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Paper No.

670

the key to unlock the value for money achievement efforts and costs involved in bid preparation and
in the PPP projects and contribute to stakeholder’s bid evaluation are enormous, it is a practice to set
satisfaction. Realization of these benefits in PPPs a limit on the number of pre qualified, short listed
is highly contingent on the proper selection of PQ bidders12. Estache & Iimi4 have emphasised that
criteria and the design of the corresponding limits. the selection criteria for pre qualification normally
serve to ensure objective assessment of the private
The responsibility of PQ design for PPP mode vests
party interested in bidding for the project. Its main
in the hands of governments/granting authorities.
purpose is not only to include the bidder who would
Potter and Sanvido11 have noted that public sector
be capable of executing the project in a worth
should be careful in crafting the pre qualification manner but also to help in short listing and limiting
criteria and limits and the corresponding selection the number of bidders to a manageable size. In
process to ensure a stable and transparent evaluation view of this, European Union has established an
procedure. Generally, the governments tend to seek over arching procurement process with separate
bidders with proven track records in the similar procedures for handling different sizes of bidders,
projects but the participation of bidders with right such as (1) open procedure – no pre qualification
set of experience and track records depends on: and no limit on number of the bidders (2) restricted
(i) size and attractiveness of the market to be procedure – number of bidders may be limited to 5;
served, and (ii) sector and number of established (3) negotiated procedures – number of bidders may
firms currently operating in the market (world be limited to 3; (4) competitive dialogue – number
market in case of international competitive bidding of bidders may be limited to 35. This highlights
and national market in case of national competitive the fact that the design of the procurement process
bidding). In view of this, prior to setting the inherently plays a key role in limiting the number
pre qualification limits, the governments often of bidders that will be allowed to participate in
undertake a preliminary road show to promote the the bidding process. These four EU procedures
project and based on which the degree of investors’ of selection vary in the detail of information
interest is assessed. Kerf et al.2 have stated that required during the tendering process6. Thus, the
such practice will enable the governments in procurement procedures have to be designed in
setting the pre qualification limits appropriately terms of the informational aspects beforehand so
so that sufficient number of bidders participate that the desired number of qualified bidders is
in the bidding process. On the other hand, as the allowed to participate in the bidding process.
Table 1 Prequalification Criteria in Private Infrastructure Transactions

Sector Technical Criteria Financial criteria Countries


Electricity Customers and energy sales per worker, Minimum total value of assets and net Peru,
total consumers and energy sales work Argentina
Natural Gas Documentation of technical and Documentation of financial capacity Mexico
administrative capacity
Transport Demonstrated legal, technical, and Demonstrated financial capacity Mexico
administrative capacity
Capacity of bidders to design, build, Capacity of bidders to finance road Hungary
maintain, and operate toll road without state aid.
Water Minimum population of largest city and Minimum requirements for total Argentina
aggregate population served by bidder annual billing and net share capital;
consortium shareholding distribution
regime
Consortia must include water operator with Minimum net worth and maximum Bolivia
minimum experience and extent of service debt to equity ratio of operator
Source: adopted from (Kerf et al., 1998, pg 74)2

Journal of the indian Roads Congress, July - September, 2017 93