and Magnetism,
A.C. Theory and
Electronics, Atomic
and Nuclear Physics
Module 1: Electricity and Magnetism
2.1.1: Electrical Quantities
In which of the following equations does the lefthand side represent the energy
transferred per unit time?
0 @
(A) E= QV
r tr'urf*
@
(C) P = V I
@
(D) Q = C V
*@ ©
f
(B) O m
%
©
(C) m A T 1
®
(D) J m C 1A’1
c Items 3 4 refer to the following situation. A power of 4.0 W is used when a current of
0.20 A flows through a resistor for a period of 5.0 s.
The potential difference across the resistor and the energy used by it are respectively
@
(A) 20 V 4.o
© @
(B) 0.8 V 4.0 J
(C) 20 V 20 J ©
(D) 4.0 V 20 J
(B) 10 a 1.0 c
©
94
^ P and Q are resistance wires of the same material. The length of P is 3 times that of Q
and the diameter of the crosssection of P is also 3 times that of Q. W hen connected in
series to a power supply the total p.d. across P and Q is VT. W hat is the ratio of the p.d.
across P to the total p.d.?
(A) 1:3
(B) 1:4
(m) ( )
(C) 1:6
1
(D) 1:9
M
Q W hat do n and v respectively represent in the general equation I = nAvq for the rate of
flow of charge through a conductor? 
©
%
(C) number of free charges volume ©
(D) number of free charges per unit volume velocity
W hat is the length of a wire of resistivity 1.5 x 10 6 O m if its resistance is 10 (1 when its
crosssectional area is 1.5 m m 2?
(A) 0.10 m
/I
• SI
(B) 1.5 m ®
fa) (™)
(C) 10 m ©
(D) 15 m ®
M
95
2.1.1: Electrical Quantities (cont.)
(A) 10 A (a)
(B) 2.5 A ( b)
r r i r ' u r f Z
(C) 1.0 x 10 4 A ©
(D) 1.0 x 10 1A . ®
(A) The current doubles and therefore the p.d. across the wire increases. @
* (B) The current is halved and therefore the p.d. across the wire decreases. ©
O
c (C) The current and the p.d. across the wire remain the same. ©
(D) The current doubles but the p.d. across the wire remains the same. ®
is.
0 A drift velocity of 0.40 mm s 1exists in a wire of diameter 2.0 mm. Determine the
current flowing if the number of free electrons per unit volume is 2.5 x 1021 m m ’3,
(D) 8.0 A * @
96
The p.d. across a wire is gradually increased with the temperature remaining
constant. W hich graph indicates how the drift velocity v of the electrons travelling in
the wire will vary?
I. The first law is a consequence of the conservation of energy and the second law
a consequence of the conservation of charge.
II. The first law states that the algebraic sum of the currents entering a junction
point is zero.
f
III. In traversing a'closed loop of a circuit the total change in potential is zero.
(A) I only (a)
(B) II only ®
(C) II and III only ’ ©
(D) III only • ®
97
2.1.2: Electrical Circuits (cont.)
Items 23 refer to the following graph of potential difference against current.
V//w
@©©©
(A) X
(B) Y
(C) Z
(D) X and Y
@©@©
(A) I and II only
(B) II only
^ R +r
98
A battery of e.m.f. 3.0 V drives a current of 0.50 A through an external
resistance of 4.0 O. The internal resistance of the battery is
(A) 1.0 0 . ®
(B) 1.5 n ®
(C) 2.0 O ©
(D) 6.0 O ©
®
:ir
® X h V
© (A) 2.4
« A 5.4 A 27 V
®
1.8 A 4.8 A 24 V ■
(B)
(C) 2.7 A 5.7 A 13 V
®
X
©
(D) 3.8 A 6.8 A 34 V ®
Item 7 refers to the following circuit. The internal resistance of the cell is 1.0 O and the
voltmeter is of infinite resistance.
4.0 0
®
®
©
If the voltmeter reads 6.0 V when the switch is closed, what is the e.m.f. of the cell?
(A) 6.0 V @
(B) 7.2 V ©
(C) 7.5 V ©
® (D) 5.0 V ©
©
®
99
2.1.2: Electrical Circuits (cont.)
Items 8 9 refer to the following diagram. The cell has negligible internal resistance and the
voltmeter has infinite resistance.
6.0 0
h R = h
L©—
I 1H
4.0 0
^ If the voltmeter reading is 4.0 V what is the current flowing in the circuit?
(A) 1.5 A ®
(C) 0.40 A ©
(D) 1.0 A ®
i
i r # ' X
(A) 6.0 V
(B) 10 V
(C) 4.0 V
(D) 5 V
(C) 4_A^ ©
*2 V
(D ) _ i ^ A
4V
®
100
0 Each resistor in the following section of a circuit is of resistance 2.0 f l
(A) 3.0 CL ®
(B) 3.5 n ®
(C) 4.0 0 ©
(D) 10 H © \J
Items 1213 refer to the following Wheatstone bridge circuit. The rheostat is adjusted until
there is no deflection on the galvanometer.
ion 20 Q
H— 1 1f 1 1
U  C Z Z 3
7 so n
(C) 4.0 Q © ,7
(D) 0.25 O
0 If the e.m.f. of the battery is 3.0 V and it has negligible internal resistance, what current
flows through the 20 Cl resistor?
(A) 0.15 A @
(B) 0.067 A ®
(C) 0.10 A ©
(D) 0.14 A @
101
2.1.2: Electrical Circuits (cont.)
 1
X Y Z
H _______ 11________ H tH ..... ht1
Cr tri trc
P Q
0 The cell is of e.m.f E and has negligible internal resistance. The resistances of X, Y and
Z are Rx,RY and Rz respectively. W hat is the voltage across the terminals PQ?
R7
(A) E (C)  ( * z )
Rx + Ry + Rz
©
(D) j ( R x + R r + Rz )
— i
£
0 In bright light the resistance of the LDR decreases^ How would the readings on the
voltmeter and ammeter be affected?
Voltmeter Ammeter
(A) increases decreases
®
(B) decreases increases
®
(C) increases increases
©
(D) unchanged increases
102
Item 16 refers to the following circuit.
As it becomes dark the resistance of the LDR increases.' How would the readings on the
voltmeter and ammeter be affected?
Voltmeter Ammeter
©©©©
(A) decreases increases
Item 17 refers to the following circuit, which contains a rheostat with a range of
0 — ^ 20 12.
3.0 V
1 1
A
H____ l— I...Z. H
10 Q /O ►20 n
»
Q If the e.m.f. of the cell is 3.0 V what are the least and greatest values of the p.d. that
be obtained across the 10 12 resistor?
Least Greatest
(A) 0V 3.0 V • ©©©©
(B) ov 1.0 V
103
2.1.2: Electrical Circuits (cont.)
The cell in the following circuit is of e.m.f. 3 V and has negligible internal resistance.
W hat are the readings on X, Y and Z?
0
c r iru rc
X Y Z
(A) 3 V IV 1.5 V
(B) 3V 0V 0V
©
(C) ov 2V 3V
i
©
i Tf%
(D) 0 V 1.5 V OV ®
e.m.f. = 5 V
% 1,
X
«>—1 i L
<
—I.... .. ,.„1
10 Q
The current through X is 0.4 A. W hat is the current supplied by the cell if it has
negligible internal resistance?
© © © ©
(A) 0.9 A
(B) 0.8 A
(C) 1.0 A
(D) 1.2 A
104
The battery of the following circuit has no internal resistance. W hat is the current
through the 3.0 H resistor?
e.m.f. 3.0 V
(A) 1.0 A
(B) 0.90 A
(C) 0.60 A ©
(D) 0.40A
Items 2123 refer to the following diagrams. The ammeter and voltmeter are assumed ideal
and the cell Has an internal resistance r. The graph shows the variation between the voltage V
across the rheostat and the current I through it as the load resistance R is altered.
^ W hat is the e.m.f. E of the cell and its lost voltage VLwhen delivering 1.2 A?
E vL
(A) 2.4 V 1.2 V
105
2.1.2: Electrical Circuits fcont.)
0 W hen the voltmeter reads 2.4 V, the current is 1.2 A. W hat is the internal
resistance of the cell?
(A) 2.0 Q
© © © ©
(B) 1.5 n
(C) 1.0 n
L r rn n u r x 
(D) 0.5 n
W hich of the following graphs shows how the terminal p.d. V varies as the load
resistance R increases?
<
©
@
i
©
i r> K
W hich relation is true of the currents at the junction shown in the following diagran ®
(A) 7j = / 2 + J3
© © © ©
(B) ■j1= I 3 / 2
(C) I2 /, ='I3
(D) + I2 + I30
106
2.1.3: Electric Fields
(A) N C
(B) V C 1
(C) V m ©
(D) N C '1 Cd )
(A) C2 nT2
y
(B) C2 m~2 N’1 ■®
©
(D) N C z m fiD
'em 3 refers to the following diagram. X and Y are horizontal metal plates. J4
3
^ Which of the following graphs represents the relationship between the electric field
strength E existing between the plates X and Y, and the distance d shown in the diagram?
®
®
©
®
(B) e\
107
2.1.3: Electric Fields (cont.)
The electric potential 30 cm from a point charge in a vacuum is 3.0 x 103 V. W hat is the
value of the charge?
(A) 1.2 x 106 C ®
(B) 4.0 x 10'6 C ’ ®
(C) 1.0 x 10~7 C ©
(D) 1.3 x 10'6 C ®
W hat is the electric field strength at a distance 50 cm from a point charge of 5.0 pC in a
vacuum?
(A) 1.8 x 105 N C '1 . ©
(B) 9.0 x 104 N C '1 ®
(C) 1.8 x 101N C '1 ©
*
(D) 2.3 x 106N C '1 ®
l
i
Parallel plates 10 cm apart have a p.d. of 1.0 kV between them. An electron enters the
region between the plates perpendicular to the field at a speed of 4.0 x 106 m s '1. W hat
i n
W hat is the nature of the field and the possible type of particle?
108
W hich of the following is/are true of the electric field linesused to represent electric
fields?
A pair of parallel plates 20.0 cm apart has a potential difference of 400 V between
them. W hat is the electric field strength at a point between the plates which is 5.0 cm
from the positive plate?
109
2.1.3: Electric Fields (cont.) 0 Wha
30 cm
40 cm 40 cm
6~ —o — •Y
qi = 4iC q2 = 2\iC
(A) 1
cn n u rz
(A)<
(A) 1.7 x 105 N C 1 to the right ® 
ir > *
110
^ W hat is the electric field strength at a point 2 cm from the lower plate?
3 00 V
6.0 cm
1
 1500 V
0 A very small positive test charge is placed in an electric field. The force per unit charge
on it is the
%
(A) electrical flux density (a)
(B) electrical potential energy ( b)
(C) electrical potential (c)
0 W hich of the following is/are true? Coulomb’s law implies that the force between point
charges is
(B) II only ©
(C) I and III only ©
(D) II and III only ©
Ill
W hat is the energy stored in a capacitor of capacitance 200 pF when the charge
stored on its plates is 5.0 pC?
(A) 6.3 x 10’8 J ®
(A) 0.75 C ® OI
(B) 1.25 C J j
(C) 2.5 C ©
(D) 3.0 C % ®
(A )IC (C)  C
2U
(B) C (D) —C ©
3U
©
113
2.1.4: Capacitors (cont.)
Q In the following diagrams, each individual capacitor has the same capacitance. W hich
arrangement produces the LEAST total capacitance?
(AH H h <c> H E H h © ’
HHHH ®
© I
C fT H T T P
(D) _ J __
(B) H h
H
W hat is the total capacitance obtained between the terminals X and Y in the following
diagram if each individual capacitor is of capacitance C?
xH •Y
D Hh
HH
(A) (C) j C ®
®
< <B> I C (D) \ C ©
®
W hich of the following does NOT give the energy stored in a capacitor of capacitance
C when a charge of Q exists on its plates due to a p.d. 'V?
1 V2
(A) j C V 2
(C> 2~Q ®
©
<B> r r (D) \ Q V
®
114

Items 1114 refer to the following situation.
A capacitor of capacitance 4.0 pF has a p.d. of 10 V across its plates when fully charged. It
discharges through a resistor of resistance 5.0 x 103 fl.
0 How long will it take for the voltage across the plates to fall to 2.0 V?
(A) 3.2 x 10“2 s
©©©©
(B) 4.0 x 10~3 s
©©©©
(B) 4.0 x 10~7 C
0 How long will it take for the charge to fall to V4 of its initial value?
© © © ©
(A) 5.0 x 10~3 s
(D) 2.0 x 10 2 s
(B) 0.02 s
(C) 0.03 s
(D) 0.04 s
115
2.1.4: Capacitors (cont.)
(B) N A1 n f 1
(C) N C m 1s ©
(D) V m 1 ®
W hat is the magnetic field strength at a point 20 cm below a straight horizontal wire
that carries a current of 2.0 A from west to east?
116
A short coil of 250 turns carrying a current of 8.0 A produces a magnetic field of
strength 30 mT at its centre. W hat is the radius of the coil?
137% A coil is wrapped at 50 turns per cm of its length with copper wire. It is 40 cm long and
carries a current of 2.0 A. What is the magnetic field strength at its centre along its axis?
; ® (A) 5.0 x 10~3 T
A solenoid of N turns is of length L. W hen a current I flows in the coil a magnetic field
of 50 pT is created along its axis. If the current is doubled and the num ber of turns is
halved, what would be the resulting magnetic field strength along the axis? A
• (A) 50 pT ®
(B) 200 pT ©
® (C) 12.5 pT • ©
(D) 25 pT ©
©
® The following diagram shows four cylindrical coils carrying currents. The broken lines
indicate the directions of magnetic fields. In which coil is the magnetic field direction
rire correctly shown?
117
2.1.5: Magnetic Fields and Forces (cont.)
In which of the following diagrams are the forces F correctly directed on the wires
which carry currents P
@©©©
(A) (C) / ff
...... >...t F
C T O T T F
’
X, Y and Z show wires carrying currents through magnetic fields. In X, the current
££
flows into the plane of the paper, and in Y and Z, it flows in the direction indicated 1
the arrows. W hich of the following is true for the direction of the forces created on t
i
(8)
s
Y
f
X Y
l
Z
A
@©©©
out of page
(B) to top of page into page put of page
M
118
Q The following diagram shows an electron beam entering a uniform magnetic field that
is perpendicular to its path. The crosses in the diagram represent the magnetic field
acting into the plane of the paper. In which direction will the beam swerve?
X X X X
X X X X X Represents a magnetic
► field perpendicularly
Electron into the plane of the
beam
X X X X
diagram.
X X X X
Two ions, X and Y, are of the same charge, but X is three times the mass of Y. The
particles have the same speed and direction when they enter a uniform magnetic field
which is perpendicular to their paths. They both take on circular paths. If the radius of
the path of X is R, what is the radius of the path of Y?
(A)  (Q }
(B) 3 (D) 
0 Two ions, X and Y, are of the same mass, but X has three times the charge of Y. The
particles are travelling at the same speed and direction when they enter a uniform
magnetic field which is perpendicular to their paths. They both take on circular paths.
If the radius of the path of X is R,what is the radius of the path
N
(A)  (Q  ®
3 ®
(B) 3 ©
(D)! ffi
0 The following diagram shows sections of four currentcarrying conductors A, B, C
and D placed in a magnetic field directed to the right. On which is the electromagnetic
force greatest?
®
®
©
119
2.1.5: Magnetic Fields and Forces (cont.) •
Item 13 refers to the following diagram. X and Y are wires carrying equal currents
perpendicularly into the plane of the paper.
x® 0Y
\ s
b»»m r
O W hich arrow BEST represents the direction of the resultant magnetic field
produced at point O?
7
(A) P
©
1
(B) Q
©
(C) R
©
(D) S
®
Item 14 refers to the following diagram. X is wire carrying a current perpendicularly i
°
the plane of the paper.
W hich arrow BEST represents the direction of the electromagnetic force on X when
current flows in the coil as shown?
(A) P
©
(B) Q
©
(C) R
©
(D) S
©
120
0 A magnetic field of strength 1.5 T is directed to the right at an angle of 30° below the
horizontal. W hat is the magnitude of the force on a horizontal wire of length 25 cm
that carries a current of 5.0 mA directed to the right?
(A) 9.4 x 10~2 N ©
(B) 18 x 10~3 N • ®
(C) 9.4 x 10 4 N ©
(D) 1.8 x 10"1N ®
Item 16 refers to the following diagram where three wires P, Q and R carry currents of the
same magnitude. The distance between adjacent wires is the same.
p  *.
Q ►
R *.
P Q R
(A) downward upward downward
(B) upward downward upward
®
(C) downward downward upward
©
(D) upward downward downward
0 A current of 5.0 A flows from west to east along a horizontal wire of length 30 cm. A
magnetic field of flux density 50 mT is directed perpendicularly to the wire and keeps
it suspended. W hat is the mass of the wire and the direction of the magnetic field?
(C) south
©
(D) 75 g north
121
2.1.5: Magnetic Fields and Forces (cont.)
0 Calculate the number of charge carriers per unit volume given that the lengths t and
are 1.2 cm and 1.0 cm respectively.
©
(B) 1.2 x 1020 m 3
©
(C) 8.3 x 1017 m3
@
(D) 1.2 x 1014 m~3
©
0 Electrons travelling horizontally at a velocity of 2.0 x 106 m s_1 enter a region betweei
two horizontal plates 20 cm apart with a p.d. of 400 V across them. A horizontal
magnetic field is directed perpendicularly through the region between the plates,
allowing the electron beam to maintain a straight horizontal path. W hat is the
magnetic flux density of the magnetic field?
122
2.1.6: Electromagnetic Induction •
The SI units of magnetic flux density and magnetic flux are respectively:
(A) T, H
(B) H ,W b
(C) Wb, T
(D) T, W b
A conducting coil of 50 turns has a diameter of 20 cm. W hat is the flux linkage with
the coil when a magnetic field of strength 250 mT is directed perpendicularly through
its circular face?
(A) 0.39 Wb ’ ®
(B) 7.9 x 10~3 Wb ®
(C) 390 Wb ©
J
(D) 0.125 Wb ®
A
1.
Item 3 refers to the following diagram. A conducting rod XY of length 20 cm and diameter
2.0 mm moves east horizontally at 4.0 m s '1through a magnetic field of flux density 5.0 mT
directed at an angle of 30° below the horizontal.
Nl
Jrj
W hat is the e.m.f. generated across the ends of the rod and which end is at a positive
potential?
Item 4 refers to the following diagram where a light aluminium ring stands with its axis
aligned with that of an adjacent coil wrapped on a softiron core.
{ Aluminium ring
At the instant the switch is closed, the light aluminium ring will
©
(B) move to the east, away from the coil.
©
(C) roll towards north.
©
%
(D) roll towards south.
®
Item 5 refers to the following diagram. The aluminium rings X and Y stand at rest when
p
steady current flows in the coil.
Coil Desktpp
W hat is the effect on X and Y due to the current in the coil at the instant when the
switch is opened?
124
A bar magnet is allowed to fall through a long hollow vertical coil which is connected
to a centrezero galvanometer. W hich graph BEST describes the current induced in
the coil?
@ @ 0@
(C) 'f
@ ©©©
(A) this strengthens the magnetic field within it.
(C) eddy currents induced within the core will be reduced significantly.
(D) this allows the current through the core to have a more direct path.
An ideal transformer has 100 turns on its secondary coil. It is used to operate a
6.0 V, 3.0 W device when its prim ary coil is connected to a 120 V a.c. supply.
W hat is the current in the prim ary coil and how many turns does it have?
@©@©
(A) 25 mA 2000 turns
(B) 10 A 2000 turns
(C) 0.5 A 20 turns *
(D) 0.025 A 200 turns
2.1.6: Electromagnetic Induction (cont.) •
0 A transformer steps down a voltage from 120 V to 30 V. If it is 80% efficient, what is the
current in the prim ary coil when the secondary is connected to a resistance of 20 Q?
(A) 4.8 A ®
(B) 6.0 A
®
(C) 0.47 A ©
(D) 2.1 A
! VT/ w I
A narrow coil of 5 turns and area 2.0 x 102 cm2 is placed with its plane perpendicular to
a uniform magnetic field of flux density 2.0 x 10~2 T. W hat is the average e.m.f. induced
1 !
in the coil as it is pulled out'of the field, in a direction parallel to its plane in a time
of 0.25 s?
(A) 80 V ®
!
(C) 51 V ©
(D) 5.1 x 10~3 V ®
AI
/X I
126
Items 1113 refer to the following diagram, which shows two positions, X and Y, of a
rectangular conducting coil of N turns and crosssectional area A rotating at angular
frequency co within a magnetic field of flux density B. The axis of rotation is perpendicular
to the field and to the page on which the diagram is drawn.
Axis of rotation
X Y
^ W hat is the maximum e.mi.f. induced in the coil if the period of rotation is T and the
angular frequency is to?
2n
(A) NBAco sin (C) N
T
271
(B) NBAco (D) NBA sin
0 W hat is the magnitude of the instantaneous flux linkage and e.m.f. respectively
at any time t,if t =0 when the coil is in position X?
Flux linkage e.m.f.
0 W hich of the following graphs BEST describes the variation of e.m.f. E with time t,
if t= 0 when in position Y?
127
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