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The Traditional Roles of Women in a

Hmong, Hungarian and Mexican Society

Concepcion Thao & Yasmin Solares

1. Hmong- Laos
2. Hungarian- Hungary
3. Mexican- Mexico

POPULATION Figure 1. Female to Male ratio organized by age in Laos. 2016.

1. Laos: 7,126,706 (July 2017 est.)

2. Mexico: 124,574,795 (July 2017 est.)
3. Hungary: 9,850,845 (July 2017 est.)

Figure 2. Female to Male ratio organized by age in Hungary. 2016. Figure 3. Female to Male ratio organized by age in Mexico. 2016.
A Hmong Woman’s
● Mothers and daughters raise the
children and do the house chores

● Expected to married off at a young


● Obedient
● Boiled chicken with rice ● Rest for 1 months after birth giving
○ In-laws aid her
○ Should only be able to eat and take care of baby
○ Husband is taught how to take care of child as well
○ Husband’s relatives help take care of the home

“Calling in the Soul” of a New Baby Hu Plig

Three days after a baby is born, a qualified elder conducts a

ritual to summon the soul of the child into his or her body.
This rite can be compared to a christening, since the child’s
first name is given by the caller of the soul at this time. It is
customary to kill a pig or a cow and prepare many dishes
using the meat to serve the guests who attend. (Scripter,
Figure 4. Boiled chicken with lemongrass. Sami. Yang, Sheng.)
Hmong Cuisine
Nqaij Npua Hau Nrog Zaub Ntsuab - Boiled Pork with
Interview: 3/11/18
This is a staple meal that I love to eat. It’s simple and fills
Me: What was the most common food that was
me up. This is especially good for when you are sick. It’s made at home back in the day?
boiled pork, chinese broccoli, water and served with a side
of rice. Lots of food in hmong cuisine is mixed in with other Mom: Boiled greens with meat or simple stir fry
cultures but I can definitely say this is an original. minced meat with greens.
Dib Kaus - Hmong Cucumber Drink
A classic summer dessert dish. It is shredded home grown
Me: What were the main meats did you guys cook?
Hmong cucumber. We empty out the seeds and shred the
meat of the cucumber. To finish it off you simply add Mom: Pork and Chicken.
sugar and pop it on the fridge to chill.
Figure 5. Traditional boiled pork and green. Figure 6. Shredded cucumber dessert.
Event: New Year (Xyoo Tshiab)
● Food
● Sports
● Dancing and Singing Performances
● Beauty Pageants
● Concession Booths
● Hmong Clothing

In the United States you can attend a Hmong

New Year in California, Wisconsin, and North

Figure 7. Fresno HCNYC 2017-2018: Dance Comp Round 1 - Nkauj

Huab Ntsa
● Proposal
○ Formal
Last Names: ○ Gift Giving
○ Kidnapping
● Wedding
● Chang (Cha) ● Lee (Le or Ly) ● Dowry and Expenses
○ $3,000 - $10,000
● Cheng ● Lor (Lo)
● Chue (Chu) ● Moua (Mua)
● Fang ● Pha
● Hang ● Thao (Thor),
● Her (Herr or Heu) ● Vang (Va),
● Khang ● Vue (Vu)
● Kong ● Xiong
● Kue ● Yang (Ya)

Figure 8. Bride leaving with husband and their family.

Arts and Crafts: Story Clothes
In 1974 the USA pulled out of the Vietnam war the
Hmong people were persecuted as being marked as
traitors for working with the United States. They
were vulnerable to attack and left to fend for
themselves. The only choice was to escape to the
refugee camps in Thailand. As you see in the story
clothe many tried to cross the river by swimming or
by boat. My grandparents and family members who
escaped have stories of their own crossing this river.
My dad’s mom and dad crossed on a boat. These
boats were very susceptible to shootings as
crossing boats were a sign of Hmongs crossing.

Figure 9. Hmong refugees crossing the Mekong river.

● Silver coins
● Colorful
● Embroidery
● Silver Necklaces
● Headdresses

Figure 10. White Hmong Skirt.

Figure 13. Hmong Couples Attire.

Figure 11. Silver White Hmong Necklace. Figure 12. Hmong woman’s shirt.
A Hungarian Woman's Place
In a Hungarian household, the husband or father of the family would have
the most authority and is responsible for the family’s reputation.
The wife, or woman of the household would normally do common chores in
the house such as cooking and cleaning. She would also have to bear
children and take care of them within the household while the husband
worked. The only time the woman was able to take over the household was
when the husband had to leave for war. Once the husband went off to war,
the wife would carry out tasks that normally belonged to men, such as farm
Hungarian Dessert
This is a Hungarian dish called Beigli. It
is normally used during the holidays. It Figure 1. “Hungarian Poppy Seed and Walnut Rolls.” Visit Budapest,

is a sweet bread roll with walnut or

poppy seed filling (Figure 1). Beigli
looks similar to a Yule Log Cake (Figure
2), but it has a different filling and the
breading is much harder.
Figure 2. ¨Nutella Yule
Log Cake¨, Gourmand
Húsvét, or Easter in Hungary is
celebrated in many different ways. One 1.“Sprinkling
Tradition.” Think
of the traditions for an easter Hotels,
celebration is for the men or boys to painting-
recite a poem to a girl about how much traditions-easter-

of a pretty flower they are and how they

need water to grow, then the girl would
give the boy a treat or decorated eggs
as thanks, and the boy would splash
the girl with water or spray perfume
(Figure 1). This tradition can also be
Figure 2. Sprinkle Poem, Daily
used as a ritual for wives to be more Magyar.
fertile so that they can have children. m/2016/03/
● An interesting tradition for Hungarian women to be more fertile in hopes
to have a child, is to have water poured onto them by their husband
during the easter holiday.
● On the other hand, a ritual can also be used if a Hungarian woman would
not like to have any more children. She burns her child's placenta, then
mixes the ashes into her husbands drink.
Hungarian Weddings
Before they are married, the engaged
Hungarian couple would wear their
engagement rings on their left hands.
When they are finally married, then
they switch the rings to their rights
hands. They would also be showered
with grain, which represents wealth.
A traditional hungarian wedding dress
would be colorful with embroidered
designs. The bride would even wear
an elaborate headdress (Figure 1).

Figure 1, Traditional Wedding Outfits Around The World. Imgur.

● Jewelry
Traditional Hungarian jewelry would be made out
of seeds, shells, glass, and other various metals.
Today, Hungarian jewelry consists of porcelain
necklaces and earrings that are hand painted with Porcelain Necklace. Yasmin
floral designs. Solares. 1, May, 2018.

● Embroidery
Many of these designs are used on clothing,
tablecloths, doilies, pillow cases, etc. They mostly
consist of floral designs. Different regions have
different types of embroidery. The embroidery in
the region of Kalocsa consists of brightly colored
designs. The embroidery in the region of
Kalotaszeg consists of simply red, or blue, or
Hungarian Apron.
black colors. Yasmin Solares. 1, May,
Hungarian traditional
clothing for women include
colorful skirts, vests, and
aprons with a white top and
underskirt (Figure 1). The
colors or designs integrated
in the clothing represents
what region of Hungary Figure 1. “Traditional Dress of Hungary.” Pinterest,

they may be from.

A Mexican Woman's Place
A Mexican woman would normally stay inside the house, doing chores
or taking care of the children while the husband was out. The women
were not supposed to be independent. They were supposed to stay at
home, while the husband could go out whenever he wanted to. The
women had to put their family before themselves and they had to be
passive with their husbands. The only way the women could be in
charge of their houses was if their husbands died, they never got
married, or their husbands left them.
When a Mexican woman is pregnant, there are many superstitions or myths.
For example: if the woman’s belly is long, than the baby will be a boy, if the
woman’s belly is more wide, than it will be a girl. The birth of the baby is often
attended by family members and is done in the house. After birth, the women
have about forty days to recoup while the family makes remedies for her to be
healthy after the birth.
Mexican Dessert
Pan de dulce is a Mexican sweet bread. It
comes in all different flavors, colors, sizes,
and shapes. Some examples of popular pan
Figure 1, Conchas, Pan Dulce en México: Sabor, Mestizaje y Variedad,
dulces are conchas (Figure 1) or orejas Seccion Amarilla Blog, March 15, 2018,
(Figure 2). One of my favorites are the origen/

puerquitos (Figure 3).

Figure 3. Puerquitos, Bread

Friday: Puerquito, Mama Latina
Tips, March 15, 2018,
013/08/bread-friday- Figure 2, Orejas, Palmeres Dolces, Vitampleni,
puerquito.html March15, 2018,
Ceremonies and Events
Dia de los muertos or Day of the
Dead is a Mexican celebration in
which families put flowers, candies,
foods, and decorations on their Figure 1. Solares, Yasmin, October
2017, Dia de los muertos

deceased loved ones graves as gifts

and to celebrate the happy life they
once lived. Many people put on skull
makeup (Figure 1) or decorate little
skull candies (Figure 2) during the
Figure 2. Candy Skulls, The
celebration. Quest to Make Candy Skulls,
Littlest Martha, March 15, 2018,
Mexican weddings
During the wedding mass, both the bride
and groom kneel on pillows. An important
element of the wedding are the padrinos
(godfathers) and madrinas (godmothers)
who attend. They are important to the
bride and groom and help them both
emotionally and financially. The traditional
mexican women's wedding dress is made
by the family. The dress consists of
colorful and intricate floral designs. Mexican Wedding Dress. Finding Traditional Mexican Wedding Dresses.
Love To Know.
Serape. Ebay.

Arts m/images/g/jgwAA

● Serape
It is a piece of clothing that is used as a
shawl.These normally are brightly
colored in a striped pattern. This style
would then be used with hand woven Mexican Jewelry.
Durango Silver.
serape blankets, tablecloths, rugs, etc.

● Jewelry
Traditional Mexican jewelry would
consist of jade, silver, gold, shells, and
various other metals.
A Mexican dress for
women that are most
recognized are the
Jalisco dresses (Figure
1). These dresses are
brightly colored and are Figure 2. Cynthia G. Hernandez,Meet
the Elgin woman who went from an
used for dancing engineer to ballet dancer, Daily Herald,
March 15, 2018,
(Figure 2). Figure 1. Jalisco Gala Dress, Olveritas
Village, March 15, 2018,
Works Cited
“Hungary - 2016.”, Central Intelligence Agency, 22 Feb. 2018, \
“Lao - 2016.”, Central Intelligence Agency, 22 Feb. 2018,
“Mexico - 2016.”, Central Intelligence Agency, 22 Feb. 2018,
Pajnhiaj. “Nqaij Npua Hau Nrog Zaub Ntsuab - Boiled Pork with Greens.”, HubPages
Inc., 7 Oct. 2013,
Cassandra. “Boss Tossing.”,, 9 Jan. 2015,
“A Culture of Bride Abduction.” Compassion International Blog, Compassion International, 17 Jan. 2014,
Scripter, Sami. Yang, Sheng. Cooking from the Heart the Hmong Kitchen in America.
Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2009. Web. 19 Apr., 2018.
MB. “Traditional Hmong Weddings and Marriages.” A Hmong Woman, 8 Oct. 2011,
E-Portfolio Slide: Locations of Hungary, Laos and Mexico

Figure 2. Map of North America.

Figure 1. Political Map of Europe. Figure 3. Map of South East Asia.