marks]

Total20 marks

9. (a) What is the ' residual magnetic field ' in a d.c. motor? [2 marks]

(b) (i) Draw and label the circuit diagram for a compound generator.

(ii) On the circuit diagram, indicate THREE elements that contribute significantly
to losses in this machine. [6 marks]

(c) ( i) Make sketches and label the TWO configurations of windings that are used in
construction of armatures.

(ii) State the difference between the two winding types. [4 marks]

(d) ( i) Identify THREE major losses that contribute to decreased efficiency in d.c.
machines.

(ii) A 50 hp motor operating on 240 V d .c. takes 166.67 Amperes when operating at
rated conditio ns. Determine the efficiency of the machine. [6 marks]

(e) Motors are classified by the ir s peed-load c haracteris tic s. Ide ntify TWO such
classifications for d .c. motors. [2 marks]

Total 20 ma rks

END OF TEST

02117020/CAPE 2006
TEST CODE 02217010
FORM TP 2006203 MAY/JUNE 2006

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICALAND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

Unit 2- Paper 01

11 hours
( 14 JUNE 2006 (p.m.) )

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions. Candidates must attemptALL questions.

2. The paper consists of THREE modules, Each having FIVE questions. Each Module
is worth 30 marks.

3. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

Copyright© 2004 Caribbean Examinations Counci l ®


All rights reserved.
02217010/CAPE 2006
- 2 -

MODULE I

DC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

1. A sinusoidal wave is given by

V = 5 sin 20 nt.
(a) Make a sketch of the wave showing its amplitude and time period.

(b) Calculate the rms value of the wave given above. [6 marks]

2. A coil which has a reactance of 160 Q is in series with a 100 Q resistor. The pair is connected
across a 100 V rms supply. Calculate

(a) the phase angle

(b) the power factor

(c) the magnitude of the current in the circuit. [6 marks]

3. The voltage supplied to the circuit shown in Figure 1 has a frequency of 50 Hz.

Find the following:

(a) The resonant frequency

(b) The Q factor

Figure 1
[6 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217010/CAPE 2006
- 3 -

4. For the circuit shown in Figure 2, calculate the following:

(a) The total impedance of the circuit

(b) The magnitude of the current in the circuit

200Q

l.O).!F

llOV, 50Hz

Figure 2
[6 marks]

5. For the filter circuit shown in Figure 3

(a) name the type of filter

(b) calculate the cut-off frequency

(c) make a sketch showing the frequency response of the filter.

2kQ

l>----'\1\/V,....--I-.----l
1
5

· _
r_ ___.._
_ _)..1-F1 _
Figure 3
[6 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217010/CAPE 2006
- 4 -

MODULE2
DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND DATA COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

6. For the transistor circuit shown in Fi gure 4, explain, using sketch of graphs of V0 against time,
the effect of increasing V; slowly and linearly from 0 to 6 V.

6V

Figure 4
[6 marks]

7. Construct the truth table for the combination of logic gates shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5
[6 marks]

8. (a) Draw a circuit diagram showing how NAND or NOR gates can be used to implement a
SR flip-flop.

(b) Draw a circ uit showing how you would convert a SR flip-flop toaD flip-flop.
[6 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


022 17010/CAPE 2006
- 5 -

9. For the D/ A circuit shown in Figure 6, determine the analogue output for a digital input 1102 .

Notes: - R1 = 10 k.Q
- R = 10 k.Q
- A logic (1 ) or a high corresponds to 5 Volts.

~ o----'v'\/'v---,

JS o---'\1\ v--- -+-L...-...j

Figure 6
[6 marks]

10. (a) Explain the following terms used in communication systems and give an example of
EACH type of system.

(i) Simplex
(ii) Duplex

(b) Draw diagrams to show EACH of the following types of computer networks:

(i) Ring
(ii) Star [6 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217010/CAPE 2006
- 6 -

MODULE3
INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

11. (a) With the aid of a diagram, define primary and secondary windings for a transformer.
[3 marks]

(b) A 10 KVA transformer has an iron loss of 150 watts and a copper loss of 35 watts.
Determine its efficiency. [3 marks]

12. (a) Describe the essential features of construction of the rotor for a squirrel cage induction
motor. [4 marks]

(b) Define the term 'slip' as applied to induction motors. [2 marks]

13. (a) Define the term 'synchronous impedance'. [2 marks]

(b) If the resistance of the winding of an ac machine is 0.45 .Q./phase and the reactance per
phase is 4.5 .Q./phase, determine the synchronous impedance of the machine.
[4 marks]

14. (a) Draw and label the equivalent circu it of an ideal transformer. [4 marks]

(b) Why are transformers rated in KVA rather than watts or kW? [2 marks]

15. (a) List THREE uses of induction motors. [3 marks]

(b) Sketch a labelled diagram of the typical slip versus torque characteristics of an induction
~~ ~~~

Total 30 marks

END OF TEST

02217010/CAPE 2006
TEST CODE 02217020
FORM TP 2006204 MAY/JUNE 2006

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICALAND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

Unit 2- Paper 02

2 hours 30 minutes

( 16 JUNE 2006 (p.m.))

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. This paper consists of NINE questions. Candidates must attempt SIX questions.

2. The paper consists of THREE modules, each having THREE questions. Candidates
are required to answer Questions 1, 4 and 7 and ONE other question from EACH
Module.

3. Each Module is worth 50 marks.

4. Silent, non-progr ammable calculators may be used for this examination.

Copyright © 2004 Caribbean Examinations Council ®


All rights reserved.
02217020/CAPE 2006
- 2 -

MODULE I

DC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this Module.

1. (a) Use a diagram or diagrams to explain how the power factor of a circuit can be improved
or corrected by using a capacitor or an inductor. [5 marks)

(b) A series circuit contains the following devices:

Resistor = 24Q

Inductor = 0.15 henry


Capacitor = 200 J..LF

If the c ircuit is connected to a 50 Hz, 250 V supply:

(i) Draw the circuit.

(ii) Calculate the following

impedance
current
voltage across each device
the phase difference between the voltage and the current.

(iii) Determine the Q factor for the c ircuit.

(iv) Draw the phasor diagram for the circuit, showing how the phase difference can
be determined from the di agram.

(v) At w hat frequency would resonance occur for the circuit?


[25 marks)

Total 30 marks

2. (a) Explain, with the aid of drawings, the sinusoidal waveforms for both current and voltage
in a purely inductive circui t. [5 marks)

(b) Give the relationship for resonance in an ac circuit. [3 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2006
- 3 -

(c) A circuit consists of a resistor of 6 Q , an inductor of 0.4 henry and a variable capacitor
connected in series across a 120 V, 50 Hz supply. Calculate

(i) the capacitor to achieve resonance

(ii) the voltage across the capacitor and the inductor. [8 marks]

(d) The capacitor in the circuit was replaced with a 30 ~-tF fixed capacitor. What value
inductor would be needed to achieve resonance? [4 marks]

Total20 marks

3. (a) Explain the function of a filter. [2 marks]

(b) Draw diagrams of basic circuits for EACH of the following:

(i) Low pass filter

(ii) High pass filter

(iii) Band pass filter

(iv) Band stop filter [8 marks]

(c) Sketch and label the freque ncy response of EACH of the FOU R fi lters li sted at (b)
above. [8 marks]

(d) The inductor and resistor values of the filter shown in the Figure 1 are 0.15 rnH and
2.5 kQ respectively. Dete rmine the c ut-off frequency of the fi lte r.

I
vI
0.15 mH v
0

1 1
Figure 1
[2 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2006
- 4 -

MODULE2
DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND DATA COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this Module.

4. A transistor is employed as a saturated swi tch, controlling current through a lamp. The lamp is
required to light when the circuit in Figure 2 is switched to the '1' position .

.----------------------.---~c=12V

F Lamp 12V, 3W

h fe =so

Figure 2

(a) Calculate the current Ic through the lamp. [2 marks]

(b) Calculate the current 18 required to cause the required c urrent /c to switch on the lamp.
[2 marks]

(c) Calculate the value of the resistance R I , R2 and R 3 which will cause the lamp to be
sw itched on. [5 marks]

(d) Write down the truth table showing how the output of the lamp varies with inputs A, B
and C. [10 marks]

(e) Draw the c ircuit w hich wi ll cause the transistor to behave like a NOT gate, that is, the
lamp will onl y be on when A= B = C = 0; otherwise the lamp will be off.
[6 marks]

(f) Draw the circuit diagram of a three bit serial shift regis ter using SR flip flops.
[5 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2006
- 5 -

5. In Figure 3, data is entered into the hi -stables (fl ip-flops) from a keypad, one key at a time. Data
in all the hi-stables can the n be sent down the data highway or BUS. Study the diagram and
answer the questions below.

Figure 3

(a) Which button(s) must be pressed to e nter data into the flip-flops? [3 marks]

(b) Explain how pressing button E e nables data to be read from the flip-flop.
[5 marks]

(c) What is the largest number that can be stored in the register? State your answer in base
10. [4 marks]

(d) Explain how button D clears the register. [5 marks]

(e) Describe the function of a shift register. [3 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2006
- 6 -

6. (a) The follow ing questions are based on the truth table shown in F igure 4.

A B c X

0 0 0 1
0 0 1
0 1 0
0 1 1
1 0 0
1 0 1
1 1 0
1 1 1

Figure 4

(i) Copy and complete the truth table given in Figure 4 w hich will implement an
even pari ty detector, that is the output X is hi gh when there is an odd number of
ones.

(ii) Use your truth table to write down the Boolean expression for the output X.

(iii) Draw a circuit that w ill implement the tru th table.


[11 marks]

(b) Desig n a c ircuit which w ill implement a mod 7 counter. [ 9 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2006
- 7 -

MODULE3

INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES

You are required to answer Question 7 and one other question from this Module.

7. (a) (i) Define the term 'transformation ratio' as applied to the transformer.

(ii) Give TWO equations for transformation ratio.

(iii) Identify the variables in the equations. [8 marks]

(b) Identify SIX parameters that constitute the practical transformer. [6 marks]

(c) (i) State TWO conditions under which it is possible to operate a 60Hz transformer
on 50 Hz.

(ii) E xplain what is likely to occur if the 60Hz transformer is allowed to operate at
full load at its designated voltage on a 50 Hz supply. [6 marks]

(d) The primary side of a transformer is separate from the secondary side and has
1000 turns. The secondary side has 200 turns. An alternating supply of 240 Volts is
applied to the primary and a load of 5 .Q is connected to the secondary.

(i) Draw a diagram to represent the transformer and circuit described.

(ii) Give the full name of the tran sformer.

(iii) Calculate the

secondary voltage
secondary current
primary current
primary input impedance. [lOmarks]

Total 30 marks

8. (a) Sketch and label the cross-section of a salient pole synchronous dynamo.
[7 marks]

(b) Use sketches with brief explanations to differentiate between lap and wave windings.
[4 marks]

(c) An a.c. generator has eight poles and operates at a speed of 900 r.p.m. Calculate

(i) the frequency of the generator

(ii) the speed of the prime mover required to generate a frequency of 50 Hz.
[9 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2006
- 8 -

9. (a) How would you reverse the direction of rotation of a split-phase motor?
[3 marks]

(b) For a split-phase, resistance-start, induc tion motor, sketch and label

(i) connection diagram


(ii) phase relations [8 marks]

(c) The locked rotor resistance of a six-pole 60Hz Squirrel Cage Induction Motor (SCIM)
is three times the rotor resistance per phase. Calcul ate the

(i) slip
(i i) speed
(iii) rotor freque ncy at which max imum torque is developed.
[9 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

02217020/CAPE 2006
TESTCODE02117010
FORM TP 2008184 MAY/JUNE 2008

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

Unit 1 -Paper 01

1; hours

( 30 MAY 2008 (p.m.) )

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions arranged in THREE sections. Each section
is based on a Module of the syllabus. Candidates must attempt ALL questions.

2. The paper consists of THREE Modules, each having FIVE questions. EACH Module
is worth 30 marks.

3. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

Copyright © 2007 Caribbean Examinations Council ®


All rights reserved.
02117010/CAPE 2008
- 2 -

MODULE 1

DC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

1. (a) A copper rod 5 m long and 10 mm diameter has a resistance of 0.0005 £2.
Calculate the resistivity of the copper rod. [4 marks]

(b) Carbon has a temperature co-efficient of resistance a = - 0.00048/°C.


Explain what a negative temperature co-efficient of resistance means. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

2. Figure 1 shows a resistive series-parallel circuit.

6Q 4Q
AA/V--------- V W

5Q 9Q
AAA/--------- W V

Figure 1

A 10 V battery with an internal resistance of 4 Q is connected across A-B.


Determine the current in the 5 Q. resistor. [6 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/CAPE 2008
- 3 -

3. Figure 2 shows a DC network.

5A
5Q.
C *10 Q
20 V

40 V T >10 £2

Loop 1 Loop 2
Figure 2

For the circuit shown in Figure 2, the current in Loop 1 is 5A.

(a) Use a mesh equation to find the current, i , flowing in Loop 2. [4 marks]

(b) Determine the power dissipated by the 5 £2 resistor. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

4. Figure 3 shows a series parallel connection of capacitors.

3|iF 6fiF

SM-F

-o o~
A B
Figure 3

For the circuit


circ in Figure 3,

(a) find the total capacitance


find the total capacitance [4 marks]

(b)find find
the energy stored
the energy if a 20
stored if aV20
supply is connected
V supply across
is connected AB. AB
across [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

5. Explain,
Explain, with
with the
the aid
aid of
of diagrams,
diagrams, the
the terms
terms

(a) self inductance [3 marks]

(b) mutual inductance. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/CAPE 2008
- 4 -

MODULE2

ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

6. Figure 4 shows an amplifier circuit.


. - - - - - . - - - - - - - 12 v

lOkQ

h
r-1
cl
c, I
vout
vin
20kQ

l l
Figure 4

(a) State the purpose of C 2 and C3 . [2 marks]

(b) Calculate I E given V BE= 0.7V. [4 marks]

Total 6 marks

7. Figure 5 shows a rectifier circuit.

8
12 V, 50 Hz
Figure 5

Assuming that the diodes are ideal in the circuit Shown in Figure 5,

(a) sketch a graph of the voltage across the 50 .Q resistor [3 marks]


(b) sketch a graph of the voltage across the 150 .Q resistor. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


0211701 0/CAPE 2008
- 5 -

8. (a) Explain how the curvature of the earth creates problems for the transmission of radio
waves and explain how the use of a communication satellite can overcome this difficulty
[4 marks]
(b) Explain the process by which electromagnetic waves are received by an antenna.
[2 marks]

Total 6 marks

9. Figure 6 shows a circuit containing an ideal op-amp.


SOkQ
~----~A v-----~

Figure 6

(a) State the MAXIMUM and MINIMUM voltages that can be obtained from the op-amp.
[2 marks]

(b) Calculate the voltage at the input that will give rise to the MINIMUM voltage.
[4 marks]

Total 6 marks

10. An audio signal with amplitude 5 mV and frequency 5Hz is to be imposed on a carrier with
amplitude 8 mV and frequency 500Hz.

(a) Make a sketch of the transmitted signal if the signal is amplitude modulated.
[3 marks]

(b) Calculate the modulation index. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/CAPE 2008
- 6 -

MODULE3

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS


You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

11. (a) Use a labelled diagram to explain what will happen when a permanent magnet is moved
relative to an electromagnetic coil connected across a resistor. [4 marks]

(b) Name the scientist who discovered the phenomenon which occurs when a permanent
magnet is moved rel ative to an electromagnetic coil. In which year was this discovery
made? [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

12. (a) Define the term 'permeability offree space' and indicate the symbol used to denote this
quantity. [3 marks]

(b) Define the term 'relative permeability'. [2 marks]

(c) Give the symbol which is used to represent relative permeability. [1 mark]

Total 6 marks

13. (a) What is the difference in construction between a d.c. motor and a d.c. generator ?
[1 mark]

(b) Sketch and label the magnetization curve of a d.c. shunt machine. [2 marks]

(c) Sketch the circuit diagram of a d.c. shunt-wound machine. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

14. (a) Draw a labelled line diagram of a power system which constitutes a 24 kVA line which
supplies transformers 220/1 10 V for a residential system. Indicate on the diagram where
fuses and circuit breakers will be used. [4 niarks]

(b) Give TWO advantages of using fuses over circuit breakers. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

15. (a) Identify THREE communication methods employed between the feed and control room
of a power system . [3 marks]

(b) What primary role do computers serve in a SCADA system? [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

END OF TEST

02117010/CAPE 2008
TEST CODE 22117010
FORM TP 2008184 MAY/JUNE 2008

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

Unit 1 - Paper 01

1; hours

( 07 JULY 2008 (a.m.) )

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions, FIVE from each Module.


Answer ALL questions.

2. EACH question is worth SIX marks.

3. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

Copyright © 2007 Caribbean Examinations Council ®


All rights reserved.
22117010/CAPE 2008
- 2 -

MODULE!

DC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

1. (a) From the list of materials in Table 1, identify

(i) TWO which will produce an increase in resistance when the temperature is
increased

(ii) ONE which will NOT reflect an increase in resistance when the temperature is
increased

(iii) ONE which will produce a decrease in resistance when the temperature is
increased. [4 marks]

TABLE 1

# MATERIAL
1 Carbon
2 Polyviny1 chloride
3 Magnesium
4 Silver
5 Aluminium
6 Zinc

(b) A coil of copper wire has a resistance of 150 Q when its average temperature is 0 °C.
Determine its resistance when its average temperature is 75 °C. (The temperature
coefficient of copper is 0.00428/ °C.) [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

2. (a) A circuit consists of two capacitors 8 )..LF and 10 )..LF respectively, connected in series
across a 300 V supply. Calculate

(i) the PD across EACH capacitor

(ii) the charge in EACH capacitor. [3 marks]

(b) (i) Identify TWO types of capacitors which are suitable for high voltage (HV)
operations.

(ii) What feature accounts for their suitability for HV operations? [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


22117010/CAPE 2008
- 3 -

3. (a) State THREE physical factors which govern inductance. [3 marks]

(b) A coil of 200 turns, wound on a core of non-magnetic material, has an inductance of
10 mH. Calculate the flux produced when a current of 5 A is applied to the coil.
[3 marks]

Total 6 marks

4. (a) Calculate the average power stored by the circuit shown in Figure 1.

8mH
SmH Lz
4mH

2A

~--------------0 v o-------------------~
Figure 1
[3 marks]

(b) Determine the total impedance of the circuit shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2
[3 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


22117010/CAPE 2008
- 4 -

5. (a) State Kirchoff's current law and use a diagram to illustrate this law. [3 marks]

(b) For the circuit shown in Figure 3, determine the voltage across R r

4Q

3Q

I 6Q

v
= IOV
Figure 3
[3 marks]

Total 6 marks

MODULE2

ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

6. (a) Draw the circuit diagram of a full-wave voltage stabilized power supply, which utilises
a bridge rectifier, a CRC filter and a Zener diode. [4 marks]

(b) What is the function of a ' bleeder' resistor in a power supply? [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

7. (a) Explain the meanings of the following terms:

(i) Amplitude modulation

(ii) Frequency modulation

(iii) Modulation factor [3 marks]

(b) Show how the modulation factor can be determined from the waveform of a signal.
[3 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


22117010/CAPE 2008
- 5 -

8. (a) Identify the configuration in which a silicon transistor is connected as shown in


Figure 4. [2 marks]

(b) Calculate for the circuit shown in Figure 4

(i) the base voltage, V 3 [2 marks]

(ii) the emitter voltage, V E . [2 marks]

.-----------~r---------------~ Vcc + 12V

Figure 4
Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


22117010/CAPE 2008
- 6 -

9. ( a) What is an 'operational amplifier ' ? [2 marks]

(b) Figure 5 shows a circuit diagram of a non-inverting amplifier.

State the formula for deriving

(i) V N

(ii) voltage gain, AvF .

Figure 5
[4 marks]

Total 6 marks

10. (a) Explain the operation of a light emitting diode (LED). [4 marks]

(b) Identify TWO applications of light emitting diodes. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks
..
- 7 -

MODULE3

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS


You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

11. (a) State Lenz's law. [3 marks]

(b) A magnetic flux of 500 )..lwb passing through a coil of 1000 turns is reversed in
0.1 second. Calculate the average emf induced in the coil. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

12. (a) Draw a labelled diagram of the circuit used to produce the magnetization curve of a
machine. [3 marks]

(b) Sketch and label the magnetization curve that will be generated from the circuit drawn
at 12 (a) above. Indicate the point of saturation on the curve. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

13. (a) Sketch and label the inverse characteristic curve of a typical cartridge fuse.
[3 marks]

(b) Explain the operation of a cartridge fuse. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

14. (a) Identify THREE advantages of digital communication over analogue communication
in power system control. [3 marks]

(b) Describe a communication system employed by power plants to transmit data and other
information via the power lines between the power stations and central control.
[3 marks]

Total 6 marks

15. (a) State FOUR functions of computers in SCADA systems. [4 marks]

(b) What is the purpose of a demodulator in SCADA systems? [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

END OF TEST

22117010/CAPE 2008
TEST CODE 02217010
FORM TP 2008186 MAY/JUNE 2008

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICALAND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

Unit 2 - Paper 01

1 ~ hours

( 11 JUNE 2008 (p.m.) )

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions. Candidates .must attempt ALL questions.

2. The paper consists of THREE Modules, each having FIVE questions. Each Module
is worth 30 marks.

3. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

Copyright© 2007 Caribbean Examinations Council®


All rights reserved.
02217010/CAPE 2008
- 2 -

MODULE I

AC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

1. (a) Draw and label the phasor diagram for a purely capacitive circuit. [2 marks]

(b) For a 50 J..lf capacitor connected across a 440 V 50 Hz supply, calculate

(i) the reactance of the capacitor [2 marks]

(ii) the current through the capacitor. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

2. (a) Draw and label circuit diagrams for TWO types of symmetrical unbalanced filters .
[4 marks]

(b) A 'T' type low pass filter has an inductance of value 200 mH and a capacitance of value
0.5 J..lf. Determine the cut-off frequency. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

3. Sketch and label frequency responses and phase shift curves for the following filters:

(a) High pass [3 marks]

(b) Band stop [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217010/CAPE 2008
- 3 -

4. A circuit consists of~ 150 Q resistor in parallel with a 20 1-lf capacitor and is connected to a 250 V
50 Hz supply. Calculate the following:

(a) The branch and supply currents [5 marks]

(b) The circuit phase angle [2 marks]

(c) The circuit impedance [1 mark]

Total 8 marks

5. An a.c. generator supplies a load of 250 kW at a power factor of 0.6 lagging. If the power
factor is raised to unity, how much more kW can the generator supply for the same kilo volt
ampere loading? [4 marks]

MODULE2

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND DATA COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

6. (a) For the circuit shown in Figure 1, copy and complete the table to show the output X
when the input A is OV and 5 V.

Figure 1

[4 marks]

(b) Give the symbol and state the logic gate that corresponds to the transistor circuit shown.
[2 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


022170 10/CAPE 2008
- 4 -

7. The truth table shows the output X for inputs A and B.

A B X
0 0 1
0 1 0
1 0 1
1 1 1

Draw a logic circuit that will implement the above table. [6 marks]

Total 6 marks

8. (a) State TWO differences between ROM and RAM memory systems. [4 marks]

(b) Give an example of a device or application that uses ROM and one that uses RAM.
[2 marks]

Total 6 marks

9. (a) Explain the difference between 'synchronous' and 'asynchronous' data communication.
[4 marks]

(b) Give ONE example of a simplex communication system and ONE example of a duplex
communication system. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

10. (a) Draw the circuit diagram for the S-R flip-flop using NAND or NOR gates.
[3 marks]

(b) Explain, using truth tables, the difference between aS-Rand a J-K flip-flop.
[3 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217010/CAPE 2008
- 5 -

MODULE3
INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES
You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

11. (a) Sketch a labelled diagram of an ideal, iron-core transformer. [3 marks]

(b) Give the relationships between primary and secondary turns, voltages and currents.
[3 marks]

Total 6 marks

12. (a) Sketch and label diagrams to illustrate the interaction of fluxes which results in armature
reaction in dynamos. [4 marks]

(b) Draw a labelled diagram of the resulting phasor of the fluxes in (a). [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

13. (a) illustrate how you would differentiate between the types of windings in a synchronous
dynamo. [3 marks]

(b) Identify THREE methods used for compensating for armature reaction. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

14. (a) What physical features would you use to identify a wound-rotor induction motor?
[3 marks]
(b) Explain the function of the rotor winding in a wound-rotor induction motor.
[3 marks]

Total 6 marks

15. (a) List THREE uses of the induction motor. [3 marks]


(b) An induction motor has 4 poles.

(i) Calculate the speed at which it would operate if the supply voltage is 250 V at
50 Hz. [2 marks]
(ii) If the supply voltage is increased by 10% what would be the resulting speed of
the motor? [1 mark ]

Total 6 marks

END OF TEST

0221701 0/CAPE 2008


TEST CODE 22217010
FORM TP 2008186 MAY/JUNE 2008

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

Unit 2- Paper 01

1; hours

( 24 JUNE 2008 (p.m.) )

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions, FIVE from each Module.


Answer ALL questions.

2. Each question is worth SIX marks.

3. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

Copyright © 2007 Caribbean Examinations Council ®


All rights reserved.
22217010/CAPE 2008
- 2 -

MODULE1
AC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer ALL quest ions in this Module.

1. With the aid of a graph, explain the term 'resonance of an RLC circuit'. [6 marks]

Total 6 marks

2. (a) Defme the terms

(i) capacitance

(ii) capacitive reactance [4 marks]

(b) Identify the basic difference between a low pass filter and a high pass filter.
[2 marks]

Total 6 marks

3. The circuit of Figure 1 shows a resistor, a capacitor and an inductor connected in series. The
circuit is connected to a 110 V 50 Hz supply.

L R

0.201J.F lmH SQ

nov
50Hz
L---- -- - - - - - - i N I - - - - - -- - --__...J

Figure 1

(a) Calculate the resonant frequency. [4 marks]

(b) Determine the current flowing in the circuit at resonance.


[2 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


22217010/CAPE 2008
- 3 -

4. (a) Calculate the cut-off frequency of a first order low pass filter for a circuit of resistance
R = 1.2 k.Q and capacitance, C = 0.02 J..IF. [4 marks]
(b) Define the term 'frequency response'. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

s. (a) Draw circuit diagrams of aT type AND a 1t type low pass filter. [2 marks]

(b) Explain what is meant by the terms

(i) power dissipated

(ii) impedance match [4 marks]

Total 6 marks

MODULE2

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND DATA COMMlJNICATIONS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

6. (a) Explain the following terms in relation to a thyristor

(i) fixed commutation

(ii) latching current [4 marks]

(b) MOSFETs may be described as either enhancement mode devices or as depletion mode
devices. State the essential difference between the TWO modes of operation.
[2 marks]

Total 6 marks

7. The quantity R = A.B.C is R = (A.B.C) and is NOT the same as X= A.B.C where
- - -
X = (A).(B).(C) . With the use of a truth table, prove that the quantities are different.
[6 marks]

Total 6 marks

8. (a) What is the function of a clock circuit in logic systems? (2 marks)

(b) Explain what is meant by an asychronous circuit. (4 marks)

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


22217010/CAPE 2008
- 4 -

9. (a) Explain the function of

(i) AID convertors

(ii) DlA convertors. [4 marks]

(b ) What is meant by 'D/A resolution'? [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

10. (a) State THREE characteristics of an ideal switch. [3 marks]

(b) Draw the symbols and state the Boolean expression for

(i) two-input AND gate

(ii) two-input OR gate [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

MODULE3
mTRODUCTIONTOACMAC~

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

11. (a) Use a labelled diagram to explain the general arrangement of a transformer.
[3 marks]

(b) What is the purpose of laminating the core of a transformer? [1 mark]

(c) Define 'core loss of a transformer'. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

12. (a) Define 'voltage regulation of a transformer'. Give the formula for this quantity.
[4 marks]

(b) Determine the voltage regulation of a transformer having a no-load voltage of 120 V
and a full load voltage of 110 V. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


22217010/CAPE 2008
- 5-

13. (a) Explain what is meant by 'synchronous impedance' of an a.c. dynamo.


[3 marks]

(b) Determine the synchronous impedance of an alternator having an armature short circuit
current of 250 A and an open circuit voltage of 500 V. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

14. (a) Explain the construction of a rotor for a squirrel cage induction motor. [4 marks]

(b) Identify TWO uses of the induction motor. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

15. (a) Sketch and label typical torque-slip characteristics for an induction motor.
[4 marks]

(b) Define the terms rotor speed and slip. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

END OF TEST

22217010/CAPE 2008
TEST CODE 02117020
FORM TP 2008185 M AY /JUNE 2008

CARIBBEA N EXAMINAT IONS COUNCIL

ADVANCE D PROFICIE NCY EXAMINA TION


ELECTRICALA ND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

Unit 1 - Paper 02
1
2-y hours

( 20 MAY 2008 (a.m.) )

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of NINE questions. Candidates must attempt SIX questions.

2. The paper consists of THREE Modules, each having THREE questions. Candidates
must answer Questions 1, 4 and 7 and ONE other question from EACH Module.

3. Each Module is worth SO marks.

4. Silent, non-programmab le calculators may be used for this examination.

Copyright © 2007 Caribbean Examinations Council ®


All rights reserved.
02117020/CAPE 2008
- 2 -

MODULE1

DC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to ~nswer Question 1 and ONE other question from this Module.

1. Figure 1 shows a series-parallel circuit with three resistors.

(a) Find the Thevenin equivalent across AB for the circuit.

.------.------r------oA

6Q 3Q

36V

~----~------~-----oB

Figure 1
[20 marks]

(b) Use the Thevenin circuit to find the Norton equivalent. [ 4 marks]

(c) State the value of the load resistance connected across AB at which MAXIMUM power
is transferred. [ 2 marks]

(d) Calculate the MAXIMUM power that can be transferred to the load. [ 4 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2008
- 3 -

2. Figure 2 shows a charge and discharge circuit for a 0.2j..tF capacitor.

150 kQ 1 2

~ lswo--ITC----,H
3V :
___:_ 0.2f!F
_l 200 kQ

Figure 2

(a) If the switch is closed onto Position 1 when t = 0 and then moved to Position 2 when
t =20 x 10-3 seconds, determine the voltage across the capacitor when t = 30 x 10-3
seconds. [10 marks]

(b) A capacitor consists of 2 metal plates, each 400 x 400 mm, spaced 6 rnm apart. The
space between the metal plates is filled with paper with relative permittivity, E = 2.
Given E0 = 8.85 X IQ-12, F m-1

(i) calculate the capacitance of the capacitor [5 marks]

(ii) calculate the electric field strength if a charge of 40 j..tC is stored by the capacitor.
[5 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2008
- 4 -

3. Figure 3 shows a series parallel combination of three inductors.

3H

Figure 3

(a) (i) Calculate the total inductance. [3 marks]

(ii) If a current of 2 A flows through the network calculate the energy stored.
[2 marks]

(b) A coil having a resistance 5 Q and a constant inductance of 2 H is connected to a 10 V


de supply. Calculate

(i) the time constant [2 marks]

(ii) the final value of the current [2 marks]

(iii) the value of the current 0.5s after the supply is connected. [6 marks]

(c) Explain what would happen to the inductance of a coil if its diameter was decreased by
half while its length was doubled. [5 marks]

Total20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2008
- 5 -

MODULE 2

ANALOG UE ELECTRO NICS AND COMMUN ICATIONS


You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this Module.

4. A transistor amplifier circuit is shown in Figure 4.

100kQ

0.1J..l.F

hre = 100
h.1e =soon
1/hoe =50 kQ

Figure 4

(a) For the circuit shown, draw the h parameters equivalent circuit. [8 marks]

(b) Using your h parameter circuit, determine the

(i) input impedance [5 marks]

(ii) output impedance [5 marks]

(iii) gain. [5 marks]

(c) If the input is 10 mV, determine the power dissipated by the load RL where RL = 10 kQ.

[7 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2008
- 6 -

5. (a) Show that the amplifier circuit shown in Figure 5 has a gain given by

A= 1 + !!i_
R.
Ill

Figure 5
[ 7 marks]

(b) For the op-amp circuit shown at Figure 6, calculate the voltages (i) V 1 (ii) V 2 •

B
-sv

Figure 6

[ 8 marks]

(c) (i) Draw the circuit for a sine wave oscillator which incorporates an op-amp.
[ 2 marks]

(ii) State the frequency of oscillation of the circuit you have drawn. [ 3 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2008
- 7 -

6. (a) A sinusoidal radio-frequency carrier wave of frequency fc is to be amplitude modulated


by an audio .frequency signal of frequency f s.

(i) With aid of a diagram, explain the term 'amplitude modulated'.


[3 marks]

(ii) State, in terms offc and f5 , the frequencies of the waves in the transmitted signal.
[3 marks]

(b) A block diagram of a radio receiver is shown at Figure 7.

t r--- r--
/

tunmg r.f. demodulator a. f. power "


Speaker
circuit amplifier amplifier amplifier

Figure 7

(i) Draw the circuit diagram of a simple tuning circuit. [2 marks]

(ii) Draw the circuit diagram for a simple demodulator. [3 marks]

(iii) Explain the purpose of the r.f. amplifier. [2 marks]

(iv) Explain the purpose of the power amplifier. [3 marks]

(v) The frequency of the audio signal is 10 kHz and the frequency of the carrier is
5 MHz. What are the MINIMUM possible bandwidths of the

a) r.f amplifier?

b) a.f amplifier?

Show how you arrived at your answer. [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


0211 7020/CAPE 2008
- 8 -

MODULE3

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS

You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this Module.

7. (a) The general arrangement of a four pole d.c. machine is shown in Figure 8.

Figure 8

On the Figure:

(i) Sketch the field windings on the poles and indicate the polarity. [4 marks]

(ii) Indicate the electrical polarity of the field. [2 marks]

(iii) Sketch the electromagnetic flux paths showing the direction of the flux.
[4 marks]

(iv) Label FIVE parts of the machine. [5 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2008
- 9 -

(b) Identify the TWO winding configurations used in armature construction shown in
Figure 9.

(a) (b)

Figure 9
[2 marks]

(c) An eight pole armature is wound with 640 conductors. An e.m.f. of 108 Vis generated
in each conductor and each conductor is capable of carrying 100 Amperes at rated speed
and flux. Calculate the following:

(i) the number of conductors per path [3 marks]

(ii) the terminal voltage at no load [3 marks]

(iii) the output current at full load [3 marks]

(iv) the total power generated at full load. [3 marks]

State the winding configuration used. [1 mark]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2008
- 10 -

8. (a) State Faraday's Law. [2 marks]


(b) Use the right hand rule to explain the effects of force on a current carrying conductor
placed in a magnetic field. [3 marks]
(c) (i) Describe what happens to the magnetic flux inside a coil when a steel core is
inserted. [2 marks]
(ii) What factor accounts for this change? [1 mark]

(d) (i) Draw and label a diagram to show how the magnetization curve for steel could
be determined using a toroid. [3 marks]
(ii) The magnetization characteristics of a number of soft magnetic materials are
shown in Figure 10.

Bff
2.0

1.75

1.5

1.25

1.0

0.75
0.5
0.25

HIA/m

Figure 10
Indicate which curve is LIKELY to be that of
ferrite
mild steel
silicon steel
cast iron [4 marks]

(e) A mild steel ring has a cross sectional area of 500 mm2 and a mean circumference of
450 mm. A coil of250 turns that is wound around it produces a flux of 1000 )..l Wb in the
ring. Calculate
(i) the reluctance of the ring [3 marks]
(ii) the current required to produce the flux of 1000 )..l Wb in the ring. [2 marks]
FOR STEEL:
Permeability 800 750 380 200 201
Flux Density 1.0 1.4 1.6 2.0 2.2

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2008
- 11 -

9. (a) A dedicated, appropriately sized circuit breaker supplies power to a machine which
trips instantaneously when the machine is switched on. Which of the following is
LIKELY to be the reason for the trip?

Justify your selection.

(i) Continuous current

(ii) Overload current

(iii) Fault current [3 marks]

(b) With the aid of a labelled diagram, explain the operation of a typical circuit breaker.
[7 marks]

(c) Give THREE reasons why you would use a fuse instead of a circuit breaker to protect
circuits in some operations. [3 marks]

(d) Sketch and label the characteristic curve of an over current relay. [3 marks]

(e) Use a diagram to explain how an electromagnetic relay works. [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

02117020/CAPE 2008
- - - - - - - - --

TEST CODE 22117020


FORM TP 2008185 MAY/JUNE 2008

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

Unit 1 -Paper 02
I
22hours

( 26 JUNE 2008 (p.m.) )

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of NINE questions, THREE from each module.

2. Answer SIX questions as follows:


Question 1 and ONE other question from Module 1
Question 4 and ONE other question from Module 2
Question 7 and ONE other question from Module 3.

3. Each Module is worth 50 marks.

4. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

Copyright © 2007 Caribbean Examinations Council ®


All rights reserved.
22117020/CAPE 2008
- 2 -

MODULE!

DC CffiCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this Module.

1. (a) Use a simple series network to illustrate Kirchoff's law. [ 4 marks]

(b) For the network shown in Figure 1, calculate the potential difference between A and B.

30Q lOQ

V 1 =30V

20Q 32Q

Figure 1. A series parallel circuit


[lOmarks]

(c) Outline TWO conditions necessary for maximum power to be transferred to a load.
[ 2marks]

(d) Two batteries, A and B, with emfs of 8.0 and 10.0 Volts respectively are connected in
parallel across a load of 30 Q . If the internal resistance of battery A is 2.0 Q and that of
B is 1.2 Q

(i) draw the circuit which represents this situation

(ii) use the Superposition Theorem to determine the current through the load.
[14marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


221 17020/CAPE 2008
- 3 -

2. (a) Define the term 'capacitance' and state its unit. [ 3 marks]

(b) A 3 J..Lf capacitor in series with a 1.5 M Q resistor is connected across a 250 V de supply.
Calculate

(i) the time constant

(ii) the initial charging current

(iii) the time taken for the voltage across the capacitor to grow lo 180 V

(iv) the voltage across the capacitor 4.5 seconds after it is connected to the supply.
[14marks]

(c) Sketch the variation of current and potential difference of a capacitor during discharge.
[ 3 marks]

Total 20 marks

3. (a) Explain the concept of 'mutual inductance'. [ 4 marks]

(b) A coil with an inductance of 2H and a resistance of 4 Q is switched across a 20 V de


supply. Calculate

(i) the time constant

(ii) the final value of the current

( iii) the value of the current 2.0 seconds after the switch is closed. [ Smarks]

(c) When two coils are connected in series their effective inductance is 10.0 H. When the
connections are reversed, the effective inductance is 6 H. If the coefficient of coupling
is 0.6, calculate

(i) the self inductance of the coils

(ii) the mutual inductance. [ 8 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


22117020/CAPE 2008
- 4 -

MODULE2

ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATIONS


You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this Module.

4. (a) State the function of the circuit shown in Figure 2 and indicate where it is normally
used. [ 6 marks]

(b) Sketch the shape of the output voltage waveform of the circuit shown in Figure 2.
[ 4 marks]

• •
Figure 2. A Clipping Circuit

(c) What is the function of an oscillator? [ 4marks]

(d) State FOUR requirements for a circuit to produce oscillations. [ 4 marks]

(e) State what is meant by the term 'avalanche breakdown' as it relates to a Zener diode.
[ 6 marks]

(f) (i) What are majority charge carriers and minority charge carriers in n type
semiconductor materials?

(ii) What are the functions of majority and minority charge carriers? [ 6 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


22117020/CAPE 2008
- 5 -

5. (a) PNP and NPN transistors are to be used in the common emitter configuration. Explain
with the aid of symbols, how the elements of the transistors must be biased to ensure the
correct polarity of the bias voltage at EACH element. [ 5 marks]

(b) Calculate the input impedance, the current gain and the voltage gain of a common emitter
amplifier which uses a transister with h.1e = 2 k.Q and hFe = 60 with a load resistance of
12 kQ. [ 6 marks]

(c) Define EACH of the following terms

(i) modulation

(ii) modulation envelope

(iii) modulation index


[ 9 marks]

Total 20 marks

6. (a) Define the term 'bandwidth' for an amplifier. [ 4 marks]

(b) Draw an amplifier response curve where the gain of both power and voltage is plotted to
a base of frequencies. [ 6 marks]

(c) What is meant by the sensitivity of a receiver? [ 4 marks]

(d) Explain the following terms

(i) ground wave

(ii) propagation [ 6 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


22117020/CAPE 2008
- 6 -

MODULE3

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS

You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this Module.

7. (a) Figure 3 shows the cross-section of a d.c. machine.

(i) Identify 10 of the labelled parts in Figure 3. [lOmarks]

(ii) Name FOUR critical groups of components and for EACH group describe its
function. [12 marks]

Figure 3. Dynamo cross section

(b) Draw a circuit diagram to show how the THREE windings of the d.c. dynamo are
connected as a generator in the long shunt configuration. [ 8 marks]

Total 30 marks

8. (a) Draw the diagram of a typical thermal overload relay and identify the parts.
[ 7 marks]
(b) Explain the operation of the thermal overload relay. [ 6 marks]

(c) Sketch the inverse characteristic of a typical overload relay. [ 4marks]

(d) Identify THREE uses of the thermal overload relay. [ 3 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


22117020/CAPE 2008
- 7 -

9. (a) With the aid of diagrams explain the magnetic effect on a current carrying conductor.
[ 6 marks]

(b) Define the following

(i) permeability (relative)

(ii) reluctance

(iii) magnetomotive force (mmf) [ 6 marks]

(c) (i) Draw the diagram of a typical circuit that will produce the B - H characteristics
of a thoroid. [ 5 marks]

(ii) Sketch and label a typical B - H curve. [ 3 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

22117020/CAPE 2008
TEST CODE 02217020
FORM TP 2008187 MAY/JUNE 2008

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICALAND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

Unit 2 - Paper 02

2 ~ hours

( 13 JUNE 2008 (p.m.) )

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. This paper consists of NINE questions. Candidates must attempt SIX questions.

2. The paper consists of THREE Modules, each having THREE questions. Candidates
are required to answer Questions 1, 4 and 7 and ONE other question from EACH
Module.

3. Each Module is worth 50 marks.

4. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

Copyright © 2007 Caribbean Examinations Council ®


All rights reserved.
02217020/CAPE 2008
- 2 -

MODULE I

AC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this Module.

1. Figure 1 shows axes for a voltage waveform.

Figure 1

(a) Use the axes provided to plot a complete sinusiodal waveform of a voltage of 250 V at
50 Hz. [5 marks]

(b) Calculate the following and identify them on the sine wave plotted in (a).
(i) Amplitude
(ii) rms voltage
(iii) Peak voltage
(iv) Average voltage over ~ cycle
(v) Instantaneous voltage

(vi) Period [6 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2008
- 3 -

(c) Figure 2 shows a RLC series circuit.

...---~v.tv.-----il (1---~'rnonoonrr~-----,
IOQ 0.2J1( 2 mH ·I
~-----------------oo 2V ~o----------------~-

Figure 2

Calculate:

(i) the capacitive reactance at the resonant frequency [ 6 marks]

(ii) the voltage across each reactive component at resonance [ 4 marks]

(iii) the Q factor of the circuit. [ 2 marks]

(d) Express in rectangular notation the admittance of a circuit having an impedance of

(i) (4+j6).Q [ 3 marks]

(ii) 20 L - 30° .Q. [ 4 marks]

Total 30 marks

2. (a) A single pole motor rated at 8 kW operates on a 220 V, 50 Hz supply with an efficiency
of 86% and a power factor of 0.8 lagging.

Calculate

(i) the input apparent power [ 4 marks]

(ii) the active and reactive components of the current [ 6 marks]

(iii) the reactive power. [ 2 marks]

(b) Calculate the capacitance required in parallel with the motor in (a) to raise the power
factor to 0.9lagging. [ 8 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2008
- 4 -

3. (a) In relation to filters , define the following and illustrate using suitable diagrams.

(i) 'Low pass'

(ii) 'High pass'

(iii) Cut-off frequency [ 6 marks]

(b) (i) Give another name for the "cut-off frequency".

(ii) Determine the cut-off frequency for aRC low pass filter when

R = 3.2 kQ and C = 0.01 jlF. [ 3 marks]

(c) Figure 3 shows a three-way speaker system which needs a filter for its mid-range speaker
for proper operation.

Cl
c2
Ll
Amplifier
output L2

woofer mid range tweeter

Figure 3

(i) Determine the value of C1 and L2 assuming the speaker is equivalent to an 8 Q


resistor and its optimum operating range is 500 Hz to 5000Hz. [ 7 marks]

(ii) Determine the impedance of the capacitor at the high frequency and indicate if
its value would contribute significantly to the impedance of the circuit.
[ 3 marks]

(iii) What is the name of the filter being used for the mid-range speaker?
[ 1 mark]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2008
- 5 -

MODULE2

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND DATA COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this Module.

4. (a) (i) Write down the truth table for the half adder circuit. [ 5 marks]

(ii) Draw a circuit diagram showing how you implement the half adder
[ 5 marks]

(b) Given the expression

X= ABC+ ABC+ ABC+ ABC

(i) Draw a truth table to show the output X for the inputs A, B and C.
[ 5 marks]

(ii) Using either Boolean algebra or Karnaugh maps, simplify the expression.
[lOmarks]

(iii) Draw the simplified circuit. [ 5 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2008
- 6 -

5. Figure 4 shows a 555 timer used to produce clock pulses and Figure 5 shows the spec sheet for
the 555 timer (shown in Figure 4).
Vee

RA ~ .----:!:8-----.,
-7 4r---

555
timer
31-------o
Output
1 5

Figure 4

Figure 5

(a) For a particular application, a high time of 0.006 seconds and a low time of 0.004 seconds
is required.

(i) Use the formulas to calculate the value of R 8 needed to produce the required
low time if a capacitance C = 0.01 ~-tF is used in the circuit. [ 2 marks]

(ii) Use the value of R 8 calculated in (i) to calculate RA for the required high time.
[ 3 marks]

(iii) What is the time period of the pulse produced? [ 1 mark]

(b) Use J-K flip-flops to design a modulo 6 counter. [10 marks]

(c) Draw a diagram showing how J-K flip-flops can be used to implement a 3-bit serial-in,
serial-out shift register. [ 4 marks]

.Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2008
- 7 -

6. (a) Each step of an 8-bit D/A converter represents 0.2V.

(i) What is the analogue voltage for a binary input 101101 2 ? [4 marks]
(ii) Explain what is meant by the term 'resolution' with respect toaD/A converter.
[2 marks]
(iii) What is the percentage resolution of a 10 bit D/A converter? [2 marks]
(b) A digital signal is sent over a long transmission line and is attenuated.

(i) Explain how the original signal can be recovered from the attenuated signal.
[3 marks]
(ii) Explain the method of using even parity for detecting errors in the transmitted
data. [3 marks]
(c) With the aid of diagrams, describe briefly the following networks.

(i) Ring
(ii) Star
(iii) Bus [6 marks]

Total 20 marks

MODULE3

INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES

You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this Module.

7. (a) Draw and label a circuit diagram for a wound rotor induction motor (WRIM) connected
to a variable resistor bank. [6 marks]
(b) Explain what obtains when the rotor resistance of the WR.IM is adjusted. [3 marks]
(c) Define 'rotor slip'. [2 marks]
(d) An eight-pole 50 Hz squirrel cage induction motor (SCIM) is loaded to the point where
stalling occurs. If the resistance per phase is 0.3 .Q and the motor stalls at 600 rpm
calculate

(i) the breakdown slip (sb) [ 6 marks]


(ii) the locked rotor resistance (stand still resistance) [ 3 marks]
(iii) the rotor frequency at MAXIMUM torque point. [ 2 marks]
(e) The motor develops twice the FULL LOAD torque when started with its rotor short
circuited and runs at a full load speed of720 rpm. lf0.7 ohms/phase is added in series
with the rotor winding, calculate the new full load speed. [ 8 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2008
- 8 -

8. (a) The schematic diagram for a practical transformer is shown in Figure 6. Identify the
parameters numbered 1 to 5 or 4 to 8.

1 2 6 7

4 8
... ... -~ - ......
' '
Vi

Figure 6
[ 5 marks]

(b) A 24 000 I 240 V, 500 kVA, 50 Hz step down transformer has the following values:

r, = 0.1 Q
r2 = 0.001 Q
~I = 0.3 Q
~2 = 0.003 Q

When the transformer is loaded to its rated capacity calculate

(i) the primary and secondary CUITents [ 3 marks]

(ii) the primary and secondary internal impedance [ 3 marks]

(iii) the primary and secondary internal volt drops [ 3 marks]

(iv) the primary and secondary induced voltages assuming that the terminal and
induced voltages are in phase [ 3 marks]

(v) the ratio of primary to secondary induced voltages and primary to secondary
terminal voltage. [ 3 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2008
- 9 -

9. (a) What is the MAIN difference between a synchronous alternator and a d.c. generator?
[3 marks]

(b) What are the TWO categories of losses in dynamos? [2 marks]

(c) Define the term 'synchronous impedance'. [3 marks]

(d) A 2300 V, 2500 kVA three-phase delta connected alternator has a resistance of 0.1 QJ
phase and a synchronous reactance of 1.5 Q/phase. If the alternator is adjusted to rated
voltage at no load, calculate its terminal voltage when carrying rated current at a power
factor of 0.6lagging. [12 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

02217020/CAPE 2008
TEST CODE 22217020
FORM TP 2008187 MAY/JUNE 2008

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

Unit 2- Paper 02

2; hours

( 30 JUNE 2008 (p.m.) )

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of NINE questions, THREE from each module.

2. Answer SIX questions as follows:


Question 1 and ONE other question from Module 1
Question 4 and ONE other question from Module 2
Question 7 and ONE other question from Module 3.

3. Each Module is worth 50 marks.

4. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

Copyright © 2007 Caribbean Examinations Council ®


All rights reserved.
22217020/CAPE 2008
- 2 -

MODULEl
AC CffiCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this Module.

1. (a) With the aid of a diagram and in relation to an AC waveform define the following terms

(i) period
(ii) amplitude
(iii) rms value [ 6 marks]

(b) In Figure 1, OA represents the current in a circuit and OB represents the voltage across
the load. Copy Figure 1 in your answer booklet and answer the following questions

(i) Use the axis provided to plot ONE complete cycle of the voltage waveform.

(ii) On the waveform plotted, identify an instantaneous voltage, the average voltage
over one cycle and the period.

(iii) If the period is 0.02 sec, what is the frequency of the voltage? [ 8 marks]

V,I

Figure 1

(c) A coil of 0.03 H with a resistance of 6 Q is connected across a 110 V 50 Hz supply.

Draw the equivalent circuit and phasor diagram. [ 4 marks]

(d) For the circuit drawn at (c), calculate


i) the current
(ii) the phase angle between the current and the applied voltage
iii) the apparent power
iv) the active power. [ Smarks]

(e) What value capacitor could be employed to reduce the phase angle between the current
and the applied voltage to zero? (Show your calculation) [ 4 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


22217020/CAPE 2008
- 3 -

2. (a) Express in rectangular and polar notations the impedance of a resistor of 50 Q in series
with an inductor of 0.2 H operating on a 50Hz voltage supply. [ 4 marks]

(b) The circuit shown in Figure 2 is connected to a 200 V 50 Hz supply. The resistance
R = 150 Q , capacitance = 200 J..Lf and the inductance = 0.2 H.

Calculate

(i) the current in EACH branch

(ii) the supply current

(iii) the phase angle between the supply current and the supply voltage.

Supply Current (I)

Supply
voltage=
R= lSOQ c =200jlf
200V,S0Hz

Figure 2
[12marks]

(c) Draw the phasor diagram to represent the circuit, assuming the capacitor and inductor
are pure reactances. [ 4 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


22217020/CAPE 2008
- 4 -

3. (a) (i) With the aid of a diagram explain the function of a band pass filter.
[ 4 marks]
(ii) Describe a technique that could be used to produce a band pass filter
characteristic. [ 3 marks]
(b) Figure 3 shows a RLC circuit:

lOQ lmH 4nf

20Q

Figure 3

(i) Calculate the resonant frequency and bandwidth


(ii) Calculate the cut-off frequencies, f 1 and f 2 •
(iii) Sketch the frequency response. [13marks]
Total 20 marks

MODULE2

ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS AND COM:MUNICATIONS

You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this Module.

4. (a) With reference to the two transistor analogy shown in Figure 4, explain the operation of
a thyristor. A [15 marks]

Go-----'

Figure 4
(b) What is meant by the 'holding current of a thyristor' ? [ 3marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


22217020/CAPE 2008
- 5 -

(c) What are 'multivibrators'? [ 6 marks]


(d) Explain the function of a ' monostable multi vibrator' . [ 6 marks]
Total 30 marks

5. (a) Explain the function of the following memory systems

(i) ROM [ 4 marks]

(ii) RAM [ 4 marks]

(b) What is a 'register' and how is it developed? [ 4 marks]

(c) Explain the operation of the serial shift register shown in Figure 5. [ 8 marks]

OPe
4
·~
4

-
Input
s
A
Q s
B
Q s
c
Q ~

---+ r+ r+
- [>o p Q R Q R Qf---e

Clock-
Figure 5
Total 20 marks

6. (a) State what are 'counters' and describe their operation. [ 4 marks]

(b) Develop a table to demonstrate the behaviour of a pure binary counter with THREE
outputs, A, B and C, and the number of input pulses received. [ 4 marks]

(c) Three of the basic logic gates are AND, OR and NAND. Choose TWO of these logic
gates and for EACH with three inputs

i) draw the symbol


ii) state the Boolean expression
iii) draw the respective truth table. [12marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


22217020/CAPE 2008
- 6-

MODULE3

INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES

You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this Module.

7. (a) (i) What is the purpose of the damper winding in a synchronous motor?
[ 1 mark]
(ii) Give another name for the damper winding. [ 1 mark]

(iii) Outline how the damper winding is used in a synchronous motor.


[ 4 marks]

(b) A sketch of a pole of an a.c. synchronous dynamo is shown in Figure 6.

(i) Label the parts identified by numbers, 1, 2, 3 and 4 . [ 4 marks]

(ii) With the aid of a diagram describe parts 1 and 2. [ 4 marks]

Figure 6

(c) Outline the effects of over and under excitation on armature reaction of a synchronous
dynamo. [ 4 marks]
(d) Outline THREE advantages of synchronous motors over induction motors.
[ 6 marks]
(e) (i) Determine the speed of a synchronous motor which has 4 poles and is connected
to a 120 V, 50 Hz supply. [ 3 marks]
(ii) If the motor is retarded 5° (mechanical) from its synchronous position, calculate
the resulting shift in electrical degrees. [ 3 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


22217020/CAPE 2008
- 7 -

8. (a) With aid of diagrams, describe TWO types of single phase induction motors. In your
description, state how they can be made to reverse their direction of rotation.
[lOmarks]
(b) Sketch and label a typical torque/speed characteristic of a single phase induction motor.
[ 3 marks]
(c) List THREE uses of single phase induction motors. [ 3 marks]

(d) At the instant of starting, aT hp split phase motor draws a current of 4 Amperes lagging
by 15° in its starting winding and a current of 6 Amperes lagging by 40° in its running
winding. Calculate the locked rotor current and the power factor. [ 4 marks]

Total 20 marks

9. (a) Draw and label the equivalent circuit for a practical transformer connected to a load.
[ 8 marks]
(b) The following parameters are associated with a step down transformer.

Primary voltage (VP) = 2400V


Secondary voltage (Vs) = 440V
KVArating = 1500KVA
Frequency (f) = 50Hz
Primary resistance (rp) = 0.01 Q
Secondary resistance (r5 ) = 0.001 Q
Primary reactance (XLP) = 0.02Q
Secondary reactance (XLS) = 0.002 Q

Calculate EACH of the following for BOTH the primary and the secondary windings.

(i) Currents
(ii) Internal impedances
(iii) Magnitude of the internal voltage drops
(iv) Induced voltages
[12marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

22217020/CAPE 2008
' I

TEST CODE 02117010


FORM TP 2009175 MAY/JUNE 2009

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

Unit 1 -Paper 01

I; hours

c 15MAY2009(p.m.))

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions, FIVE from each Module.


Answer ALL questions.

2. EACH question is worth SIX marks.

3. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

Copyright © 2008 Caribbean Examinations Council ®


All rights reserved.
02117010/CAPE 2009
- 2 -

MODULE!

DC CffiCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

1. (a) Explain what is meant by the term ' temperature coefficient of resistance' and write the
symbol. [3 marks]

(b) Figure 1 shows a series/parallel resistive circuit.

2.2 k Q 2.2 kQ

L----------111 J . - - - - - - - - - - _ , 1
120V

Figure 1. A Series/Parallel Resistive Circuit

Calculate the

(i) total resistance

(ii) current flowing through resistor R r [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

2. (a) A constant current of 8 rnA charges a 15 ~capacitor for two seconds. Calculate the
voltage across the capacitor. [4 marks]

(b) Three capacitors of values 4 11F, 8 ~ and 16 ~ are connected in series. Calculate the
TOTAL capacitance. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/CAPE 2009
- 3 -

3. (a) An inductor of resistance 5 Q and inductance of 4 H is placed across a 30 V d.c. supply.


Calculate the

(i) time constant [1 mark]

(ii) final value of current. [1 mark]

(b) An air-core coil has 500 turns. The inductance of the coil is 0.2 Hand a current of 4 A
is allowed to flow through the coil. Calculate the flux in the coil. [2 marks]

(c) State TWO factors on which the inductance of a coil depends. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

4. (a) Explain fully, with the aid of voltage-time curves

(i) charging of a capacitor

(ii) discharging of a capacitor. [4 marks]

(b) Determine the energy stored in a 6 J..LF capacitor when the voltage between its terminals
is 50 V. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

5. (a) Explain THREE ways in which the inductance of an air-cored coil can be significantly
increased. [3 marks]

(b) Two coils L 1 = 500 mH and L 2 = 800 mH have a coefficient of coupling, K, equal to
0.3. Calculate the mutual inductance. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/CAPE 2009
- 4 -

MODULE2
ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATIONS
You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

6. (a) Describe the function of a light emitting diode (LED) and state TWO applications.
[3 marks]
(b) Figure 2 shows a light emitting diode connected across a 10 V supply.

Figure 2
(i) What would be the voltage across R? [1 mark]
(ii) Calculate the value of resistor R and its power rating. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

7. A common emitter amplifier circuit is shown in Figure 3.

=150

c~
h Fe

VBE =0.7 v

~11/J'

Figure 3
(a) Calculate the
(i) value of the collector current Ic [2 marks]
(ii) value of the voltage Vee· [2 marks]

(b) Sketch and label a typical static characteristic for a npn transistor connected in common
emitter configuration. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


0211701 0/CAPE 2009
..
- 5 -

8. (a) Explain EACH of the following terms:

(i) Amplitude modulation [2 marks]

(ii) Frequency modulation [2 marks]

(b) An amplitude modulated wave has a maximum value of 6.5 V and a minimum value of
4.3 V. What is the depth of modulation? [2 marks]

Total6 marks

9. (a) Write the frequency band of EACH of the following:

(i) Very low frequency (VLF) carrier wave [1 mark]

(ii) Low frequency (LF) carrier wave [1 mark]

(iii) High frequency (HF) carrier wave [1 mark]

(b) With regard to radiation from a transmitting aerial, explain what is a "ground wave",
and identify TWO factors on which the range of the wave depends. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

10. (a) State what is an 'oscillator' . [2 marks]

(b) Identify FOUR factors in an oscillator's circuit that can cause a change in its operating
frequency. [4 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/CAPE 2009
. ..
'

- 6 -

MODULE3

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

11. (a) Explain the term 'relative permeability'. [2 marks]

(b) State TWO differences between a permanent magnet and an electromagnet.


[4 marks]
Total 6 marks

12. (a) State ONE difference between a d.c. generator and a d.c. motor. [1 mark]

(b) Explain why it is necessary to use a commutator in a d.c. machine. [2 marks]

(c) Identify and describe TWO categories of commutator losses in d.c. machines.
[3 marks]
Total6 marks

13. (a) Draw a c ircuit which can be used to demonstrate Lenz's law and explain its operation.
[4 marks]

(b) With a flux of 300 )...lWb through an area of 0.0005 m 2 , what is the flux density of the
circuit in tesla units? [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

14. (a) Identify and state the function of TWO subsystems of a SCADA system.
[4 marks]
(b) Explain what is meant by 'half duplex communication'. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks

15. (a) In relation to a protection system, explain what is meant by


(i) overload current [1 mark]
(ii) fault current. [1 mark]

(b) State what is a 'circuit breaker', and explain how a thermally actuated circuit breaker
operates . [4 marks]

Total 6 marks

END OF TEST

02117010/CAPE 2009
, I

TEST CODE 02217010


FORM TP2009177 MAY/JUNE 2009

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

Unit 2- Paper 01

1; hours

( 10 JUNE 2009 (p.m.))

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions, FIVE from each Module.


Answer ALL questions.

2. Each question is worth SIX marks.

3. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

Copyright © 2008 Caribbean Examinations Council ®


All rights reserved.
02217010/CAPE 2009
- 2 -

MODULE!

AC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

1. With the aid of a labelled diagram of an a.c. sine wave, explain the

(a) peak value

(b) average value

(c) root mean square value

(d) instantaneous value. [6 marks]

Total 6 marks

2. (a) Explain the meaning of EACH of the following terms:

(i) Reactance

(ii) Impedance [2 marks]

(b) Figure 1 shows a parallel circuit with purely resistive and reactive elements.

IR Ic

R=
lrv 47Q
L=
0.22H
120 JlF
nov
60Hz

Figure 1. Parallel Reactive Circuit

(i) Draw a phasor diagram to illustrate the phase relationship of the currents
flowing in the circuit. [2 marks]

(ii) Calculate the currents IR and /c. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217010/CAPE 2009
- 3 -

3. (a) (i) State what is a 'notch filter'. [1 mark]

(ii) Illustrate, with the aid of a diagram, the frequency response of a notch filter
and state where its GREATEST rate of change occurs. [2 marks]

(b) (i) Draw and label an RLC circuit of a high pass filter.

(ii) What is the function of the high pass filter circuit? [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

4. (a) Define EACH of the following terms:

(i) Reactive power

(ii) Apparent power [4 marks]

(b) An alternating voltage has the equation, 282.8 sin 377t. What is the rms voltage?
[2 marks]

Total 6 marks

5. A coil having a resistance of 20 ohms and an inductance of 0.4 H is connected across a 110 V,
60 Hz supply.

(a) Calculate the

(i) reactance of the coil

(ii) impedance of the coil

(iii) current, I, flowing through the circuit

(iv) phase difference between the current and the applied voltage.
[4 marks]

(b) Draw the circuit and sketch its phasor diagram. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217010/CAPE 2009
- 4 -

MODULE2

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND DATA COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

6. (a) State TWO advantages of MOSFETs. [2 marks]

(b) In what modes are MOSFETs designed to operate? [2 marks]

(c) Illustrate the various modes of operation using the transfer characteristic of the MOSFET.
[2 marks]

Total 6 marks

7. (a) Identify the difference between "fan-in" and "fan-out" as they relate to logic circuits.
[2 marks]

(b) Prepare the truth table for the circuit in Figure 2 and state the type of logic gate it
represents.

>o-~F

Figure 2. Logic Gate Circuit


[4 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217010/CAPE 2009
- 5 -

8. (a) State what are 'multivibrators', indicating the names of TWO such devices.
[4 marks]

(b) Describe the operation of the S.R. Flip Flop outlined in Figure 3.

Figure 3. S.R. Flip F lop Using NOR Gates

[2 marks]

Total 6 marks

9. (a) State the function of

(i) a multiplexer

(ii) a demultiplexer. [2 marks]

(b) State the full name of EPROM and PROM memory systems and describe their
difference. [4 marks]

Total 6 marks

10. (a) Describe the function of UART in computer systems. [4 marks]

(b) Explain the process of differential phase shift keying modulation technique and state
its advantage over phase modulation. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217010/CAPE 2009
. . ... . ,

- 6 -
MODULE3
INTRODUCT ION TO AC MACillNES
You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

11. (a) State what is a 'synchronous generator'. [2 marks]


(b) Relative to a synchronous generator, explain the purpose of the
(i) field winding
(ii) armature winding. [2 marks]
(c) Explain what is meant by 'voltage regulation' of a synchronous generator.
[2 marks]

Total 6 marks

12. (a) With the aid of a labelled diagram, explain the principle of operation of a single phase
transformer and give the turns and voltage ratio relationship. [4 marks]
(b) Draw and label a phasor diagram for the single phase transformer on no-load.
[2 marks]

Total 6 marks

13. (a) Explain the operation of an induction motor. [2 marks]


(b) State TWO uses of an induction motor. [2 marks]
(c) Define the term 'SLIP' as it relates to an induction motor. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks

14. A 270 kVA, 12000 V I 415 V, 60Hz single phase transformer has 120 turns on the secondary.
Calculate the
(a) primary and secondary currents [2 marks]
(b) number of primary turns [2 marks]
(c) maximum value of flux. [2 marks]
Total 6 marks

15. (a) Describe the construction of a squirrel-cage, induction motor. [2 marks]


(b) For a WRIM state TWO disadvantages of speed control by means of external rotor
resistors. [2 marks]
(c) State why induction motors are now the preferred choice for industrial motors.
[2 marks]
Total 6 marks
END OF TEST
02217010/CAPE 2009
.,
TEST CODE 02117020

FORM TP2009176 MAY/JUNE 2009

CARIBBEA N EXAMINAT IONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIE NCY EXAMINA TION


ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

Unit 1 -Paper 02
1
2-yhours

( 19 MAY 2009 (a.m.) )

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of NINE questions, THREE from each module.

2. Answer SIX questions as follows:

Question 1 and ONE other question from Module 1

Question 4 and ONE other question from Module 2

Question 7 and ONE other question from Module 3.

3. Each Module is worth 50 marks.

4. Silent, non-programmab le calculators may be used for this examination.

Copyright © 2008 Caribbean Examinations Council ®


All rights reserved.
02117020/CAPE 2009
- 2 -

MODULE!

DC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this Module.

1. (a) Define the unit of 'capacitance'. [ 2 marks]

(b) ldentify the sub-units of capacitance in common usage and provide their values.
[ 3 marks]

(c) What is 'the dielectric of a capacitor '? Name ONE material that could be used to form
the dielectric. [ 2 marks]

(d) Three capacitors C 1, C 2 and C3 are connected in series across a 240 V d.c. supply. The
pd across the capacitors C 1 and C2 are 50 V and 90 V respectively. If the capacitance of
w,
c2is 8 calculate the
(i) voltage across C3 [ 5 marks]

(ii) capacitances of C 1 and C 3 . [ 9 marks]

(e) A 6 )...LF capacitor in series with a 500 k.Q resistor is connected across a 125 V d.c. supply.
Draw a diagram of the circuit and calculate the

(i) time constant

(ii) initial charging current

(iii) energy stored in the capacitor when it is fu lly charged. [ 9 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2009
- 3 -

2. (a) Discuss ONE method which could be used to increase the inductance of an air-core coil.
[ 2marks]

(b) Explain 'coupling coefficient' as it relates to inductors that are


(i) tightly coupled

(ii) loosely coupled. [ 4 marks]

(c) Sketch and label a curve which shows the growth of current in a circuit of known
resistance and inductance (assumed constant). [ 5 marks]

(d) The current through a coil having an inductance of 0.8 His reduced from 6 A to 2 A in
0.06 seconds. Calculate the mean value of the e.m.f. induced in the coil.
[ 6 marks]

(e) Figure 1 shows an inductive circuit. Calculate the TOTAL inductance.

Figure 1. An Inductive Circuit (Series/Parallel)


[ 3 marks]

Total 20 marks

3. (a) Explain the meaning of EACH of the following terms and provide the symbol and units
for EACH:

(i) electromotive force [ 3 marks]

(ii) resistivity [ 3 marks]

(b) State Kirchoff's 1st and 2nd laws as applied to an electrical circuit. [ 2 marks]

(c) The resistance of a length of wire is 30 Qat 18 °C. Calculate its resistance if it is
(i) cooled to 0 oc

(ii) heated to 50 °C.

(Note: oc
0
for iron is 0.006 per °C.) [lOmarks]

(d) State what is meant by the term 'conductivity' and provide the formula which uses the
geometrical factors of the material to calculate conductivity. [ 2 marks]

Total 20 m arks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2009
- 4 -

MODULE2

ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this Module.

4. Figure 2 shows a circuit for a filtered bridge rectified power supply.

nov

+ cl
- 220J..LF 9V

Figure 2. Bridge Power Supply

(a) What is the function of capacitor C1? [ 3 marks]

(b) What is the function of the Resistor R 5? [ 2 marks]

(c) Calculate the

(i) d.c. voltage across the capacitor C 1

(ii) current through R5

(iii) d.c. load current

(iv) Zener current

(v) new load current if the voltage across C1 increases by 10%.


[14marks]

(d) For a Zener Diode, explain

(i) the principle of operation of the Zener Diode, with the aid of a characteristic
curve

(ii) the term "Zener Breakdown". [11 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2009
- 5 -

5. (a) Identify THREE general features of an ideal operational amplifier (OP Amp).
[ 3 marks]
(b) Figure 3 shows an operational amplifier circuit.

vin --
~Ill

1
Figure 3. Operational Amplifier
(i) Calculate the voltage gain (Ay).
(ii) Calculate the value of the output signal.
(iii) State the phase relationship of the output signal to the input signal.
[ 7 marks]
(c) (i) Draw the circuit of a Hartley LC Oscillator.
(ii) Discuss the operation of the Hartley LC Oscillator and state the formula for
determining its resonant frequency. [10 marks]
Total 20 marks

6. (a) (i) A carrier frequency of 560 kHz is amplitude modulated by a 6 kHz sine wave.
State the resultant transmitted frequencies and indicate the upper and lower side
band frequencies. [ 4 marks]

(ii) Calculate how much power is contained in the side bands and the carrier
frequency of a Double Side Band (DSB) signal which contains 2.5 kilowatts.
[ 3marks]

(b) What is the modulation index of a frequency modulated (FM) signal, which has a
carrier swing of 15 kHz, when the modulating signal is 9kHz? [ 3 marks]

(c) Relative to a basic FM Receiver, explain the purpose of


(i) the limiter
(ii) the automatic frequency control (AFC)
(iii) the de-emphasis network. [ 6 marks]

(d) What is the MAIN advantage of a superheterodyne receiver? State what is meant by
'heterodyning' in this type of receiver. [ 4 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2009
- 6 -

MODULE3

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS

You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this Module.

7. (a) State Faraday's law. [ 2marks]

(b) With the aid of a diagram, explain what happens when a coil is wound on a steel rod and
connected to a battery. [ 4 marks]

(c) Give the symbols and explain what is meant by EACH of the following terms:

(i) Flux density

(ii) Reluctance

(iii) Relative permeability [ 6 marks]

(d) Sketch a typical B-H curve for a ferromagnetic material and explain the information
that can be derived from the curve. [ 7 marks]

(e) Calculate the magnetomotive force required to produce a flux of 0.025 wb across an air
gap 3.5 mm long, having an effective area of 300 cm2 • [11 marks]

Total 30 marks

8. (a) Explain the SCADA system. [ 3 marks]

(b) Identify the elements that a SCADA system usually include. [ 3 marks]

(c) Identify FOUR industries in which the SCADA system is usually employed.
[ 4 marks]

(d) Explain what is meant by 'telemetering ' . [ 3 marks]

(e) State FOUR functions of telemetering. [ 4 marks]

(f) State THREE advantages of using digital communication when compared to analogue.
[ 3 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2009
' • • I

- 7 -

9. (a) (i) State a common type of thermal overload relay and explain its operation.

(ii) State the MAIN purpose of using thermal overload relays with electric motors
and state THREE problems thermal overload relays assist in preventing.

(iii) Identify FIVE common features of thermal overload relays.


[14marks]

(b) Explain the operation of a fuse and state ONE area where it is used. [ 3 marks]

(c) Explain what is meant by the following types of currents in a protection scheme:

(i) Continuous current

(ii) Fault current

(iii) Overload current [ 3 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

02117020/CAPE 2009
TEST CODE 02217020
FORM TP 2009178 MAY/JUNE 2009

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

Unit 2 -Paper 02

2; hours

c 29 MAY 2009 (p.m.) )

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of NINE questions, THREE from each module.

2. Answer SIX questions as follows:

Question 1 and ONE other question from Module 1

Question 4 and ONE other question from Module 2

Question 7 and ONE other question from Module 3.

3. Each Module is worth 50 marks.

4. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

Copyright © 2008 Caribbean Examinations Council ®


All rights reserved.
02217020/CAPE 2009
- 2 -

MODULE!

AC CffiCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this Module.

1. (a) State TWO functions of 'filter circuits'. [ 2 marks]

(b) Explain what is a 'passive filter ' . [ 2 marks]

(c) With the aid of frequency response curves, explain the functions of the following filters:

(i) Low pass

(ii) High pass

(iii) Band pass [ 9 marks]

(d) An LC circuit is resonant at 4000kHz and has a Q of 120. Find the TOTAL bandwidth,
~.and the edge frequencies, F 1 and F 2 • [ 5 marks]

(e) State the effect of a Low or High Q on the bandwidth of a filter. [ 2 marks]

(f) A filter is required to pass all frequencies above 6 kHz and to have a nominal impedance
of 560 Q. Calculate the circuit values for capacitance and inductance for BOTH aT and
n filter section, and design the filter circuit for EACH. [10 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2009
- 3 -

2. (a) Draw and label a sinusoidal wave form for one cycle. [ 2 marks]

(b) What is the period of a sine wave? [ 1 mark]

(c) A coil with an inductance of 0.05 Hand resistance of 10 ohms is connected across a
110 V, 60Hz supply. Draw the circuit diagram and calculate the

(i) current flowing through the coil

(ii) phase angle between the current and the applied voltage

(iii) power factor

(iv) apparent power

(v) active power

(vi) reactive power. [12marks]

(d) An alternating voltage has an equation, V = 186.5 sin 514t. Calculate the value of the

(i) RMS voltage

(ii) frequency. [ 5 marks]

Total 20 marks

3. (a) Explain the meaning of the term 'resonant frequency ' . [ 2marks]

(b) Discuss the oscillation of energy at resonance, in an RLC circuit. [ 3 marks]

(c) A circuit having a resistance of 10 n, an inductance of 0.65 Hand a variable capaci-


tance in series, is connected across a 120 V, 60 Hz supply. Draw the circuit and calcu-
late the

(i) capacitance at resonance

(ii) voltage across the inductance and capacitance

(iii) Q factor of the circuit. [13marks]

(d) Draw the phasor diagram of an RLC circuit, and state the current/voltage relationships
above the resonant frequency. [ 2 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2009
- 4 -

MODULE2

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND DATA COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this Module.

4. (a) (i) Draw the symbol of a thyristor and describe its operation. [ 7 marks]

(ii) State THREE ways how the thyristor can be switched into forward conduction.
[ 3 marks]

(iii) Draw and label the static characteristics of the thyristor. [ 3 marks]

(iv) In relation to the thyristor, state what is meant by the term 'forced commuta-
tion'. [ 2 marks]

(b) (i) Draw the symbol for TWO main types of bipolar transistors.
2 marks]

(ii) Explain the principle of operation of a bipolar junction transistor.


[ 5 marks]

(iii) Name the THREE modes in which the transistor can operate.
[ 3 marks]

(c) Draw a block diagram to show the basic process of a DC to DC convertor, and explain
its operation. [ 5 marks]

Total 30 marks

5. (a) State the Shannon Hartley Theorem. [ 2 marks]

(b) (i) State what is meant by the term 'noise' in communication systems.

(ii) Identify TWO types of noise found in amplifiers used in communication


systems and indicate TWO sources of EACH type of noise identified.
[ 7 marks]

(c) With the aid of block diagrams, state how the data flows in EACH of the following
modes of operation of digital information:

(i) Simplex

(ii) Full duplex [ Smarks]

(d) The input signal to a receiver is 96 J..lV and the internal noise at the input is 12 J..lV.
The signal at the output after being amplified is 3 V and the noise at the output is
0.6 V. Calculate the noise figure (NF). [ 3 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2009
- 5 -

6. (a) Explain the meaning of EACH of the following terms as they relate to D/A convertors:

(i) Resolution

(ii) Monotonicity [ 4marks]

(b) What is the reference voltage needed for aT-bit D/A convertor to generate a maximum
output voltage of 8 V. [ 3 marks]

(c) Draw a diagram of a two-bit binary decoder and explain its operation.
[ 7 marks]

(d) Explain the operation of the closed loop sample and hold circuit shown in Figure 1 and
state ONE major application of the circuit.

Mode
Control

Figure 1. Closed-Loop Sample and Hold Circuit


[ 6marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2009
- 6 -

MODULE3

INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES

You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this Module.

7. (a) For a transformer used in an AC power system:

(i) Identify the losses which occur when it is loaded

(ii) State what is meant by the term 'voltage regulation' and provide the formula for
calculating the voltage regulation

(iii) State FOUR methods used in the construction to reduce leakage flux
[11 marks]

(b) The primary and secondary windings of a 440 kVA transformer have resistance of
0.5 Q and 0.0025 Q respectively. The primary and secondary voltage are 11000 V and
450 V respectively and the core loss is 3.6 kilowatts. Assuming the power factor of the
load to be 0.85, calculate the

(i) full load primary current

(ii) full load secondary current

(iii) primary copper loss on full load

(iv) secondary copper loss on full load


2
(v) I R loss on full load
(vi) total loss on full load
(vii) output power on full load

(viii) input power on full load. [19marks]

Total 30 marks

8. (a) State the fundamental differences between the 'squirrel-cage' and 'wound-rotor '
induction motors. [ 6 marks]

(b) With the aid of a diagram, explain the term SLIP as it relates to an induction motor.
[ 4 marks]

(c) State, in relation to an inductor motor, what is called 'plugging' . [ 2marks]

(d) A 14 pole, 60Hz induction motor runs at 440 r/m. Calculate the:
(i) SLIP

(ii) Frequency of the currents in the rotor windings [ 8marks]

Total 20 marks
GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
02217020/CAPE 2009
..
- 7 -

9. (a) In relation to a synchronous motor, state what is meant by EACH of the following
terms:

(i) Armature reaction

(ii) Synchronous speed [ 5 marks]

(b) Explain what is meant by 'per unit voltage regulation of a generator' and provide the
formula for its calculation. [ 4 marks]

(c) Draw the equivalent circuit of a synchronous generator, state what the elements repre-
sent, and how the synchronous impedance can be derived. Give the formula used.
[ 6marks]

(d) State TWO principal advantages and THREE disadvantages of a synchronous motor.
[ 5 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

02217020/CAPE 2009
TEST CODE 02117010
FORM TP 2010168 MAY/JUNE 2010

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

Unit 1 – Paper 01

1 ½ hours

14 MAY 2010 (p.m.)

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions arranged in THREE sections. Each section
is based on a Module of the syllabus. Candidates must attempt ALL questions.

2. The paper consists of THREE Modules, each having FIVE questions. EACH Module
is worth 30 marks.

3. In your answer booklet, start each module on a new sheet.

4. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

Copyright © 2009 Caribbean Examinations Council ®


All rights reserved.
02117010/CAPE 2010
- 2 -


MODULE 1

DC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

1. (a) The total resistance of the circuit shown in Figure 1 is 380 Ω. What is the value of R4?

Figure 1. Resistor network


[4 marks]

(b) What is the current through R4 if the supply voltage is 20 V d.c.? [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

2. (a) Define the term ‘capacitance’ and give its unit. [2 marks]

(b) (i) Determine the charge stored by a capacitor having a capacitance of 100 µF when
it is connected across a 500V d.c. supply. [2 marks]

(ii) If the thickness of the dielectric between the plates of the capacitor in (b) (i) is
0.3 mm, determine the electric field strength of the capacitor. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/CAPE 2010
- 3 -

3. (a) Inductors may be classified according to their core materials.

(i) Name TWO core materials.



(ii) Give ONE advantage of inductors made from EACH material named in
(a) (i). [4 marks]

(b) A coil having 500 turns wound on a non-magnetic material has an inductance of 10 mH.
Calculate the flux produced by a current of 10 Amperes. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

4. (a) State Norton’s Theorem. [2 marks]

(b) Use Norton’s Theorem to determine the current in the 18 Ω resistor (R3) in Figure 2.

Figure 2. Series parallel network


[4 marks]

Total 6 marks

5. Define the following terms and give their symbol and units.

(a) Relative permittivity [3 marks]



(b) Relative permeability [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/CAPE 2010
- 4 -

MODULE 2

ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

6. (a) Explain how the depletion layer in a PN junction diode is developed. Use a diagram to
illustrate your answer. [4 marks]

(b) State what happens to a PN junction diode when a reverse voltage in excess of the peak-
inverse-voltage (PIV) is applied. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

7. For the superheterodyne receiver:

(a) Describe the central idea of its operation and state TWO reasons for its extensive use in
communication systems. [3 marks]

(b) State the purpose of the automatic gain control (AGC). [2 marks]

(c) State what is meant by the term ‘Sensitivity’ of the receiver. [1 mark ]

Total 6 marks

8. (a) Define the term ‘power bandwidth’ in relation to an operational amplifier.


[2 marks]

(b) Determine the voltage gain and the output voltage of the operational amplifier shown in
Figure 3.

Rf

Rin 22 kΩ

2.2 kΩ VO
+
Vin = +4 V
RL 10 kΩ

Figure 3. Inverting Op-Amp.


[4 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/CAPE 2010
- 5 -

9. (a) Define the following terms as they relate to the propagation of electromagnetic waves and
indicate their wavebands.

(i) Ground wave

(ii) Sky wave [4 marks]

(b) State TWO factors that influence the range of a ground wave. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

10. The silicon transistor used in the circuit shown in Figure 4 has a ß d.c. of 100. Calculate the d.c.
voltage between the collector and the emitter.

Figure 4. Transistor connected in the common emitter configuration



[6 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/CAPE 2010
- 6 -

MODULE 3

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

11. (a) State Lenz’s law. [2 marks]

(b) Use diagrams to illustrate what happens when a straight current carrying conductor is
placed in a magnetic field. [2 marks]

(c) What is the average e.m.f. induced in a coil having 1500 turns if the flux of 500 µWb is
reversed in 0.1 seconds? [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

12 (a) Define ‘armature reaction’. [2 marks]

(b) Use a diagram to explain the phenomenon of armature reaction. [4 marks]

Total 6 marks

13. Outline SIX general procedures involved in telemetering. [6 marks]

Total 6 marks

14. (a) Identify THREE types of thermal overload relays. [3 marks]

(b) Outline the functions of the temperature control relay and explain how temperature
control is accomplished using this device. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

On one set of axes, sketch and label the torque-load characteristic curves for the following d.c.
15.
motor configurations.

(a) Series
(b) Shunt
(c) Differential compound
[6 marks]

Total 6 marks

END OF TEST

02117010/CAPE 2010
TEST CODE 02117020
FORM TP 2010169 MAY/JUNE 2010

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

Unit 1 – Paper 02

2 ½ hours

18 MAY 2010 (a.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of NINE questions. Candidates must attempt SIX questions.

2. The paper consists of THREE Modules, each having THREE questions. Candidates
must answer Questions 1, 4 and 7 and ONE other question from EACH Module.

3. In your answer booklet, start each question on a new sheet.

4. Each Module is worth 50 marks.

5. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

Copyright © 2009 Caribbean Examinations Council ®


All rights reserved.
02117020/CAPE 2010
- 2 -

MODULE 1
DC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this Module.

1. (a) State the following theorems:


(i) Maximum Power Transfer
(ii) Norton’s [ 4 marks]

(b) Indicate the symbol and unit used for electromotive force, (e.m.f.) and state the THREE
principal sources from which an e.m.f. is obtained. [ 8 marks]

(c)
For the circuit shown in Figure 1, calculate the
(i) total current, IT
(ii) branch currents, I1 and I3

(iii) supply voltage, E.

Figure 1. Parallel network


[ 5 marks]

(d) Use Kirchoff’s laws to determine the currents flowing through EACH of the branches in
the circuit shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2. Mesh circuit with two sources


[13 marks]

Total 30 marks
GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
02117020/CAPE 2010
- 3 -

2. (a) Define the following terms as they relate to a capacitor, and state their units.

(i) Relative permittivity

(ii) Dielectric strength [ 4 marks]

(b) Calculate the equivalent capacitance of the circuit shown in Figure 3.


Figure 3. Capacitors connected in a series – parallel circuit


[ 6 marks]

(c) A potential difference of 120 V is maintained across a capacitor which is constructed with
seven metal plates that are separated by sheets of mica each having a thickness of 0.5 mm
and relative permittivity of 4. If So = 8.85 x 10–12 F/M and the area of one side of each
plate is 400 cm2.

Calculate the

(i) capacitance of the capacitor
(ii) charge on the capacitor
(iii) electric field strength
(iv) electric flux density in the dielectric. [10 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2010
- 4 -

3. (a) State what is meant by the term ‘inductance’. [ 2 marks]

(b) State THREE factors that determine the inductance of a coil? [ 3 marks]

(c) Calculate the peak current flowing in the circuit shown in Figure 4.


Figure 4. Inductive circuit


[ 4 marks]

(d) Explain the action of an inductor when the current passing through it changes, and express
the action in a mathematical formula. [ 3 marks]

(e) A coil of 500 turns is uniformly wound on a core consisting of a non-magnetic material,
and has an inductance of 25 mH. Calculate the

(i) flux produced with a current of 12A



(ii)
average value of the e.m.f induced in the coil when a current of 12A is reversed
in 5 ms (milliseconds).
[ 8 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2010
- 5 -

MODULE 2

ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this Module.

4. Figure 5 shows the circuit for a full wave power supply connected to a 120 Ω load.

Figure 5. Full wave power supply


(a) Describe the operation of the circuit. [17 marks]

(b) Ignoring diode voltage drop, calculate the following:

(i) Peak secondary voltage

(ii) Peak output voltage

(iii) d.c. load voltage

(iv) d.c. load current

(v) Peak inverse voltage across each diode

(vi) d.c. diode current


[11 marks]

(c) Sketch the waveforms that would be found at points A and B. [ 2 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2010
- 6 -

5. (a) What is meant by the term frequency modulation? [ 1 mark ]

(b) Draw the block diagram of an FM receiver and state the purpose of any THREE of its
stages. [13 marks]

(c) State how noise is produced and removed from an FM receiver. [ 2 marks]

(d) With reference to an amplitude modulated wave, explain what is meant by

(i) sidebands

(ii) depth of modulation. [ 4 marks]

Total 20 marks

6. (a) Explain the construction of a bipolar junction transistor and state how it must be biased
when placed in a circuit to operate as an amplifier. [ 4 marks]

(b) An amplifier stage has a transistor of h parameters hie = 400 Ω, h Fe = 100 and
hoe = 20 µS, and bias components and coupling capacitors of negligible effect. The input
signal consists of an e.m.f. of 50 mV and a source internal resistance of 2.7 kΩ. The total
load at the stage output is 4.7 kΩ. Draw the equivalent amplifier circuit and calculate

(i) the base current, Ib

(ii) the collector current, Ic

(iii) the current gain

(iv) the voltage gain

(v) the power gain. [16 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2010
- 7 -

MODULE 3

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS

You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this Module.

7. (a) Identify FOUR sub-systems of a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)
system and outline the function of EACH sub-system [ 8 marks]

(b) Discuss how a GPS system could be used to enhance a SCADA system.
[ 4 marks]

(c) Discuss THREE major security concerns regarding SCADA systems. In your discussion,
outline how these concerns are being addressed by engineers. [ 8 marks]

(d) Draw a labelled diagram that represents a SCADA system designed for managing a power
system. The system should be capable of transmitting data via the power lines, a GPS
link, and an internet link. [10 marks]

Total 30 marks

8. (a) Define the following terms and give their units:



(i) Magnetomotive force

(ii) Magnetic field strength. [ 6 marks]



(b) Draw a diagram of a coil of 500 turns wound uniformly over a mild steel ring having a
mean diameter of 200 mm and a uniform cross-sectional area of 6000 mm2. If the current
through the coil is 5.0 A, calculate for the region within the coil, the

(i) magnetic field strength


(ii) flux density
(iii) total flux

(iv)
m.m.f. required to produce the total flux across an air gap of 3 mm long and having
an area of 0.02 m2.
[14 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2010
- 8 -

9. (a) Identify TWO purposes of the commutator in a d.c. generator. [ 2 marks]

(b)
Identify TWO problems introduced in the d.c. dynamo as a result of the communication
process? What actions can be taken to reduce the effects of these problems?
[ 4 marks]

(c) Discuss TWO methods by which an armature reaction can be compensated in d.c. dynamos.
[ 4 marks]

(d) A two-pole dynamo rotates at a speed of 1500 rpm. The diameter of the commutator is
160 mm and comprises 50 bars, and the brushes span a linear distance of 20 mm. The
full load armature current is 50 A. Neglecting the thickness of the insulation between the
commutator bars, calculate the

(i) width of each commutator bar

(ii) current carried by each commutator bar at rated level

(iii) time required for each bar to pass the brush.


[10 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

02117020/CAPE 2010
TEST CODE 02217010
FORM TP 2010170 MAY/JUNE 2010

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

Unit 2 – Paper 01

1 ½ hours

09 JUNE 2010 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions. Candidates must attempt ALL questions.

2. The paper consists of THREE Modules, each having FIVE questions. Each Module
is worth 30 marks.

3. In your answer booklet, start each module on a new sheet.

4. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

Copyright © 2009 Caribbean Examinations Council ®


All rights reserved.
02217010/CAPE 2010
- 2 -

MODULE 1

AC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

1. (a) Define the following terms:


(i) Period
(ii) Instantaneous value
(iii) Peak value [3 marks]

(b) Sketch a sinusiodal waveform and identify the following on the sketch:
(i) The peak to peak value
(ii) The r.m.s. value [3 marks]
Total 6 marks

2. A resistor of 120 Ω is connected in series with a pure inductor of 280 mH. The circuit is
supplied with a 250 V, 50 Hz, sinusoidal supply.

(a) Draw a diagram of the circuit components.


(b) Calculate the
(i) circuit current
(ii) phase angle.
(c) Draw a phasor diagram for the circuit current.
[6 marks]

Total 6 marks

3. Sketch and label the frequency response for EACH of the following filters. In EACH case show
the cut-off frequency.
(a) Low pass
(b) Band pass
(c) Notch
[6 marks]
Total 6 marks

4. A series resonant circuit consists of an inductor of 5 mH, a capacitor of 12 µF and a resistor of


5 Ω. Draw and label the circuit and calculate the

(a) resonant frequency

(b) Q factor. [6 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217010/CAPE 2010
- 3 -


5. Two voltages are given by the following quantities:

A = 10 + j 8 Volts
B = 16 + j 4 Volts

(a) Show the voltages on a phasor diagram. [3 marks]

(b) Add the two phasors using complex arithmetic and express in polar notation.
[3 marks]

Total 6 marks

MODULE 2

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND DATA COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

6. (a) What are multivibrators? [2 marks]

(b) Explain the operation of the

(i) mono-stable multivibrator

(ii) bi-stable multivibrator. [4 marks]

Total 6 marks

7. (a) What is meant by the term ‘pulse code modulation’? [2 marks]

(b) Describe the difference between ‘frequency shift keying’ (FSK) and ‘differential
frequency shift keying’ (DFSK) in digital modulation techniques. [4 marks]

Total 6 marks

8. (a) Identify TWO advantages of ‘MOSFETs’. [2 marks]

(b) Define the following terms as they relate to MOSFETs:

(i) Inversion layer

(ii) Threshold voltage [4 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217010/CAPE 2010
- 4 -

9. (a) Draw the symbol of a three-input AND gate, construct its truth table and state its Boolean
expression. [3 marks]

(b) Define the term ‘coding’ as it relates to logic circuits. [1 mark ]

(c) State the difference between a ‘min term’ and a ‘max term’ as they relate to logic
circuits. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

10. (a) State TWO features which differentiate between ROM and RAM memory systems.
[2 marks]

(b) Explain the operation of the analogue to digital converter circuit shown in Figure 1.


Figure 1. Counter (single ramp analogue to digital converter)
[4 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217010/CAPE 2010
- 5 -

MODULE 3

INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

11. The equivalent circuit for a transformer is shown in Figure 2. Identify the components labelled
1 – 6.

Figure 2. Equivalent circuit for a transformer


[6 marks]

Total 6 marks

12. (a) Identify the losses which occur in a transformer on load. [4 marks]

(b) What condition must be met in order to achieve maximum efficiency in a transformer?
[2 marks]

Total 6 marks

13. (a) What is the synchronous impedance of a synchronous generator? [3 marks]

(b) Use diagrams to show the relationships of the variables which constitute the synchronous
impedance. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217010/CAPE 2010
- 6 -

14. Figure 3 displays the torque slip curves for an induction motor.

Figure 3. Torque slip curves for induction motor

(a) Explain the relationship between torque and rotor resistance,

(i) when it is small compared to motor reactance [2 marks]

(ii) when it is large compared to the motor reactance. [2 marks]

(b) Sketch the curve that would result when R = X. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

15. Describe THREE methods used for starting a synchronous motor. [6 marks]

Total 6 marks

END OF TEST

02217010/CAPE 2010
TEST CODE 02217020
FORM TP 2010171 MAY/JUNE 2010

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

Unit 2 – Paper 02

2 ½ hours

28 MAY 2010 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY

1. This paper consists of NINE questions. Candidates must attempt SIX questions.

2. The paper consists of THREE Modules, each having THREE questions. Candidates
are required to answer Questions 1, 4 and 7 and ONE other question from EACH
Module.

3. In your answer booklet, start each question on a new sheet.

4. Each Module is worth 50 marks.

5. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

Copyright © 2009 Caribbean Examinations Council ®


All rights reserved.
02217020/CAPE 2010
- 2 -

MODULE 1

AC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this Module.

1. (a) Define the following terms, state the formula for calculating each and state their units:

(i) Active power

(ii) Reactive power

(iii) Apparent power


[ 9 marks]

(b) The equation of an alternating voltage is V = 350 sin 314 t.

Calculate the
(i) rms voltage
(ii) average value of the voltage
(iii) frequency

(iv) instantaneous voltage when t = 3 ms. [11 marks]

(c) (i) Use a diagram to show the relationship between capacitive reactance ( χC) and
frequency for a variation of χC in a purely capacitive circuit.
[ 4 marks]

(ii) Draw and label the phasor diagram that represents a purely capacitive circuit.
[ 2 marks]

(d)
For the circuit shown in Figure 1, state the formula to calculate the total circuit
impedance and construct the expected phasor diagram in relation to the total impedance.

Figure 1. RLC series circuit


[ 4 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2010
- 3 -

2. (a) Describe the action of a capacitor and an inductor in a circuit at resonance.


[ 2 marks]

(b) Figure 2 shows a parallel RLC circuit with R = 2.2 kΩ, L = 5 mH, and C = 0.24 µF.

Figure 2. RLC circuit

If the supply voltage Vp = 50 V at 25 k Hz, calculate

(i) the current flowing through the resistor

(ii) the capacitive and inductive reactances

(iii) the currents IC, IL and IT

(iv) the impedance of the circuit. [10 marks]

(c) Draw a series circuit with the following components R = 8 Ω, L = 0.25 H and a variable
capacitor (C) connected across a 120 V, 60 Hz supply. Calculate

(i) the capacitance to produce resonance

(ii) the voltages across the capacitor and the inductor at resonance

(iii) the Q factor of the circuit.


[ 8 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2010
- 4 -

3. (a) What is a filter? [ 2 marks]

(b) What is meant by the ‘cut-off frequency’ of a filter? [ 2 marks]

(c) (i) Draw the symbols for a low pass and a high pass filter. [ 2 marks]

(ii) Draw and label the frequency attenuation characteristics for a low pass and a
high pass filter. [ 4 marks]

(iii) Draw labelled diagrams for the π section of a low pass filter and a high pass
filter. [ 4 marks]

(d) A low pass filter is required to produce a nominal impedance of 560 Ω and a cut off
frequency of 1620 Hz.

(i) Draw the circuit to achieve the above specifications.

(ii) Calculate the required component values. [ 6 marks]

Total 20 marks

MODULE 2

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND DATA COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this Module.

4. (a) With the aid of a labelled block diagram, describe a computer network that uses ‘STAR’
topology, stating the factors affecting the choice of interconnecting wires. Outline TWO
MAIN advantages and TWO disadvantages of the STAR topology. [12 marks]

(b) Identify where, in a computer network, a network interface card is used and the factors
that must be considered when choosing the card. [ 3 marks]

(c) State why network technologies are used in computer networks and indicate the names
of the two most popular ones that are used. [ 4 marks]

(d) Compare the quality of the ‘BUS,’ ‘STAR’ and ‘RING’ topologies in terms of their
reliability and efficiency. [ 6 marks]

(e) State what is meant by the terms

(i) UART

(ii) USART. [ 4 marks]

(f) State what is meant by ‘overrun error’ as it relates to an UART receiver.


[ 1 mark ]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2010
- 5 -

5. (a) State the function of a multiplexer. [ 1 mark ]

(b) Explain the function of the circuit shown in Figure 3 and state the equation for its output.

Figure 3. 4 – 1 Multiplexer
[ 7 marks]

(c) Use a simple block diagram to explain the operation of a 1 – 4 multiplexer.


[ 7 marks]

(d) State what is an encoder? [ 2 marks]

(e) Define the following terms as they relate to memory systems:

(i) Static

(ii) Dynamic

(iii) Destructive [ 3 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2010
- 6 -

6. (a) Describe the two voltage states of multivibrators. [ 4 marks]

(b) Explain the term ‘counter’ used in logic circuits. [ 4 marks]

(c) (i) Explain what are shift registers. [ 2 marks]

(ii) Explain the operation of the shift register shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4. Shift register


[ 6 marks]

(d) Draw the symbols and construct truth tables for the following devices:

(i) Data (D) flip-flop

(ii) J-K flip-flop [ 4 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2010
- 7 -

MODULE 3
INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES

You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this Module.

7. (a) With aid of diagram(s) describe the operation of a single-phase, capacitor-run induction
motor which incorporates a centrifugal switch. [ 6 marks]

(b) Draw a diagram to show the phase relations which exist between the variables in the
single-phase, capacitor-run induction motor. [ 6 marks]

(c) Outline SIX general features of the split-phase, capacitor-run motor. [ 6 marks]

(d) List FOUR uses of the single-phase motor. [ 4 marks]

(e) A capacitor is added to the auxillary starting winding of a 1 hp, 110 V split-phase
motor which originally draws 4 Amperes lagging the supply voltage by 15° and a
running winding current of 6 Amperes lagging at 40°. The addition of the capacitor
causes the starting winding current to lead the supply voltage by 42°. If the magnitude
of the current remains the same, calculate at the instant of starting.

(i) the locked rotor current and power factor


(ii) the sine of the angle between the starting and running currents.
[ 8 marks]
Total 30 marks

8. (a) Draw a labelled diagram that represents a practical transformer and explain the function
of EACH component. [ 8 marks]

(b) A transformer has the following specifications:

Primary winding voltage = 2400 V


Secondary voltage = 240 V
Frequency = 60 Hz
KVA = 650
rp = 0.2 Ω
χLP = 0.4 Ω
rs = 0.002 Ω
χLS = 0.004 Ω

Calculate the secondary and primary


(i) currents
(ii) internal impedances
(iii) internal voltage drops
(iv) induced voltages.
[12 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2010
- 8 -

9. (a) Outline THREE disadvantages and THREE advantages of a synchronous motor.


[ 6 marks]

(b) Explain what is the synchronous impedance voltage drop of a synchronous motor. Use
a vector diagram to support your answer. [ 4 marks]

(c) The data obtained from a synchronous alternator under test are:

d.c. voltage across winding = 3 Volts


current through coil = 10 A
a.c. voltage across winding = 420 V
a.c. current through coil = 80 A

Sketch the impedance triangle and determine

(i) the resistance of the winding

(ii) the impedance of the winding

(iii) the reactance of the winding.

[10 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

02217020/CAPE 2010
TEST CODE 02117010
FORM TP 2011172 MAY/JUNE 2011

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

UNIT 1 – PAPER 01
1½ hours

13 MAY 2011 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions, FIVE from each Module.


Answer ALL questions.

2. In your answer booklet, start each module on a new sheet.

3. EACH question is worth SIX marks.

4. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

5. A booklet with formulae supplied may be used in the examination.

Copyright © 2010 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.
02117010/CAPE 2011
- 2 -

MODULE 1

DC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

1. (a) State Ohm’s law. [ 1 mark ]

(b) The circuit shown in Figure 1 is connected to a d.c. voltage source of 60 volts. Determine
the power dissipated by the 24 Ω resistor. [ 5 marks]

32Ω

12Ω 24Ω 8Ω

16Ω

60V d.c.

Figure 1. Series parallel circuit


Total 6 marks

2. (a) Determine the total capacitance in a circuit with two capacitors of value 15 μF and
25 μF connected in series. [ 2 marks]

(b) A capacitor consists of two metal plates each of 500 mm × 500 mm spaced 5 mm apart
with paper dielectric having a relative permeability of 2.3. Calculate the

(i) capacitance of the capacitor

(ii) charge across the capacitor if a voltage of 12 V d.c. is placed across it.
[ 4 marks]

Total 6 marks

3. (a) Identify FOUR types of fixed capacitors and indicate the capacitance range in which
they BEST operate. [ 4 marks]

(b) A 100 μF capacitor is fully charged from a 120 V supply. It is then discharged through
a 75 kΩ resistor. Determine the initial value of the current and sketch a curve showing
how the discharged current varies with time. [ 2 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/CAPE 2011
- 3 -

4. (a) State THREE physical factors which determine the inductance of a coil. [ 3 marks]

(b) A coil of 600 turns has an inductance of 15 mH when wound on a core of non-magnetic
material. Determine the flux it produces when a current of 8A is passed through it.
[ 3 marks]

Total 6 marks

5. (a) Explain what is meant by the term ‘mutual inductance’. [ 2 marks]

(b) (i) Sketch and label a diagram which can be used to demonstrate mutual inductance.

(ii) State ONE function of the iron core on which the coils are wound.
[ 4 marks]

Total 6 marks

MODULE 2

ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

6. (a) Draw the schematic symbol of a NPN transistor. [ 1 mark ]

(b) State what is meant by the ‘dc Beta, βdc, of a transistor’. [ 1 mark ]

(c) In a common emitter circuit, the transistor has a collector current of 20 mA and a base
current IB of 0.2 mA.

Calculate the

(i) βdc of the circuit [ 2 marks]

(ii) emitter current IE. [ 2 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/CAPE 2011
- 4 -

7. (a) State the Barkhausen criterion for an oscillator to oscillate. [ 2 marks]

(b) Name the oscillator shown in Figure 2 and explain its operation. [ 4 marks]

Figure 2: Oscillator
Total 6 marks

8. (a) (i) a) What is ʻelectromagnetic radiationʼ?

b) State if this type of radiation requires a medium for propagation.


[ 2 marks]

(ii) a) What is a ground wave?

b) Give another name for this wave. [ 2 marks]

(b) Identify the frequency range in which ground waves propagate, and the type of surface
over which they travel furthest. [ 2 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/CAPE 2011
- 5 -

9. Figure 3 shows the circuit for a half-wave rectifier.

Figure 3. Half-wave rectifier

Calculate the

(a) current flowing through the diode D1 [ 2 marks]

(b) output voltage V0 [ 2 marks]

(c) power dissipated by the diode D1. [ 2 marks]

Total 6 marks

10. A FM carrier wave (FCS) of 135 MHz is modulated by an audio tone which creates a frequency
deviation FD of 45 kHz.

Calculate the

(a) carrier swing of the FM signal [ 2 marks]

(b) LOWEST and HIGHEST frequencies that are created by the FM signal.
[ 4 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/CAPE 2011
- 6 -

MODULE 3

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

11. (a) List THREE properties of lines of magnetic flux. [ 3 marks]

(b) Use a labelled diagram to illustrate Fleming’s left hand rule. [ 3 marks]

Total 6 marks

12. (a) State TWO of the main features of a wave winding in a d.c. machine. [ 2 marks]

(b) Sketch a labelled diagram showing a coil of the wave winding. [ 2 marks]

(c) Explain what is meant by ʻseparately excitedʼ in a d.c. machine. [ 2 marks]

Total 6 marks

13. (a) Differentiate between ‘earth fault’ and ‘short circuit fault’. [ 2 marks]

(b) Sketch and label the cross-section of a BS1362 ceramic fuse. [ 4 marks]

Total 6 marks

14. (a) Identify THREE systems in which SCADA is used. [ 3 marks]

(b) (i) What is the ʻRemote Terminal Unitʼ (RTU) in a SCADA system? [ 1 mark ]

(ii) State TWO characteristics of an RTU. [ 2 marks]


Total 6 marks

15. (a) Draw a labelled diagram of a circuit used to determine the open-circuit and no-load
characteristics of a separately excited d.c. generator. [ 3 marks]

(b) (i) Sketch the characteristic curve expected from the d.c. generator for increasing
and decreasing excitation. [ 2 marks]

(ii) What accounts for the remaining output voltage when the field current is returned
to zero? [ 1 mark ]

Total 6 marks

END OF TEST

02117010/CAPE 2011
TEST CODE 02117020
FORM TP 2011173 MAY/JUNE 2011

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

UNIT I – PAPER 02

2½ hours

25 MAY 2011 (a.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of NINE questions, THREE from each module.

2. Answer SIX questions as follows:

Question 1 and ONE other question from Module 1

Question 4 and ONE other question from Module 2

Question 7 and ONE other question from Module 3.

3. Each Module is worth 50 marks.

4. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

5. A booklet with formulae supplied may be used in the examination.

Copyright © 2010 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.
02117020/CAPE 2011
- 2 -

MODULE 1

DC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this Module.

1. (a) (i) Explain what is an ‘inductor’ and give its symbol.

(ii) Give ONE characteristic of an inductor. [ 4 marks]

(b) Give the symbol for a variable inductor and use a labelled diagram to explain how this
device works. [ 4 marks]

(c) (i) Define the term ‘coefficient of coupling’ as related to inductive coils.

(ii) With reference to coils, explain how low coefficient of coupling occurs and give
the term used to refer to its occurrence. [ 3 marks]

(d) Define the term ‘mutual inductance’ and give its unit and its formula. [ 5 marks]

(e) The inductances of two coils are 30 mH and 18 mH respectively. Together they have
a mutual induction of 8 mH. If the currents through the coils are 0.8 A and 2.2 A
respectively, draw the assembly and calculate the

(i) total energy stored, assuming that the fluxes are in opposition

(ii) coupling coefficient. [14 marks]

Total 30 marks

2. (a) Sketch and label curves to show the variation of current and potential difference with
respect to time for a capacitor of 10 μF during charging. [ 4 marks]

(b) The capacitor in (a) is connected in series with a resistor of 0.4 MΩ and the combination
is connected across a 200 V d.c. supply.

(i) Draw and label the circuit of the combination. [ 1 mark ]


(ii) Calculate the time constant. [ 2 marks]
(iii) Determine the initial charging current. [ 2 marks]

(iv) Determine the time taken for the potential difference (p.d.) across the capacitor
to reach 160 volts. [ 5 marks]

(v) Determine the current and the p.d. across the capacitor 4 seconds after it is
connected across the voltage source. [ 4 marks]

(vi) Determine the energy stored in the capacitor. [ 2 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2011
- 3 -

3. (a) State Kirchoff’s laws. [ 4 marks]

(b) Figure 1 shows a series parallel circuit.

R1 30 Ω R2 50 Ω

Vs = 48 V A B

R3 20 Ω R4 15 Ω

Figure 1. Series parallel circuit

Calculate the

(i) voltage between points A and B [ 8 marks]

(ii) power dissipated in R1 and R2. [ 6 marks]

(iii) If R2 is made of copper, calculate its resistance when its temperature reaches
60 ºC (temperature coefficient of copper = 0.00428). [ 2 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2011
- 4 -

MODULE 2

ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this Module.

4. (a) What is meant by the term ‘doping’ as it relates to crystals? [ 2 marks]

(b) State the type of impurities used to dope a silicon crystal which creates

(i) an N-type semiconductor

(ii) a P-type semiconductor. [ 2 marks]

(c) With the aid of a block diagram of a PN junction diode, describe electron flow when the
diode is forward biased. [ 7 marks]

(d) (i) What is a Zener diode?

(ii) For what purpose is it used in electronic circuits? [ 2 marks]

(e) A Zener diode has a power rating of 500 mW and a voltage rating of 10 V. Calculate
the current rating of the diode. [ 4 marks]

(f) (i) What is meant by the term ‘ripple’ in a power supply? [ 2 marks]

(ii) An alternating voltage of 110 V, 50 Hz is applied to a power supply that is


required to provide 120 mA at 35 volts, with no more than 1% ripple. Calculate
the minimum value of the smoothing capacitor. [ 7 marks]

(iii) State FOUR advantages that a bridge power supply has over a full wave power
supply that utilizes two diodes. [ 4 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2011
- 5 -

5. (a) What are operational amplifiers (op-amps)? [ 2 marks]

(b) Draw the symbol for an op amp indicating the non-inverting and the inverting inputs.
[ 3 marks]

(c) State the relationship of the phase of the output signal to that of the input signal in the
op-amp in the

(i) non-inverting mode

(ii) inverting mode. [ 2 marks]

(d) Figure 2 shows an operational amplifier circuit.

R1 22 kΩ
V1
RF 220 kΩ
R2 68 kΩ
V2

R3 120 kΩ −
V3 V0
+

V1 = +2.5V
V2 = −5V
V3 = 0.8V

Figure 2. Operational amplifier circuit

(i) State the name of the type of operational amplifier that the circuit represents.
[ 1 mark ]

(ii) Calculate the output voltage of the op-amp. [12 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2011
- 6 -

6. (a) With the aid of a block diagram, outline the structure and operations of a NPN
transistor. [ 8 marks]

(b) State how the NPN transistor MUST be biased for normal operation. [ 2 marks]

(c) The transistor in the circuit shown in Figure 3 has the following small signal hybrid
parameters

hie = 1.8 kΩ, hFe = 80, hoe = 0.2 mS, hre = 0

VCC

RB RC
220 kΩ 2.2 kΩ

C1

C2
RS Vout
2 kΩ

1 mV

Figure 3. Common emitter amplifier

Assuming that the effects of capacitor C1, and C2 are negligible:

(i) Draw the small signal equivalent circuit. [ 4 marks]

(ii) Calculate the

a) input resistance R1

b) voltage Vbe. [ 6 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2011
- 7 -

MODULE 3

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS

You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this Module.

7. (a) Sketch the cross-section of a d.c. dynamo and label SIX critical parts. [ 8 marks]

(b) Draw labelled connection circuit diagrams for the d.c. generator in the following
configurations:

(i) Long shunt

(ii) Short shunt [ 8 marks]

(c) Explain the function of the diverter resistor in the compound generators drawn at (b).
[ 2 marks]

(d) Sketch and label typical load characteristics for a d.c. generator operating in the cumulative
and compound states. [ 4 marks]

(e) The no load voltage of a separately excited generator is 130 V when the field current is
2.6 amperes and it is driven at 1600 rpm. Assume that it is operating in the linear por-
tion of its characteristic curve.

(i) Calculate the generated voltage when the field current is increased to 3.0 amperes.

(ii) Calculate the generated voltage when the speed is increased to 1800 RPM and
the field current reduced to 2.4 amperes.

(iii) If the generator operates as a flat compound generator at rated speed, what will
be the effect on compounding if the speed was increased? [ 8 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2011
- 8 -

8. (a) State Lenz’s law. [ 2 marks]

(b) Using diagrams, explain the effects of a magnetic field on a current-carrying conductor.
What is the name given to this effect? [ 6 marks]

(c) (i) Identify THREE factors that affect the magnitude of the electromagnetic force
on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field.

(ii) Give the relationship and unit of these factors in relation to the force produced.
[ 4 marks]

(d) A conductor carries 750 amperes at right angles to a magnetic field having a density of
0.5 T.

(i) Calculate the force on the conductor if the effective length is 200 mm.
[ 2 marks]

(ii) If the conductor moves perpendicular to the magnetic field at a rate of 25 m/s
with no current applied to it, what would be the instantaneous e.m.f. induced in
the conductor? [ 3 marks]

If the conductor is placed to an angle of 45 to the magnetic field, calculate the


o
(iii)
force on the 200 mm conductor. [ 3 marks]

Total 20 marks

9. (a) Identify FOUR parts that are critical at the operation of a SCADA system.
[ 4 marks]

(b) List SIX benefits or advantages of the SCADA system. [ 6 marks]

(c) Sketch a labelled diagram of a typical SCADA system which employs a number of
PLCs as controllers for the system. [ 6 marks]

(d) List FOUR security concerns or issues related to the SCADA system. [ 4 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

02117020/CAPE 2011
TEST CODE 02217010
FORM TP 2011174 MAY/JUNE 2011

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

UNIT 2 – PAPER 01
1½ hours

08 JUNE 2011 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions, FIVE from each Module.


Answer ALL questions.

2. In your answer booklet, start each module on a new sheet.

3. Each question is worth SIX marks.

4. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

5. A booklet with fomulae supplied may be used in the examination.

Copyright © 2010 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.
02217010/CAPE 2011
- 2 -

MODULE 1

AC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

1. (a) Figure 1 represents a typical response curve for a band pass filter.
Indicate the areas represented by 1 – 3 on the response curve. [ 3 marks]

2 3
1
Voltage across load

50 Hz 15 000 Hz
Frequency

Figure 1. Response curve for a band pass filter

(b) Draw and label the circuit diagram of a simple low pass filter and explain how it works.
[ 3 marks]

Total 6 marks

2. (a) Define the term ‘reactance’. [ 2 marks]



(b) State the phase relationship between current and voltage in a purely inductive circuit.
[ 1 mark ]

(c) An inductor has an inductive reactance of 750 Ω at a frequency of 15 MHz. Calculate


its inductance. [ 3 marks]

Total 6 marks

3. Express, in rectangular and polar notations, the impedances of the following circuits when
connected to a 110 V, 50 Hz source.

(a) Resistance of 27 Ω in series with an inductor of 0.1 H [ 3 marks]

(b) Resistance of 50 Ω in series with a capacitor of 47 μF [ 3 marks]



Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217010/CAPE 2011
- 3 -

4. (a) With reference to a sinusoidal waveform, define the following terms:

(i) Root mean square

(ii) Phasor [ 2 marks]

(b) An alternating current completes 500 cycles in one second. Calculate the

(i) period of the wave

(ii) frequency. [ 2 marks]

(c) Define the term ‘power factor’ and state the formula. [ 2 marks]

Total 6 marks

5. Figure 2 shows a RLC series circuit.

Figure 2. RLC series circuit

(a) Explain how the circuit reached its resonant state and describe the correct flow at the resonant
state. [ 2 marks]

(b) Sketch the variation with frequency for

(i) current

(ii) reactance [ 2 marks]

(c) Using a diagram, illustrate the reactance at resonance. [ 2 marks]



Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217010/CAPE 2011
- 4 -

MODULE 2

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND DATA COMMUNICATION

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

6. (a) State what is meant by the acronym ‘UART’, and explain how it is used in the transmission
of information. [ 4 marks]

(b) Define EACH of the following terms as they relate to the UART:

(i) Parity error

(ii) Framing error [ 2 marks]

Total 6 marks

7. (a) State what is a ‘shift register’ and the purpose for which it is utilised in digital systems.
[ 2 marks]

(b) (i) What does the term ‘counter’ mean when used in relation to a sequential logic circuit?

(ii) Describe how the counter functions when used in a sequential logic circuit.
[ 4 marks]

Total 6 marks

8. (a) (i) Define the terms ‘ROM’ and ‘PROM’.

(ii) Explain the basic difference between ROM and PROM. [ 3 marks]

(b) Explain what is a ‘demultiplexer’. [ 3 marks]

Total 6 marks

9. Draw the schematic symbols for the following logic gates and derive their truth tables.

(a) NOR [ 3 marks]

(b) EX-OR [ 3 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217010/CAPE 2011
- 5 -

10. (a) State THREE characteristics of an ideal switch. [ 3 marks]

(b) Use labelled diagrams to explain the construction of junction transistors and show the
symbol for each. [ 3 marks]

Total 6 marks

MODULE 3

INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

11. (a) Outline TWO functions of the laminated iron core in a power transformer.
[ 2 marks]

(b) Give another name for laminated core transformers. [ 1 mark ]

(c) Transformers are designed to step-up or step-down voltages. Name THREE common
types of transformers. [ 3 marks]

Total 6 marks

12. With the aid of sketches, briefly explain the operation of the

(a) single-phase, capacitor-run, inductor motor [ 3 marks]

(b) split-phase inductor motor. [ 3 marks]

Total 6 marks

13. (a) Explain what is meant by the term ‘synchronous impedance’ of a motor. [ 2 marks]

(b) Determine the synchronous impedance of a dynamo if its armature resistance is 0.5 Ω
per phase and its reactance is 5.0 Ω per phase. [ 4 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217010/CAPE 2011
- 6 -

14. The equivalent circuit of a transformer is shown in Figure 3. Write the names of the circuit
elements and FOUR of the parameters.

P S

Supply
V1
To load

Figure 3. Equivalent circuit of a transformer


Total 6 marks

15. (a) Draw and label the circuit diagram for an auto transformer that could be used to boost
the voltage at the end of a power line. [ 3 marks]

(b) The total number of turns for the transformer in (a) is 3500 and the adjustable tap is
placed such that it incorporates 66.6% of the number of turns. Determine the output
voltage if the input is 80 volts. [ 3 marks]

Total 6 marks

END OF TEST

02217010/CAPE 2011
TEST CODE 02217020
FORM TP 2011175 MAY/JUNE 2011

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

UNIT 2 – PAPER 02
2½ hours

27 MAY 2011 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of NINE questions, THREE from each module.

2. Answer SIX questions as follows:

Question 1 and ONE other question from Module 1

Question 4 and ONE other question from Module 2

Question 7 and ONE other question from Module 3.

3. Each Module is worth 50 marks.

4. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

5. A booklet with formulae supplied may be used in the examination.

Copyright © 2010 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02217020/CAPE 2011
- 2 -

MODULE 1

AC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this Module.

1. (a) Explain the term ‘resonance’ as applied to electrical circuits. [ 2 marks]

(b) Explain what is meant by the ‘magnification factor Q’ of a resonant circuit making
reference to the sharpness of resonance. [ 3 marks]

(c) Define the term ‘dynamic resistance’ as it relates to a resonant parallel network, and
state why the network is called a rejector circuit. [ 3 marks]

(d) A series circuit consists of an inductor of 260 μH, and a capacitor is resonant at 0.8 MHz
develops 80 mV across the inductor with a 2 mV input.

(i) Draw the circuit diagram.

(ii) Sketch the phasor diagram for the circuit.

(iii) Calculate the magnification factor, Q.

(iv) Determine the value of the series resistor, Rs of the circuit. [ 8 marks]

(e) An inductor of 2 kΩ resistance and inductance of 0.25 H is connected in parallel with


a variable capacitor across a 5 volts, 10 kHz a.c. supply.

Draw the circuit and calculate the

(i) capacitance of the capacitor when the supply current is at a minimum

(ii) impedance (ZT) of the network at resonance

(iii) supply current. [14 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2011
- 3 -

2. (a) Describe the operation of the low pass filter shown in Figure 1, and state the formula for the
time constant (t). [ 4 marks]

R
VIN

C
VOUT

Figure 1. Passive low pass filter (RC)

(b) (i) What is a ‘notch filter’?

(ii) State TWO pieces of equipment in which a notch filter is utilised.


[ 3 marks]

(c) (i) What is meant by ‘attenuation of a filter’?

(ii) How does attenuation relate to the cut-off frequency? Show this effect on the
response curve of a filter. [ 3 marks]

(d) A filter is required to pass all frequencies above 9 kHz and to have a nominal impedance
of 750 Ω . Calculate the circuit values for both the capacitance and inductance for both
a T and Π filter section, and design the filter circuit of each. [10 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2011
- 4 -

3. (a) Sketch the waveform of a sinusoidal varying voltage and indicate on the diagram the

(i) instantaneous value

(ii) peak-to-peak value

(iii) peak value. [ 4 marks]

(b) State the meaning of the term ‘reactive power’ as it relates to inductive and capacitive circuits.
[ 2 marks]

(c) A coil having a resistance 12 Ω and inductance of 0.06 H is connected across a 45 V,


60 Hz a.c. supply.

(i) Calculate the

a) current IT flowing in the circuit

b) phase angle between the current and the applied voltage

c) apparent power

d) active power.

(ii) Sketch the phasor diagram for the circuit. [14 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2011
- 5 -

MODULE 2

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND DATA COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this Module.

4. (a) State what are flip flops and identify TWO applications of flip flops. [ 3 marks]

(b) (i) Draw the symbols for a SR and a JK flip flop. [ 4 marks]

(ii) Explain the operation of EACH flip flop drawn. [ 9 marks]

(iii) Develop the truth tables for EACH flip flop drawn. [ 4 marks]

(c) Identify FOUR uses of counters. [ 4 marks]

(d) Figure 2 shows a block diagram of a simple shift register. Explain its operation.

Figure 2. Simple shift register


[ 6 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2011
- 6 -

5. (a) Draw the symbols for the following N Channel MOSFETS:

(i) Depletion type

(ii) Enhancement type [ 4 marks]

(b) Describe the operation of the P Channel MOSFET. [ 6 marks]

(c) State what is meant by the ‘threshold voltage’ of the MOSFET. [ 2 marks]

(d) Draw the schematic symbol of a thyristor. [ 2 marks]

(e) Define the following terms as they relate to a thyristor:

(i) Holding current IH

(ii) Forced commutation

(iii) Latching current IL [ 6 marks]

Total 20 marks

6. (a) State what is meant by the term ‘noise’ and give the term which is used to indicate the level
of noise in a communication system. [ 2 marks]

(b) Identify the FOUR categories of noise and define ANY TWO. [ 8 marks]

(c) (i) What do DPSK and FSK represent in digital modulation techniques?

(ii) Explain DPSK and FSK techniques. [ 6 marks]

(d) Explain the following modes of operation of digital communication:

(i) Half duplex

(ii) Full duplex [ 4 marks]



Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2011
- 7 -

MODULE 3

INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES

You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this Module.

7. (a) With the aid of a labelled diagram, describe the construction of the revolving field
synchronous generator. [10 marks]

(b) Which type of armature windings is usually used on stationary armature synchronous
generators? Why is this used? [ 2 marks]

(c) List FIVE advantages of stationary armature and revolving field construction for a
synchronous dynamo. [ 5 marks]

(d) Define the term ‘synchronous impedance’ and explain its effect in a synchronous
dynamo. [ 3 marks]

(e) A three-phase wye connected alternator is rated at 1000 kVA at 10 KV. The armature
resistance is 0.8 Ω and the synchronous reactance is 8 Ω when carrying rated load.
Calculate the generated voltage per phase at a load of 0.8 lagging. [10 marks]

Total 30 marks

8. (a) State the principle on which a transformer operates and explain its operation with the aid
of a labelled diagram. [ 6 marks]

(b) (i) What is the ‘coefficient of coupling’ for a transformer? Give the formula for this
parameter.

(ii) Explain the effect of the value of the coefficient of coupling on the mutual inductance
of a transformer. [ 4 marks]

(c) What is the ‘transformation ratio’ of a transformer? Give the relationships that determine
the transformation ratio. [ 3 marks]

(d) The primary coil side of a transformer has 800 turns while the secondary has 200 turns. The
load current is 15 A.

Calculate the

(i) transformation ratio (α)

(ii) primary current I1. [ 3 marks]

(e) Draw and label a simplified equivalent circuit for a transformer, assuming negligible
magnetising current. [ 4 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2011
- 8 -

9. (a) With the aid of a diagram, describe the principle of operation of the induction motor.
[ 4 marks]

(b) Sketch and label typical torque versus slip curves for an induction motor. [ 4 marks]

(c) A three-phase induction motor with four poles is connected to a 415 V, 50 Hz source.
The stator winding is delta connected with 260 conductors per phase, and the rotor
winding is star connected with 52 conductors per phase with a resistance of 0.015 Ω
per phase and leakage reactance of 0.05 Ω per phase at standstill.

Calculate the

(i) synchronous speed

(ii) rotor speed when the slip is 4%

(iii) rotor e.m.f. per phase at standstill with the rotor on open circuit

(iv) rotor e.m.f. and per phase at 4% slip

(v) rotor current per phase at 4% slip. [12 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

02217020/CAPE 2011
TEST CODE 02117010
FORM TP 2012172 MAY/JUNE 2012

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

UNIT 1 – Paper 01
1 hour 30 minutes

15 MAY 2012 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions, FIVE from each Module.


Answer ALL questions.

2. In your answer booklet, start each module on a new sheet.

3. EACH question is worth SIX marks.

4. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

5. A booklet with formulae supplied may be used in the examination.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2011 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.
02117010/CAPE 2012
- 2 -

MODULE 1

DC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

1. (a) State Kirchoff’s first and second laws. [4 marks]

(b) Draw a diagram to depict any ONE of Kirchoff’s laws and give the expression for the
parameters of the diagram drawn. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

2. (a) Outline the conditions for maximum power transfer in a d.c. circuit. [2 marks]

(b) The circuit shown in Figure 1 is connected to a 12V d.c. source.

R2

R3 60 Ω

30 Ω

12 Vd.c. R1 R4
30 Ω 60 Ω

Figure 1. Series parallel resistive circuit

(i) Determine the internal resistance of the source that will facilitate maximum
power transfer to the network.

(ii) Calculate the amount of power that will be transferred to the network.
[4 marks]

Total 6 marks

3. (a) Define the term ‘permittivity of free space’ and state its symbol and unit. [4 marks]

(b) The permittivity of free space is given as 8.85 × 10–12 F/m and the relative permittivity of
polythene is determined to be 2.225. Determine the absolute permittivity of polythene.
[2 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/CAPE 2012
- 3 -

4. Five capacitors are connected in the series parallel circuit as shown in Figure 2.

C1 = 4 µF C4 12 µF

200 V R1 C2 C3 C5
17µF 10 µF 4 µF

Figure 2. Series parallel circuit

(a) Determine the value of a single capacitor that may be used to replace those used in this
circuit. [4 marks]

(b) If the value of R1 is 0.47 MΩ, and V = 200 volts, calculate the

(i) time constant

(ii) initial charging current. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

5. (a) Identify THREE factors that determine the inductance of a coil. [3 marks]

(b) A coil has 400 turns on a non-magnetic core. If the inductance is 15 mH, calculate the

(i) flux produced by a current of 8A

(ii) change of flux when the 8A current is reversed in 10 ms. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/CAPE 2012
- 4 -

MODULE 2

ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

6. Figure 3 is a diagram of a half wave power supply.

D1
5:1

110 V RL

Figure 3. Half wave power supply

(a) Calculate the

(i) a.c. voltage across the secondary winding of the transformer [1 mark ]

(ii) peak value of the rectified voltage. [3 marks]

(b) State TWO reasons for using the transformer in the circuit. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/CAPE 2012
- 5 -

7. (a) Define the term ‘operational amplifier’. [1 mark ]

(b) State the expected level of the input impedance of an operational amplifier.
[1 mark ]

(c) Figure 4 is a diagram of a non-inverting operational amplifier.

_
RF

VIN = 2V
30 K

RIN RL VOUT
8 kΩ 12 k Ω

Figure 4. Non-inverting operational amplifier

Calculate the

(i) voltage gain of the amplifier [3 marks]

(ii) value of the output signal. [1 mark ]

Total 6 marks

8. (a) Explain the term ‘amplitude modulation’ of an AM waveform. [2 marks]

(b) Explain why modulation of a carrier greater than100% is undesirable. [2 marks]

(c) Define the term ‘modulation factor’, and state the formula used to calculate the modulation
factor. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/CAPE 2012
- 6 -

9. (a) The block diagram of an amplifier is shown in Figure 5.

Calculate the

(i) voltage gain of the amplifier [2 marks]

(ii) input power of the signal. [2 marks]

In

I/P VIN = 12 mV VOUT R


L
VIN = 12 mV
VOUT = 360 mV
I = 240 μ A
i

Figure 5. Block diagram of an amplifier

(b) State TWO methods that can be used to prevent thermal run away of a transistor when
it is used in an electronic circuit. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

10. (a) State the frequency bands of EACH of the following:

(i) Medium frequency carrier wave [1 mark ]

(ii) High frequency carrier wave [1 mark ]

(b) Define EACH of the following terms as they relate to the propagation of a high
frequency wave.

(i) Maximum usable frequency (MUF) [2 marks]

(ii) Optimum traffic frequency (OTF) [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/CAPE 2012
- 7 -

MODULE 3

INTRODUCTION TO POWER SYSTEMS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

11. (a) List FOUR characteristics of magnetic flux lines. [4 marks]

(b) Draw a diagram to illustrate how a compass can be used to plot a single magnetic field
line in the space around a magnet. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

12. (a) Use a labelled diagram to depict Fleming’s left hand rule for the mechanical force exerted
by a current-carrying conductor. [3 marks]

(b) A conductor supplying current to a resistive load of 15Ω connected across a


9 000 V supply is placed at right angles to a magnetic field of density 0.6 T. Calculate
the force on the conductor in newtons per metre. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

13. (a) Draw and label the circuit for a separately excited d.c. generator. [4 marks]

(b) Draw and label the typical magnetization curve for the circuit sketched at 13 (a).
[2 marks]

Total 6 marks

14. (a) What is the PRIMARY function of a thermal overload relay? [2 marks]

(b) Identify TWO types of thermal overload relays.


[2 marks]

(c) Explain how any ONE of the types of relay mentioned in 14 (b) operates. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

15. (a) What does the acronynm ‘SCADA’ mean and to what does this acronym refer?
[3 marks]

(b) Identify THREE sub-systems of ‘SCADA’. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks
END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02117010/CAPE 2012
TEST CODE 02117020
FORM TP 2012173 MAY/JUNE 2012

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

UNIT 1 – Paper 02

2 hours 30 minutes

25 MAY 2012 (a.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of NINE questions, THREE from each module.

2. Answer SIX questions as follows:

Question 1 and ONE other question from Module 1

Question 4 and ONE other question from Module 2

Question 7 and ONE other question from Module 3.

3. Each Module is worth 50 marks.

4. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

5. A booklet with formulae supplied may be used in the examination.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2011 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.
02117020/CAPE 2012
- 2 -

MODULE 1

DC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this Module.

1. (a) With the aid of a labelled diagram, explain the concept of ‘mutual inductance’.
[7 marks]

(b) Explain the concept of ‘coupling coefficient’ for coils, making reference to loosely and
tightly coupled coils. [5 marks]

(c) (i) Draw labelled diagrams to show cumulatively and differentially coupled coils
connected in series.

(ii) Explain how the mutual inductance of two coils can be determined from
measurements of the total inductance of two coils connected cumulatively and
differentially. [7 marks]

(d) (i) Sketch the assembly of a ferromagnetic ring which has a cross-sectional area of
2
800 mm and an average radius of 180 mm.

(ii) Two coils of 600 and 800 turns wound on the ring, are connected in series, and
the relative permeability is 1 400.

Calculate the self inductance of EACH coil and the partial inductance of the pair
assuming that there is no flux leakage. [11 marks]

Total 30 marks

2. (a) Use labelled graphs to explain the effect of temperature on the resistance of

(i) copper

(ii) carbon. [6 marks]

(b) Name a class of material which shows very minimal change of resistance for a considerable
variation of temperature. Give TWO examples of the material. [3 marks]

(c) Define the term ‘temperature coefficient of resistance’ and state its symbol. [3 marks]

(d) When a voltage of 12 V d.c. is applied to a coil of copper wire of mean temperature
24 °C, a current of 1.2 A flows through the coil. After some time, the current falls to
1.0 A with no change in the voltage supply. If the temperature coefficient of copper is
-3
4.28 × 10 /°C, determine the mean temperature of the coil. [8 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2012
- 3 -

3. (a) Define the term ‘capacitance’ and give its unit and symbol. [3 marks]

(b) (i) Sketch and label typical discharge curves for a capacitor discharging through a
resistor, showing the potential difference and the discharge current on the same
time scale.

(ii) If the potential difference across the capacitor changes by δv volts in δt seconds,
state the relationship for the instantaneous current.

(iii) State the formula for calculating the instantaneous current of the circuit that
generates this curve. [8 marks]

(c) A 10 µF capacitor in series with a 800 Ω resistor is connected across a 250 V d.c. supply.

(i) Draw a labelled diagram of the circuit.

(ii) Calculate the time constant.

(iii) Determine the initial charging current.

(iv) Determine the energy stored in the capacitor when it is fully charged.
[9 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2012
- 4 -

MODULE 2

ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this Module.

4. (a) Explain, with the aid of its characteristic curve, the operation of a zener diode.
[11 marks]
Figure 1 shows a zener regulator circuit.
RS

Unregulated
VIN = 24 V ZD R Zener voltage rating - 12 V
d.c. L

Figure 1. Basic zener regulator circuit

(b) Explain the operation of the zener regulator circuit shown in Figure 1 above.
[4 marks]

(c) (i) Draw the symbol for a light emitting diode (LED).

(ii) Explain the operation of a light emitting diode (LED).

(iii) Outline FOUR key characteristics of a LED as they relate to voltage, current and
wavelength. [10 marks]

(d) Figure 2 shows a clipper circuit.


R

D1 R
L

Figure 2. Clipper circuit

(i) State the purpose for using the clipper circuit.

(ii) Explain the operation of the circuit.

(iii) Draw a typical output waveform from the circuit. [5 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2012
- 5 -

5. (a) Define the term ‘oscillator’. [2 marks]

(b) Identify the TWO main types of RC oscillators. [2 marks]

(c) Figure 3 shows an RC oscillator.

ÐVCC

L1
R1
C2

LF
1

R2 CF

LF
2

C3

Feedback

Figure 3. An RC oscillator

(i) Identify the type of RC oscillator shown in Figure 3.

(ii) Describe the operation of the oscillator.

(iii) Write the formula for the oscillator frequency and define the variables.
[9 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2012
- 6 -

(d) Figure 4 shows a a differential amplifier.

V
CC

RC RC
1 2

V
Ð out +

V1 V2
Q Q
1 2
Input 1 Input 2

ÐVEE

Figure 4. Differential amplifier

(i) Explain its operation.

(ii) State the formula that can be used to determine its output voltage.
[5 marks]

(e) Identify TWO features of an ideal operational amplifier. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2012
- 7 -

6. Figure 5 shows a common emitter circuit.

+30 V
Ð10 V

R 10 kΩ
C
1.5 M Ω R
B

VBE = 0.7 V
Q β = 120
1

Figure 5. Common emitter circuit

(a) Calculate the d.c. voltage between the collector and the emitter if the transistor has a β
d.c. of 120. [8 marks]

(b) Explain EACH of the following terms as they relate to the characteristic curves of the
operation of a bipolar junction-transistor:

(i) Saturation

(ii) Active region [4 marks]

(c) A transistor, with an hie = 1 800 Ω and hfe = 75Ω, is connected in the common emitter
configuration as an amplifier, with a load resistance RL of 10 KΩ. Calculate the

(i) input impedance

(ii) current gain

(iii) voltage gain

(iv) power gain. [8 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2012
- 8 -

MODULE 3

INTRODUCTION TO POWER SYSTEMS

You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this Module.

7. (a) (i) Draw and label a set of diagrams to demonstrate the interaction of the armature
and field fluxes for a two-pole d.c. motor.

(ii) Indicate on the appropriate drawing the magnetic neutral plane of the dynamo
and draw the associated vector diagram. [10 marks]

(b) (i) Explain the term ‘armature reaction’.

(ii) With the aid of diagrams, describe THREE ways by which armature reaction
can be reduced or eliminated in a d.c. motor. [10 marks]

(c) Identify TWO functions of the commutator in a d.c. dynamo. [2 marks]

(d) A d.c. motor draws a current of 120 amperes when connected to a 480 V d.c.. source. The
specifications of the motor are as follows:

V d.c.. = 480
Ra = 0.2 Ω
No. of poles = 6
No. of conductors = 864
Flux per pole = 0.06 Wb
Armature connecton = Lap

Calculate the

(i) speed

(ii) gross torque developed by the armature. [8 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2012
- 9 -

8. (a) Copy the following table in your answer booklet and complete it to compare electric
with magnetic circuits by providing the missing items labelled 1 to 10.

ELECTRIC CIRCUITS MAGNETIC CIRCUITS

QUANTITY UNITS QUANTITY UNITS

EMF 1 MMF 2

Electric field strength 3 4 A/m

5 Ampere 6 7

Current density 8 Magnetic flux density 9

ℓ A/Wb
Resistance =ρ·— ohms 10
A

[10 marks]
2
(b) A mild steel ring has a cross-sectional area of 800 mm and a mean circumference
of 500 mm, with 300 turns of coil uniformly wound around it. The flux is 950 µWb.
Calculate the

(i) flux density in the ring

(ii) reluctance of the ring if the relative permeability is 800

(iii) magnetic field strength

(iv) current required to produce a flux of 950 µWb in the ring. [10 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2012
- 10 -

9. (a) Outline FOUR MAIN features of a ‘circuit breaker’. [4 marks]


(b) Identify FOUR of the numbered components of the circuit breaker shown in the
diagram in Figure 6. State the function of EACH component identified. [8 marks]

3
5

1
2

Figure 6. Circuit breaker

(c) Describe the common trip in circuit breakers. [3 marks]

(d) Identify FIVE types of circuit breakers. [5 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02117020/CAPE 2012
TEST CODE 02217010
FORM TP 2012174 MAY/JUNE 2012

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

UNIT 2 – Paper 01
1 hour 30 minutes

08 JUNE 2012 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions, FIVE from each Module.


Answer ALL questions.

2. In your answer booklet, start each module on a new sheet.

3. Each question is worth SIX marks.

4. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

5. A booklet with fomulae supplied may be used in the examination.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2011 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.
02217010/CAPE 2012
- 2 -

MODULE 1

AC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

1. (a) Define EACH of the following terms as they relate to power in a.c. circuits.

(i) Active power [2 marks]

(ii) Reactive power [2 marks]

(b) State the meaning of the term ‘instantaneous value’ as it relates to an a.c. waveform.
[2 marks]

Total 6 marks

2. Figure 1 shows a reactance circuit.

30 Ω

110 V
60 Hz

0.3 H

Figure 1. Reactance circuit

(a) Explain the term ‘reactance’. [2 marks]



(b) The equivalent circuit for a coil which has a resistance of 30 Ω and an inductance of 0.3 H
is shown in Figure 1.

Calculate the reactance and the impedance of the coil [4 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217010/CAPE 2012
- 3 -

3. (a) State what are ‘passive filters’ and list the components that they utilise. [2 marks]

(b) Explain the term ‘bandpass filtering’ and sketch its response curve for audio frequencies
from 50 to 15 000 Hz. [4 marks]

Total 6 marks

4. A coil which has a resistance of 15 Ω and inductance of 3.0 mH is connected in series with a
0.25 µF capacitor. The circuit is connected across a 10 V supply of variable frequency. Calculate
the

(a) resonant frequency [2 marks]

(b) voltage across the coil and the capacitor at resonance. [4 marks]

Total 6 marks

5. (a) Define the term ‘complex number’. [1 mark ]

(b) Add the following complex numbers:

(9 + j5) + (4 – j3) [2 marks]

(c) (i) What is meant by the Q-factor of an RLC resonant circuit? [2 marks]

(i) Write the formula that is used to calculate the Q-factor of an RLC resonant
circuit. [1 mark ]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217010/CAPE 2012
- 4 -

MODULE 2

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND DATA COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

6. (a) State the meaning of EACH of the following terms as they relate to logic gates:

(i) Fan-in

(ii) Fan-out [2 marks]

(b) Draw the circuit symbols for EACH of the following gates indicating their outputs.

(i) NAND

(ii) NOR
[4 marks]

Total 6 marks

7. (a) State the function of A/D conversion and state why it is needed. [2 marks]

(b) Define the term ‘resolution’ as applied to an A/D converter. [2 marks]

(c) Define EACH of the following terms as they relate to memory systems:

(i) Dynamic

(ii) Volatile [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217010/CAPE 2012
- 5 -

8. (a) State the essential difference of operation between an enhancement mode MOSFET and
a depletion mode MOSFET. [3 marks]

(b) Explain the operation of the d.c. to a.c. converter circuit shown in Figure 3.
[3 marks]

Q
1

V
_ CC
+
Output

Q
2

Figure 3. d.c. to a.c. converter circuit


Total 6 marks

9. (a) Distinguish between the terms ‘asynchronous’ and ‘synchronous’ as they relate to wave-
forms. [2 marks]

(b) The Shannon-Hartley law can be expressed as a formula. State the formula and identify
what EACH of its elements represents. [4 marks]

Total 6 marks

10. (a) Draw the logic symbol for a D flip flop and provide its truth table. [4 marks]

(b) Explain how a register is constructed and what it represents. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217010/CAPE 2012
- 6 -

MODULE 3

INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES

You are required to answer ALL questions in this Module.

11. (a) Draw and label a diagram to show the general layout of a transformer. [4 marks]

(b) State what constitutes the core loss of a transformer. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

12. (a) Name the TWO categories of synchronous motors. [2 marks]

(b) Explain where EACH category of synchronous machines is usually used.


[4 marks]

Total 6 marks

13. (a) Under what condition does an induction dynamo become an asynchronous induction
generator? [2 marks]

(b) An a.c. generator has eight poles and is driven by a prime mover at a speed of
1 200 r.p.m.

(i) Determine the frequency of the voltage generated. [2 marks]

(ii) If a frequency of 50 Hz is required, at what speed does the generator rotate?


[2 marks]

Total 6 marks

14. (a) Describe the construction of the rotor for a squirrel cage motor. [3 marks]

(b) List THREE uses of the induction motor. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

15. (a) What is the synchronous impedance of a generator or a motor? Give its formula.
[3 marks]

(b) Draw and label an impedance triangle as derived from a vector diagram for a synchronous
generator . [3 marks]

Total 6 marks
END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02217010/CAPE 2012
TEST CODE 02217020
FORM TP 2012175 MAY/JUNE 2012

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION


ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

UNIT 2 – Paper 02
2 hours 30 minutes

29 MAY 2012 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of NINE questions, THREE from each module.

2. Answer SIX questions as follows:

Question 1 and ONE other question from Module 1

Question 4 and ONE other question from Module 2

Question 7 and ONE other question from Module 3.

3. Each Module is worth 50 marks.

4. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

5. A booklet with formulae supplied may be used in the examination.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2011 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02217020/CAPE 2012
- 2 -

MODULE 1

AC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this Module.

1. (a) Explain what is a phasor. [2 marks]

(b) Draw phasor diagrams to represent an RLC circuit that is

(i) capacitive, below the resonant frequency FL

(ii) inductive, above the resonant frequency FL. [8 marks]

(c) Outline SIX features of a phasor that are represented on a phasor diagram.
[6 marks]

(d) A coil with a resistance of 15 Ω and an inductance of 0.05 H, is connected across a


25 V, 60 Hz supply. Calculate the

(i) current flowing in the circuit

(ii) phase angle between the current and the applied voltage. [8 marks]

(e) Define EACH of the following as they relate to a sinusoidal waveform:

(i) Peak value

(ii) Average value

(iii) Root-mean-square value [6 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2012
- 3 -

2. (a) Explain what is meant by the term ‘resonance’ as applied to an LC circuit. [5 marks]

(b) A series RLC circuit is resonant at 0.5 mHz and develops 150 mV across the
inductance, L, of 350 µH, with an input voltage of 3 mV. Calculate the

(i) magnification factor, Q, of the circuit

(ii) reactance, XL, of the inductance (coil)

(iii) resistance in series with XL. [8 marks]

(c) A 50 Ω resistor and an inductor having an XL of 25 Ω are connected in parallel, with


100 V applied across the circuit. Calculate the

(i) total line current, IT

(ii) impedance, ZT . [7 marks]

Total 20 marks

3. (a) State TWO functions of a band stop filter and explain how this filter is obtained.
[5 marks]

(b) With the aid of frequency response curves, explain the difference between a low pass filter
and a high pass filter. [8 marks]

(c) A LC circuit is resonant at 5 000 kHz and has a magnetification factor, Q, of 150.
Calculate the total bandwidth, ∆F, and the edge frequencies, F1 and F2. [6 marks]

(d) If the Q of the circuit in 3 (c) is made higher, state the resulting effect on the bandwidth.
[1 mark ]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2012
- 4 -

MODULE 2

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND DATA COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this Module.

4. (a) State the meaning of the acronym ‘UART’. [1 mark ]

(b) Describe the process of receiving and transmitting information using the UART.
[6 marks]

(c) With the aid of a block diagram, explain how the 4-wire, full-duplex mode, used in the
transmission of digital information, is achieved. [8 marks]

(d) Differentiate between ‘star topology’ and ‘ring topology’ computer networks and state
the MAIN advantage of star topology over ring topology. [8 marks]

(e) Explain what is meant by EACH of the following modulation techniques:

(i) Frequency shift keying

(ii) Differential phase-shift keying [7 marks]

Total 30 marks

5. (a) With the aid of a biased circuit diagram, explain the operation of an enhancement mode
MOSFET. [10 marks]

(b) What is the threshold voltage, VGS(Th), of a MOSFET? [1 mark ]

(c) With the aid of a block diagram explain the operation of a d.c. to a.c. converter.
[6 marks]

(d) State THREE ways by which the thyristor can be switched into forward conduction.
[3 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2012
- 5 -

6. Figure 1 shows a BCD encoder.

+V
(1)
K0

K1
A

K2

BCD
K3 B
encoder
K4

K5 C

K6

K7 D

K8
K9

Figure 1. BCD encoder

(a) Explain the operation of the BCD encoder shown in Figure 1. [7 marks]

(b) What is a ‘multiplexer’? [2 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2012
- 6 -

(c) Figure 2 shows an analogue to digital converter.

CK
Counter

B0
B1
Digital O/P
B2
B3

+ _
DAC

VA VD

Figure 2. Analogue to digital converter

Explain the operation of the analogue to digital converter shown in Figure 2.


[7 marks]

(d) Explain EACH of the following terms as they relate to memory systems:

(i) EPROM

(ii) RAM [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2012
- 7 -

MODULE 3

INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES

You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this Module.

7. (a) The primary winding of a transformer is connected to a sinusoidal voltage.


Sketch and label a typical waveform of flux variation in this transformer. [4 marks]

(b) Draw a waveform of magnetic flux versus time and use this waveform to derive the equation
for the e.m.f. [6 marks]

(c) Figure 3 shows an approximate equivalent circuit of a transformer.


1 2 5

3
VIN 4 Load

Ideal transformer

Figure 3. Approximate equivalent circuit of a transformer

(i)
State what EACH numbered item represents by writing the number in your answer
booklet and writing beside EACH number what the numbered item represents.
[5 marks]

(ii) State FIVE parameters associated with this circuit when it is connected to an a.c.
voltage and it supplies a load. [5 marks]

(d) A 800 kVA transformer has primary and secondary windings of 0.48 Ω and 0.004 Ω
respectively. The primary voltage is 24 kV while the secondary is 440 V. If the core loss
is 3 kW, and the power factor of the load is 0.8, calculate the efficiency on full load.
[10 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2012
- 8 -

8. (a) (i) Copy the axes in Figure 4 in your answer booklet and use them to sketch a
labelled torque vs slip curve for an induction motor. [2 marks]

(ii) Explain the behaviour of the curve for relatively low and high values of slip.
[2 marks]

0.6

0.5
2
R + (sXO )
sR

0.4
2
Torque =

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
per unit slip

Figure 4. Axes for torque vs slip curves

(iii) What can you deduce from the curves about the usefulness of the induction motor
for applications requiring frequent starting and stopping? [3 marks]

(b) What is the slip speed of a motor? How is this usually expressed? [4 marks]

(c) A 240 V, 50 Hz squirrel-cage motor is rated at 300 kVA. If the motor has four poles and
operates at 1 350 rpm at full load, calculate the

(i) full load current of the motor

(ii) synchronous speed of the motor

(iii) full load slip

(iv) speed regulation

(v) maximum loading speed that would yield a slip of 4%. [9 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2012
- 9 -

9. (a) Give FIVE reasons why synchronous machines are constructed with stationary
armature and rotating field poles. [5 marks]

(b) Speed control for split phase motors can be accomplished within limitations. Identify
the TWO techniques used and state THREE limitations associated with the techniques.
[5 marks]

(c) A 600 V a.c. single phase alternator is rated at 150 kVA. If the armature is short-circuited,
it delivers a current of 420A at a d.c. field excitation of 15A. When the short-circuit is
removed, the open circuit voltage is 450V. The resistance of the armature was determined
to be 0.12 Ω and the alternator has a ratio of 1.33 for effective to ohmic resistance.

Calculate the

(i) synchronous impedance and reactance

(ii) voltage regulation at 0.8 PF lagging. [10 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02217020/CAPE 2012
TEST CODE 02117010
FORM TP 2013172 MAY/JUNE 2013

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

UNIT 1 – Paper 01

1 hour 30 minutes

17 MAY 2013 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions, FIVE questions from each module.
Answer ALL questions.

2. In your answer booklet, start each module on a new sheet.

3. Each question is worth SIX marks.

4. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

5. A booklet with formulae supplied, may be used in the examination.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2012 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.
02117010/CAPE 2013
- 2 -

MODULE 1

DC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

1. Figure 1 shows a series-parallel resistor network.

R2
10 Ω

R1 20 Ω

15 V R3 10 Ω

R4 20 Ω

Figure 1. Series-parallel resistor network

Using the series-parallel resistor network in Figure 1, calculate

(a) current I [4 marks]

(b) total power dissipated. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

2. (a) (i) Define the term ‘permittivity of free space’. [1 mark ]

(ii) Write the symbol and unit for permittivity of free space. [2 marks]

(b)
Two capacitors having capacitances of 10 µF and 15 µF respectively are connected in
parallel to a 100 V d.c. supply. Calculate the total electrostatic energy stored.
[3 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/CAPE 2013
- 3 -

3. (a) State ONE advantage and ONE disadvantage of using an inductor with a ferromagnetic
core. [2 marks]

(b) (i) Explain the term ‘coupling coefficient’ denoted by K.


[2 marks]

(ii) Two coils, L1 = 350 mH and L2 = 150 mH, have a mutual inductance M = 68 mH.
Determine the coupling coefficient, K. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

4. (a) Calculate the resistance of an aluminium rod 10 m in length, radius 1 cm and


resistivity = 2.7 × 10‒8 Ωm. [3 marks]

(b)
A coil of copper wire has a resistance of 100 Ω at a temperature of 273 oK. Calculate its
coefficient of resistance given that the resistance of the copper wire is 121.4 Ω at 50 oC.
[3 marks]

Total 6 marks

5. Figure 2 shows a resistive circuit.

R1 R2

6Ω 6Ω
R3
6V Vout 12 V

Figure 2. Resistive circuit

Using the superposition theorem, calculate the voltage Vout across the 3 Ω resistor R3 in the resistive
circuit in Figure 2. [6 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/CAPE 2013
- 4 -

MODULE 2

ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

6. (a) State TWO factors on which the range of a ground wave depends. [2 marks]

(b) Define the term, ‘antenna’. [2 marks]

(c) State the frequency bands of each of the following:

(i) Low frequency (LF) carrier wave [1 mark ]

(ii) Very high frequency (VHF) carrier wave [1 mark ]

Total 6 marks

7. (a) State the meaning of the term, ‘semiconductor’, outlining its special feature. [2 marks]

(b) Figure 3 shows a clipper circuit.

RS

+
0 RL
_
D1

Figure 3. Clipper circuit

With reference to Figure 3:

(i) Identify the type of clipper shown and draw the output waveform. [2 marks]

(ii) Describe the operation of the clipper circuit. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/CAPE 2013
- 5 -

8. (a) What is an oscillator? [3 marks]

(b) Define the following terms as they relate to an op-amp:

(i) Power bandwidth [1 mark ]

(ii) Slew rate [1 mark ]

(iii) Unity gain frequency [1 mark ]

Total 6 marks

9. (a) Determine the local oscillator (LO) frequency of an AM superheterodyne receiver, if the
IF frequency is 455 kHz and the received signal is 760 kHz. [2 marks]

(b) State FOUR different sine waves that are produced whenever a modulating frequency (Fm)
amplitude modulates a carrier frequency (Fc ) . [4 marks]

Total 6 marks

10. (a) Draw the schematic diagrams of

(i) an NPN transistor [1 mark ]

(ii) a PNP transistor. [1 mark ]

(b) An NPN transistor is connected in the common emitter configuration, with a collector
current IC = 120 mA and a base current Ib = 800 µA.

Calculate, in mA, the emitter current IE. [2 marks]

(c) State the MAIN reason why the common emitter amplifier is most often used in electronic
circuits. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/CAPE 2013
- 6 -

MODULE 3

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

11. (a) Define the term, ‘magnetic flux density’ and include its symbol and unit. [3 marks]

(b) A conductor, of length 100 cm, carries a current of 100 mA at an angle of 60o to a magnetic
field of 0.5 T. Calculate the force on the conductor. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

12 (a) State:

(i) Faraday’s Law [2 marks]

(ii) Lenz’s Law [2 marks]

(b) Write the equation for

(i) Faraday’s Law [1 mark ]

(ii) Lenz’s Law. [1 mark ]

Total 6 marks

13. (a) State the role of the following d.c. machine components:

(i) Commutator [1 mark ]

(ii) Carbon brush [1 mark ]

(b) State TWO sources of losses in a d.c. machine. [2 marks]

(c) Draw the excitation circuit of a self-excited shunt generator. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

14. (a) What is the human machine interface (HMI) in a SCADA system? [2 marks]

(b) Identify ONE security concern for a SCADA system. [1 mark ]

(c) What is telemetering? [1 mark ]

(d) Give TWO examples where a SCADA system is employed. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks
GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
02117010/CAPE 2013
- 7 -

15. Explain the operation of a fuse under the following conditions:

(a) Continuous current [2 marks]

(b) Overload current [2 marks]

(c) Fault current [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02117010/CAPE 2013
TEST CODE 02117020
FORM TP 2013173 MAY/JUNE 2013

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

UNIT 1 – Paper 02

2 hours 30 minutes

09 MAY 2013 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of NINE questions, THREE from each module.

2. Answer SIX questions as follows:

Question 1 and ONE other question from Module 1

Question 4 and ONE other question from Module 2

Question 7 and ONE other question from Module 3.

3. Each module is worth 50 marks.

4. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

5. A booklet with formulae supplied, may be used in the examination.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2012 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.
02117020/CAPE 2013
- 2 -

MODULE 1

DC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this module.

1. (a) (i) Define the term ‘resistance’ and state its unit. [2 marks]

(ii) State Ohm’s Law and illustrate it on a graph. [3 marks]

(iii) State Kirchhoff’s Current Law and express it as an equation. [2 marks]

(iv) State Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law and express it as an equation. [2 marks]

(b) Figure 1 shows a resistor network.


R1 R2

4Ω 2Ω
I2
V1 R3 3Ω V2 = 10 V
I1 = 5 A

Figure 1. Resistive circuit

Using Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law, calculate V1 and I2 for the resistive circuit in Figure 1.
[10 marks]

(c) Figure 2 shows a series-parallel circuit.


6Ω 10 Ω
A

2A 10 Ω 16 Ω

Figure 2. Series-parallel network

(i) State Thevenin’s Theorem. [3 marks]

(ii) Determine the Thevenin’s equivalent for the network shown in Figure 2 as seen
from terminals A and B. [5 marks]

(d) State the Maximum Power Transfer Theorem. [3 marks]



Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2013
- 3 -

2. (a) (i) Define the term ‘capacitance’. [1 mark ]

(ii) Define the unit of capacitance. [1 mark ]

(iii) State what is the dielectric of a capacitor. [1 mark ]

(iv) Give TWO examples of materials commonly used as a dielectric. [2 marks]

(b) A 60 nF multi-plate capacitor must be fabricated using square metal plates of side
17.32 cm. Mica sheets of thickness 0.4 mm with a relative permittivity of 5 are used.
Calculate the number of plates required.

Note: Ɛ0 = 8.85 × 10‒12 F/m [4 marks]

(c) Figure 3 shows a capacitance network.

C1 C4
60 nF 60 nF

C2 C5
60 nF 60 nF

C3 C6
60 nF 60 nF

100 V

Figure 3. Capacitance network

For the capacitance network in Figure 3, calculate the



(i) potential difference across each capacitor [3 marks]

(ii) total stored charge [2 marks]

(iii) total stored energy. [2 marks]

(d) A charged 190 µF polyester capacitor is allowed to discharge through a 1 kΩ resistor


connected in parallel.

(i) Determine the time constant. [2 marks]

(ii) Draw a graph which shows the potential difference across the capacitor during
discharge. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2013
- 4 -

3. (a) (i) Define the term ‘inductance’. [1 mark ]

(ii) Define the unit of inductance. [1 mark ]

(iii) State TWO applications of an inductor. [2 marks]

(b) A 200 µH inductor must be fabricated using a non-magnetic ring of mean diameter 40 cm.
The ring has a cross-sectional radius of 80 mm.

Note: µ0 = 4π × 10‒7 H/m

(i) Determine the number of turns required to fabricate this inductor. [4 marks]

(ii) Assuming a current of 1.25 A flowing through the inductor, calculate

a) the flux [2 marks]

b) the energy stored. [2 marks]



(c) State THREE ways to increase inductance. [3 marks]

(d) The measured resistance of a 200 µH inductor is 0.2 Ω. The inductor is connected across
a 1.5 V d.c. battery.

(i) Comment on the origin of this resistance. [1 mark ]

(ii) Calculate the time constant. [1 mark ]

(iii) Calculate the final value of the current. [1 mark ]

(iv) Sketch and label the curve showing the growth of current for this circuit.
[2 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2013
- 5 -

MODULE 2

ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this module.

4. (a) Explain how the superhet works. [4 marks]

(b) Identify TWO electronic devices in which the superhet is used. [2 marks]

(c) (i) Explain what is meant by the term ‘selectivity’ as it relates to an AM receiver.
[2 marks]

(ii) State TWO characteristics which are necessary for a receiver to have a high
selectivity. [2 marks]

(d) Explain the major advantage of frequency modulation over amplitude modulation.
[4 marks]

(e) State FOUR advantages of single sideband (SSB) transmission over double sideband
(DSB) transmission used in AM receivers. [4 marks]

(f) Define the term ‘modulation index’, indicating how it is calculated. [2 marks]

(g) Calculate the modulation index of an FM signal which has a 15 kHz carrier swing when
the modulating signal is 10 kHz. [6 marks]

(h) A double sideband (DSB) signal contains 2.5 kW. Determine the amount of power contained
in EACH sideband and carrier frequency. [4 marks]

Total 30 marks

5. (a) With the aid of an illustration, show the effects of sky wave propagation, indicating its
true and virtual heights. [4 marks]

(b) State what is meant by ‘multiple hop transmission’ as it relates to sky wave propagation.
[2 marks]

(c) Identify the THREE natural ways a radio wave can travel after leaving an antenna.
[3 marks]

(d) State the wavebands for EACH ‘natural way’ identified in 5 (c) and give the method of
modulation used for EACH waveband. [6 marks]

(e) Define the term ‘ground wave’ and outline FOUR of its characteristics. [5 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2013
- 6 -

6. (a)
State ONE similarity and ONE difference between germanium and silicon semiconductors
and indicate which of the two is the most frequently used semiconductor material.
[3 marks]

(b) Explain the term ‘doping’ as it relates to crystals. [3 marks]

(c) Figure 4 shows a filtered full wave power supply.

D1
T1
R S = 2 kΩ
15 V
110 V D2 + + ZD
60 Hz C1 _ C2 _ R L = 2.2 kΩ
10 V

Figure 4. Full wave power supply

(i) State the functions of capacitors C1 and C2 and resistor RS in Figure 4.


[7 marks]

(ii) Calculate the

a) peak secondary voltage [2 marks]

b) d.c. voltage across C1 [1 mark ]

c) d.c. load current [2 marks]

d) current through RS. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2013
- 7 -

MODULE 3

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS

You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this module.

7. (a) Explain, with the use of a suitable diagram, the principle of mutual induction. [4 marks]

(b) Sketch and label a typical B-H curve for a ferromagnetic material. [3 marks]

(c) A current carrying coil of 1 780 turns yields a magnetic flux of 3.53 mWb. Given that the
direction of current flow is reversed within 100 ms, determine the average value of the
e.m.f. induced in the coil. [4 marks]

(d) Explain the following terms, and state their symbols and units:

(i) Relative permeability [3 marks]

(ii) Reluctance [3 marks]

(iii) Magnetomotive force [3 marks]

(e) A coil with 277 turns is wound uniformly over a wooden ring. The ring has a mean radius
of 15 cm and a cross-sectional circumference of 13.5 cm. The coil is energized by a cur-
rent of 3.8 A.

Note: u0 = 4π ×10‒7 H/m

For the region within the coil, calculate the

(i) magnetic field strength [3 marks]

(ii) magnetic flux density [2 marks]

(iii) total flux [3 marks]

(iv) reluctance. [2 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2013
- 8 -

8. (a) Distinguish between a relay and a circuit breaker. [4 marks]



(b) Explain the operation of the inverse minimum time over-current relay. Draw a sketch of
this relay characteristic and state its main purpose. [5 marks]

(c) (i)
State the MAIN purpose of using thermal overload relays with electric motors and
state THREE problems that thermal overload relays assist in preventing.
[5 marks]

(ii) Identify FOUR features of thermal overload relays. [4 marks]

(d) Explain the operation of a voltage surge protector. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks

9. (a) (i) Explain the SCADA system. [3 marks]

(ii) Identify the main components of a SCADA system. [3 marks]

(b) Describe how SCADA system data is transmitted. [5 marks]

(c) State TWO advantages and TWO disadvantages of digital communications. [4 marks]

(d) (i) Explain the term ‘duplex data communication’. [3 marks]

(ii) Give TWO suitable examples of duplex data communication. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02117020/CAPE 2013
TEST CODE 02217010
FORM TP 2013174 MAY/JUNE 2013

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

UNIT 2 – Paper 01

1 hour 30 minutes

29 MAY 2013 (a.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions, FIVE questions from each module.
Answer ALL questions.

2. In your answer booklet, start each module on a new sheet.

3. Each question is worth SIX marks.

4. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

5. A booklet with formulae supplied, may be used in the examination.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2012 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.
02217010/CAPE 2013
- 2 -

MODULE 1

AC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

1. (a) Define the following terms as they relate to a sine wave:

(i) Frequency [1 mark ]

(ii) RMS value [1 mark ]

(iii) Average value [1 mark ]

(b) Express in the form V = V0 sin ωt, a 400 Hz sinusoidal waveform of rms = 15 V.
[3 marks]

Total 6 marks

2. (a) An electric soldering iron consumes 0.75 A from a 120 V, 60 Hz supply.

(i) Determine the resistance of the electric soldering iron. [2 marks]

(ii) Calculate the power consumed. [2 marks]

(iii) Sketch the phasor diagram. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

3. (a) Define the following terms:

(i) Reactance [1 mark ]

(ii) Impedance [1 mark ]

(b) A coil with an inductance of 300 mH and resistance of 15 Ω is connected in series to a


200 µF capacitor. For a frequency of 50 Hz, calculate the

(i) inductive reactance [2 marks]

(ii) capacitive reactance. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217010/CAPE 2013
- 3 -

4. (a) A series resonant circuit consists of an inductor of 8 mH, a capacitor, C, and a 10 Ω resistor.

(i) Draw and label the circuit. [2 marks]

(ii) Calculate the value of capacitor C for a resonant frequency of 1 kHz. [2 marks]

(iii) Determine the Q factor. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

5. (a) Define the term ‘cut-off frequency’. [2 marks]

(b) Explain the operation of a high-pass filter. [2 marks]

(c) Give TWO examples of the application of a high-pass filter. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

MODULE 2

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND DATA COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

6. (a) With the aid of a block diagram, explain the operation of a DC to DC convertor.
[6 marks]

Total 6 marks

7. (a) Define the terms ‘minterm’ and ‘maxterm’ as they relate to combinational logic circuits.
[4 marks]

(b) Draw the symbol for the EX-OR logic gate and write the Boolean expression.
[2 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217010/CAPE 2013
- 4 -

8. (a) Define the following terms as they relate to memory systems:

(i) Dynamic [1 mark ]

(ii) Destructive [1 mark ]

(iii) Volatile [1 mark ]

(b) Calculate the reference voltage needed for a seven bit D/A convertor to generate a maximum
output of 12 volts. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

9. (a) Identify FOUR major components of an universal asynchronous receiver transmitter


(UART). [4 marks]

(b) Explain pulse code modulation (PCM). [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

10. (a) What is an SR flip flop? [2 marks]

(b) Explain the operation of a 555 timer when used in the monostable mode. [3 marks]

(c) What is a shift register? [1 mark ]

Total 6 marks

MODULE 3

INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES

You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

11. With the aid of a diagram, describe the operating principles of a transformer. Show its general
arrangement. [6 marks]

Total 6 marks

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02217010/CAPE 2013
- 5 -

12. (a) With reference to a synchronous generator, explain the purpose of the

(i) field winding [1 mark ]

(ii) armature winding. [1 mark ]

(b) Sketch and label a graph to show the percentage voltage regulation of a synchronous
generator. [4 marks]

Total 6 marks

13. (a) With the aid of a diagram, explain the term ‘slip’ as it relates to an induction motor.
[4 marks]

(b) Give TWO reasons why induction motors are now the preferred choice for industrial
use. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

14. (a) Calculate the percentage efficiency of a transformer with a primary current I1 of 22 amperes
at a voltage of 220 V and the secondary current I2 being 80 amperes at 45 V. [4 marks]

(b) State TWO losses which occur when a transformer is on no load. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

15. (a) Explain the operation of an induction motor. [3 marks]

(b) State THREE machines or appliances in which the single phase induction motor is used.
[3 marks]

Total 6 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02217010/CAPE 2013
TEST CODE 02217020
FORM TP 2013175 MAY/JUNE 2013

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

UNIT 2 – Paper 02

2 hours 30 minutes

31 MAY 2013 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of NINE questions, THREE from each module.

2. Answer SIX questions as follows:

Question 1 and ONE other question from Module 1

Question 4 and ONE other question from Module 2

Question 7 and ONE other question from Module 3.

3. Each module is worth 50 marks.

4. Silent, non-programmable calculators may be used for this examination.

5. A booklet with formulae supplied, may be used in the examination.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2012 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.
02217020/CAPE 2013
- 2 -

MODULE 1

AC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this module.

1. (a) Define each of the following terms and provide their symbols and units:

(i) Real power [3 marks]

(ii) Reactive power [3 marks]

(iii) Apparent power [3 marks]

(b) Explain the relationship between voltage and current and identify the load types in circuits
having each of the following characteristics:

(i) Lagging power factor [2 marks]

(ii) Leading power factor [2 marks]

(iii) Unity power factor [2 marks]

(c) A load consumes 8.4 kW at a lagging power factor of 0.8 supplied by a 220 V, 60 Hz power
line. Determine the

(i) apparent and reactive powers [5 marks]

(ii) capacitance of a capacitor required to connect across the load terminals to correct
the power factor to unity. [5 marks]

(d) State THREE properties of phasors. [3 marks]

(e) Draw and label a sinusoidal wave for two cycles. [2 marks]
Total 30 marks

2. (a) Briefly describe the term ‘resonant frequency’. [2 marks]

(b) For a series RLC circuit at resonance,

(i) briefly, describe the oscillation of energy [2 marks]

(ii) define the term ‘Q factor’ [2 marks]

(iii) state two characteristics of the potential difference across circuit components when
Q >1. [2 marks]

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02217020/CAPE 2013
- 3 -

(c) Figure 1 shows a parallel RLC network.

f = 10 kHz V = 100 V

IT

IR R = 1.6 kΩ

IC C = 0.8 μF

IL L = 0.8 mH

Figure 1. Parallel RLC Network

Calculate the

(i) capacitive and inductive reactances [4 marks]

(ii) currents IR, IC, IL and IT [6 marks]

(iii) circuit impedance. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks

3. (a) What is a filter? [2 marks]

(b) Sketch and label the frequency response for each of the following filters. In each case
show the cut-off frequency.

(i) Low-pass [2 marks]

(ii) Band-pass [2 marks]

(iii) Notch [2 marks]

(c) (i) Draw the symbols for a low-pass and a high-pass filter. [2 marks]

(ii) Explain the function of a high-pass filter with a cut-off frequency fo. [2 marks]

(iii) Draw the circuit diagram of a T-section high-pass filter. [2 marks]

(d) (i) Calculate the required components, Ro , for a π section low-pass filter with a
characteristic impedance of 470 Ω and a cut-off frequency of 2 kHz. [4 marks]

(ii) Draw the circuit which will satisfy the specifications outlined in (d) (i) above.
[2 marks]
Total 20 marks

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02217020/CAPE 2013
- 4 -

MODULE 2

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND DATA COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this module.

4. (a) In relation to sequential logic, describe the characteristics of

(i) a synchronous system [3 marks]

(ii) an asynchronous system. [3 marks]

(b) State what is a flip flop. [1 mark ]

(c) Draw the equivalent logic circuit of a ‘D’ flip flop and develop a table to show its operation.
[5 marks]

(d) Identify THREE useful applications of flip flops. [3 marks]

(e) In relation to time, state the main characteristic of a 555 timer when used in the monostable
mode. [2 marks]

(f) Figure 2 shows a monostable timer circuit.

+V = 15 V
CC

VCC = 15 volts
PIN 4 PIN 3
R R = 47 KΩ
PIN 3 VOUT
PIN 7 C = 220 µF
555
PIN 6 TIMER C1 = 0.22 µF

PIN 2
TRIGGER C1

Figure 2. Monostable timer circuit

(i) State which components determine the output pulse width. [2 marks]

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02217020/CAPE 2013
- 5 -

(ii) Calculate:

a) The minimum trigger voltage that can be used to produce an output pulse
[2 marks]

b) The width of the output pulse [5 marks]

(g) Explain the operation of a counter. [4 marks]

Total 30 marks

5. (a) Explain the basic difference between the simplex, half duplex and full duplex modes of
operation as they relate to the transmission of digital information. [6 marks]

(b) Explain the purpose of a universal asynchronous receiver transmitter (UART).


[4 marks]

(c) State TWO main advantages and TWO disadvantages of star topology. [4 marks]

(d) A receiver has an input signal of 85 µV with internal noise at the input being 8 µV. The
signal at the output after amplification is 5 volts and the noise at the output is 0.6 volt.
Calculate the noise factor (NF). [3 marks]

(e) Explain the differential phase shift keying (DPSK) modulation technique and state its
advantage over phase modulation. [3 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02217020/CAPE 2013
- 6 -

6. (a) Figure 3 shows a D/A converter.

MSB R1 RF
E1 120 K 60 K

20V R2
REF E2 240 K

+ EO
Op-amp Analogue
R3 Output
E3 240 K

R4
E4 420 K

LSB

Figure 3. D/A Converter

The input code applied to the D/A converter in Figure 3 is 111. Calculate the output
voltage. [8 marks]

(b) Explain the meaning of the term ‘monotonicity’ as it relates to D/A converters.
[2 marks]

(c) Figure 4 shows a closed-loop sample and hold circuit.

_ _
VO
VIN + +
OP1 C OP2

MODE CONTROL
Figure 4. Closed-loop sample and hold circuit

(i) Explain the operation of the circuit shown in Figure 4. [6 marks]

(ii) State a major application where the circuit shown in Figure 4 is used. [2 marks]

(d) What is a demultiplexer? [2 marks]


Total 20 marks

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02217020/CAPE 2013
- 7 -

MODULE 3

INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES

You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this module.

7. (a) Describe the principle of operation of a synchronous generator. [4 marks]

(b) State TWO modes in which a synchronous generator can operate. [2 marks]

(c) Briefly explain what is meant by the term ‘armature reaction’ as it relates to a synchronous
generator. [2 marks]

(d) Draw the equivalent circuit of a synchronous generator, state what the elements represent
and write the formula which can be used to derive the synchronous impedance. [6marks]

(e) The data obtained from a synchronous alternator under test are:

• DC voltage across winding 5 volts


• Current through the coil 12 amps
• AC voltage across windings 450 volts
• AC current through the coil 90 amps

Calculate the

(i) resistance of the winding [2 marks]

(ii) impedance of the winding [2 marks]

(iii) reactance of the winding. [3 marks]

(f) Sketch the impedance triangle related to the data in (e) above. [3 marks]

(g) What is meant by the term ‘synchronous’ as it relates to a synchronous machine?


[2 marks]

(h) Explain the term ‘impedance voltage drop’ as it relates to a synchronous motor. Support
your answer with a vector (phasor) diagram. [4 marks]

Total 30 marks

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02217020/CAPE 2013
- 8 -

8. (a) What is an induction motor? [2 marks]

(b) State THREE advantages of EACH of the following types of induction motors:

(i) Squirrel cage

(ii) Wound rotor [6 marks]

(c) An induction motor which is wound on 8 poles is supplied from a 60 Hz system. Calculate
the

(i) synchronous speed [3 marks]

(ii) rotor speed when the slip is 6 per cent [5 marks]

(iii) rotor frequency when the speed of the rotor is 650 rev/mim. [2 marks]

(d) State the meaning of the term ‘plugging’ as it relates to an induction motor. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks

9. (a) The actual flux in a transformer can be regarded as being due to two components. Identify
the TWO components and state ONE characteristic of EACH. [4 marks]

(b) State what is meant by the term ‘voltage regulation of a transformer’ and provide the
formula for calculating voltage regulation. [4 marks]

(c) A 450 KVA, 15 000 V/550 V, 60 Hz single-phase transformer has 1 800 turns on its primary
winding. Calculate the

(i) primary current [2 marks]

(ii) secondary current [2 marks]

(iii) number of secondary turns [3 marks]

(iv) maximum value of flux. [3 marks]

(d) State TWO methods of reducing leakage flux in a transformer. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02217020/CAPE 2013
TEST CODE 02117010
FORM TP 2014173 MAY/JUNE 2014

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

UNIT 1 – Paper 01

1 hour 30 minutes

16 MAY 2014 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions, FIVE questions from each module.
Answer ALL questions.

2. In your answer booklet, start each module on a new sheet.

3. Each question is worth SIX marks.

4. You may use a silent, non-programmable calculator to answer questions.

5. A data booklet is provided.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2013 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.
02117010/CAPE 2014
- 2 -

MODULE 1

DC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

1. (a) State Ohm’s Law. [2 marks]

(b) A metal oxide resistor has a marking of R58. State its resistance. [1 mark]

(c) A conductor of 0.8 mm diameter wire has a resistance of 400 Ω. Find the resistance of
the same length, if its diameter is reduced by 20%. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

2. (a) State the meaning of the term ‘relative permittivity’. [2 marks]

(b) A capacitor having a capacitance of 0.001 µF consists of two square metal plates of side
500 mm separated 5 mm by a dielectric ε0 = 8.85 × 10−12 F/m.

(i) Calculate the relative permittivity of the dielectric. [3 marks]

(ii) Suggest ONE suitable material for the dielectric. [1 mark]

Total 6 marks

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02117010/CAPE 2014
- 3 -

3. (a) Define EACH of the following terms as it relates to a capacitor:

(i) Dielectric strength [1 mark]

(ii) Electric flux density [1 mark]

(b) Figure 1 shows a series-parallel capacitive circuit.

Figure 1. Series-parallel capacitive circuit

For the circuit in Figure 1, calculate the

(i) total capacitance [2 marks]

(ii) total energy stored when all capacitors are fully charged. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

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02117010/CAPE 2014
- 4 -

4. (a) State what happens when the insulation of an inductor fails. [2 marks]

(b) State the meaning of ‘cumulative coupling’ as it relates to two coils connected in series.
[2 marks]

(c) Calculate the electromotive force (emf) in a 25 mH solenoid when the current decreases
by 0.2 A in 4 ms. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

5. Figure 2 shows a series-parallel resistive circuit.

Figure 2. Series-parallel resistive circuit

Determine the Norton equivalent circuit for Figure 2 between terminals x and y. [6 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/CAPE 2014
- 5 -

MODULE 2

ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

6. Figure 3 shows the schematic of an electronic circuit.

Figure 3. Schematic of an electronic circuit

(a) State the name of the circuit. [1 mark]

(b) Sketch the output waveform. [1 mark]

(c) Explain the operation of the circuit. [4 marks]

Total 6 marks

7. (a) Define the term ‘ground wave’. [2 marks]

(b) Name the MOST effective conductor which enables a ground wave to travel very far
distances. [1 mark]

(c) Explain what is meant by the term ‘antenna polarization’. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

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02117010/CAPE 2014
- 6 -

8. (a) Define the following terms:

(i) Frequency modulation [1 mark]

(ii) Frequency deviation [1 mark]

(b) A 105 MHz Frequency Modulated carrier is modulated by an audio signal which creates
a frequency deviation of 25 kHz. Calculate the

(i) carrier swing of the signal [2 marks]

(ii) highest frequency attained by the signal. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

9. Figure 4 shows an oscillator circuit.

Figure 4. Oscillator circuit

(a) State the name of the oscillator shown. [1 mark]

(b) State the formula used to calculate EACH of the following:

(i) Resonant frequency [1 mark]

(ii) Feedback fraction [1 mark]

(c) Identify THREE general features of an ideal operational amplifier (OP Amp).
[3 marks]

Total 6 marks

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02117010/CAPE 2014
- 7 -

10. Figure 5 shows a common emitter amplifier.

Figure 5. Common emitter amplifier

Calculate the

(a) voltage VR [2 marks]


1

(b) current flowing through resistor R1 [2 marks]

(c) collector current IC. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

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02117010/CAPE 2014
- 8 -

MODULE 3

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

11. (a) Draw the magnetic flux lines for the configuration of magnets in Figure 6.

Figure 6. Magnets
[3 marks]

(b) Define the term ‘magnetic flux density’ and give its symbol and unit. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

12 (a) List THREE differences between a bimetallic relay and a solid state relay. [3 marks]

(b) Sketch and label the cross section of a cylindrical fuse. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

13. (a) A six-pole DC motor takes an armature current of 100 A at 400 V. The resistance of the
armature circuit is 0.256 Ω. The armature is lap wounded with 936 conductors. The flux
per pole is 0.04 Wb.

Calculate the speed of the motor. [5 marks]

(b) State why shunt-wound, series-wound and compound-wound machines are referred to as
self-excited machines. [1 mark]

Total 6 marks

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02117010/CAPE 2014
- 9 -

14. (a) State the meaning of EACH of the following terms as it relates to DC machines:

(i) Armature reaction [2 marks]

(ii) Commutation [2 marks]

(b) Using a suitable diagram, describe the compound-wound DC machine winding


connection. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

15. (a) (i) Define the term ‘power line carrier ’ as applied to power system
communications. [1 mark]

(ii) State TWO advantages of power line carriers. [2 marks]

(b) (i) Define the term ‘leased lines’ as applied to power system communications.
[1 mark]

(ii) State TWO disadvantages of leased lines. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02117010/CAPE 2014
TEST CODE 02117020
FORM TP 2014174 MAY/JUNE 2014

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

UNIT 1 – Paper 02

2 hours 30 minutes

08 MAY 2014 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of NINE questions, THREE from each module.

2. Answer SIX questions as follows:

Question 1 and ONE other question from Module 1

Question 4 and ONE other question from Module 2

Question 7 and ONE other question from Module 3.

3. Each module is worth 50 marks.

4. You may use a silent, non-programmable calculator to answer questions.

5. A data booklet is provided.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2013 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.
02117020/CAPE 2014
- 2 -

MODULE 1

DC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this module.

1. (a) Figure 1 shows a DC network with two voltage sources.

Figure 1. DC network with two voltage sources

(i) State the superposition theorem. [2 marks]

(ii) Use the superposition theorem to determine the current I in the circuit in
Figure 1. [7 marks]

(iii) Calculate the power dissipated in R1. [2 marks]

(iv) If R3 is made of copper, calcualte its resistance when its temperature reaches
80 °C.
(Note: Temperature coefficient of copper α20 = 0.00392/°C) [3 marks]

(b) (i) State Kirchhoff’s first and second laws. [4 marks]

(ii) Figure 2 shows a mesh network with two voltage sources. The current in loop 2
is 3.5 A.

Figure 2. Mesh network with two voltage sources

Use a mesh equation to find the current I1 flowing in loop 1.



[3 marks]
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02117020/CAPE 2014
- 3 -

(c) (i) Explain Thevenin’s theorem. [4 marks]

(ii) Figure 3 shows a resistive DC network with terminals ab open.

Figure 3. Resistive DC network with terminals ab open


Calculate the equivalent internal resistance of this network as seen from terminals
ab. [3 marks]

(iii) Explain the term ‘resistance matching’. [2 marks]

Total 30 marks

2. (a) (i) Define the term ‘capacitance’. [2 marks]

(ii) State and define the ‘unit of capacitance’. [2 marks]

(iii) State why variable capacitors require two sets of rigid plates. [1 mark]

(iv) Name ONE application of a variable capacitor. [1 mark]

(b) A 10 µF capacitor in series with a 200 kΩ resistor is connected across a 200 V DC supply.

(i) Draw a labelled circuit diagram to show the given details. [2 marks]

(ii) Calculate the circuit time constant. [2 marks]

(iii) Calculate the initial charging current. [2 marks]

(iv) Sketch waveforms for BOTH the pd across the capacitor and the charging current.
[2 marks]

(c) Outline THREE properties of the lines of force in an electric field. [6 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2014
- 4 -

3. (a) (i) Define the ‘unit of inductance’. [2 marks]

(ii) Consider a coil uniformly wound on a core of uniform cross section. List THREE
ways to increase the inductance of the coil. [3 marks]

(iii) A 0.32 H inductor consists of an iron ring of 5 cm mean diameter and 1 cm2
cross-sectional area. If the permeability of the iron is 400 times that of free space,
calculate the number of turns of wire for this inductor.
µ0 = 1.26 × 10−6 H/m. [4 marks]

(b) Explain the term ‘coupling coefficient’ as it relates to inductors that are

(i) tightly coupled [2 marks]

(ii) loosely coupled. [2 marks]

(c) Three 0.5 H inductors are connected in series and the combination placed across a 3 V
battery whose internal resistance is 1.5 Ω.

(i) Using the information given, draw a labelled circuit diagram. [2 marks]

(ii) Calculate the circuit time constant. [2 marks]

(iii) Calculate the final current in the circuit. [2 marks]

(d) State where the energy is stored in an inductor. [1 mark]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2014
- 5 -

MODULE 2

ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this module.

4. (a) State what is meant by the term‘depletion layer’ when a PN junction is formed.
[2 marks]

(b) State what is meant by the term ‘barrier potential’ of a semiconductor diode and give its
value at room temperature for a silicon diode. [2 marks]

(c) With the aid of a block diagram, explain current flow in a PN junction diode. [8 marks]

(d) Figure 4 shows a full wave bridge rectifier.

Figure 4. Full wave bridge rectifier

(i) Explain how the circuit operates in the rectifier. [5 marks]

(ii) Draw the circuit diagram of a typical resistive filter that can be used with the
rectifier. [3 marks]

(iii) Calculate the

a) mean load current [5 marks]

b) r.m.s. current. [3 marks]

(e) State the function of a zener diode when used in a power supply and indicate how it is
placed in the circuit. [2 marks]

Total 30 marks

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02117020/CAPE 2014
- 6 -

5. (a) State the formula used to calculate the modulation factor of an amplitude modulated
waveform and indicate what EACH of its symbols represents. [4 marks]

(b) Figure 5 shows a block diagram of an AM superheterodyne receiver.

Figure 5. Block diagram of an AM superheterodyne receiver

(i) Calculate the frequency of the local oscillator if the IF amplifier is tuned to
450 kHz and the radio signal is 760 kHz. [2 marks]

(ii) State the function of the

a) detector [2 marks]

b) automatic gain control [2 marks]

(c) State the function of the following stages of an FM receiver:

(i) Limiter

(ii) IF amplifier

(iii) DC emphasis network [6 marks]

(d) Noise causes changes in the amplitude of both AM and FM waveforms. State the effects
of both AM and FM changes in amplitude at the receiver. [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02117020/CAPE 2014
- 7 -

6. (a) Explain how a transistor must be biased for normal operation. [2 marks]

(b) State the formula used to calculate the DC current gain of a transistor in the common
emitter configuration. [2 marks]

(c) Figure 6 shows a common emitter transistor circuit.

Figure 6. Common emitter transistor circuit

Calculate the

(i) DC base voltage [3 marks]

(ii) emitter and collector currents [4 marks]

(iii) collector to emitter voltage. [3 marks]

(d) Explain what is meant by the term ‘thermal runaway’ as applied to a transistor conected
in the common emitter configuration. [6 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/CAPE 2014
- 8 -

MODULE 3

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS

You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this module.

7. (a) (i) Describe the armature as it relates to a DC machine. [3 marks]

(ii) Sketch and identify the two winding configurations used in the armature construction
of a DC machine. [4 marks]

(b) A four-pole DC armature is wound with 240 conductors. Each conductor is capable of
carrying 150 A full load. The magnetic flux and speed yield an average emf of 1.5 V in
each conductor. The armature has two parallel paths. Rotational losses are 1.8 kW.

Calculate the

(i) terminal voltage at no load [3 marks]

(ii) total power generated on full load [4 marks]

(iii) efficiency of the machine. [3 marks]

(c) (i) Identify an alternative armature winding construction for the DC machine and
state its number of parallel paths. [2 marks]

(ii) State the impact of the alternative armature winding identified in (c) (i) above on
the

a) terminal voltage [1 mark]

b) total power generated on full load. [1 mark]


(d) (i) On one graph, sketch and label speed-current plots for shunt, series and compound
motors. [3 marks]

(ii) Explain TWO methods employed to achieve speed control of a DC motor.


[4 marks]

(iii) Name TWO applications of a DC motor. [2 marks]

Total 30 marks

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02117020/CAPE 2014
- 9 -

8. (a) (i) Outline the operation of a frequency relay. [2 marks]

(ii) List FOUR reasons why generators in power systems are equipped with frequency
relays. [4 marks]

(iii) List FOUR conditions which can activate frequency relays. [4 marks]

(b) Distinguish between a fuse and a circuit breaker. Provide ONE example, other than the
electric kettle, of the use of EACH in a typical household. [6 marks]

(c) (i) The fuse of a new household electric kettle was blown upon first time use. Suggest
TWO possible causes for the blown fuse. [2 marks]

(ii) Sketch a graph to show the inverse characteristic of a fuse. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02117020/CAPE 2014
- 10 -
9. (a) State Lenz’s Law. [2 marks]

(b) State Faraday’s Law. [2 marks]

(c) Define EACH of the following terms and provide symbols and units for each:

(i) Relative permeability [3 marks]

(ii) Reluctance [3 marks]

(d) A mild steel ring has a circular cross section 7.2 cm in diameter and an inner circumference
of 100 cm. The ring is uniformly wound with a coil of 800 turns.

Note: µ0 = 4π × 10‒7 H/m

(i) Using the information in Figure 7, calculate the current in the coil required to
produce a flux density of 1.1 T. [7 marks]

Figure 7. Magnetization characteristic of soft magnetic materials

(ii) A 2 mm air gap is now created in the ring. Calculate the reluctance of the air
gap. [3 marks]

Total 20 marks
END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02117020/CAPE 2014
TEST CODE 02217010
FORM TP 2014175 MAY/JUNE 2014

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

UNIT 2 – Paper 01

1 hour 30 minutes

28 MAY 2014 (a.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions, FIVE questions from each module.
Answer ALL questions.

2. In your answer booklet, start each module on a new sheet.

3. Each question is worth SIX marks.

4. You may use a silent, non-programmable calculator to answer questions.

5. A data booklet is provided.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2013 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.
02217010/CAPE 2014
- 2 -

MODULE 1

AC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

1. (a) A resistor of 470 Ω is connected in series with a pure inductor of 560 mH. The circuit is
supplied with a 110 V, 60 Hz sinusoidal supply. Calculate the

(i) circuit current magnitude [3 marks]

(ii) phase angle between circuit current and applied voltage. [2 marks]

(b) Sketch a phasor diagram for the circuit current with reference to the applied voltage.
[1 mark]

Total 6 marks

2. (a) Define the following terms in relation to an AC sinusoidal wave:

(i) Period [1 mark]

(ii) Average value [1 mark]

(b) An alternating voltage has the equation, V = 141.4 sin 377t.

Calculate the

(i) frequency [2 marks]

(ii) r.m.s. voltage. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

3. (a) Two circuit measurements are given by the following:

V = 2 + j4 volts

I = 0.51 11.3° amperes

Using complex arithmetric, calculate the circuit impedance Z and express in rectangular
notation. [3 marks]

(b) Define the term ‘Q factor’ and state its formula. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

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02217010/CAPE 2014
- 3 -

4. (a) Define EACH of the following terms:

(i) Filter [2 marks]

(ii) Noise [2 marks]

(b) Explain what is meant by the ‘cut-off frequency’ of a filter. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

5. (a) Figure 1 represents a filter frequency response graph.

Figure 1. Filter response graph

(i) Identify the type of filter. [1 mark]

(ii) Name the area represented as X. [1 mark]

(b) Draw the symbols for a low pass filter and a high pass filter. [2 marks]

(c) Figure 2 represents a typical RC filter.

Figure 2. A typical RC filter

Calculate the cut-off frequency. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

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02217010/CAPE 2014
- 4 -
MODULE 2
DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND DATA COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

6. (a) Draw the symbol for a thyristor. [1 mark]

(b) Describe a thyristor. [2 marks]

(c) Draw and label a diagram to show the static characteristics of a thyristor. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

7. (a) State TWO applications of the ‘D’ type flip flop. [2 marks]

(b) Describe the function of a ‘counter’ in logic circuits. [4 marks]

Total 6 marks

8. (a) Draw the symbols and state the Boolean expressions for a
(i) three input AND gate [2 marks]

(ii) three input OR gate. [2 marks]

(b) State the difference between ‘FAN-IN’ and ‘FAN-OUT’ as related to logic circuits.
[2 marks]

Total 6 marks

9. (a) With reference to D/A converters, explain what is meant by EACH of the following terms:

(i) Resolution [2 marks]

(ii) Accuracy [2 marks]

(b) An 8-bit D/A converter has a step size of 10 mV. Calculate its maximum output
voltage. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

10. (a) State the formula used to calculate noise factor as it relates to communication systems.
[1 mark]

(b) Identify where in a computer network, a network interface card is used and state TWO
factors that must be considered when choosing the card. [3 marks]

(c) Explain the term ‘frequency shift keying’ (FSK) used in digital modulation techniques.
[2 marks]

Total 6 marks
GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE
02217010/CAPE 2014
- 5 -

MODULE 3
INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES

You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

11. (a) State what must be done to make a synchronous machine function as either a motor or a
generator. [1 mark]
(b) Explain EACH of the following terms as they relate to a synchronous generator:

(i) Armature reaction [2 marks]


(ii) Synchronous speed [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

12. (a) Give ONE reason why the equivalent circuit of a transformer is useful. [1 mark]
(b) With the aid of a diagram, explain how an air core transformer is constructed, and indicate
ONE advantage and ONE disadvantage of using it. [5 marks]

Total 6 marks

13. State THREE advantages and THREE disadvantages of a synchronous motor. [6 marks]

Total 6 marks

14. (a) Define EACH of the following terms as it relates to an induction motor:

(i) Slip [1 mark]


(ii) Plugging [1 mark]

(b) List FOUR machines or tools in which single phase induction motors are used.
[4 marks]

Total 6 marks

15. A 220 kVA, 13,000 V/440 V, 60 Hz single phase transformer has 65 turns on its secondary winding.
Calculate the

(a) number of turns on the primary winding [2 marks]

(b) full load primary and secondary currents. [4 marks]

Total 6 marks
END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02217010/CAPE 2014
TEST CODE 02217020
FORM TP 2014176 MAY/JUNE 2014

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

UNIT 2 – Paper 02

2 hours 30 minutes

30 MAY 2014 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of NINE questions, THREE from each module.

2. Answer SIX questions as follows:

Question 1 and ONE other question from Module 1

Question 4 and ONE other question from Module 2

Question 7 and ONE other question from Module 3.

3. Each module is worth 50 marks.

4. You may use a silent, non-programmable calculator to answer questions.

5. A data booklet is provided.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2013 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.
02217020/CAPE 2014
- 2 -

MODULE 1

AC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this module.

1. (a) Define EACH of the following terms, giving the formula for calculating EACH and the
units for EACH term:

(i) Active power [3 marks]

(ii) Apparent power [3 marks]

(b) Give TWO reasons why reactive power is sometimes referred to as imaginary power.
[2 marks]

(c) A 60 Hz operated load of 400 kW with a power factor of 0.80 lagging has its power factor
improved to 0.95 lagging by the addition of parallel capacitors.

(i) Identify the reactive load type. [1 mark]

(ii) Calculate the reactive power supplied by the addition of parallel capacitors.
[6 marks]

(iii) Calculate the percentage reduction in apparent power. [5 marks]

(d) Figure 1 shows a series RLC circuit.

Figure 1. Series RLC circuit

Draw a labelled phasor diagram to illustrate phasor determination of the total circuit
impedance at frequency f, such that the capacitive reactance exceeds the inductive reactance.
[3 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2014
- 3 -

(e) Draw two cycles of a 1 kHz 4 V peak to peak sinusoidal waveform. Calculate and label
the

(i) amplitude

(ii) period

(iii) rms value. [7 marks]

Total 30 marks

2. (a) Explain the operation of EACH of the following filters, and sketch and label the frequency
response of EACH:

(i) Notch [3 marks]

(ii) High pass [3 marks]

(b) (i) State the relationship between the ‘Q’ factor and the bandwidth of a filter.
[1 mark]

(ii) An LC circuit is resonant at 8 MHz and has a ‘Q’ factor of 100. Determine the
edge frequencies, F1 and F2. [5 marks]

(c) Draw labelled diagrams for a π section low pass filter and a π section high pass filter.
[4 marks]

(d) A T-section low pass filter is constructed using components L = 5 mH and C = 4.7 µF.
Calculate the

(i) nominal impedance [2 marks]

(ii) cut-off frequency. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2013
- 4 -

3. (a) Explain the following terms as applied to electrical circuits:

(i) Resonance [2 marks]

(ii) Selectivity [2 marks]

(b) A series RLC consists of a coil of resistance 10 Ω and inductance 20 mH as well as a


0.25 µF capacitor. The circuit is connected to a 5 V variable frequency source.

(i) Sketch ONE graph EACH to show variations of

a) current magnitude with frequency [2 marks]

b) phase with frequency. [2 marks]

(ii) Calculate the resonant frequency. [2 marks]

(iii) Calculate the voltage across the capacitor at the resonant frequency. [4 marks]

(iv) Determine the ‘Q’ factor of this circuit. [2 marks]

(v) Determine the bandwidth of this circuit. [2 marks]

(c) Explain why a series RLC circuit at resonance is referred to as an acceptor circuit.
[2 marks]
Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2014
- 5 -

MODULE 2

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND DATA COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this module.

4. (a) Explain ONE limitation of thyristor operation. [3 marks]

(b) Explain EACH of the following terms as it relates to a thyristor:

(i) Holding current (IH) [2 marks]

(ii) Latching current (IL) [2 marks]

(c) Use a drawing, showing the two-transistor analogy of a thyristor, to explain what is meant
by breakover voltage. [7 marks]

(d) What is the typical range of values for the input resistance of a MOSFET? [2 marks]

(e) State FOUR advantages of using an enhancement mode MOSFET in digital circuits.
[4 marks]

(f) Explain the concept of the ‘Inversion Layer’ for an enhancement type MOSFET.
[2 marks]

(g) State THREE characteristics of an ideal switch. [3 marks]

(h) Figure 2 shows a transistor circuit.

Figure 2. Transistor circuit

sing a drawing of a load line, explain how the transistor can be used as a switch to control
U
large load currents. [5 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2014
- 6 -

5. (a) Define EACH of the following terms:

(i) Channel capacity [2 marks]

(ii) Bandwidth [2 marks]

(b) Give ONE possible reason why errors occur in the signal received in a data communication
system, and state how they can be detected and corrected. [3 marks]

(c) Figure 3 shows a block diagram of a UART.

Figure 3. Block diagram of a UART

Use the block diagram in Figure 3 to explain the basic operation of a UART.
[4 marks]

(d) Identify TWO types of noise found in amplifiers that are used in communication systems,
and state TWO sources of EACH type of noise identified. [6 marks]

(e) Explain the term ‘differential phase shift keying’ as it relates to modulation techniques.
[3 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2013
- 7 -

6. Figure 4 shows a shift register block diagram.

Figure 4. Shift register block diagram

(a) Outline the operation of the three-stage shift register. [6 marks]

(b) Sketch the block diagram of a ‘J‒K’ flip flop and develop its truth table. [4 marks]

(c) Outline TWO features of multivibrators. [2 marks]

(d) Explain the operation of a bistable multivibrator. [2 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2014
- 8 -

(e) Figure 5 shows a diagram of a 555 timer used in the monostable mode.

Figure 5. Monostable timer circuit

(i) Calculate the minimum trigger voltage that would produce an output pulse, and
the width of the output pulse. [4 marks]

(ii) State the name often given to the 555 timer when it is operating in the monostable
mode, and indicate why it is given that name. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2014
- 9 -

MODULE 3

INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES

You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this module.

7. (a) Identify the losses which occur in a transformer when loaded. [4 marks]

(b) Draw and label a phasor diagram for a single phase loaded transformer that has negligible
voltage drop in its windings. [5 marks]

(c) State the condition that must be met in order to achieve maximum efficiency in a
transformer. [1 mark]

(d) The primary winding of a transformer is connected to a sinusoidal voltage. Sketch and
label a typical waveform of flux variation with time in the transformer. [5 marks]

(e) State why there is a no-load current in a transformer. [2 marks]

(f) A transformer has the following specifications:

Primary voltage = 1500 volts


KVA = 220
Primary turns Np = 475
Secondary turns Ns = 95
Primary resistance rp = 0.25 Ω
Secondary resistance rs = 0.022 Ω
Leakage reactance XLP = 1.5 Ω
Leakage reactance XLS = 0.0025 Ω

Calculate the

(i) equivalent impedance of the primary [6 marks]

(ii) voltage regulation at full load with a power factor of 0.8 lagging. [7 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2014
- 10 -

8. (a) State FOUR reasons why synchronous machines are constructed with stationary armature
and rotating field poles. [4 marks]

(b) Explain the synchronous impedance voltage drop of a synchronous motor. [2 marks]

(c) With the aid of graphs of terminal voltage versus load current for a synchronous generator,
explain how power factor affects regulation. [8 marks]

(d) (i) Draw a labelled diagram of the equivalent circuit of a synchronous generator.
[2 marks]

(ii) State what EACH element represents on the diagram drawn in (d) (i) above and
state how the synchronous impedance can be derived. [3 marks]

(e) State the formula used to calculate the synchronous impedance of the generator.
[1 mark]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/CAPE 2014
- 11 -

9. (a) Describe the construction of a squirrel-cage induction motor. [3 marks]

(b) With the aid of a diagram, describe the operation of a single-phase capacitor run induction
motor which incorporates a centrifugal switch. [7 marks]

(c) State SIX general features of the split-phase capacitor run induction motor. [6 marks]

(d) Figure 6 shows the torque slip curves for an induction motor.

Figure 6. Torque slip curves for induction motor

State the relationship between torque and motor resistance, when the resistance is

(i) small compared to motor reactance [2 marks]

(ii) large compared to motor reactance. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02217020/CAPE 2014
TEST CODE 02117010
FORM TP 2015178 MAY/JUNE 2015

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

UNIT 1 – Paper 01

1 hour 30 minutes

15 MAY 2015 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions, FIVE from EACH module.

2. Answer ALL questions.


5178

3. In your answer booklet, start EACH module on a new sheet.

4. EACH question is worth 6 marks.

5. You may use a silent, non-programmable calculator to answer questions.

6. A data booklet is provided.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.


127115

Copyright © 2014 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02117010/F 2015
-2-

MODULE 1

DC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

1. Figure 1 shows a number of capacitors connected in a series–parallel circuit.

Figure 1. Capacitors connected in a series–parallel circuit

Calculate the equivalent capacitance of the circuit shown in Figure 1.


Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/F 2015
-3-

2. Figure 2 shows a resistive circuit.

Figure 2. Resistive circuit

Using the superposition theorem, calculate the voltage Vout across the 5 Ω resistor R3 in the resistive
circuit in Figure 2.
Total 6 marks

3. (a) Define the term ‘temperature coefficient of resistance’ and state its symbol. [3 marks]

(b) Explain why some materials which exhibit a negative temperature coefficient of resistance
can suffer from thermal runaway. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

4. (a) With the aid of a suitable graph, explain Ohm’s law. [3 marks]

(b) A coil with maximum resistance of 0.15 Ω is required to be wound from a 5 m length of
a conductor having a cross-sectional area of 2 mm2. Determine which of the following
materials are acceptable for this task.

Material ρ(Ωm) at 0 °C

Aluminium 2.7 × 10–8



Brass 7.2 × 10–8

Copper 1.59 × 10–8

Eureka 49 × 10–8 [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/F 2015
-4-

5. Figure 3 shows an RL circuit with a time constant of 0.25 s and a final value current of 3.2 A.

Figure 3. RL circuit

(a) Calculate the values of R and L. [4 marks]

(b) Determine the value of the current 0.5 s after the switch is closed. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/F 2015
-5-

MODULE 2

ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

6. (a) State the FOUR sine waves that are produced when a modulating frequency (fm) amplitude
modulates a carrier frequency (fc). [4 marks]

(b) Define the term ‘demodulation’. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

7. (a) Draw the circuit diagram of a half-wave, voltage stabilized power supply which utilizes
a CRC filter and a zener diode. [5 marks]

(b) State the formula that is used to calculate the peak to peak ripple out of the capacitor input
filter of a half-wave power supply. [1 mark]

Total 6 marks

8. (a) Name the method of wave propagation used for radio transmission of EACH of the
following:

(i) Low frequency [1 mark]

(ii) Medium frequency [1 mark]

(iii) High frequency [1 mark]

(b) Use a labelled diagram to illustrate what is meant by the term ‘skip distance’.
[3 marks]

Total 6 marks

9. (a) State TWO methods that can be used to prevent thermal runaway of a transistor in an
electronic circuit. [2 marks]

(b) Draw and label the h-parameter equivalent circuit of a transistor connected in the common
emitter configuration. [4 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/F 2015
-6-

10. (a) Define the term ‘operational amplifier’ and state THREE of its operating characteristics.
[4 marks]

(b) Figure 4 shows an inverting operational amplifier.

Figure 4. Inverting operational amplifier

Calculate the voltage gain of the operational amplifier shown in Figure 4. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/F 2015
-7-

MODULE 3

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

11. (a) Distinguish between overload current and fault current. [2 marks]

(b) State the main reason for using thermal overload relays with electric motors. [2 marks]

(c) Describe the function of a circuit breaker. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

12. (a) Describe the operation of a SCADA system. [2 marks]

(b) Explain how telemetering is accomplished. [4 marks]

Total 6 marks

13. (a) State Lenz’s law. [2 marks]

(b) Calculate the flux density of a circuit in tesla, with the circuit having a flux of 400 µWb
through an area of 0.0005 m2. [4 marks]

Total 6 marks

14. (a) Explain why it is necessary to use a commutator in a d.c. machine. [2 marks]

(b) Identify TWO categories of commutator losses in d.c. machines. [2 marks]

(c)
A d.c. machine having a resistance of 0.45 Ω is connected to a 240 V supply. Calculate
the generated emf when it is functioning as a generator providing current of 65 A.
[2 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/F 2015
-8-

15. (a) Define the ‘unit of magnetic flux density’. [2 marks]

(b) State what is meant by the term ‘permeability’. [2 marks]

(c) Determine the average emf induced in a coil having 1600 turns, if the flux of 450 µWb is
reversed in 0.1 seconds. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02117010/F 2015
TEST CODE 02117020
FORM TP 2015179 MAY/JUNE 2015

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

UNIT 1 – Paper 02

2 hours 30 minutes
5179

07 MAY 2015 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of NINE questions, THREE from EACH module.

2. Answer SIX questions as follows:

Question 1 and ONE other question from Module 1

Question 4 and ONE other question from Module 2

Question 7 and ONE other question from Module 3

3. EACH module is worth 50 marks.

4. You may use a silent, non-programmable calculator to answer questions.

5. A data booklet is provided.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.


127092

Copyright © 2014 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02117020/F 2015
-2-

MODULE 1

DC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this module.

1. (a) State Kirchhoff’s first and second laws. [4 marks]

(b) (i) State Thevenin’s theorem. [4 marks]

(ii) Figure 1 shows a network with open circuit terminals ab.

Figure 1. Network with open circuit terminals

Determine the Thevenin’s equivalent circuit as seen from terminals ab.


[9 marks]

(iii) Using the Thevenin circuit produced in (b) (ii) above, derive the Norton equivalent
circuit. [3 marks]

(c) (i) State the maximum power transfer theorem. [2 marks]

(ii) Determine the value of the load resistance which should be connected at terminals
ab in Figure 1 to yield maximum power transfer. [2 marks]

(iii) Calculate the maximum power transferred using the determined value of resistance
in (c) (ii) above. [4 marks]

(iv) Describe the impact on the power transferred, if the magnitude of the voltage
source in Figure 1 is increased. [2 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/F 2015
-3-

2. (a) (i) Define the term ‘capacitance’ and give its unit and symbol. [4 marks]

(ii) Sketch and label, on the same time scale, charging and discharging curves of
current and potential difference for a capacitor. [6 marks]

(b) A potential difference of 100 V is maintained across a capacitor constructed with ten metal
plates that are separated by sheets of polyethylene, each having a thickness of 0.4 mm and
relative permittivity of 2. Given ∈0 = 8.85 × 10–12 F/m and the area of one side of each
plate is 500 cm2, calculate the

(i) capacitance of the capacitor [4 marks]

(ii) charge on the capacitor [2 marks]

(iii) electric flux density in the dielectric [2 marks]

(iv) energy stored in the capacitor. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks

3. (a) State THREE ways by which the inductance of a coil can be increased. [3 marks]

(b) Distinguish between self and mutual inductance. [4 marks]

(c) Explain the term ‘coupling coefficient’. [3 marks]

(d) A ferromagnetic ring of mean radius 120 mm and cross-sectional area 500 mm2 has two
series connected windings: one of 300 turns and the other of 500 turns. Assume the relative
permeability is 1000 and there is no flux leakage.

Note: µ0 = 4π × 10–7 H/m

Calculate the

(i) self-inductance of each coil [6 marks]

(ii) mutual inductance. [2 marks]

(e) Draw the circuit symbols for a

(i) ferromagnetic-cored inductor [1 mark]

(ii) variable inductor. [1 mark]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/F 2015
-4-

MODULE 2

ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this module.

4. (a) With the aid of a suitable block diagram, explain how a bipolar junction transistor is
constructed. [6 marks]

(b) State what is meant by the d.c. beta (βdc) of a transistor and provide the formula used to
calculate it. [2 marks]

(c) A transistor with an hie = 2 200 and hfe = 90 is connected in the common emitter configuration
as an amplifier with the load resistance Rl = 12 kΩ.

Calculate the

(i) input impedance

(ii) current gain

(iii) voltage gain

(iv) power gain. [6 marks]

(d) State the TWO equations by which the small signal h-parameters are defined. Indicate
what EACH stated subscript represents. [6 marks]

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/F 2015
-5-

(e) Figure 2 shows a common emitter circuit.


Figure 2. Common emitter circuit

Calculate the

(i) voltage VR1 [2 marks]

(ii) current flowing through resistor R1 [2 marks]

(iii) collector current Ic. [2 marks]

(f) With the aid of a diagram, explain the term ‘saturation’ as it relates to the characteristic
curves of the operation of a bipolar transistor. [4 marks]

Total 30 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/F 2015
-6-

5. (a) Figure 3 shows the circuit diagram of an operational amplifier.

Figure 3. Operational amplifier

Calculate the

(i) voltage gain [3 marks]

(ii) value of the output signal and state the phase relationship of the output signal to
the input signal. [3 marks]

(b) Draw the circuit diagram of a Wien bridge oscillator and state the formula used to calculate
its frequency of oscillation. [7 marks]

(c) List FOUR factors that contribute to the change in frequency of an oscillator.
[4 marks]

(d) State the Barkhausen criterion as it relates to an oscillator. [3 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/F 2015
-7-

6. (a) State what is meant by ‘multiple hop transmission’ as it relates to sky propagation.
[2 marks]

(b) Define EACH of the following terms as it relates to the propagation of a high frequency
wave:

(i) Maximum usable frequency (MUF) [2 marks]

(ii) Optimum traffic frequency (OTF) [2 marks]

(c) Identify the THREE natural ways a radio wave can travel after leaving an antenna.
[3 marks]

(d) With the aid of a diagram, illustrate what is meant by ‘line of sight’ propagation. State
TWO frequency bands where it is utilized. [5 marks]

(e) State the function of an antenna. [2 marks]

(f) State TWO factors on which the range of a ground wave depends. [2 marks]

(g) Identify the frequency spectrum for EACH of the following:



(i) Medium frequency – standard broadcast [1 mark]

(ii) FM – broadcast band [1 mark]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/F 2015
-8-

MODULE 3

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS

You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this module.

7. (a) Outline the EIGHT steps utilized as the general procedure involved in telemetering.
[8 marks]

(b) State FIVE advantages of using digital communication over analogue communication.
[5 marks]

(c) Distinguish between simplex and duplex systems as applied to data communication.
[2 marks]

(d) Explain briefly how SCADA is used in power systems management. [3 marks]

(e) Identify FOUR industries that use SCADA. [4 marks]

(f) Identify FOUR subsystems of SCADA and for EACH, outline ONE function.
[8 marks]

Total 30 marks

8. (a) Identify FIVE features of thermal overload relays. [5 marks]

(b) Describe the construction and operation of EACH of the following types of relays:

(i) Bimetallic [4 marks]

(ii) Eutectic alloy [4 marks]

(c) Explain the operation of a fuse and state TWO of its applications. [5 marks]

(d) State when inverse-time overcurrent relays are used. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/F 2015
-9-

9. (a) List THREE situations where d.c. motors are used. [3 marks]

(b) State ONE difference between a d.c. generator and a d.c. motor. [2 marks]

(c) A shunt motor supplied with 220 V, runs at a speed of 800 r/min when the armature current
is 20 A. The resistance of the armature circuit is 0.35 ohms.

Calculate the resistance required in series with the armature to reduce the speed to
650 r/min, assuming that the armature current is 15 amperes. [5 marks]

(d) With the aid of diagrams, describe EACH of the following machine connections:

(i) Shunt wound [3 marks]

(ii) Series wound [3 marks]

(iii) Compound wound [3 marks]

(e) Identify ONE problem introduced in the d.c. dynamo as a result of the commutation
process. [1 mark]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02117020/F 2015
TEST CODE 02217010
FORM TP 2015180 MAY/JUNE 2015
5180

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

UNIT 2 – Paper 01

1 hour 30 minutes

27 MAY 2015 (a.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions, FIVE from EACH module.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. In your answer booklet, start EACH module on a new sheet.

4. EACH question is worth 6 marks.

5. You may use a silent, non-programmable calculator to answer questions.

6. A data booklet is provided.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.


127145

Copyright © 2014 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02217010/F 2015
-2-

MODULE 1

AC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

1. (a) List FOUR types of filters. [4 marks]

(b) Define the term ‘half-power frequency’. [1 mark]

(c) State the main purpose of filters used in communications equipment. [1 mark]

Total 6 marks

2. (a) Define EACH of the following terms as it relates to a sinusoidal waveform:

(i) Peak value [1 mark]

(ii) Period [1 mark]

(iii) Instantaneous value [1 mark]

(b) Sketch a sinusoidal waveform and identify EACH of the following on the sketch:

(i) Peak to peak value

(ii) rms value [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

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02217010/F 2015
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3. Figure 1 shows an RLC circuit.

Figure 1. RLC circuit

Calculate the impedance of the circuit expressed in rectangular notation.


Total 6 marks

4. (a) State THREE properties of phasors. [3 marks]

(b) Figure 2 shows a representation of a phasor.

Figure 2. Phasor representation

(i) Given the representation in Figure 2, express quantities I and V in polar


notation. [2 marks]

(ii) Identify the dominant load type, given the orientation of the phasor diagram in
Figure 2. [1 mark]

Total 6 marks

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02217010/F 2015
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5. The equations of an alternating voltage V and current I are:

V = 150 sin (wt) V


I = 2.5 sin (wt – 50°) A

Calculate the

(a) reactive power [3 marks]

(b) power factor. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

MODULE 2

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND DATA COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

6. (a) State THREE ways by which a thyristor can be switched into forward conduction.
[3 marks]

(b) Identify THREE situations in which the thyristor can be used. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

7. (a) Figure 3 shows two connected logic gates.

Figure 3. Connected logic gates

(i) State the name of EACH logic gate shown in Figure 3. [2 marks]

(ii) Name the gate produced as a result of the connection of the two gates.
[1 mark]

(b) Define the term ‘coding’ as it relates to logic circuits. [1 mark]

(c) Draw the symbol of a NAND gate and state its Boolean expression. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks
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02217010/F 2015
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8. (a) With the aid of a block diagram, explain the operation of an SR flip-flop. [5 marks]

(b) State what are multivibrators. [1 mark]

Total 6 marks

9. (a) State the full name of and briefly describe EACH of the following memory systems:


(i)
EPROM [2 marks]


(ii)
PROM [2 marks]

(b) Figure 4 shows a circuit diagram of a 1 to 4 demultiplexer.

Figure 4. Diagram of a 1 to 4 demultiplexer

Explain the operation of the 1 to 4 demultiplexer. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

10. (a) State what is meant by the term ‘frequency shift keying’ (FSK) as it relates to digital
modulation techniques. [3 marks]

(b) State what is meant by asynchronous and synchronous waveforms as they relate to data
communication. [2 marks]

(c) State the formula used to express the Shannon–Hartley law. [1 mark]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217010/F 2015
-6-

MODULE 3

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

11. With the aid of a diagram, briefly explain the principle of operation of a single-phase, capacitor-
run induction motor which incorporates a centrifugal switch.
Total 6 marks

12. Sketch and label the equivalent circuit of a transformer.


Total 6 marks

13. The following power information is provided about an induction motor operating at 1742 rpm.

Total input power = 55 kW


Total copper losses = 2.5 kW
No load losses = 3 kW
Friction and windage losses = 1.2 kW

Calculate the

(a) efficiency of the motor [3 marks]

(b) output torque. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

14. (a) State the condition to be satisfied for maximum efficiency of a transformer. [2 marks]

(b) A 60 Hz single-phase transformer has a secondary voltage of 230 V and 100 turns on the
secondary winding. Calculate the maximum value of flux. [2 marks]

(c) Sketch a typical hysteresis B-H loop for a transformer core. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

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02217010/F 2015
-7-

15. (a) For the operation of the synchronous generator, identify the purpose and location of the
following:

(i) Field winding [2 marks]

(ii) Armature winding [2 marks]

(b) A synchronous generator has eight poles and operates at 1600 rpm. Calculate the frequency
of the voltage generated. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02217010/F 2015
TEST CODE 02217020
FORM TP 2015181 MAY/JUNE 2015
5181

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

UNIT 2 – Paper 02

2 hours 30 minutes

29 MAY 2015 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of NINE questions, THREE from EACH module.

2. Answer SIX questions as follows:

Question 1 and ONE other question from Module 1

Question 4 and ONE other question from Module 2

Question 7 and ONE other question from Module 3

3. EACH module is worth 50 marks.

4. You may use a silent, non-programmable calculator to answer questions.

5. A data booklet is provided.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.


127155

Copyright © 2014 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02217020/F 2015
-2-

MODULE 1

AC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this module.

1. (a) Describe EACH of the following as it relates to filters:



(i) Passive filters [3 marks]

(ii) Frequency response [2 marks]

(iii) Noise [2 marks]

(b) Draw and label the frequency response characteristics for EACH of the following
filters:

(i) Notch [3 marks]

(ii) Band pass [3 marks]

(c) Draw labelled diagrams for EACH of the following filters:

(i) The π section low pass [2 marks]

(ii) The π section high pass [2 marks]

(d) State why the Q factor is a measure of selectivity. [2 marks]

(e) A filter is required to pass all frequencies below 12 kHz and have a nominal impedance
of 980 Ω.

(i) Calculate the required circuit values for BOTH T and π filter arrangements.
[4 marks]

(ii) Draw BOTH completed circuits from (e) (i) above, with the designed values.
[6 marks]

(f) Draw the symbol for a low pass filter. [1 mark]


Total 30 marks

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02217020/F 2015
-3-

2. (a) (i) Define the term ‘resonant frequency’. [2 marks]

(ii) Briefly describe the oscillation of energy in an RLC circuit. [2 marks]

(iii) Explain how the tuning of a radio is a common example of resonance.


[2 marks]

(b) Figure 1 shows a series RLC circuit which is connected to a variable frequency supply.

Figure 1. Series RLC circuit

Calculate the following:

(i) Resonant frequency [3 marks]

(ii) Voltage across the coil and capacitor at resonance [4 marks]

(iii) Q factor of circuit [2 marks]

(iv) Bandwidth [2 marks]

(v) Half-power frequency [3 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02217020/F 2015
-4-

3. (a) Define EACH of the following terms and state the symbol and unit for EACH.

(i) Active power [3 marks]

(ii) Reactive power [3 marks]

(iii) Apparent power [3 marks]

(b) A load of 400 kW with power factor 0.70 lagging, has its power factor improved to 0.85
lagging by the inclusion of parallel capacitors.

Calculate the

(i) reactive power required for this improvement in power factor [7 marks]

(ii) reduction in apparent power. [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

MODULE 2

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND DATA COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this module.

4. (a) Explain briefly what is meant by EACH of the following terms as it relates to D/A
converters:

(i) Accuracy [3 marks]

(ii) Monotonicity [3 marks]

(iii) Settling time [2 marks]

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02217020/F 2015
-5-

(b) Figure 2 shows a circuit diagram of a D/A converter.

Figure 2. D/A converter

Calculate the

(i) currents I0, I1 and I2 [6 marks]

(ii) weights for EACH input bit. [6 marks]

(c) State the function of A/D conversion and indicate why it is necessary. [3 marks]

(d) Describe an encoder. [3 marks]

(e) State how identical ROMs can be connected to provide an expanded memory.
[1 mark]

(f) Identify THREE expanded memory possibilities that could be provided by identical
ROMs. [3 marks]

Total 30 marks

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02217020/F 2015
-6-

5. (a) Define the term ‘truth table’ as it relates to logic gates. [1 mark]

(b) List THREE applications of logic gates. [3 marks]

(c) Explain Karnaugh maps in relation to combination logic. [6 marks]

(d) Figure 3 shows a logic gate circuit.

Figure 3. Logic gate circuit

Prepare the truth table for the circuit shown in Figure 3 and state the type of logic gate it
represents. [5 marks]

(e) Draw TWO of the symbols used to represent a three-input AND gate. State the Boolean
expression for the AND gate. [3 marks]

(f) Determine the decimal numbers that are represented by EACH of the following binary
numbers:

(i) 10112 [1 mark]

(ii) 01112 [1 mark]

Total 20 marks

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02217020/F 2015
-7-

6. (a) State THREE advantages of MOSFETS. [3 marks]

(b) Draw a transfer characteristic curve of a MOSFET to illustrate its modes of operation.
[3 marks]

(c) Draw a diagram to show how the N channel depletion mode MOSFET is constructed and
how it must be biased for normal operation. [7 marks]

(d) Describe briefly what a thyristor is, and what it is used for. [2 marks]

(e) Define the term ‘forced commutation’ as it relates to a thyristor. [2 marks]

(f) State THREE characteristics of an ideal switch. [3 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/F 2015
-8-

MODULE 3

INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES

You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this module.

7. (a) State TWO advantages of EACH of the following types of induction motors:

(i) Squirrel cage [2 marks]

(ii) Wound rotor [2 marks]

(b) Briefly describe the differences in construction between the squirrel cage and wound rotor
induction motors. [4 marks]

(c) (i) List FOUR types of equipment that use single-phase motors. [4 marks]

(ii) List THREE types of single-phase motors. [3 marks]

(d) The name plate on a 415 V 60 hp, 60 Hz four-pole induction motor, indicates that its speed
at rated load is 1760 rpm. Assuming the motor is operating at rated load, calculate the

(i) synchronous speed of the motor [3 marks]

(ii) operating slip of the motor [3 marks]

(iii) frequency of the rotor currents [2 marks]

(iv) loading speed that would yield a slip of 4%. [2 marks]

(e) Sketch and label a typical torque versus speed curve for an induction motor. [5 marks]

Total 30 marks

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02217020/F 2015
-9-

8. (a) (i) Identify the core or no load losses of a transformer and state their origins.
[4 marks]

(ii) State FOUR methods used in the construction of a transformer to reduce leakage
flux. [4 marks]

(iii) Define the term ‘voltage regulation’ as it relates to a transformer. [2 marks]

(b)
The following information is provided for a 100 kVA distribution transformer operating
at full load:

Primary copper losses = 358 W
Primary winding resistance Rp = 1.56 Ω
Load power factor = 0.90 lag
Efficiency = 96%

Calculate the

(i) voltage of the primary winding [5 marks]

(ii) total losses. [5 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02217020/F 2015
- 10 -

9. (a) Define EACH of the following terms as it relates to the synchronous generator:

(i) Armature reaction [2 marks]

(ii) Synchronous impedance [2 marks]

(iii) Voltage regulation [2 marks]

(b) (i) Sketch and label a per phase equivalent circuit of a synchronous generator.
[2 marks]

(ii) State the equation for the terminal voltage of a synchronous generator in terms of
its equivalent circuit components. [2 marks]

(iii) Sketch a phasor diagram of a synchronous generator operating at unity power


factor. [4 marks]

(c) Explain the method employed to estimate the value of the synchronous impedance for a
synchronous generator. [6 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02217020/F 2015
TEST CODE 02117010
FORM TP 2016188 MAY/JUNE 2016

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

UNIT 1 – Paper 01

1 hour 30 minutes

13 MAY 2016 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions, FIVE from EACH module.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. In your answer booklet, start EACH module on a new sheet.

4. EACH question is worth 6 marks.

5. You may use a silent, non-programmable calculator to answer questions.

6. A data booklet is provided.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2015 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02117010/F 2016
-2-

MODULE 1

DC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

1. (a) A metal oxide resistor has a marking of 4R7. State its resistance. [1 mark]

(b) Sketch the characteristic of area, A, versus resistance, R, of a conductor wire. [1 mark]

(c) A current of 4 mA flows through two identical series connected resistors. The total power
dissipated is 128 mW. Calculate the value of EACH resistor. [4 marks]

Total 6 marks

2. Define EACH of the following terms and state its symbol:

(a) Relative permittivity [3 marks]

(b) Relative permeability [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

3. (a) State Thevenin’s theorem. [3 marks]

Figure 1 shows a Norton’s equivalent for a given network.

2.5 A

40 Ω

Figure 1. Norton's equivalent network



(b) Determine and sketch the equivalent Thevenin’s network for Figure 1. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

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02117010/F 2016
-3-

4. Figure 2 shows a series-parallel combination of three inductors.

16 H

4H
4H

Figure 2. Series-parallel combination of three inductors

(a) Calculate the total inductance. [3 marks]

(b) Assuming a current I, of 3 mA, flows through the network in Figure 2, calculate the total
stored energy. [2 marks]

(c) State where the energy in (b) is stored. [1 mark]

Total 6 marks

5. (a) Define the term ‘capacitance’. [2 marks]

(b) A charged 470 µF mica capacitor is allowed to discharge through a resistor, R, connected
in parallel. The time constant of this discharge is 940 ms.

(i) Calculate the value of resistor R. [3 marks]

(ii) Suggest what the impact would be if the mica capacitor is replaced by a polyester
capacitor of the same value. [1 mark]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/F 2016
-4-

MODULE 2

ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

6. (a) Draw the circuit symbol for a PNP transistor. [1 mark]

(b) State what is meant by the DC beta (βdc) of a transistor. [1 mark]

(c) In a common emitter circuit, the transistor has a collector current IC of 30 mA and a base
current IB of 0.5 mA. Calculate the

(i) current gain [2 marks]

(ii) emitter current IE. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

7. Figure 3 shows a half-wave rectifier circuit.

Figure 3. Half-wave rectifier circuit

Calculate the

(a) peak primary voltage [2 marks]

(b) peak secondary voltage [2 marks]

(c) DC load voltage. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

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02117010/F 2016
-5-

8. (a) State what is an oscillator. [2 marks]

(b) Figure 4 shows a schematic drawing of a non-inverting operational amplifier.

_
RF

Vin 2.5 V 28 k Ω
R in RL
Vout
4 kΩ 12 kΩ

Figure 4. Non-inverting operational amplifier

Calculate the

(i) voltage gain of the amplifier [2 marks]

(ii) output signal voltage of the amplifier. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

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02117010/F 2016
-6-

9. (a) For a superheterodyne receiver,



(i) determine the local oscillator frequency if the intermediate frequency (IF) is
455 kHz and the received signal is 560 kHz [2 marks]

(ii) state the purpose of a detector. [2 marks]

(b) State what is meant by the term ‘frequency modulation’. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

10. (a) State what is an antenna. [2 marks]

(b) Define the term ‘ground wave’. [2 marks]

(c) State the frequency spectrum of EACH of the following methods of propagation:

(i) Medium frequency (MF) [1 mark]

(ii) Very high frequency (VHF) [1 mark]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/F 2016
-7-

MODULE 3

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

11. (a) Determine the average emf induced in a coil having 1200 turns, if the flux of 400 µWb is
reversed in 0.1 s. [2 marks]

(b) Explain the difference between a ‘permanent magnet’ and an ‘electromagnet’.


[4 marks]

Total 6 marks

12. (a) Identify ONE common type of thermal overload relay and describe its operation.
[3 marks]

(b) Describe the function of a voltage surge protector. [2 marks]

(c) State what is meant by ‘fault current’ as used in a protection scheme. [1 mark]

Total 6 marks

13. (a) State the difference between the ‘generated emf ’ and the ‘terminal voltage’ in EACH of
the following:

(i) DC generator [1 mark]

(ii) DC motor [1 mark]

(b) Sketch and label on one set of axes, the torque load characteristic curve for EACH of the
following DC motor configurations:

(i) Series

(ii) Shunt

(iii) Differential compound [4 marks]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117010/F 2016
-8-

14. (a) Explain what is meant by the term ‘half duplex’ communication. [4 marks]

(b) Identify TWO industries where the SCADA system can be used. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

15. (a) Give the symbols for and state what is meant by EACH of the following terms:

(i) Reluctance [2 marks]

(ii) Magnetomotive force [2 marks]

(b) A circuit has a flux of 400 µWb through an area of 0.0005 m2. Calculate the flux density
of the circuit in tesla units. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02117010/F 2016
TEST CODE 02117020
FORM TP 2016189 MAY/JUNE 2016

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

UNIT 1 – Paper 02

2 hours 30 minutes

05 MAY 2016 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of NINE questions, THREE from EACH module.

2. Answer SIX questions as follows:

Question 1 and ONE other question from Module 1

Question 4 and ONE other question from Module 2

Question 7 and ONE other question from Module 3

3. EACH module is worth 50 marks.

4. You may use a silent, non-programmable calculator to answer questions.

5. A data booklet is provided.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2015 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02117020/F 2016
-2-

MODULE 1

DC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this module.

1. (a) State and define the ‘unit of capacitance’. [2 marks]

(b) Define EACH of the following terms and state the symbol and unit for EACH:

(i) Electric field strength [3 marks]

(ii) Electric flux density [3 marks]

(c) Figure 1 shows a series-parallel capacitive circuit.

10 V

C2
20 μF
C4
C1
20 μF 20 μF
C3
20 μF

Figure 1. Series-parallel capacitive circuit

For the capacitor C1 in Figure 1, calculate the

(i) potential difference [6 marks]

(ii) stored charge [3 marks]

(iii) stored energy. [3 marks]

(d) The charged combination of capacitors in Figure 1 is allowed to discharge through a resistor
R. Sketch the expected variation of current and potential difference. [4 marks]

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02117020/F 2016
-3-

(e) A capacitor, having a capacitance of 0.133 nF, consists of two square metal plates of side
5 cm, separated 1 mm by a dielectric.

Note: ϵ0 = 8.85 × 10–12 F/m



(i) Calculate the relative permittivity of the dielectric. [4 marks]

(ii) Suggest TWO suitable materials for the dielectric. [2 marks]

Total 30 marks

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02117020/F 2016
-4-

2. (a) (i) State what is meant by the term ‘temperature coefficient of resistance’. Give its
symbol and unit. [4 marks]

(ii) Explain why materials which possess a negative temperature coefficient of


resistance can suffer from thermal runaway. [4 marks]

(b) State EACH of the following:

(i) Kirchoff’s first and second laws [4 marks]

(ii) Maximum power transfer theorem [2 marks]

(c) Figure 2 shows a resistive circuit with resistors R1, R2, R3 and the supply voltage E.

IB IA

R 2 14 Ω
IT V2

R3
12 V V3 E
10 Ω
V1 R 1 10 Ω

Figure 2. Resistive circuit

(i) Calculate the total current IT. [5 marks]

(ii) Determine the value of supply voltage E. [1 mark]

Total 20 marks

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02117020/F 2016
-5-

3. (a) (i) Define the term ‘inductance’. [1 mark]

(ii) Draw the circuit symbols for EACH of the following:

a) Inductor [1 mark]

b) Ferromagnetic-core inductor [1 mark]

c) Variable inductor [1 mark]

(iii) State the MAIN advantage of an air core inductor and identify its impact on
inductance. [2 marks]

(iv) State TWO physical factors which determine the inductance of a coil.
[2 marks]

(b) When two coils (L1 and L2) are connected in series, their effective inductance is 12 H. When
the connections to one coil are reversed, the effective inductance is 8 H. The coefficient
of coupling is 0.8. Calculate the possible values for L2 only. [10 marks]

(c) Explain the term ‘loosely coupled’ as it relates to the coupling coefficient of inductors.
[2 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/F 2016
-6-

MODULE 2

ANALOGUE ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this module.

4. (a) State what is meant by the term ‘amplitude modulation’. [2 marks]

(b) A 140 MHz frequency modulated carrier (FC) is modulated by an audio signal which creates
a frequency deviation (FD) of 30 kHz. Calculate the

(i) carrier swing of the signal [2 marks]

(ii) highest frequency attained by the signal [2 marks]

(iii) lowest frequency attained by the signal [2 marks]

(iv) modulation index (mI) of the FM wave. [2 marks]

(c) State the FOUR sine waves that are produced when a modulating frequency (FM) amplitude
modulates a carrier frequency (FC). [4 marks]

(d) An amplitude modulated wave has a maximum value of 8 volts and a minimum value of
3.5 volts. Calculate the depth of modulation. [4 marks]

(e) Figure 3 shows an AM detector circuit.

D1

R1
Input C1
signal

Figure 3. AM detector circuit

State the purpose of EACH of the following in Figure 3:

(i) Diode D1 [2 marks]

(ii) Capacitor C1 [2 marks]

(iii) Resistor R1 [2 marks]

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02117020/F 2016
-7-

(f) Calculate the bandwidth of a narrowband FM signal which is generated by a 5 kHz audio
signal that modulates a 130 MHz carrier. [2 marks]

(g) Explain what is meant by the term ‘frequency deviation’. [2 marks]

(h) State TWO benefits that are derived from the use of ‘single sideband’ (SSB) transmission.
[2 marks]

Total 30 marks

5. Figure 4 shows a full-wave rectifier circuit.

Figure 4. Full-wave rectifier circuit

(a) Explain the operation of the circuit. [10 marks]

(b) (i) State the function of a clipping circuit. [1 mark]

(ii) State ONE type of circuitry where clipping circuit processing is useful.
[1 mark]

(c) State the function of a zener diode when used in a power supply (rectifier circuit) and how
it is placed in the circuit. [2 marks]

(d) Sketch the characteristic curve of a zener diode. [4 marks]

(e) Name the type of semiconductor produced when a crystal is doped with EACH of the
following:

(i) A pentavalent impurity [1 mark]

(ii) A trivalent impurity [1 mark]

Total 20 marks

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02117020/F 2016
-8-

6. (a) State how a bipolar transistor must be biased when placed in a circuit to operate as an
amplifier. [2 marks]

(b) Figure 5 shows a common emitter amplifier circuit.

Figure 5. Common emitter amplifer circuit



Calculate the

(i) collector current (IC) [2 marks]

(ii) collector emitter voltage (Vce). [3 marks]

(c) State the MAIN reason why the common emitter amplifier is MOST often used in electronic
circuits. [2 marks]

(d) Explain what is meant by the term ‘thermal runaway’ as applied to a transistor connected
in the common emitter configuration. [7 marks]

(e) A transistor, having an hie = 1500 Ω, hfe = 70, is connected in the common emitter
configuration as an amplifier, with a load resistance of 12 kΩ. Calculate the

(i) voltage gain [2 marks]

(ii) power gain. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02117020/F 2016
-9-

MODULE 3

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS

You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this module.

7. (a) With the aid of a diagram, explain what happens when a coil is wound on an iron rod and
connected to a battery. [4 marks]

(b) The current in a coil with a ferromagnetic core is increased from zero to a large value.
Sketch and explain the resulting BH curve. [9 marks]

(c) State Faraday’s law. [2 marks]

(d) A wooden ring of mean circumference 400 mm and uniform cross sectional area of
300 mm2 has a coil of 300 turns wound uniformly over it. The current through the coil is
3.0 amperes. Determine the

(i) magnetic field strength [3 marks]

(ii) flux density [3 marks]

(iii) total flux. [2 marks]

(e) (i) State Lenz’s law. [2 marks]

(ii) Draw a circuit which can be used to demonstrate Lenz’s law and explain its
operation. [5 marks]

Total 30 marks

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02117020/F 2016
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8. (a) Define the term ‘armature reaction’. [2 marks]

(b) State the role of EACH of the following components of a DC machine:



(i) Carbon brush [1 mark]

(ii) Commutator [1 mark]

(c) Explain TWO methods used to achieve speed control of a DC motor. [6 marks]

(d) Draw and label the circuit for a separately excited DC generator. [5 marks]

(e) List THREE sources of losses in a DC machine. [3 marks]

(f) Describe the armature as it relates to a DC machine. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks

9. (a) State what the acronym SCADA means and what it refers to. [3 marks]

(b) Explain the function of the ‘Remote Terminal Unit’ (RTU) subsystem of a SCADA
system. [3 marks]

(c) Describe how information is transmitted in a SCADA system from the remote station to
the master station. [5 marks]

(d) State what is meant by the term ‘power line carrier’. [1 mark]

(e) Identify FOUR advantages of power line carriers for companies using SCADA.
[4 marks]

(f) State what are ‘leased lines’ and list THREE of their disadvantages. [4 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02117020/F 2016
TEST CODE 02217010
FORM TP 2016190 MAY/JUNE 2016

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

UNIT 2 – Paper 01

1 hour 30 minutes

25 MAY 2016 (a.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of FIFTEEN questions, FIVE from EACH module.

2. Answer ALL questions.

3. In your answer booklet, start EACH module on a new sheet.

4. EACH question is worth 6 marks.

5. You may use a silent, non-programmable calculator to answer questions.

6. A data booklet is provided.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2015 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02217010/F 2016
-2-

MODULE 1

AC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

1. (a) A resistor with marking 4k7 is connected in series with a pure inductor of 10 H. The circuit
is powered with a 115 V, 60 Hz supply. Calculate the

(i) circuit current magnitude [3 marks]

(ii) phase angle. [2 marks]

(b) Sketch a phasor diagram for the circuit current above with reference to the applied voltage.
[1 mark]

Total 6 marks

2. (a) State the relationship between the Q factor and the bandwidth of a filter. [1 mark]

(b) An LC circuit has edge frequencies F1 = 10 MHz and F2 = 13 MHz. Determine the Q factor.
[5 marks]

Total 6 marks

3. Define EACH of the following terms and state the symbol and unit for EACH:

(a) Real power [3 marks]

(b) Reactive power [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

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4. (a) Define EACH of the following terms as it relates to a sinusoidal wave:

(i) Average value [1 mark]

(ii) Amplitude [1 mark]

(b) An alternating current has an equation V = 381 sin 100 t. Calculate the

(i) RMS voltage [2 marks]

(ii) frequency. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

5. (a) Define EACH of the following terms:

(i) Filter [2 marks]

(ii) Noise [2 marks]

(b) Draw the symbol for EACH of the following filters:

(i) Low pass [1 mark]

(ii) High pass [1 mark]

Total 6 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217010/F 2016
-4-

MODULE 2

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND DATA COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

6. (a) Draw the symbol for the EX–OR logic gate and state the Boolean expression for the gate.
[2 marks]

(b) Figure 1 shows two logic gates.

A
B
Logic Gate A Logic Gate B

Figure 1. Logic gates

(i) State the names of the two logic gates. [2 marks]

(ii) State the name of the logic gate produced when the two gates shown in Figure 1
are joined: Gate A to Gate B. [1 mark]

(c) State the meaning of the term ‘truth table’ as it relates to logic gates. [1 mark]

Total 6 marks

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02217010/F 2016
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7. (a) State THREE characteristics of an ideal switch. [3 marks]

Figure 2 shows a transistor circuit.

+VCC

RL

RB
VIN Q1

Figure 2. Transistor circuit

(b) Explain how the transistor can be used as a switch to control large load currents.
[3 marks]

Total 6 marks

8. (a) Explain the operation of the 555 timer when used in the monostable mode. [3 marks]

(b) State the meaning of the term ‘shift register’. [2 marks]

(c) Draw the symbol for a D-type flip flop. [1 mark]

Total 6 marks

9. (a) Determine the reference voltage required for a 7-bit DA converter to generate a maximum
output voltage of 9 volts. [2 marks]

(b) State the meaning of ‘A/D conversion’ and indicate why it is necessary. [2 marks]

(c) Describe the function of a demultiplexer. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

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02217010/F 2016
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10. (a) State the MAIN advantage of ‘star topology’ over ‘ring topology’ computer networks.
[2 marks]

(b) Draw the block diagram of a full duplex 4-wire mode operation used in communication
systems. [2 marks]

(c) State, when in communication systems waveforms can be termed as

(i) asynchronous [1 mark]

(ii) synchronous. [1 mark]

Total 6 marks

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02217010/F 2016
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MODULE 3

INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEMS

You are required to answer ALL questions in this module.

11. (a) State the condition required to achieve maximum efficiency in a transformer.
[2 marks]

(b) A 40 kVA, 3 300 V/400 V, 60 Hz single-phase transformer is operating with 1% voltage


regulation at full load. Calculate the full load voltage. [3 marks]

(c) State the purpose of core laminations. [1 mark]

Total 6 marks

12. (a) List THREE applications of an induction motor. [3 marks]

(b) A 4-pole, 60 Hz induction motor is operating at 1 780 rpm. Calculate the slip.
[3 marks]

Total 6 marks

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02217010/F 2016
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13. (a) A 50 kVA, 12 000 V/230 V, 60 Hz single-phase transformer has 100 turns on the secondary
winding. Calculate the

(i) full-load secondary current [2 marks]

(ii) maximum value of flux. [2 marks]

Figure 3 shows a B–H characteristic loop.

Figure 3. B–H characteristic loop

(b) Name the loop shown in Figure 3. [1 mark]

(c) State the MAIN reason why transformers use a ferromagnetic core. [1 mark]

Total 6 marks

14. (a) State the meaning of the term ‘synchronous’ as it relates to a synchronous machine.
[2 marks]

(b) Identify TWO applications of synchronous motors. [2 marks]

(c) State TWO disadvantages of synchronous motors. [2 marks]

Total 6 marks

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02217010/F 2016
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15. (a) List THREE sources of power losses in an induction motor. [3 marks]

Figure 4 shows the torque/slip curve for an induction machine.

Torque

2 1 _ Slip
0 1

A B C

Figure 4. Torque/slip curve for an induction machine

(b) Identify the regions marked A, B and C in Figure 4. [3 marks]

Total 6 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02217010/F 2016
TEST CODE 02217020
FORM TP 2016191 MAY/JUNE 2016

CARIBBEAN E XAM I NAT I O N S COUNCIL

CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATION®

ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC TECHNOLOGY

UNIT 2 – Paper 02

2 hours 30 minutes

27 MAY 2016 (p.m.)

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

1. This paper consists of NINE questions, THREE from EACH module.

2. Answer SIX questions as follows:

Question 1 and ONE other question from Module 1

Question 4 and ONE other question from Module 2

Question 7 and ONE other question from Module 3

3. EACH module is worth 50 marks.

4. You may use a silent, non-programmable calculator to answer questions.

5. A data booklet is provided.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright © 2015 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.

02217020/F 2016
-2-

MODULE 1

AC CIRCUIT THEORY

You are required to answer Question 1 and ONE other question from this module.

1. Figure 1 shows the plot for a sinusoidal waveform.

I/mA

2.9

10 50 100 150 Time


(ms)

Figure 1. Plot of sinusoidal waveform

(a) Express the waveform in Figure 1 in the form I = I0 sin ωt. [7 marks]

(b) Define the term ‘power factor’ and state its formula. [2 marks]

(c) State the relationship between ‘voltage’ and ‘current’ in circuits for EACH of the following
characteristics. Identify the load type in EACH characteristic.

(i) Lagging power factor [2 marks]

(ii) Leading power factor [2 marks]

(iii) Unity power factor [2 marks]

(d) Identify TWO ways a power utility company can act to improve the power factor.
[2 marks]

(e) (i) State the meaning of the term ‘phasor’. [1 mark]

(ii) List THREE properties of phasors. [3 marks]

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02217020/F 2016
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(f) A transformer rated at a maximum of 40 kVA supplies a 14 kW load at a power factor 0.65
lagging. Calculate the

(i) percentage of transformer rating supplied to this load [3 marks]

(ii) additional unity power factor load that can be safely added to the transformer.
[6 marks]


Total 30 marks

2. (a) State what is meant by the ‘cut-off frequency’ of a filter. [2 marks]

(b) Sketch and label the frequency response for EACH of the following filters. For EACH
filter show the cut-off frequency.

(i) High pass [2 marks]

(ii) Band stop [2 marks]

(iii) Notch [2 marks]

(c) Draw labelled circuit diagrams for EACH of the following:

(i) T section of a low pass filter [2 marks]

(ii) π section high pass filter [2 marks]

(d)
Design a π section low pass filter to achieve a nominal impedance of 2 000 Ω and a cut-off
frequency of 3 600 Hz. Draw the circuit which will satisfy these specifications.
[6 marks]

(e) State TWO applications of high pass filters. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks

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02217020/F 2016
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3. (a) Define EACH of the following terms:

(i) Resonant frequency [2 marks]

(ii) Selectivity [2 marks]

(b) Consider an RLC series circuit at resonance.

(i) Briefly describe the oscillation of energy. [2 marks]

(ii) State TWO characteristics of the potential difference across circuit components
when Q > 1. [2 marks]

(iii) State why this circuit is referred to as an acceptor circuit. [1 mark]

(c) A coil of resistance 10 Ω and inductance 1.2 mH is connected in series with a 47 µF


capacitor. The circuit is connected to a 5 V variable frequency supply.

(i) Sketch the circuit. [1 mark]

(ii) Calculate the resonant frequency (Fr). [3 marks]

(iii) Calculate the voltage across the capacitor at Fr. [5 marks]

(iv) Sketch the phasor diagram for this circuit at Fr. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/F 2016
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MODULE 2

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND DATA COMMUNICATIONS

You are required to answer Question 4 and ONE other question from this module.

4. (a) With the aid of a block diagram, explain the function of a computer network using ‘ring’
topology. [9 marks]

(b) Compare the ‘reliability’ and ‘geographical coverage ability’ features of the BUS, STAR
and RING computer network topologies. [6 marks]

(c) Describe the process of receiving and transmitting information using UART. [4 marks]

(d) Define EACH of the following terms:

(i) Bandwidth [2 marks]

(ii) Channel capacity [2 marks]

(e) The input signal to a receiver is 60 µV and the internal noise at the input is 6 µV. The signal
at the output after being amplified is 3 V and the noise at the output is 0.6 V. Calculate
the noise factor. [3 marks]

(f) State the role of the regenerator in a digital system. [2 marks]

(g) Identify TWO types of data that can be transmitted during data communication.
[2 marks]

Total 30 marks

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02217020/F 2016
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5. (a) State the meaning of the term ‘flip flop’. [1 mark]

(b) Describe the operation of a monostable multivibrator. [3 marks]

(c) State the production feature in relation to time of a 555 timer when used in the monostable
mode. [2 marks]

Figure 2 shows the logic symbol for a J–K flip flop.

J Q
CLK
K Q

Figure 2. Logic symbol for a J–K flip flop

(d) Develop the truth table for the J–K flip flop in Figure 2. [4 marks]

Figure 3 shows a schematic diagram for a three-stage shift register.

OPA OPB OPC

Input
S Q S Q S Q
A B C

R Q R Q R Q

Clock

Figure 3. Schematic diagram for a three-stage shift register

(e) Explain the operation of the three-stage shift register. [6 marks]

(f) Explain the operation of a ‘counter’. [4 marks]



Total 20 marks

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02217020/F 2016
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6. (a) Define EACH of the following terms as it relates to a thyristor:

(i) Holding current (IH) [2 marks]

(ii) Latching current (IL) [2 marks]

(b) List THREE ways in which a thyristor can be switched on. [3 marks]

(c) Draw and label the static characteristics of a thyristor. [3 marks]

(d) Draw the schematic symbol for an n-channel MOSFET. [2 marks]

(e) State TWO applications of the enhancement mode MOSFET. [2 marks]

(f) List FOUR advantages of using an enhancement mode MOSFET in digital circuits.
[4 marks]

(g) Describe the operation of a bipolar junction transistor as a switch. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks

GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE


02217020/F 2016
-8-

MODULE 3

INTRODUCTION TO AC MACHINES

You are required to answer Question 7 and ONE other question from this module.

7. (a) Draw and label, with variables, a complete equivalent circuit of a transformer. State the
meaning of EACH variable used. [11 marks]

(b) (i) State TWO methods used in the construction of transformers to reduce leakage
flux. [2 marks]

(ii) Define the term ‘voltage regulation’ as it relates to a transformer and state its
formula. [3 marks]

(c) A utility company utilizes a single-phase 250 kVA, 230/6600 V, 60 Hz pole-mounted


transformer with primary and secondary resistances of 0.003 Ω and 0.4 Ω respectively.
The no-load losses are 1 kW. The transformer is delivering half load at 0.95 power factor
lagging. Calculate the

(i) primary and secondary currents [3 marks]

(ii) primary and secondary copper losses [3 marks]

(iii) efficiency. [8 marks]

Total 30 marks

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02217020/F 2016
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8. (a) Describe the principle of operation of a synchronous generator. [4 marks]

(b) Define EACH of the following terms as it relates to the synchronous generator:

(i) Armature reaction [2 marks]

(ii) Synchronous impedance [2 marks]

(c) A three-phase, wye connected, synchronous generator is rated at 1200 kVA, 12 kV, 60 Hz.
The armature resistance is 0.5 Ω and the synchronous reactance is 10 Ω. The synchronous
generator is delivering full load at a power factor of 0.7 lagging.

(i) Sketch a labelled per phase equivalent circuit diagram of the synchronous generator.
Include component values. [3 marks]

(ii) Calculate the excitation voltage of the synchronous generator. [7 marks]

(iii) Sketch the phasor diagram. [2 marks]

Total 20 marks

9. (a) Consider the squirrel cage and wound rotor induction motors.

(i) Describe the differences in the construction of squirrel cage and wound rotor
induction motors. [6 marks]

(ii) State TWO advantages of EACH motor described in (a) (i). [4 marks]

(b) The following information is provided for a 36 kW three-phase, 4-pole, 60 Hz, 400 V star
connected induction motor:

Efficiency = 92.4%
Slip S = 4%
Friction and windage = 200 W
Stator copper loss (per phase) = 600 W
Rotor copper loss (per phase) = 300 W

Calculate EACH of the following:

(i) Output torque [5 marks]

(ii) Core iron loss [5 marks]

Total 20 marks

END OF TEST

IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS TEST.

02217020/F 2016