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Common Cold

 4 types based on season, virulence of infectious agents and weakness of individual’s immune
system)
1. Common Cold (mild cases)
2. Severe Cold (severe cases)
3. Influenza (severe contagious cases)
4. Cold due to weak immune system (weak resistance against pathogens)

 S/S: headache, stiff neck, body aches, nasal congestion, sneezing, chills & fever
 Complicated by:
1. Dampness in wet season, Summer-Heat in summer
2. Various deficiencies: Yang, Yin, Qi and Blood

Etiology

External

o Attack of the body – upper airways, lungs and body surface by External pathogenic
Wind
o Depending on the season Wind associates with different pathogenic factors
 HEAT => Wind-Heat in spring
 SUMMER-HEAT => Wind-Summer-Heat in summer
 DAMPNESS => Wind-Damp in late summer
 DRYNESS => Wind-Dryness in autumn
 COLD => Wind-Cold in winter
o Non-seasonal changes in weather – cold weather in spring and cool in summer may
exceed the human body’s ability to adapt to abrupt changes and people succumb to
common cold

Internal

o Improper life style and ill-timed clothing – wearing inappropriate clothing according
to climate or weakening the body’s defence mechanism by irregular sleep patterns
and eating, unmanaged stress will affect the flow of Qi and Blood to the surface
leaving the body unprotected and exposed to external invasion
o Yang deficiency leads to recurrent bouts of flu like symptoms – patient is always cold
o Yin deficiency will make a person more susceptible to Wind-Heat or Wind-Dryness
o Excess Damp/Phlegm make a person more susceptible to Exogenous Dampness

Weak Defensive Qi

o In immunocompromised individuals due to:


 Old age
 Congenital deficiency – genetic predisposition
 Postpartum improper recovery
 Chronic diseases – HIV, Diabetes
 Co-infections
o LU controls the body surface - skin, sweat glands and body hair, warms, moistens
and aids in nourishing skin and muscles by spreading Wei qi; DEFICIENCY of LU Qi
will impair the function of Wei Qi, weakening the immune system and thus allowing
E.P.F to invade the body, which in turn hinders the smooth circulation of Wei Qi
o The LU is the most exterior of all Zang-Fu, opens to the nose via the upper airways
and the throat, therefore the LU and the body surface are the most vulnerable to
common cold

Differential Diagnosis

o The clinical manifestations of the common cold


 early stage:
 nasal congestion with discharge (runny nose)
 sneezing
 malaise
 aversion to Wind
 later stage
 fever
 cough
 itching in the throat or sore throat
 body ache
 headache
 The disease usually lasts 5 –7days, self-limited disease
o When patients have low immune system – common cold due to weak resistance, we
need to differentiate between:
 Yang deficiency
 Yin deficiency
 Qi deficiency
 Blood deficiency

Principal Treatment:

o Release the Exterior (by diaphoresis) to Expel pathogens + promote LU dispersing


function to strengthen Wei Qi (by strengthening the immune system when patients
have low resistance)
o To expel E.P.F
 Wind-Cold - induce perspiration with spicy and warm herbs
 Wind-Heat - release Heat with spicy and cool herbs
 Modify treatment when cases are complicated by Damp/Phlegm, Dryness,
etc.
 Common Cold (W-C, W-H, etc.) with Yang deficiency – expel E.P.F + assist
Yang
 Common Cold with Yin deficiency – expel E.P.F + replenish Yin
 Common Cold with Qi deficiency – expel E.P.F + supplement Qi
 Common Cold with Blood deficiency – expel E.P.F + nourish the Blood
o The key to success is timing – the earlier the intervention the faster the resolution; if
not treated in early stages the pathogen progresses further into the body and lodges
in the Yang Ming or Shao Yang – “the cold that never goes away”
o It is not advisable to disperse invading pathogenic factors on the body surface too
violently, because excessive perspiration can consume BF and weaken body
resistance
o Do not use tonics too early, because early application of tonics may allow the
pathogenic factors to stay in the body and further transmit to the interior

The Common Cold due to Wind-Cold


 Clinical Manifestations
o Simultaneous chills & fever (more chills)
 Aversion to cold
 Fever (low fever)
o No sweating, or very light sweating
o Headache (occipital)
o General aches
o Nasal congestion with clear discharge
o Sneezing
o Itching in the throat
o Coarse voice/loss of voice
o Absence of thirst or preference for hot drinks
o Coughing with thin white sputum
o T: A thin white tongue coating
o P: A superficial tight pulse.
 Principles of Treatment
o Relieve exterior syndrome with spicy and warm herbs
o Formula: Jing Fang Bai Du San
 Jing Jie 9g W-C Expel wind-cold
 Fang Feng 9g W-C Expel wind-cold
 Jie Geng 9g T P-C Transforms Phlegm-Cold, disperses LU Qi
 Qian Hu 9g T P-H Descends LU Qi, clears Phlegm - cough
 Qiang Huo 9g W-C Expel wind-cold
 Zhi Ke 9g R Qi Regulates LU Qi, directs LU Qi downward
 Du Huo 6g W-D Expel wind-cold-damp – stiff neck, back
 Chuan Xiong 6g IBC Expels Wind and alleviates pain – headache
 Chai Hu 3g W-H Releases exterior - chills & fever
 Fu Ling 3g D D Drains dampness
 Gan Cao 3g T Qi tonic, harmonizing

The Common Cold due to Wind-Heat


 Clinical Manifestations
o Aversion to wind (slight)
o Fever (high fever) – more fever than chills
o No chills, or mild chills
o Sweating
o Headache (frontal)
o Nasal congestion with thick, sticky yellow discharge
o Thirst with desire to drink
o Sore, dry, scratchy throat
o Coughing with thick, yellow sputum
o T: normal or red with thin yellow coating
o P: superficial rapid pulse
 Principles of Treatment
o Relieve exterior syndrome with spicy and warm herbs
o Formula: Yin Qiao San
 Jin Yin Hua 9g W-H Expel wind-Heat, toxicity
 Lian Qiao 9g W-H Expel wind-Heat, toxicity, D-H in LJ
 Bo He 9g W-H Expel wind-Heat, toxicity
 Niu Bang Zi 9g T P-H Descends LU Qi, clears Phlegm - cough
 Jing Jie 9g W-C Expel wind-cold
 Dan Dou Qi 9g R Qi Regulates LU Qi, directs LU Qi downward
 Lu Gen 6g C H + sweet & cold – generates fluids, nourishes Yin
 Dan Zhu Ye 6g C H Clears Heat, antipyretic and diuretic
 Jie Geng 3g W-H Releases exterior - chills & fever
 Gan Cao 3g T Qi tonic, harmonizing

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C:\Carla\Articles\Scientific Qi Exploration - Qi in Chinese Medicine

Just as “Qi” is the energetic foundation of the universe, it is also the physical and spiritual
substratum of human life. In Chinese medicine, the terminology employed depends on the state of
the energy-matter. Energetic material, ranging from less dense to denser, is termed: Spirit (Shen 神),
Energy (Qi 氣), Essence (Jing 精), Blood (Xue 血), Body Fluids (Jin Ye 津液), Marrow (Sui 髓), and
Bone (Gu 骨).

The SP (stomach) takes in food & water (Gu Qi = food qi) and TRANSFORMS them into “refined”
products of digestion = nutrients + ATP (pure Yang Qi) & waste products (impure Yin Qi). The Pure
Yang Qi is sent upward to the chest via the Middle Burner. First, it goes to the LU where it combines
with the oxygen (Heavenly qi) to form Gathering (Zong) Qi. Then, it is transported to the Heart,
where it unites with the Yuan Qi from the Kidneys to produce Blood. The turbid Yin Qi of Gu Qi is
sent down by the Spleen via the Middle Burner to the Lower Burner to be further refined and
excreted. So, Zong Qi originates in the Lungs. It is transformed into Zhen Qi with the catalytic action
of Yuan Qi. Zhen Qi is the last stage in the transformation and refinement of Qi. It is the Qi that
circulates in the channels and also outside the body and nourishes the organs. Zhen Qi has two
different forms, Ying Qi and Wei Qi.

Ying Qi nourishes the internal organs and the whole body. It spends two hours in each channel,
moving through all twelve channels in a twenty four hour period (termed the Horary Cycle). During
these periods, the corresponding organs are nourished and maintained by the Ying Qi. It is closely
related to Blood, and flows with Blood in the vessels as well in the channels. Ying Qi is the Qi that is
activated by insertion of an acupuncture needle. It is closely related to the emotions, since it can be
directed by thought.

Wei Qi is fast moving, “slippery” and more Yang than Nutritive Qi. It flows primarily under the skin
and in between the muscles, especially in the Tendino-Muscular meridians. Wei Qi protects the body
from attack by exogenous pathogenic factors such as harsh weather conditions, microorganisms,
harmful emotions. For example, a deficiency of Wei Qi can make someone prone to frequent colds.