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Thick-walled pressure vessels

𝐷
< 10
𝑡

Radial stress is no longer negligible

𝑝𝑖 𝑟𝑖 2 − 𝑝𝑜 𝑟𝑜 2 + 𝑟𝑖 2 𝑟𝑜 2 (𝑝𝑜 − 𝑝𝑖 )/𝑟 2
𝜎𝑟 =
𝑟𝑜 2 − 𝑟𝑖 2
𝑝𝑖 𝑟𝑖 − 𝑝𝑜 𝑟𝑜 − 𝑟𝑖 2 𝑟𝑜 2 (𝑝𝑜 − 𝑝𝑖 )/𝑟 2
2 2
𝜎𝑡 =
𝑟𝑜 2 − 𝑟𝑖 2
1
𝜏𝑚𝑎𝑥 = (𝜎𝑡 − 𝜎𝑟 )
2

Longitudinal stress must be included if ends are capped

𝑝𝑖 𝑟𝑖 2 − 𝑝𝑜 𝑟𝑜 2
𝜎𝑙 =
𝑟𝑜 2 − 𝑟𝑖 2

1 − 𝑣 (𝑝𝑖 𝑟𝑖 2 − 𝑝𝑜 𝑟𝑜 2 )𝑟 2
𝑢𝑟 =
𝐸 𝑟𝑜 2 − 𝑟𝑖 2

Applications
𝑷𝒊 = 𝟎 𝑷𝒐 = 𝟎
Submarine Gun barrel
Vacuum chamber Liquid- or gas-carrying pipe
Shrink fit Hydraulic cylinder
Buried pipe Gas storage tank

Example
1. Find the tangential, radial, and longitudinal stress for a pipe with an outer diameter of 5in, wall thickness of 0.5in, and
internal pressure of 4000psi. Calculate the radial displacement at rm.
2. Find the maximum allowable internal pressure for a pipe with outer radius of 3in and wall thickness of 0.25in if the
maximum allowable shear stress is 4000psi.
3. A steel cylinder is 160 mm ID and 320 mm OD. If it is subject to an internal pressure of 150 MPa, determine the radial
and tangential stress distribution from inner to outer. Determine the maximum shear stress in the cylinder. Assume it
has closed ends.

ChE 515: Equipment Design

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
A centrifugal pump imparts velocity to a liquid, but this velocity energy is transformed largely into pressure energy as the
liquid leaves the pump.
2.31𝑃
𝐻=
𝑆𝐺

The approximate head developed by the pump can be calculated if the impeller velocity is known.
𝑉2
𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑, 𝐻 =
2𝑔
𝑁∙𝐷
𝑉=
229

Capacity in a pipe and velocity of flow is directly proportional to the capacity of a pump for incompressible liquids.
𝑄 = 449 𝐴 ∙ 𝑉

The work performed by a pump is a function of the total head and the weight of the liquid pumped in a given time period.
Pump input or break horsepower (BHP) is the actual power delivered to the pump shaft. The pump output or hydraulic
horsepower (WHP) is the liquid power delivered by the pump. The BHP is greater than the WHP due to the mechanical and
hydraulic losses incurred in the pump.
𝑄 ∙ 𝑇𝐷𝐻 ∙ 𝑆𝐺
𝐵𝐻𝑃 =
3960 ∙ 𝜂
𝑊𝐻𝑃
𝜂=
𝐵𝐻𝑃

𝐻 = ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑, 𝑓𝑡 𝑄 = 𝑐𝑎𝑝𝑎𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦, 𝑔𝑝𝑚 𝑁 = 𝑟𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑝𝑒𝑒𝑑, 𝑟𝑝𝑚

𝑃 = 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒, 𝑝𝑠𝑖 𝑇𝐷𝐻 = 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑑𝑦𝑛𝑎𝑚𝑖𝑐 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 𝑉 = 𝑣𝑒𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑦 𝑜𝑓 𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑟, 𝑓𝑡⁄𝑠
𝐴 = 𝑐𝑟𝑜𝑠𝑠 − 𝑠𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒, 𝑓𝑡 2 𝜂 = 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑦 𝐷 = 𝑖𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑙𝑙𝑒𝑟 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟, 𝑖𝑛

TOTAL DYNAMIC HEAD, TDH

SUCTION HEAD exists when the source of supply is above the centerline of the pump. Static suction head is the vertical
distance from the centerline of the pump to the free level of liquid to be pumped.
𝑇𝐷𝐻 = 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 − 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑
𝑇𝐷𝐻 = (𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 + 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠) − (𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝑠𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 − 𝑠𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠)

SUCTION LIFT exists when the source of supply is below the centerline of the pump. Static suction lift is the vertical distance
from the centerline of the pump to the free level of liquid to be pumped.
𝑇𝐷𝐻 = 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 + 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑
𝑇𝐷𝐻 = (𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 + 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠) + (𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑐 𝑠𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑙𝑖𝑓𝑡 + 𝑠𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠)

*The maximum pump work is observed when the liquid level at the suction area is at its lowest: having the least positive

Lummus Rules gives an approximation of the ΔP allowed in case of non-boiling liquids and 0-250GPM entering and leaving
the pump (frictional losses).
∆𝑃𝑠𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 1𝑝𝑠𝑖/100𝑓𝑡
∆𝑃𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑔𝑒 = 6𝑝𝑠𝑖/100𝑓𝑡

NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD, NPSH

The total suction head determined at the suction nozzle, less the vapor pressure of the liquid. It is an analysis of energy
conditions on the suction side of a pump to determine if the liquid will vaporize at the lowest pressure point in the pump. The
NPSH required is a function of the pump design. It is the positive head to overcome pressure drops in the pump (causing
cavitation) and maintain the majority of the liquid above its vapor pressure.
𝑁𝑃𝑆𝐻 = 𝑡𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 − 𝑉𝑃 = 𝑃𝑎𝑏𝑠 ± 𝐻 − 𝑠𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑠 − 𝑉𝑃

The Affinity Laws of centrifugal pumps or fans indicate the influence on volume capacity, head (pressure) and power
consumption due to: change is speed of impeller and change in impeller diameter.
𝑄 =𝑁∙𝐷 𝐻 = 𝑁 2 ∙ 𝐷2 𝐵𝐻𝑃 = 𝑁 3 ∙ 𝐷3
ChE 515: Equipment Design