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Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology

Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology Project Name: Line- Maze Solver Robot Using Arduino Department -

Project Name: Line-Maze Solver Robot Using Arduino

Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology Project Name: Line- Maze Solver Robot Using Arduino Department -

Department - EEE Year- 2 nd Semester-2 nd Student ID-12.01.05.006

12.01.05.007 12.01.05.008 11.02.05.046 11.02.05.047
12.01.05.007
12.01.05.008
11.02.05.046
11.02.05.047
Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology Project Name: Line- Maze Solver Robot Using Arduino Department -
Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology Project Name: Line- Maze Solver Robot Using Arduino Department -

LINE-MAZE SOLVER ROBOT USING ARDUINO

Sumaiya Zaman, Afia Sultana, Nipun Butlero, Zarin Tabassum, Sanjucta Biswas

Department of EEE, Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Equipments:

2 micro gear motors

Pair of motor brackets

Pair of wheels

Ball caster

Analog reflectance sensor array

Motor driver IC

Battery holder

Vero board

Arduino Mega 2560

Rechargeable batteries

Hook up wire

Female and Male headers

Soldering iron

Wire strippers

Bolts and nuts that fit the spacers

Screw driver

Something to cut the wire with

Art papers to make Maze

Black papers

Block diagram:
Block diagram:
LINE-MAZE SOLVER ROBOT USING ARDUINO Sumaiya Zaman, Afia Sultana, Nipun Butlero, Zarin Tabassum, Sanjucta Biswas Department

Working Principle:

The main work is based on IR. Sensor transmits IR. It is known that when light falls on white surface it

gets reflected. On the other hand if light falls on black surface it is totally absorbed. This concept is

completely followed here.

When IR falls on black line, it is absorbed. So that receiver doesn’t get any IR. Similarly, when IR falls

on white line it is reflected. Thus receiver receives IR. This particular concept we used to programme a microcontroller named Arduino Mega 2256.

White line gives an ADC value above 900, while black line gives an ADC value ideally below 100. In our project the programme code is written such that for IR-3 and IR-4 an ADC value below 100. So that it will make both the motor more forward. So if the IR-3 & IR-4 find out black line then the body starts moving.

First

we simply attached the motors to the top side

can simply solder the power leads straight to the back of the Arduino. The robot is now complete.

Project Image :

Front view
Front view

Side view

First we simply attached the motors to the top side can simply solder the power leads
First we simply attached the motors to the top side can simply solder the power leads
First we simply attached the motors to the top side can simply solder the power leads

of the bottom deck. We have to line the "D" shaped shaft up with hole in the center of the wheel. We used Arduino Mega 2560 for coding. In arduino we used 9 pin strip of female headers on the left side of the board from pins labeled "5v" to "A0". This will mate with the sensor plug later. Solder a 4 pin strip of female headers on the right side of the board from pins. These pins will be used to control the motor driver. Finally solder a 2 pin strip of female headers on the front right of the board on the GND and 5V pins. These will supply power to the motor driver. we give inputs of the motor driver. The Arduino digital output 7 gets wired to what I have labeled as "In 1A". This is the first input of the first motor. The Arduino digital output 6 gets wired to what I have labeled as "In 1B". This is the second input of the first motor. The Arduino digital output 5 gets wired to what I have labeled as "In 2A". This is the first input of the second motor. The Arduino digital output 8 gets wired to what I have labeled as "In 2B". This is the second input of the second motor. Finally Power and ground get connected to the Arduino's 5v and GND pins at the front of the board. The main part of our project is programming. We completed our coding and input it in Arduino.

First we simply attached the motors to the top side can simply solder the power leads
First we simply attached the motors to the top side can simply solder the power leads

The sensor comes as an array of 8 sensors. There are

First we simply attached the motors to the top side can simply solder the power leads
  • 2 on the end that can be removed and need to be

First we simply attached the motors to the top side can simply solder the power leads

removed. We used a pair of side cutters to do this. A

  • 9 pin strip of female headers has to be soldered on to the sensor from "GND" to pin "6" of the sensor.

First we simply attached the motors to the top side can simply solder the power leads
First we simply attached the motors to the top side can simply solder the power leads

Then we plugged in a strip of male headers. These sensors put out an analog voltage based on how much IR light are being reflected back. We can use these to detect the white and black areas on the maze. The sensor outputs a low voltage near 0V if the sensor detects a white surface. The sensor outputs a voltage near VIN if it detects a dark surface.

First we simply attached the motors to the top side can simply solder the power leads
First we simply attached the motors to the top side can simply solder the power leads
First we simply attached the motors to the top side can simply solder the power leads
First we simply attached the motors to the top side can simply solder the power leads

We have to do is wire the battery pack to the Arduino. This is done by soldering the wires to the power pins at the rear of the Arduino. The battery pack has a built in power switch so that is why we

First we simply attached the motors to the top side can simply solder the power leads

Troubleshooting:

1. The most significant problem with this project was integrating the "line sensing" part with the "car driving" part. Individually line sensors work fine and give correct output based on the line. But if we integrate these two modules, then car sometimes skip line sensing. Possible reasons are sensor introduces noise/spike. To solve this problem we tried different kinds of sensors and emitters. At last the available best effect was achieved by using IR- emitter and photo sensor (receiver).

  • 2. At first we construct the circuit in bread board but

we faced some difficulties. Thats why we

constructed it in Vero board.

Future Works:

  • 1. The next stage of development for the robot will

  • 3. Our connection was not perfect at first, so we use

jumper wires to avoid loose connection.

  • 4. Another major problem was synchronizing two

consist in adding to it a powerful digital signal processor and a video camera. In this way the area of applications will include digital image processing.

motors. Two stepper motors have slight difference in RPM. To solve this problem we used additional 3 sensors serially. These three sensors were used and program was coded in such a way so that car can adjust/fine tune to be in track even if there was little

difference in RPM.

  • 5. Power Source was a problem as we needed 12V to

drive the motor-driver. If 9V and 3V is used in series

to make 12V, same effect cannot be achieved and battery discharges quickly. So we had to use 3 batteries including 4 volt each which gives us 12V battery.

  • 6. We tried to make the car construction first, but it

could not be made properly by us so car structure was made from the carpentry shop. But as it was too

heavy for motor to drive, we replaced it with a body of lightweight material.

  • 2. We can develop the body with heavy materials in

2. At first we construct the circuit in bread board but we faced some difficulties. Thats

future.

  • 3. We will use high quality sensors and can also extend

2. At first we construct the circuit in bread board but we faced some difficulties. Thats

the size of our maze.

2. At first we construct the circuit in bread board but we faced some difficulties. Thats
2. At first we construct the circuit in bread board but we faced some difficulties. Thats
2. At first we construct the circuit in bread board but we faced some difficulties. Thats
  • 7. After sensing the line, light sensors give a voltage.

This voltage varies between a range when the line is

2. At first we construct the circuit in bread board but we faced some difficulties. Thats
2. At first we construct the circuit in bread board but we faced some difficulties. Thats

black. To give binary output, we had to check it using reference voltage.Even different chips should give voltage between same ranges; it does not do it practically. So we had to manually check every sensor to set a reference voltage and made the reference voltage using different resistors.

2. At first we construct the circuit in bread board but we faced some difficulties. Thats
2. At first we construct the circuit in bread board but we faced some difficulties. Thats
  • 8. There was problem in loading the code. After so

2. At first we construct the circuit in bread board but we faced some difficulties. Thats

many verifications we could be able to construct the code.

2. At first we construct the circuit in bread board but we faced some difficulties. Thats

Applications:

2. At first we construct the circuit in bread board but we faced some difficulties. Thats
2. At first we construct the circuit in bread board but we faced some difficulties. Thats
2. At first we construct the circuit in bread board but we faced some difficulties. Thats

Line- Maze solver is an autonomous robot that solves a maze with the help of an overhead camera using image processing principles. Line-Maze solver robot is an industrial robot. If the robot has to find out a particular thing, then it will go to find out that thing in usual way but it returns in shortest possible way it can. So it can save time.