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Interconnecting Cisco Networking

Devices Part 1
ICND1 100-101

Instructor
Paul A. Parker

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Chapter 29

IPv6 Addressing and Subnetting

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Chapter 29
Foundation Topics
v Global Unicast Addressing Concepts
▼ Review of Public IPv4 Addressing Concepts
➘  The company or organization asked for and received the rights to
the exclusive use of a public Class A, B, or C IPv4 network number.
➘  The engineers at that company subdivided that classful network into
smaller subnets, making sure to use each subnet in only one place in
the company.
➘  The engineers chose
individual IPv4
addresses from within
each subnet, making
sure to use each
address for only one
host interface.

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Chapter 29
Global Unicast Addressing Concepts
v The following each need a separate IPv4 subnet:
▼ VLAN
▼ Point-to-point serial link
▼ Ethernet emulation WAN link (EoMPLS)
▼ Frame Relay PVC (not discussed in detail until the ICND2)

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Chapter 29
Global Unicast Addressing Concepts
v Public and Private IPv6 Addresses
▼ Global Unicast: Addresses that work like public IPv4 addresses.
The organization that needs IPv6 addresses asks for a registered
IPv6 address block, which is assigned as a global routing prefix.
After that, only that organization uses the addresses inside that
block of addresses, that is, the addresses that begin with the
assigned prefix.
▼ Unique Local: Works somewhat like private IPv4 addresses,
with the possibility that multiple organizations use the exact
same addresses, and with no requirement for registering with
any numbering authority

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Chapter 29
Global Unicast Addressing Concepts
v The IPv6 Global Routing Prefix
▼ That reserved block of IPv6 addresses—a set of addresses that
only one company can use— is called a global routing prefix.
Each organization that wants to connect to the Internet, and use
IPv6 global unicast addresses, should ask for and receive a global
routing prefix. Very generally, you can think of the global routing
prefix like an IPv4 Class A, B, or C network number from the
range of public IPv4 addresses.
▼ The term global routing prefix might not make you think of a
block of IPv6 addresses at first. The term actually refers to the
idea that Internet routers can have one route that refers to all
the addresses inside the address block, without a need to have
routes for smaller parts of that block.

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Chapter 29
Global Unicast Addressing Concepts
v Prefix Assignment with IANA, RIRs, and ISPs
▼  1. IANA gives ARIN prefix 2001::/16: ARIN (the RIR for North
America) asks IANA for the assignment of a large block of addresses. In
this imaginary example, IANA gives ARIN a prefix of “all addresses that
begin 2001,” or 2001::/16.
▼  2. ARIN gives NA-ISP1 prefix 2001:0DB8::/32: NA-ISP1, an
imaginary ISP based in North America, asks ARIN for a new IPv6 prefix.
ARIN takes a subset of its 2001::/16 prefix, specifically all addresses that
begin with the 32 bits (8 hex digits) 2001:0DB8, and gives it to the ISP.
▼  3. NA-ISP1 gives Company 1 2002:0DB8:1111::/48: Company 1
decides to start supporting IPv6, so it goes to its ISP, NA-ISP1, to ask
for a block of global unicast addresses. NA-ISP1 gives Company 1 a
“small” piece of NA-ISP1’s address block, in this case the addresses
that begin with the 48 bits (12 hex digits) of 2001:0DB8:1111
(2001:0DB8:1111::/48).

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Chapter 29
Global Unicast Addressing Concepts
v Address Ranges for Global Unicast Addresses
▼ Originally, IANA reserved all IPv6 addresses that begin with hex 2
or 3 as global unicast addresses. (This address range can be
written succinctly as prefix 2000::/3.)
▼ Later RFCs made the global unicast address range wider,
basically include all IPv6 addresses not otherwise allocated for
other purposes.

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Chapter 29
Global Unicast Addressing Concepts
v Mechanics of Subnetting IPv6 Global Unicast Addresses
▼ IPv6 uses a similar concept for
subnetting as IPv4.
▼ Instead of the classful network
address, IPv6 uses the Global
Routing Prefix.
▼ Instead of the host bits, IPv6
uses the Interface ID.

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Chapter 29
Global Unicast Addressing Concepts
v List All IPv6 Subnets
▼ To find all the subnet IDs, you simply need to find all the unique
values that will fit inside the subnet part of the IPv6 address,
basically following these rules:
➘  All subnet IDs begin with the global routing prefix.
➘  Use a different value in the subnet field to identify each different
subnet.
➘  All subnet IDs have all 0s in the interface ID.
▼ The IPv6 subnet ID, more formally called the subnet router
anycast address, is reserved, and should not be used as an IPv6
address for any host.

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Chapter 29
Global Unicast Addressing Concepts
v Assign Subnets to the Internetwork Topology
▼ After an engineer lists all the possible subnet IDs (based on the
subnet design), the next step is to choose which subnet ID to
use for each link that needs an IPv6 subnet. Just like with IPv4,
each VLAN, each serial link, each EoMPLS link, and many other
data link instances need an IPv6 subnet.

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Chapter 29
Global Unicast Addressing Concepts
v Assigning Addresses to Hosts in a Subnet
▼ The process of assigning IPv6 addresses to interfaces works
similarly to IPv4. Addresses can be configured statically, along
with the prefix length, default router, and DNS IPv6 addresses.
Alternately, hosts can learn these same settings dynamically,
using either DHCP or other a built-in IPv6 mechanism called
Stateless Address Autoconfiguration, or SLAAC.

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Chapter 29
Unique Local Unicast Addresses
v  Unique local unicast addresses act as private IPv6 addresses. These
addresses have many similarities with global unicast addresses,
particularly in how to subnet. The biggest difference lies in the literal
number (unique local addresses begin with hex FD).
▼ Unique local addresses need to follow some rules, as follows:
➘  Use FD as the first two hex digits.
➘  Choose a unique 40-bit global ID.
➘  Append the global ID to “FD” to create a 48-bit prefix, used as the
prefix for all your addresses.
➘  Use the next 16 bits as a subnet field.
➘  Note that the structure leaves a convenient 64-bit interface ID field.

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Chapter 29
Unique Local Unicast Addresses
v Subnetting with Unique Local IPv6 Addresses
▼ Subnetting using unique local addresses works just like
subnetting with global unicast addresses with a 48-bit global
routing prefix. The only difference is that with global unicasts,
you start by asking for a global routing prefix to be assigned to
your company, and that global routing prefix might or might not
have a /48 prefix length. With unique local, you create that prefix
locally, and the prefix begins with /48, with the first 8 bits set
and the next 40 bits randomly chosen.

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Chapter 29
Unique Local Unicast Addresses
v The Need for Global Unique Local Addresses
▼ Given freedom to choose, most people would pick an easy-to-
remember, short-to-type prefix, like FD00:1:1::/48. However, for
use in real corporate networks you should try and follow the
unique local address rules that strive to help make your
addresses unique in the universe—even without registering a
prefix with an ISP or RIR.
▼ RFC 4193 defines unique local addresses. Part of that RFC
stresses the importance of choosing your global ID in a way to
make it statistically unlikely to be used by other companies. Plan
on using the random number generator logic listed in RFC 4193
to create your prefix.

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Chapter 29
Exam Preparation Tasks

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Questions?

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