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IGCSE Chemistry

Chapter 9
The Periodic Table


MHSc Biomedical Science (UKM), BSc Microbiology (USM)
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Position of the Elements in the Periodic Table
• Can be defined in two
ways: group and period.
• Period is the horizontal
row of the period table
• Group is the vertical
column of the periodic
Position of the Elements in the Periodic Table

• The number of outermost electrons (valence electrons) will

determine the group position of the element
• The number of shells occupied with electrons will determine the
period position of the element.
• Example: Phosphorous has the electron arrangement of 2.8.5, it has 3
shells filled with electrons and thus it belongs to period 3 and it has 5
outermost electrons, which means it belongs to group 5.
The Properties of Elements
Proton Element Symbol Electron Ions formed Period Group
Number arrangement

1 Hydrogen H 1 H+ 1 1
2 Helium He 2 He 1 8
3 Lithium Li 2.1 Li+ 2 1
4 Beryllium Be 2.2 Be2+ 2 2
5 Boron B 2.3 B3+ 2 3
6 Carbon C 2.4 C4+/C4- 2 4
7 Nitrogen N 2.5 N3- 2 5
8 Oxygen O 2.6 O2- 2 6
9 Fluorine F 2.7 F- 2 7
10 Neon Ne 2.8 Ne 2 8
Proton Element Symbol Electron Ions formed Period Group
Number arrangement
11 Sodium Na 2.8.1 Na+ 3 1
12 Magnesium Mg 2.8.2 Mg2+ 3 2
13 Aluminium Al 2.8.3 Al3+ 3 3
14 Silicon Si 2.8.4 Si4+/Si4- 3 4
15 Phosphorous P 2.8.5 P3- 3 5
16 Sulphur S 2.8.6 S2- 3 6
17 Chlorine Cl 2.8.7 Cl- 3 7
18 Argon Ar 2.8.8 Ar 3 8
19 Potassium K K+ 4 1
20 Calcium Ca Mg2+ 4 2
Elements With Different Symbols As Their Common Name
Element Latin Name Symbol
Sodium Natrium Na
Potassium Kalium K
Silver Argentum Ag
Iron Ferum Fe
Tin Stannum Sn
Lead Plumbun Pb
Gold Aurum Au
Copper Cuprum Cu
Tungsten Wolfram W
Mercury Hydrargyrum Hg
Usage of Periodic Table
• Used to predict properties of elements, even those that have not
been discovered.
• Columns (groups) and rows (periods) indicate elements that share
similar characteristics.
• Exhibits apparent trends in element properties.
• Provides important information used to balance chemical equations.
Periodic Trend
Group VIII (Group 0)
• Also known as noble gas
• Consists of helium (He), neon (Ne), argon
(Ar), krypton (Kr), Xenon (Xe) and radon (Rn)
• Chemically unreactive (inert)
• Exist in monoatomic gases because they
have stable electron arrangement
• Low melting point and boiling points
• Atomic size increases down the group
Physical Properties of Group VIII Elements
Uses of Group VIII Elements
• Helium
• Used to fill weather balloons and airships.
• Neon
• Used in advertising light and television tubes
• Argon
• Fill electric light bulbs
• Radon
• Used in the treatment of cancer
Group I
• Also known as alkali metals
• Consists of six elements: lithium (Li),
sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb),
caesium (Cs) and francium (Fr).
• Have one valence electron
• Soft metal can be cut with knife
• Good conductor of heat and electricity
• Quite low density compared with other
• Atomic size increases when going down
the group.
• Reactivity increases when going down the
Physical Properties of Group I Elements
When going down the group,
• Atomic size increases
• Melting point and boiling increases
• Density increases
• Reactivity towards oxygen and water increases
Chemical Properties of Group I Elements

• Form cation with +1 oxidation state.

• All soluble in water.
• Very reactive and must be kept in paraffin
• Avoid handling with bare hands and must
wear gloves.
• React vigorously in water
• 2Li + 2H2O à 2LiOH + H2
• Oxidize easily in the air
• 4Li + O2 à Li2O
Usage of Group I Element
• Lithium
• Used to form lithium ion batteries
• Sodium
• Used to form soda lime glass
• Potassium
• To make soap
• To produce fertilizer
Group VII
• Also known as halogen
• Consists of five elements: fluorine (F),
chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I)
and astatine (At).
• Exists as diatomic molecule
• Have seven valence electrons
• Reactivity decreases when going down
the group
• Poisonous non metal
Physical Properties of Group VII Elements
• When going down the group,
• Atomic size increases
• Melting point and boiling increases
• The physical state change from gas to solid
• Colour intensity increases
Chemical Properties of Group VII Elements

React with water to produce acidic solution

• Cl2 + H2O à HCl + HOCl

More reactive halogen will displace the less reactive metal halides
• Cl2 + 2KBr à 2KCl + Br2
Usage of Group VII Elements
• Fluorine
• Active ingredient in toothpaste.
• Chlorine
• Disinfectants for drinking water and swimming pool.
• Bromine
• Production of insecticides and dyes.
• Iodine
• Used as antiseptics to clear wound.
Transition Elements
• Possessed true metallic features with
some special properties
Special Properties of Transition Elements

• Can act as catalyst

• Nickel is used to speed up the hydrogenation
process that helps in the production of
• Exhibit variable oxidation number
• Iron can form Fe2+ and Fe3+
• Form colored compound
• CuSO4 is blue in colour and Fe(NO3)2 is green in
• Less reactive than group 1 and group 2 elements.
Usage of Some Transition Elements
• Iron
• Forms steel that used to make
building structure and automobiles.
• Used to make swords, nails,
horseshoes and utility hole covers.

• Copper
• Forms wires in electrical circuits and
lightning conductors
• Component of hot water cylinder
and pan
• Zinc
• Helps to prevent rusting by galvanising
• Production of some cells that help to
generate electricity

• Silver
• Manufacture of mirror, jewellery, coins
and ornaments.

• Mercury
• Used in thermometer
• Dental filling (amalgam)
Physical Properties of Metal and Non-Metal
Metals Properties Non metals
Shiny Lustre Dull
Very hard Hardness Not hard
Malleable and ductile Malleability and Ductility Non melleable and non
Very high Melting Point and Boiling Very low
Good conductor for heat Conductivity Poor conductor for heat
and electricity and electricity
High Density Low
Yes Magnetisms No
Solid Physical State at Room Solid, liquid or gas