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Date Completed:

UNIVERSITY of SAINT LOUIS


Tuguegarao City
Signature of Proponents
Tel No.: (078)-844-1872/1873/1822
Fax No. (078)-844-0889

Proponents Last Name First Name MI


AGBAYANI JOHN MARC U.
ATUAN REYNALDO G.
LAGOC BRYANT B.
LORENZANA HERMANDO M.
MALILLIN MHARLO R.
Field of Specialization Marketing Management
Research Method/Design Quantitative-Descriptive survey method

Research Topic Sexual oriented advertisement


Working Title: Impact of sexual oriented advertisement on consumers awareness,attitude and behavior
(as proposed by the
proponent)
Approved Title:
(as redirected by the research
consultant)
Bibliography/References  Amit Kramer. Avner Ben-Ner. (2015) "The intersection of sex and race in the
(APA Style) presence of deep-level attributes". Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International
(Alphabetically arranged) Journal. 34 (5) 360-375.

 Amy Nicole Baker. (2016) "Antecedents and consequences of observing


workplace sexual behavior". Journal of Managerial Psychology.31 (1).265-279.

Anna Perez-Quintana. Esther Hormiga. Joan Carles Martori. Rafa Madariaga.
(2017) "The influence of sex and gender-role orientation in the decision to
become an entrepreneur". International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship.9
(1)18-30.

 Bruno Tomaselli Fidelis. Jorge Henrique Caldeira Oliveira. Janaina de Moura


Engracia Giraldi. Renê Oliveira Joaquim Santos. (2017) "Sexual appeal in print
media advertising: effects on brand recall and fixation time". Research Journal of
Textile and Apparel. 21 (1) 42-58.

 C. Beckett. (2012) "Silence in the sexual agenda of a UK probation service".


Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal. 31 (8).753-767.

 Christina L. Scott. Belinda Carrillo . Irma M. Rivera. (2014). “No Relationships,


No Emotions, Just Sex” ☆ ☆ Friends with Benefits (2011). : Exploring
Undergraduates’ Sexual Decision Making in Friends with Benefits Relationships,
in Jennifer Higgins McCormick , Sampson Lee Blair (ed.) Family Relationships and
Familial Responses to Health Issues (Contemporary Perspectives in Family
Research, Volume 8A) Emerald Group Publishing Limited. 31 – 74.

 Deirdre M. D’Orazio. (2017) "Evaluating the responsivity principle in prison-based


programs for sexual offending behavior". Journal of Criminal Psychology.7 (3)192-
205.

 Deborah A. Danzis. Eugene F. Stone‐Romero. (2009) "Effects of helper sex,


recipient attractiveness, and recipient femininity on helping behavior in
organizations", Journal of Managerial Psychology.24 (8). 722-737.


Erin Frances Barnes. Alejandra Saraí Dominguez. Isabel Jazmín González.
(2013) "Sexual health interventions targeting Mexican migrants: a
review". International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care.9 (4) 159-169.

 Evgeniya Georgievna Alekseeva. Irina Krasnopolskaya. Yulia Skokova. (2015)


"Introducing sexual education to Russian schools: Effects of dance4life program
on perceptions and behavior of adolescents and teachers". Health Education.
115 (1) 7-37.
 Harminderjit Kaur. Bikramjit Singh Hundal. (2017) "Impact of advertising
strategies on the cognitive and behavioral component of attitude of women
consumers" Journal of Asia Business Studies. . 11 (4) 413-433.

 Hayfaa Tlaiss, Saleema Kauser, (2011) "The impact of gender, family, and work
on the career advancement of Lebanese women managers", Gender in
Management: An International Journal, Vol. 26 Issue: 1, pp.8-36,

 Iain R. Black, George C. Organ, Peta Morton, (2010) "The effect of personality
on response to sexual appeals", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 44 Issue:
9/10, pp.1453-1477.

 John P. Elia, Jessica Tokunaga, (2015) "Sexuality education: implications for


health, equity, and social justice in the United States", Health Education, Vol. 115
Issue: 1, pp.105-120.

 Kara Chan, Lyann Li, Sandra Diehl, Ralf Terlutter, (2007) "Consumers' response
to offensive advertising: a cross cultural study", International Marketing Review,
Vol. 24 Issue: 5, pp.606-628

 Karen Hyllegard, Jennifer Ogle, Ruoh‐Nan Yan, (2009) "The impact of


advertising message strategy – fair labour v. sexual appeal – upon Gen Y
consumers' intent to patronize an apparel retailer", Journal of Fashion Marketing
and Management: An International Journal, Vol. 13 Issue: 1, pp.109-127.

 Lake Lui (2016) “Sexual Harrasment of women in China: the role of liberal sexual
attitude”, Social Transformation in Chinese Societies 12 (2) 181 -196.

 Lan‐Ying Huang, Liqun Cao, (2008) "Exploring sexual harassment in a police


department in Taiwan", Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies &
Management, Vol. 31 Issue: 2, pp.324-340.

 Luigi Bonaventura, Alessio Emanuele Biondo, (2016) "Disclosure of sexual


orientation in the USA and its consequences in the workplace", International
Journal of Social Economics, Vol. 43 Issue: 11, pp.1115-1123.

 Dr Marie Claire Van Hout, Rebekah Brennan, (2011) "“Bump and grind”: an
exploratory study of Mephedrone users' perceptions of sexuality and sexual
risk", Drugs and Alcohol Today, Vol. 11 Issue: 2, pp.93-103.

 Michael J. Dotson, Eva M. Hyatt, Lisa Petty Thompson, (2009) "Sexual


orientation and gender effects of exposure to gay‐ and lesbian‐themed fashion
advertisements", Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International
Journal, Vol. 13 Issue: 3, pp.431-447.

 Pierre-Paul Tellier, (2017) "The impact on mental and physical health of human
rights as they relate to gender and sexual minority adolescents and emerging
adults", International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, Vol. 10 Issue: 3,
pp.213-220.

 Salim L. Azar, (2015) "Toward an understanding of brand sexual


associations", Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 24 Issue: 1, pp.43-56.

 Stephanie R. Sipe, C. Douglas Johnson, Donna K. Fisher, (2009) "University


students' perceptions of sexual harassment in the workplace: A view through
rose‐colored lenses", Equal Opportunities International, Vol. 28 Issue: 4, pp.336-
350.

 Smitu Malhotra, Arpita Srivastava, (2016) "Sexual harassment at the workplace:


how organizations can pro-actively reduce its incidence", Human Resource
Management International Digest, Vol. 24 Issue: 7, pp.1-3.
 Teresa Vilaça, (2017) "A multiple case study based on action-oriented sexuality
education: Perspectives of the Portuguese teachers", Health Education, Vol. 117
Issue: 1, pp.110-126.

 Todd Brower, (2013) "What's in the closet: dress and appearance codes and
lessons from sexual orientation", Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International
Journal, Vol. 32 Issue: 5, pp.491-502.

Variable/ Conceptual
Tags/Synthesis Tally
(optional)
Theoretical/Conceptual Conceptual Framework
Framework
This study explores consumers' ethical judgments about the use of sexual appeals in print advertising. It
specifically focuses upon responses on the Reidenbach-Robin multidimensional ethics scale, ad attitude, brand
attitude, and purchase intentions. The findings indicate that, regardless of the respondent's gender, the use of a
strong overt sexual appeal in a print advertisement was not well received. Consequently, advertisers need to
rethink the use of strong overt sexual appeals, especially given the controversial issues surrounding such
advertising stimuli and their popular use to break through media clutter. Iain R. Black, Peta Morton. (2017)

Many societal changes have occurred since earlier studies on sex in advertising. This study investigated attitudes
of today’s young consumers, 386 junior and senior marketing students, toward the use of nudity in advertising
suntan lotion. Four test ads were developed featuring the product only, a model wearing a one-piece swimsuit, a
topless model, and a nude model. Although some perceptions were negative, nudity resulted in a more attention-
getting, interesting, appealing ad, and a more distinctive brand. The nude model was generally more favorably
rated than the topless model. Those firms willing to risk the adverse effects of nudity in their advertising, should
consider “going all the way” with nude models rather than merely “adding a little spice” with topless models. Bruce
A. Huhmann, Yam B. Limbu. (2016)
Review of Literature
ADVERTISEMENT

Harminderjit Kaur. Bikramjit Singh Hundal. (2017) "Impact of advertising strategies


on the cognitive and behavioral component of attitude of women consumers". Journal
of Asia Business Studies. 11 (4) .413-433.The results indicate that repeated
exposure, comparison of products and sexual appeals has a significant impact on the
mind of consumers which determines the influence of advertisingtactics. Further, the
results evaluated that information, pricing element, image of company
and sexual appeal are the other important traits influencing the cognitive attitude of
consumers. The consumers switch to the advertised products which indicate the
behavioural change with the impact of advertisement.

Chung Leung Luk. Cheris W.C. Chow. Wendy W.N. Wan. Jennifer Y.M.
Lai. Isabel Fu. Candy P.S. Fong, (2017) "An institutional perspective on
modernization and sex-appeal advertising". Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and
Logistics. 29 (2) 220-238. The relationship between level of modernization
and attitude favourability followed an inverted-U pattern. Female participants in the
most modernized city possessed significantly less favourable attitudes to the ads than
their male counterparts. Female and male participants were similar in their attitudes in
the less modern cities. Sexual permissiveness mediated the relationship between
modernization and male participants’ attitudes, but not with female
participants’ attitudes. Perceived sufficiency of regulatory control over sexual content
mediated the relationship between modernization and their attitudes among both
male and female participants.

Luigi Bonaventura. Alessio Emanuele Biondo. (2016) "Disclosure of sexual


orientation in the USA and its consequences in the workplace". International Journal
of Social Economics, 43 (11).1115-1123. Effects of sexual disclosure on
unemployment rates, job satisfaction, and job segregation.

SEXUAL ORIENTED ADVERTISEMENT

Hayfaa Tlaiss. Saleema Kauser. (2011) "The impact of gender, family, and work on
the career advancement of Lebanese women managers". Gender in Management:
An International Journal, 26 (1).8-36. Interview data reveal that Lebanese women
managers do not perceive gender‐ centred factors as obstacles to career
advancement. The women in the study used different terms to describe the impact of
gender, work, and family factors on their career progression to those found in existing
literature. Their responsibilities towards their families were not perceived as barriers
hindering their career progress. In addition, their personality traits, aspirations for
management, levels of educational attainment and work experience, and family‐
related factors were also not perceived as inhibiting their careers.

Venera Bekteshi. Eglantina Gjermeni. Mary Van Hook. (2012) "Modern day
slavery: sex trafficking in Albania". International Journal of Sociology and Social
Policy. 32 (7/8) pp.480-494. Recommendations are given for a more effective anti‐
sex trafficking campaign, incorporating socio‐ economic factors that might be linked
to sex trafficking.

IMPACT OF SEXUAL ORIENTED ADVERTISEMENT TO CONSUMER


AWARENESS

Evgeniya Georgievna Alekseeva. Irina Krasnopolskaya. Yulia Skokova. (2015)


"Introducing sexual education to Russian schools: Effects of dance4life program on
perceptions and behavior of adolescents and teachers", Health Education, 115(1)7-
37. Young people’s participation in D4L had a significant positive impact on
perceptions of SRHR and knowledge levels, changed some misconceptions about
HIV/AIDS and helped develop social and healthy lifestyle skills. The programme
contributed to the growth of voluntary activity and the organizational skills of
participants. Teachers’ perceptions of SRHR changed positively after their
participation in the programme.

Nick Drydakis. (2015) "The effect of sexual activity on wages". International Journal
of Manpower.36 (2).192-215. The author estimates that there is a monotonic
relationship between the frequency of sexual activity and wage returns, whilst the
returns to sexual activity are higher for those between 26 and 50 years of age. In
addition, heterosexuals’ sexual activity does not seem to provide higher or lower
wage returns than that of homosexuals, but wages are higher for those health-
impaired employees who are sexually active. Over-identification tests, robustness
checks, falsification tests, as well as, decomposition analysis and sample selection
modeling enhance study’s strength.

Teresa Vilaça. (2017) "A multiple case study based on action-oriented sexuality
education: Perspectives of the Portuguese teachers". Health Education. Vol. 117 (1)
.110-126.

It was found that when teachers attend in-service teacher education and training they
develop professional competences to act as facilitators of students’ inquiry-based
learning on action-oriented knowledge and on carrying out collective actions to
promote sexual health and well-being. Collaborative and reflexive work among
teachers emerged as a facilitator factor and SE integration in the school curriculum as
the principal barrier.

Dr Marie Claire Van Hout. Rebekah Brennan. (2011) "“Bump and grind”: an
exploratory study of Mephedrone users' perceptions of sexuality and sexual
risk". Drugs and Alcohol Today.11 (2).93-103. The finds that disinhibit ion involving
compulsive masturbation, homosexual fantasies in heterosexuals, propositioning of
strangers, promiscuity, prolonged marathon drug‐ reencounters involving
casual/multiple partners and unsafe sexual practices [UAS/UVS] were all common,
with gender differences present in terms of perceived connectivity with partners.

Deborah A. Danzis. Eugene F. Stone‐ Romero. (2009) "Effects of helper sex,


recipient attractiveness, and recipient femininity on helping behavior in
organizations". Journal of Managerial Psychology. 24 (8).722-737. A three‐ way
interaction indicated that male participants provided equal levels of help across
femininity and attractiveness conditions, but female participants provided more help
to low attractive‐ high feminine confederates than to high attractive‐ high feminine
confederates.

IMPACT OF SEXUAL ORIENTED ADVERTISEMENT TO CONSUMER ATTITUDE

Iain R. Black. George C. Organ. Peta Morton. (2010) "The effect of personality on
response to sexual appeals", European Journal of Marketing.44 (9/10). 1453-1477.
The results show that levels of extraversion and openness directly affect responses to
advertisements as measured with attitude towards the advertisement.

Karen Hyllegard. Jennifer Ogle. Ruoh‐ Nan Yan. (2009) "The impact of
advertising message strategy – fair labour v. sexual appeal – upon Gen Y consumers'
intent to patronize an apparel retailer". Journal of Fashion Marketing and
Management: An International Journal. 13 (1) .109-127 Participants' attitudes toward
American Apparel were more positive when they were exposed to the fair labour
message, only, than when they were exposed to the fair labour message in
conjunction with one of the three sex appeal messages. In the classic reasoned
action models, intent to patronize American Apparel was consistently predicted by
attitude toward the retailer. Extending the models increased the explained variance
for Groups 1, 2, and 3, with several variables adding predictive utility.

Michael J. Dotson. Eva M. Hyatt. Lisa Petty Thompson. (2009) "Sexual orientation
and gender effects of exposure to gay‐ and lesbian‐ themed fashion
advertisements". Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International
Journal. 13 (3)431-447. Attitude toward the ad and before‐ after exposure toward the
brand were compared in male and female heterosexual and homosexual
respondents. Results show that heterosexual males and females prefer less overt
gay male and lesbian depictions, while gay males and lesbians prefer more overt
depictions of themselves, particularly gay male imagery.

Erin Frances Barnes. Alejandra Saraí Dominguez. Isabel Jazmín González.


(2013) "Sexual health interventions targeting Mexican migrants: a
review". International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care. 9 Issue: (4)159-
169. Results of the systematic review reflected eight themes: cultural, attitudinal, and
contextual considerations, behavior modification, demographic factors, education,
community mobilization, and access to services. The majority of themes suggest that
structural level change is needed.

IMPACT OF SEXUAL ORIENTED ADVERTISEMENT TO CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

Yvonne Vissing. (2017), Sexual Debut Education: Cultivating a Healthy Approach to


Young People’s Sexual Experiences, in Patricia Neff Claster , Sampson Lee
Blair , Loretta E. Bass (ed.) Gender, Sex, and Sexuality Among Contemporary Youth
(Sociological Studies of Children and Youth, 23 (0)Emerald Publishing Limited177 –
200. Sexual debut is a process by which young people are given the power to decide
the who, what, when, where, why, and how of their first sexual encounters. The
evolution and nuances of young people’s first sexual engagements can be
understood through the interface of culture, social, and psychological contexts,
language, actions, experiences, and how they transform those processes into their
own conceptualization of sexual behaviour and involvement with it.

Amy Nicole Baker (2016) "Antecedents and consequences of observing workplace


sexual behaviours" Journal of Managerial Psychology. 31 Issue: (1).265-279.
Innovative and traditional climates were associated with
workplace sexual behavior; sexualbehavior was positively associated with physical
strain and turnover intentions, both concurrently and four months later.

Deirdre M. D’Orazio. (2017) "Evaluating the responsively principle in prison-based


programs for sexual offending behaviour". Journal of Criminal Psychology. 7 (3).192-
205. Overall, the analyses revealed insufficient adherence to the responsively
principle. The program used methods known to be effective with sexual offenders, but
with deficient implementation. In group therapy sessions, therapeutic style
deficiencies were demonstrated for stimulating growth, nurturance, and direction and
control. Treatment program advancement was associated with group environment
declines in cohesion, leader support, expressiveness, independence, and
task orientation.

Stephanie R. Sipe. C. Douglas Johnson. Donna K. Fisher. (2009) "University


students' perceptions of sexual harassment in the workplace: A view through rose‐
colored lenses". Equal Opportunities International.28 (4).336-350.The paper's
findings suggest that the majority of respondents believe sexual harassment is not a
serious risk in the modern workplace, especially in relation to its impact on their own
careers.
Smitu Malhotra. Arpita Srivastava. (2016) "Sexual harassment at the workplace:
how organizations can pro-actively reduce its incidence". Human Resource
Management International Digest. 24 (7).1-3. Findings show how organizations can
pro-actively prevent the incidence of SH by creating a zero tolerance for SH in
organizations with top management commitment and the formulation and
enforcement of a policy against SH.

Background of the Study


Advertising almost goes without saying that today’s consumer is exposed to more sex in
advertising that ever before. This trend towards the increasing depiction of sexually oriented
themes in advertising is evident upon even the most casual inspection of print and broadcast
media. In general, advertising copywriters use nudity, romantic themes, or suggestive to draw
attention to specific advertisements and their sponsoring products. In the marketplace of today,
the use of such explicitly or implicitly sexually oriented advertisements seems to be especially
popular for parity products that must complete intense for costumers attention. (Danieteko,1974)

The use of sex in advertising has important social, managerial, and public policy implications.
These implications hinge, of course, on the desired portrayal of women in contemporary society,
the conditions under which advertising and marketing managers should and should not use
sexually-oriented stimuli in communicating with consumers face to face competitors, and the
impact of such communications on certain consumer groups (e.g., children). The amount of
partially and fully nude models has severely increased over the years and is more popular now
than ever. Advertisers use sex as a tool to draw additional attention to a specific product and
are known to be one of the most persuasive tools used by both marketers and advertisers.

The impact of sexual oriented to advertisement to awareness, attitude and behavior, and,
perhaps more importantly, little thought seems to have been given to those theoretical concepts
which may be useful in understanding the effectiveness of sexually-oriented ads. Most of the
available information takes the "Look Ma--No Theory" approach that has recently been
discussed. (Jacoby,1976-1978)

Little research has been directed towards measuring the impact of such advertisements on
consumer awareness, attitudes, or behavior. By and large, there has been no effort to rely on
theory to suggest those variables which are most important in understanding consumer
response to sexually-oriented advertising stimuli; and the differences in individual psychological
make-up which can cause opposite consumer reactions to the same ad are not well delineated
at the current time. (Jacoby,1976-1978)

Therefore this paper will study the potential impact of the sexual oriented in advertisement to
awareness, attitude, and to behavior. This also studies if who is the more attractive to the sex
advertising to consumers.

Research Questions/ The study aims to determine the impact of sexual oriented advertisement to consumer’s
Objective awareness, attitude, and behavior. Specially, it answers the following questions?

1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of?


a. Age
b. Sex
c. Civil Status
2. What is the impact of sexual oriented advertisement to consumer awareness, attitude,
and behavior?
3. Is there a significant difference on the impact of sexually oriented in advertisement to
consumer awareness, attitude, and behavior when grouped according to profile?

Significance of the The purpose of this study is to prove the effectiveness of sexual oriented advertisement. It also provide data to
Proposed Study marketers to penetrate target market using sexual oriented advertisement. It measures the benefits to both advertiser
and marketer as to awareness, attitude and the behavior of the consumers when it comes to sexual oriented
advertisement. Futheremore, it will also gives benefit to future researcher to analyse the significant impact of sexual
oriented advertisement in society as a end consumers.
Research Simulacrum/ INDEPENDENT VARIABLES DEPEDENT VARIABLES
Research Paradigm

The Impact of sexual oriented


advertisement to consumers:
Demographic Profile of
a. Awareness
the Respondents b. Attitude
c. Behavior

Methods Research Design


This study uses quantitative type of research through the use of descriptive survey method since
it made use of a questionnaire to determine the impact of sexually oriented to the advertisement
to consumers awareness, attitude, and behavior to buy.

Locale of the Study


The study will be conducted in University of Saint Louis, Tuguegarao City.

Subjects/Participants
Respondents of the study will be the students of USL.

Data Gathering Instrument (Including Data Measures)


Questionnaire will be used to collect data which will consist of two parts. Part one will cover the profile of the
respondents. Part two is adapted https://www.scribd.com/document/6735561/Questionnaire will gather
information about the impact of sexual oriented to advertisement to consumer awareness,
attitude, and behavior.

Data Gathering Procedure


They asked permission to School President of University of Saint Louis Tuguegarao,City Cagayan, Mrs Delilah
Valencia. Ph. D. Then they seek for the approval of the dean of different department of University of Saint Louis.
Then, after the approval we distribute the questionnaire to the student of USLT. The questionnaire will be retrieved
after the respondents answered. Finally, we collected data.

Data Analysis
All data collected will immediately tabulate, analyzed and interpreted. The statistical that we are use are:

We will use weighted mean to measure the frequency and percentage of the impact of sexually oriented to advertising
to consumers awareness, attitude, and behaviour using the Likert scale to (5, 4, 3, 2, 1)

Weighted mean to determine the ANOVA on the impact of sexually oriented in advertisement to consumer
awareness, attitude, and behaviour when grouped according to profile.