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Fauna: Flora: (continued) Food Web:

Zebra mussels - originally ❖ Duckweed


native to lakes of Russia ❖ Bulrush
& Ukraine. In 1988, this
animal was unknowingly
❖ Stonewort
transported to North America & invaded the Great ❖ Bladderwort
Lakes. Zebra mussels are very motile & have a
muscular foot to move around & have strong
excretory organs to battle the flow of water.
Symbiotic Relationships:
Freshwater turtles - have developed a strong shell to
shield themselves from predators & other unknown
Parasitism - “a relationship between species,
threats. Key examples of freshwater turtles are
where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in
snapping turtles, who can bite w/ great force to fend
another organism, the host, causing it some harm, Producers - aquatic plants, algae, seaweed, plankton
off predators.
and is adapted structurally to this way of life”
❖ Clear lake hitch Primary - crabs, mussels, crayfish, aquatic insects
ex. relationship between freshwater sponges &
❖ Diving ducks - deep spongilla fly — spongilla flies lay their eggs on the Secondary - fish (big & small)
lakes
sponge, and when the eggs hatch, the flies feed off Tertiary - seals, seagulls, birds
❖ Puddle ducks - of the sponge.
shallow lakes
Commensalism - “a relationship between
❖ Freshwater crayfish
individuals of two species in which one species Interesting Facts:
obtains food or other benefits from the other
Flora: without either harming or benefiting the latter” • There are about 117 million lakes that cover
almost 4% of the world's surface
ex. relationship between small fish & species of
pondweed — pondweed provides protection & • Lake Baikal (located in Siberia) is the deepest &
Water lilies - rooted in oldest freshwater lake in the world
shelter to fish, but the pondweed is not affected
soil at the bottom of
lakes w/ leaves & • Alaska has more lakes (3 million) than any other
American state
flowers visible at the
surface. Leaves & Human Impact: • Most of the world's lakes are in Canada, Russia,
flowers do not Alaska, Sweden and Finland
permeate the water's Freshwater ecosystems located near cities or
surface very deeply. Floating leaves are broad & flat towns are threatened by runoff & pollution.
to gather the most amount of sunlight. Industrial pollution, agricultural fertilizers &
pesticides, and wastewater from sewage plants
Cattail - spread seeds in two ways. 1. they use the & livestock can greatly harm wildlife within
freshwater biomes.
wind to spread their “fluffy” seeds & discourage
over-population by emitting a toxin to prevent Through the construction of hydroelectric
germination of their species. 2. they use roots called dams & irrigation reservoirs, humans alter and
destroy freshwater ecosystems. Human over-
rhizomes that grow new shoots quickly, providing consumption of water also poses a big threat to
great cover for many animals. these biomes and puts pressure on aquatic
populations.