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 Because of, due to, based on, owing to, by reason of, as a result of, attributable to, thanks to,
Since, as, caused by, consequently, thus, therefore, accordingly, subsequently, as a result,
 on account of, in respect of, for the sake of, towards, accounting to
o a reason, effect, aim, motive, motivation, intention, purpose, necessary, causative, necessity, out
of necessity, indispensable, essential, requisite, vital, crucial, obligatory, central

additionally, moreover, furthermore, also, as well, in addition, besides, moreover, further, besides

While, Though, Although, Whereas, Even though, Despite the fact, Despite the fact that, But, However

o Nevertheless, Yet, But, However, Nonetheless, Still, Though, On the other hand, Nevertheless,
o contrary,
o resistive, resist, struggle, counterattack, repel, counter acting,
o admire, appreciate, approve, like, respect, support, backing, assistance, aid, sponsorship,
o protect
o contradict, deny, reverse, oppose, challenge, dispute, refute,
o resort to,
o feel, sense, impression, sensation, atmosphere, insights,
o inference, infer, imply, deduce, conclude
o cause, affect, effect, reason,
o purpose
o gist, substance, essence, central theme, heart of the matter, nub, kernel, core, summary, extract,
essence, abstract, recap,
o Latin and Greek roots of English words: bio (Life, Biology- Science of life), cardi (heart, Cardiac-
relating to the heart), retro (back, Retrospect- review past events), vac (empty, Vacant- not
o Directing, recommending, complaining, Agreeing/Disagreeing, Questioning, Conforming
o The stance of the speaker: Calm or emotional, relaxed or nervous, certain or confused,
enthusiastic or bored.
o Signal words:
 (first, next, then, second, finally)
 After, at last, before, during, now, since
 Obviously, of course
 Accordingly, as a result, because, for example, for instance
 In conclusion, to summarize
Toefl sections:
Questions’ types: Tips and tricks:
Factual vs. negative factual o According to certain paragraphs
information sections o Evaluate all the options sorted by their estimated correctness
values then accordingly conduct an elimination process.
o Eliminate if not in the paragraph or contradicts information
from the paragraph.
Inference (infer, imply, etc.) and o Not explicitly stated in the reading passage
rhetoric (why) purpose o Eliminate wrong answers first, if the wright one if less
questions apparent.
o For lengthy lists of viable answers, especially for the rhetoric
“why” questions, only first statements of the answers could be
utilized during the elimination process.
Vocabulary  Meanings of words and phrases as they have been introduced
in the reading passage.
 The actual strategy for such questions is merely to raise your
academic vocabulary repository.
 Roots of words as a means for expanding the vocabulary’s
Sentence simplification  Identify a sentence that maintains the intrinsic meaning of
questions that of the corresponding paragraph.
 Don’t worry about the minor or detailed information, only the
obvious central ideas of the summarized sentence.
 Incorrect choices neglect important information or change the
meaning in important ways.
 Cause/effect or conclusion based on evidence.
 Identify main ideas and the related subordinate, detailed,
Insert text  Understand the logical order of ideas in the reading passage.
 Always look for the PRONOUNS and then locate the inserted
sentence in a location that maintains the integrity of these
 Common pronouns may include (this/these, that/those,
they/them, him/her, he/she/it, which)
Prose summary or fill in a table  Identify the major ideas and the relative importance of the
ideas in the reading passage.
 In the prose question, you would select three choices out of
six available ones.
 The deserted incorrected choices would either misrepresent
information or discuss minor points.
 The fill in tables categorizes the given statements into two
distinct classes.
 The statements’ inclusion of minor ideas is a significant
indictor of its incorrectness.
Questions’ types: Tips and tricks:
Gist-content / gist-purpose  The gist is the main point or key idea.
 Gist-content is what is the main idea (mainly about, mainly
discussing). Gist-purpose is “Why” this is happening (why the
student? what is the main purpose?).
 Either of these two types would be present in the questions,
but not both, and they are always the first question.

Detailed questions  Specific facts about the lecture or the conversation.
 Phrases like “according to ” or “what is …?”
 Note-taking for important rather than trivial details.
 Remembering remembering
Function questions  A particular meaning of a statement in a given context.
 Directing, recommending, complaining,
Agreeing/Disagreeing, Questioning, Conforming.
Attitude questions  Speaker’s attitude of feelings.
 Phrases like “what I think” or “It seems to me”
 The tone of the speaker’s voice “apologizing, blaming,
suspecting, etc.”
 Calm or emotional, relaxed or nervous, certain or confused,
enthusiastic or bored.
Organization questions  How a lecture is structured?
 Why is a certain detailed proposition is mentioned by the
 Listen for signal words that signifies “Introduction, major
ideas, Examples, Conclusions”
 The words at which notes should be taken may include (first,
next, then, second, finally) (After, at last, before, during,
now, since) (Obviously, of course) (Accordingly, as a result,
because, for example, for instance) (In conclusion, to
Connecting content questions  Relationships amongst ideas in the lecture.
Understanding the paragraphs:
1. Skimming
2. Note taking