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HEAT LOSS IN BARE AND LAGGED PIPES

Heat is supplied from the condensation of steam into the pipe to be test. The test
section is consists of four 10 ft lengths of 1-inch standard steel pipe mounted on a
framework of welded 2 inch steel angles. The lengths are bare pipe, silver-chrome paint pipe,
85% magnesia insulation, and silver chrome paint. The test pipes are connected to a common
header into which steam is introduced either directly from the main or from a line containing
a reducing valve. Surface temperatures are measured by using a thermocouple.
1. Introduction
Pipe insulation is the thermal insulation used to prevent heat loss and gain
from pipes, to save energy and improve effectiveness of thermal systems. It can
prevent condensation forming, as the surface temperature of the insulation will vary
from the surface temperature of the pipe. Condensation will not occur, provided that
(a) the insulation surface is above the dewpoint temperature of the air; and (b) the
insulation incorporates some form of water-vapour barrier or retarder that prevents
water vapour from passing through the insulation to form on the pipe surface.

The objectives of this experiment are 1.) to determine the convection


coefficient hc at various temperatures from different surfaces bare pipes, pipe painted
with silver-chrome paint, paint, and 85% magnesia insulation 2.) to determine the
lagging efficiency.

Heat energy transferred between a surface and a moving fluid at different


temperatures is known as convection. In reality this is a combination of diffusion and
bulk motion of molecules. Near the surface the fluid velocity is low, and diffusion
dominates. Away from the surface, bulk motion increase the influence and
dominates. The convective heat transfer coefficient - hc - is dependent on the type of
media, gas or liquid, the flow properties such as velocity, viscosity and other flow
and temperature dependent properties. The resistance to the flow of heat by the
material of pipe wall can be expressed as a "heat transfer coefficient of the pipe
wall". However, one needs to select if the heat flux is based on the pipe inner or the
outer diameter.
2. Materials and methods
The materials that are used during this experiment were boiler, test pipes (bare, paint,
silver-chrome paint, and 85% magnesia insulation), thermocouple, beakers, graduated
cylinder and stopwatch.

2.1 Procedure:

Steam pressure was made run at approximately 30 psig for each run.

3. Results:

𝑊
%𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑 = ∗ 100
𝑊𝑡

2 Minutes 4 Minutes

Mesh Trial 1 (%) Trial 2 (%)


20 2.84 0.715
40 17.255 32.415
Mesh Trial 1 (%) Trial 2 (%)
60 11.05 20.61
20 0.6 0.31
80 28.16 18.79
40 4.63 15.155
100 35.045 24.285
60 19.805 19.18
200 3.865 2.39
80 24.01 20.57
Pan 0.35 0.38
100 36.795 37.35
200 12.16 6.225
6 Minutes Pan 1.41 0.755

Mesh Trial 1 (%) Trial 2 (%)


20 1.575 2.205
40 16.11 20.749
60 5.97 8.3
80 10.605 10.645
100 47.455 46.54
200 14.845 5.315
Pan 2.85 0.675

Mesh Trial 1 (%) Trial 2 (%) 𝐶𝑜𝑚𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑣𝑒 % 𝑟𝑒𝑡𝑎𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑑


20 1.575 2.205
2 Minutes 4 Minutes
40 17.685 23
60 23.655 31.3
80 34.26 41.945 Mesh Trial 1 (%) Trial 2 (%)
100 81.705 88.485 20 0.6 0.31
200 96.55 93.8 40 5.23 15.465
Pan 99.4 94.475 60 25.035 34.645
6 Minutes
80 49.045 55.215
100 85.84 92.565
200 98 98.79
Pan 99.41 99.545

ITEM TEST NUMBER

Test 1 (2 mins) Test 2 (4 mins) Test 3 (6 mins)


Trial Trial
Mesh Trial 1 (%) 1 Trial 2
2 (%) Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 1 Trial 2
Feed
20 2.84 0.715
Material
40 20.095Ca2CO3 33.15Ca2CO3 Ca2CO3 Ca2CO3 Ca2CO3 Ca2CO3
Quantity
60 (g) 31.145 200 53.74 200 200 200 200 200
Through
80 59.305 72.53
retained
100 94.35 96.815
20 98.215
- 200 5.68 99.205 1.43 1.20 0.62 3.15 4.41
Pan mesh98.65 99.585
-20 40 34.51 64.68 9.26 30.31 32.22 41.59
mesh mesh
-40 60
22.10 41.22 39.61 38.36 11.94 16.60
mesh mesh
-60 80
56.32 37.58 48.02 41.14 21.21 21.29
mesh mesh
-80 100
70.04 48.57 73.59 74.70 94.89 93.08
mesh mesh
-100 200
7.73 4.78 24.32 12.45 29.64 10.63
mesh mesh
-200
pan 0.70 0.76 2.82 1.51 5.70 1.35
mesh
Total 197.13 199.17 198.82 199.09 198.8 188.95

4. Discussion:

It was observed that finer solids pass through as the solid particles go down the
bottom. The time of shaking contributes to the amount of fine particles settling down at the
bottom. The longer the shaking time, the more particles at the bottom (pan). Coarse particles
remained at the top since it can’t pass through the mesh.

5. Conclusion:

The fine particles only pass the sieve (bottom) coarse particles remain on the topmost
layer. The time of shaking also affects the amount of particles passing through the mesh.
Particle distribution is important in the quality assurance for the production of bulk goods.
Sieve analysis is commonly used in the particle size determination to have accurate sieve
analysis, some factors such as the samples being analyzed.

6. References:
[1] Christie John Geankoplis Transport Processes & Separation, fourth edition,
Pearson New International Edition 2015

[2] David M. Himmelblau / James B. Riggs Principles of Chemical Engineering,


Pearson Education, Inc, 2004

[3] Perry’s Chemical Engineering Handbook 8th edition