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C H A m R7

Boundary layers on flat plates andin


ducts

7.1 L = 15 m; B = 4.0 + 2 X 0.5 = 5.0 m

Assuming t h a t t h e t u r b u l e n t b o u n d a r y l a y e r d e v e l o p s

a t t h el e a d i n ge d g e :

a) total drag = Cf B L p -
u02
2
(equation 7.5 )

C f = 0.074/(ReL) 'l5 ( e q u a t i o n 7.11)


v = 1.2793 x I O - ~m Z / s

- -
ReL -
uOL
- 2.345 107
V

.*.
n

Cf = 2.4843 X 10-'

Drag = 2.4843 X 10-3 X 5 X 15 X 1024 X 2

= 381.6 N
T h i c k n e s s of b o u n d a r yl a y e r a t downstreamedge:

- 0.37L = 0.186 m ( e q u a t i o n 7.8)


6L - 115
( ReL )

2 v
1 l4
b) T = 0.0225 p V. (-) (equation 7.9 )
0
u06
A t mid-length e= 0.37 X 7.5/(Re0.5L )l15

-
uo X 7.5
Reo. 5L
- = 1.1725 X 10 7
V

= 1.0701 X 10-1 m

103
-6 114
1.2793o.10701
X 10
T = 0.0225 X 1024 X 4 (
0

= 4.56 N / m 2

7.2

Wetted perimeter = 21-0 = 2 X 1 X -


71
180
X 120 = 4.19 m
L = 6.0 m

Cf = 0.074/(ReL)1/5 = 2.4527 X 10-3

= 2.4527 X 10-3 X 4.19 X 6 X 1000 X 2512

= 770.8N

b) Combined drag due to laminar and turbulent boundary


layers (equation 7.12)
2
1.33 xo 0.074 xo
Fs = (
112
+ 0.074 L - 1/5) Bp 2
uO

Re 'l5 Re
X90 ReL X9 0

Re
X 9 0
= 500000; .*. X 0 = 0.12 m

..
e ((500000)112
X + 2.4527 X 10-3 X 6 -

25
6.436 X 10-4) 4.19 X 1000 X

= 748.9 N

104
7.3
( S e se e c t i o n
7.5
of text)
T h ee f f e c t i v e area o f i d e a l ( u n i f o r m ) f l u i d f l o w is
(B - 26*) (D - a*) i nw h i c h B a n d D a r e t h ew i d t ha n d

d e p t ho ft h ed u c ta n d 6* t h ed i s p l a c e m e n tt h i c k n e s s .

6* = 6L/8

- 0*37 L i n which L is t h e d i s t a n c e f r o m t h e
&L - 115
ReL
start o ft h eb o u n d a r yl a y e rt ot h es p e c i f i e d section.
.. = 0.137 m a n d 6 * = 0.0171 m

.‘. E f f e c t i v e area = 0.9658 X 0.4658 = 0.44987 m2

Continuity: .A .U = AL
UL

... UL = 22.23 rnls

7.4 -v - - 5 .l7o5g f + 8
( e. 5q u a t i7o. n
27)
V*

and ”;*” 6
- - 5.75 l o g r; + 8.5 (ii)

0.2 -
From (i) a n d ( i i ) 7 - 5 . 7 5l o g 2

.*. v* = 0.1155 rnls

Substitutingin ( i ) o r ( i i ) y i e l d s k = 0.0019 m ( 1 . 9 5 mm>


A t y = 25 m v = v *( 5 . 7 5l o g 25 + 8.5)
0.00195

= 3.7 rnls

7*5 I-
V*
= 5.75 l o g + 5(.e5q u a t i 7
o .n2 3 )

”;*”
- - - 5.75 log ( v* X 0.05) + 5.5
1 X 10-6
.*. v* = 0.128 m / s ( =

105
Boundary shear stress T~ = 16.38 N / m 2

Hydraulic gradient: Sf = p =cl


g =~ 10004X X 9.81
16.38
X 0.1

(equation 4.3 1
= 0.067

Discharge:

Q = - 2A J2gD Sf log

= 23.65 l/s
Thickness of laminar sub-layer:
6 = -11.6~ (equation 7.33)
V*

6 = 11.6 X 1 X 10-6 = 9.1 x I O - ~m


0.128

= 0.091 mm

7.6
V
-
V*
- 5.75 log E + 8.5
50
At y = 50 m
m: -
V*
- 5.75 log -
k + 8.5 (i)

At y = 150 m
m: -674 -
V*
5.75 log -
150 + 8.5
k
(ii)

150
- - 5.75 log 50
-.251
V*

:. V* = 0,0915 m/s ( = -1

... T~ = 8.3 7 N / m 2
Sf = 0.0114

From (i) i:ti;5 = 5.75 log F + 8.5

whence k = 2.97 mm

Q = - 2A J2gD Sf log
[& + 2.51~
DJ2gD Sf
1
106
= 9 4 . 0 3 11s

2gD A 2 Sf
X =
Q=

-v,ax
- - 5.75 l o g D + 8.5
V*

D
V*
- v = 5.75 log (--)
2Y
(b) smooth 5 = 5.75 log ( F ) 5.5
+

v *D + 5.5
- - 5.75 log (X)
-Vmax
v*

*max - v = 5.75 log (-)


D
V*
2Y

107