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# Unit 2: Electricity

and Magnetism,
A.C. Theory and
Electronics, Atomic
and Nuclear Physics
Module 1: Electricity and Magnetism
2.1.1: Electrical Quantities

In which of the following equations does the left-hand side represent the energy
transferred per unit time?

0 @
(A) E= QV
r tr'urf*

@
(C) P = V I

@
(D) Q = C V

f

## (A) C F 'm A '1

(B) O m
%

(C) m A T 1

®
(D) J m C 1A’1
c Items 3 -4 refer to the following situation. A power of 4.0 W is used when a current of
0.20 A flows through a resistor for a period of 5.0 s.

The potential difference across the resistor and the energy used by it are respectively

@
(A) 20 V 4.o

(B) 0.8 V 4.0 J
(C) 20 V 20 J ©

(D) 4.0 V 20 J

respectively
@

(B) 10 a 1.0 c

®

## (D) ioo a 1.0 c

94
^ P and Q are resistance wires of the same material. The length of P is 3 times that of Q
and the diameter of the cross-section of P is also 3 times that of Q. W hen connected in
series to a power supply the total p.d. across P and Q is VT. W hat is the ratio of the p.d.
across P to the total p.d.?

(A) 1:3

(B) 1:4
(m) ( |-)

(C) 1:6
1
(D) 1:9
M

Q W hat do n and v respectively represent in the general equation I = nAvq for the rate of
flow of charge through a conductor? -

## (B) number of free electrons per unit volume velocity

(n ) (m)

%
(C) number of free charges volume ©
(D) number of free charges per unit volume velocity

W hat is the length of a wire of resistivity 1.5 x 10 6 O m if its resistance is 10 (1 when its
cross-sectional area is 1.5 m m 2?
(A) 0.10 m
/I
• SI
(B) 1.5 m ®
fa) (™)

(D) 15 m ®
M

## O A cylindrical resistor has a resistance R 'What would be its re

<")
M

95
2.1.1: Electrical Quantities (cont.)

## A potential difference of 8.0 V is set up across a wire of length 1.6 m, cross-sectional

area 4.0 m m 2 and resistivity 2.0 x 10“6 O m. W hat is the current flowing through
the wire?

(A) 10 A (a)
(B) 2.5 A ( b)
r r i r ' u r f Z

(C) 1.0 x 10 4 A ©

(D) 1.0 x 10 1A . ®

## A resistance wire X is connected across a battery of negligible internal resistance.

X is replaced by a resistance wire Y of the same material and length but of twice the
cross-sectional area. W hich of the following is true?

(A) The current doubles and therefore the p.d. across the wire increases. @
* (B) The current is halved and therefore the p.d. across the wire decreases. ©
O
c (C) The current and the p.d. across the wire remain the same. ©

(D) The current doubles but the p.d. across the wire remains the same. ®
is.

0 A drift velocity of 0.40 mm s 1exists in a wire of diameter 2.0 mm. Determine the
current flowing if the number of free electrons per unit volume is 2.5 x 1021 m m ’3,

## (C) 5.0 x 102 A ©

(D) 8.0 A * @

96
The p.d. across a wire is gradually increased with the temperature remaining
constant. W hich graph indicates how the drift velocity v of the electrons travelling in
the wire will vary?

## W hich of the following is true of Kirchhoff’s laws?

I. The first law is a consequence of the conservation of energy and the second law
a consequence of the conservation of charge.
II. The first law states that the algebraic sum of the currents entering a junction
point is zero.
f
III. In traversing a'closed loop of a circuit the total change in potential is zero.
(A) I only (a)
(B) II only ®
(C) II and III only ’ ©
(D) III only • ®

97
2.1.2: Electrical Circuits (cont.)

Items 2-3 refer to the following graph of potential difference against current.
V//w

(A) X

(B) Y

(C) Z
(D) X and Y

## I. The resistance along X changes.

II. The resistance along Y is 2.0 Q.
III. The resistance along Z is constant.

(A) I and II only

(B) II only

## A cell of e.m.f. E and of internal resistance r supplies a current I to power a bulb of

resistance R. W hat fraction of the power supplied does the bulb obtain?

^ R +r

98
A battery of e.m.f. 3.0 V drives a current of 0.50 A through an external
resistance of 4.0 O. The internal resistance of the battery is
(A) 1.0 0 . ®

(B) 1.5 n ®

## W hat are the values of IvI2 and V in the following circuit?

12 Q 3.0 A

®
:ir
® X h V

« A 5.4 A 27 V
®
1.8 A 4.8 A 24 V ■
(B)
(C) 2.7 A 5.7 A 13 V
®
X
(D) 3.8 A 6.8 A 34 V ®

Item 7 refers to the following circuit. The internal resistance of the cell is 1.0 O and the
voltmeter is of infinite resistance.

4.0 0
®
®
If the voltmeter reads 6.0 V when the switch is closed, what is the e.m.f. of the cell?
(A) 6.0 V @

®
99
2.1.2: Electrical Circuits (cont.)

Items 8 -9 refer to the following diagram. The cell has negligible internal resistance and the
voltmeter has infinite resistance.

6.0 0
--------h R = h

I--------------- 1-----H
4.0 0

^ If the voltmeter reading is 4.0 V what is the current flowing in the circuit?

(A) 1.5 A ®

(D) 1.0 A ®
i
i r # ' X

(A) 6.0 V

(B) 10 V

(C) 4.0 V

(D) 5 V

## In which component is the rate of energy consumption a minimum?

(A) 5LA— .
1Q
(B) 2_A^-----,
80

*2 V

(D ) _ i ^ A
4V
®

100
0 Each resistor in the following section of a circuit is of resistance 2.0 f l

X 4-> A, X

## The equivalent resistance connected between X and Y is

(A) 3.0 CL ®

(B) 3.5 n ®

Items 12-13 refer to the following Wheatstone bridge circuit. The rheostat is adjusted until
there is no deflection on the galvanometer.
ion 20 Q
H— 1------- 1f------- 1 1

U - C Z Z 3-
7 so n

## W hat -is the resistance of the rheostat R?

(A) 100 Cl ®
(B) 25 a

(D) 0.25 O

0 If the e.m.f. of the battery is 3.0 V and it has negligible internal resistance, what current
flows through the 20 Cl resistor?
(A) 0.15 A @

(B) 0.067 A ®

(D) 0.14 A @

101
2.1.2: Electrical Circuits (cont.)

## Item 14 refers to the following circuit.

------------------ 1

X Y Z
H _______ 1------1________ H tH ..... ht-1
Cr tri trc

P Q

0 The cell is of e.m.f E and has negligible internal resistance. The resistances of X, Y and
Z are Rx,RY and Rz respectively. W hat is the voltage across the terminals PQ?

R7
(A) E (C) | ( * z )
Rx + Ry + Rz

(D) j ( R x + R r + Rz )

## * Item 15 refers to the following circuit.

— i
£

0 In bright light the resistance of the LDR decreases^ How would the readings on the
voltmeter and ammeter be affected?

Voltmeter Ammeter
(A) increases decreases
®
(B) decreases increases
®
(C) increases increases
(D) unchanged increases

102
Item 16 refers to the following circuit.

As it becomes dark the resistance of the LDR increases.' How would the readings on the
voltmeter and ammeter be affected?

Voltmeter Ammeter

(A) decreases increases

## (D) increases decreases

Item 17 refers to the following circuit, which contains a rheostat with a range of
0 — ^ 20 12.

3.0 V

------1 1

A
H____ l— I...Z. H
10 Q /O -►20 n

»
Q If the e.m.f. of the cell is 3.0 V what are the least and greatest values of the p.d. that
be obtained across the 10 12 resistor?

Least Greatest
(B) ov 1.0 V

## (D) 1.0 V 2.0 V

103
2.1.2: Electrical Circuits (cont.)

The cell in the following circuit is of e.m.f. 3 V and has negligible internal resistance.
W hat are the readings on X, Y and Z?

0
c r iru rc

X Y Z
(A) 3 V IV 1.5 V

(B) 3V 0V 0V
(C) ov 2V 3V
i

i Tf%

(D) 0 V 1.5 V OV ®

## Item 19 refers to the following circuit.

e.m.f. = 5 V
% -----------1,-----------
X
«>—1 i---- L
<
—I.... .. -,.„1--------------
10 Q

The current through X is 0.4 A. W hat is the current supplied by the cell if it has
negligible internal resistance?
(A) 0.9 A

(B) 0.8 A

(C) 1.0 A

(D) 1.2 A

104
The battery of the following circuit has no internal resistance. W hat is the current
through the 3.0 H resistor?

e.m.f. 3.0 V

(A) 1.0 A

(B) 0.90 A

(D) 0.40A

Items 21-23 refer to the following diagrams. The ammeter and voltmeter are assumed ideal
and the cell Has an internal resistance r. The graph shows the variation between the voltage V
across the rheostat and the current I through it as the load resistance R is altered.

^ W hat is the e.m.f. E of the cell and its lost voltage VLwhen delivering 1.2 A?

E vL
(A) 2.4 V 1.2 V

## (D) 2.4 V 0.6 V

105
2.1.2: Electrical Circuits fcont.)

0 W hen the voltmeter reads 2.4 V, the current is 1.2 A. W hat is the internal
resistance of the cell?

(A) 2.0 Q

(B) 1.5 n

(C) 1.0 n
L r rn n u r x -

(D) 0.5 n

W hich of the following graphs shows how the terminal p.d. V varies as the load
resistance R increases?

<
@
i

i r> -K

W hich relation is true of the currents at the junction shown in the following diagran ®

(A) 7j = / 2 + J3

(B) ■j1= I 3- / 2
(C) I2 -/, ='I3

(D) + I2 + I30

106
2.1.3: Electric Fields

(A) N C

(B) V C 1

(D) N C '1 Cd )

## Q Permittivity can be expressed in

(A) C2 nT2
y
(B) C2 m~2 N’1 ■®
(D) N C z m fiD

-'em 3 refers to the following diagram. X and Y are horizontal metal plates. J4

3
^ Which of the following graphs represents the relationship between the electric field
strength E existing between the plates X and Y, and the distance d shown in the diagram?

®
®
®
(B) e\

107
2.1.3: Electric Fields (cont.)

The electric potential 30 cm from a point charge in a vacuum is 3.0 x 103 V. W hat is the
value of the charge?
(A) 1.2 x 106 C ®
(B) 4.0 x 10'6 C ’ ®
(C) 1.0 x 10~7 C ©
(D) 1.3 x 10'6 C ®

W hat is the electric field strength at a distance 50 cm from a point charge of 5.0 pC in a
vacuum?
(A) 1.8 x 105 N C '1 . ©
(B) 9.0 x 104 N C '1 ®
(C) 1.8 x 101N C '1 ©
*
(D) 2.3 x 106N C '1 ®
l
i

Parallel plates 10 cm apart have a p.d. of 1.0 kV between them. An electron enters the
region between the plates perpendicular to the field at a speed of 4.0 x 106 m s '1. W hat
i n

## is the value of the electric force on the electron?

is*. (A) 1.6 x 10'15N , ®
\

## (B) 4.0 x 1010N ®

< (C) 6.4 x 10'5 N , ©
(D) 6.4 x 10'9 N ®

## Item 7 refers to the following diagram which shows a

subatomic particle moving at high speed through a field. Field directed
downward
The path of the particle is illustrated by the dashed line.

W hat is the nature of the field and the possible type of particle?

## Nature of field Possible type of particle

(A) magnetic field electron ®
(B) electric field proton
®
(C> magnetic field proton
(D) electric field electron
®

108
W hich of the following is/are true of the electric field lines-used to represent electric
fields?

## I. They attract each other when they are close side-by-side.

II. They appear to have a longitudinal tension within.
III. They are directed from places of higher potential to places of lower potential. •
(A) I and II only ©
(B) I and III only ®
(C) II and III only ©
(D) I, II and III ®
Q W hich of the following statements is/are true?

## I. The electrical potential at a point is the work done in transferring positive

charge from infinity to the point.
II. The electrical potential difference between two points is the work done by an
external agent in transferring unit positive charge between those points. <1
III. The electrical potential at a point is the work done by an external agent in
transferring unit positive charge from infinity to the point.
(A) I only

## (D) III only

A pair of parallel plates 20.0 cm apart has a potential difference of 400 V between
them. W hat is the electric field strength at a point between the plates which is 5.0 cm
from the positive plate?

## (A) 0.50 x 103 V m 1 ©

(B) 2.0 x 103V m 1 ®
(C) 4.0 x 103 V m '1 ©
(D) 8.0 x 103 V m"1

109
2.1.3: Electric Fields (cont.) 0 Wha

## Items 11-13 refer to the following diagram.

x

30 cm
40 cm 40 cm
6~- —o —- -•Y
qi = 4|iC q2 = -2\iC
(A) 1
cn n u rz

## Q The electrical potential at point X due to q1and q2 is (B )

(A) 1.38 x 105 V ® (C ):
(B) 7.5 x 104 V (D);
(C) 8.4 x 104 V © 1
(D) 1.6 x 105V ® j ^ 3 A vej
on it
© The electric field strength at point Y due to qx and q2 is
i

(A)<
(A) 1.7 x 105 N C 1 to the right ® |
ir > *

## (B) 5.6 x 104 N C l to the left (B) (

® i
(C) 1.7 x 105 N C 1to the left (C) (
(D) 5.6 x 104 N C”1to the right ® (D) .

## © The horizontal forces exerted on qx and q2 are:

0 W hi
< Force on Force on q2 chap
(A) 0.45 N to the right 0.225 N to the left
®
(B) 0.225 N to the right 0.45 N to the left
®
(C) 0.45 N to the right 0.45 N to the left
(D) 0.45 N to the left 0.45 N to the right
®
(A)
The electric potential and electric field strength at a point 1 m away from a point
charge q are respectively V and E. W hat would be the respective values of the electrical (B)
potential and electrical field strength at a point 2 m away? (C)
(A) (C) (D)
2 4 4 16 ®
(B) (D) E
4 2

110
^ W hat is the electric field strength at a point 2 cm from the lower plate?

-3 00 V

6.0 cm

1
- 1500 V

## (A) 18 V nT1 directed down

(B) 20 V mf1 directed down ®
(C) 2.0 x 104 V nT1 directed down ©
(D) 20 V m 1 directed up

0 A very small positive test charge is placed in an electric field. The force per unit charge
on it is the
%
(A) electrical flux density (a)
(B) electrical potential energy ( b)
(C) electrical potential (c)

## (D) electrical field strength (5)

0 W hich of the following is/are true? Coulomb’s law implies that the force between point
charges is

## I. proportional to the masses of the charges.

II. inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the charges.
III. directly proportional to the permittivity of the medium in which the charges
are immersed.
(A) I and II only

(C) I and III only ©
(D) II and III only ©

Ill
W hat is the energy stored in a capacitor of capacitance 200- pF when the charge
stored on its plates is 5.0 pC?
(A) 6.3 x 10’8 J ®

.. ->■

(A) 0.75 C ® OI
(B) 1.25 C J j
(D) 3.0 C % ®

## Q A capacitor of capacitance C has circular plates of diameter d which are a distance x q

7\
apart. W hat would be the new capacitance if d was doubled and x halved?
(A) 4 C ®
L|.. U1
(B ) I C ®
(D) I c ® fl

## ^ A capacitor of capacitance C has rectangular plates of area A, which are a distance d

apart. H alf of the air space between the plates is filled from one plate to the next with a
material of relative permittivity 2. W hat is the new capacitance?

(A )IC (C) - C
2U

3U

113
2.1.4: Capacitors (cont.)

Q In the following diagrams, each individual capacitor has the same capacitance. W hich
arrangement produces the LEAST total capacitance?

(AH H h <c> H E H h © ’

HHHH ®
C fT H T T P

(D) _ J __
(B) H h

H
W hat is the total capacitance obtained between the terminals X and Y in the following
diagram if each individual capacitor is of capacitance C?

xH -•Y

D Hh
HH
(A) (C) j C ®
®
< <B> I C (D) \ C ©
®
W hich of the following does NOT give the energy stored in a capacitor of capacitance
C when a charge of Q exists on its plates due to a p.d. 'V?
1 V2
(A) j C V 2
(C> 2~Q ®
<B> r r (D) \ Q V
®

114

-
Items 11-14 refer to the following situation.

A capacitor of capacitance 4.0 pF has a p.d. of 10 V across its plates when fully charged. It
discharges through a resistor of resistance 5.0 x 103 fl.

0 How long will it take for the voltage across the plates to fall to 2.0 V?
(A) 3.2 x 10“2 s

(B) 4.0 x 10~3 s

(A) 2.0 x 10~3 C

(B) 4.0 x 10~7 C

## (D) 2.5 x 105 C

0 How long will it take for the charge to fall to V4 of its initial value?

(A) 5.0 x 10~3 s

(D) 2.0 x 10 2 s

## 0 W hat is the value of the time constant of the discharge circuit?

(A) 0.01 s

(B) 0.02 s

(C) 0.03 s

(D) 0.04 s

115
2.1.4: Capacitors (cont.)

## ® W hich of the following is/are true in relation to capacitors of capacitance C discharging

through a resistance R?

## I. The product RC is known as the time constant and it can be measured in

seconds.
II. The larger the time constant, the faster the capacitor will discharge.
III. In a time equal to the time constant, the capacitor will discharge to about 37%
c n tv f

(A) I only ®

## <1 (A) J C"1 m 1s

(B) N A-1 n f 1

(C) N C m 1s ©
(D) V m 1 ®
W hat is the magnetic field strength at a point 20 cm below a straight horizontal wire
that carries a current of 2.0 A from west to east?

## (D) 2.0 x 10 6 T directed to the south ©

116
A short coil of 250 turns carrying a current of 8.0 A produces a magnetic field of
strength 30 mT at its centre. W hat is the radius of the coil?

## (D) 4.2 x 10"2 m ®

137% A coil is wrapped at 50 turns per cm of its length with copper wire. It is 40 cm long and
carries a current of 2.0 A. What is the magnetic field strength at its centre along its axis?
; ® (A) 5.0 x 10~3 T

## (B) 1.3 x 10~4 T ®

® (D) 5.0%x 10'5 T ®

A solenoid of N turns is of length L. W hen a current I flows in the coil a magnetic field
of 50 pT is created along its axis. If the current is doubled and the num ber of turns is
halved, what would be the resulting magnetic field strength along the axis? A
• (A) 50 pT ®
® (C) 12.5 pT • ©

® The following diagram shows four cylindrical coils carrying currents. The broken lines
indicate the directions of magnetic fields. In which coil is the magnetic field direction
rire correctly shown?

117
2.1.5: Magnetic Fields and Forces (cont.)-

In which of the following diagrams are the forces F correctly directed on the wires
which carry currents P

(A) (C) / ff

...... >...t F
C T O T T F

## (B) / f/7 ( D ) ___

"77
"7 * Vi

X, Y and Z show wires carrying currents through magnetic fields. In X, the current

££
flows into the plane of the paper, and in Y and Z, it flows in the direction indicated 1
the arrows. W hich of the following is true for the direction of the forces created on t
i

A

lO

(8)
s
Y
f

X Y
l

Z
A

## (A) to top of page into page

out of page
(B) to top of page into page put of page
M

## (C) to bottom of page into page into page

(D) to the left to top of page to the right

118
Q The following diagram shows an electron beam entering a uniform magnetic field that
is perpendicular to its path. The crosses in the diagram represent the magnetic field
acting into the plane of the paper. In which direction will the beam swerve?

X X X X
X X X X X Represents a magnetic
------► field perpendicularly
Electron into the plane of the
beam
X X X X
diagram.
X X X X

## (D) Into the page.

Two ions, X and Y, are of the same charge, but X is three times the mass of Y. The
particles have the same speed and direction when they enter a uniform magnetic field
which is perpendicular to their paths. They both take on circular paths. If the radius of
the path of X is R, what is the radius of the path of Y?

(A) | (Q }

(B) 3 (D) |

0 Two ions, X and Y, are of the same mass, but X has three times the charge of Y. The
particles are travelling at the same speed and direction when they enter a uniform
magnetic field which is perpendicular to their paths. They both take on circular paths.
If the radius of the path of X is R,what is the radius of the path
N
(A) - (Q | ®
3 ®
(D)! ffi
0 The following diagram shows sections of four current-carrying conductors A, B, C
and D placed in a magnetic field directed to the right. On which is the electromagnetic
force greatest?

®
®

119
2.1.5: Magnetic Fields and Forces (cont.) •

Item 13 refers to the following diagram. X and Y are wires carrying equal currents
perpendicularly into the plane of the paper.
x® 0Y
\ s
b»»m r

O W hich arrow BEST represents the direction of the resultant magnetic field
produced at point O?
7

(A) P

1
(B) Q

(C) R

(D) S

®
Item 14 refers to the following diagram. X is wire carrying a current perpendicularly i

°
the plane of the paper.

W hich arrow BEST represents the direction of the electromagnetic force on X when
current flows in the coil as shown?

(A) P

(B) Q

(C) R

(D) S

120
0 A magnetic field of strength 1.5 T is directed to the right at an angle of 30° below the
horizontal. W hat is the magnitude of the force on a horizontal wire of length 25 cm
that carries a current of 5.0 mA directed to the right?
(A) 9.4 x 10~2 N ©
(B) 18 x 10~3 N • ®
(C) 9.4 x 10 4 N ©
(D) 1.8 x 10"1N ®
Item 16 refers to the following diagram where three wires P, Q and R carry currents of the
same magnitude. The distance between adjacent wires is the same.
p -------------------- *.--------------------

Q --------------------►

R --------------------*.

## The resultant force on each of P, Q and R, is directed

P Q R
(A) downward upward downward
(B) upward downward upward
®
(C) downward downward upward
(D) upward downward downward

0 A current of 5.0 A flows from west to east along a horizontal wire of length 30 cm. A
magnetic field of flux density 50 mT is directed perpendicularly to the wire and keeps
it suspended. W hat is the mass of the wire and the direction of the magnetic field?

## Mass of wire Direction of magnetic field

(A) 7.6 g north
(B) 75g north
CfQ
N

(C) south
(D) 75 g north

121
2.1.5: Magnetic Fields and Forces (cont.)

## A current I of 8.0 A flows through a rectangular section of an n-type semiconductor, which

has its majority charge carriers as electrons. Applying a magnetic field of flux density B of
1.0 T perpendicularly to the section as shown produces a Hall voltage of 5.0 mV.

0 Calculate the number of charge carriers per unit volume given that the lengths t and
are 1.2 cm and 1.0 cm respectively.

## (A) 8.3 x 1023 m 3

(B) 1.2 x 1020 m 3

(C) 8.3 x 1017 m-3

@
(D) 1.2 x 1014 m~3

0 Electrons travelling horizontally at a velocity of 2.0 x 106 m s_1 enter a region betweei
two horizontal plates 20 cm apart with a p.d. of 400 V across them. A horizontal
magnetic field is directed perpendicularly through the region between the plates,
allowing the electron beam to maintain a straight horizontal path. W hat is the
magnetic flux density of the magnetic field?

(B) 1.0 x 10~3T

## (D) 1.6 x 108 T

122
2.1.6: Electromagnetic Induction •

The SI units of magnetic flux density and magnetic flux are respectively:

(A) T, H
(B) H ,W b
(C) Wb, T
(D) T, W b

A conducting coil of 50 turns has a diameter of 20 cm. W hat is the flux linkage with
the coil when a magnetic field of strength 250 mT is directed perpendicularly through
its circular face?

(A) 0.39 Wb ’ ®
(B) 7.9 x 10~3 Wb ®
J
(D) 0.125 Wb ®
A
1.
Item 3 refers to the following diagram. A conducting rod XY of length 20 cm and diameter
2.0 mm moves east horizontally at 4.0 m s '1through a magnetic field of flux density 5.0 mT
directed at an angle of 30° below the horizontal.

Nl
Jrj

W hat is the e.m.f. generated across the ends of the rod and which end is at a positive
potential?

## e.m.f. Positive end of rod

(A) 4.0 x 10~6 V Y
(B) 4.0 x 10-6 V X
®
(C) 2.0 x 10~3 V Y
(D) 2.0 x 10~3 V X
®
123
2.1.6: Electromagnetic Induction (cont.)

Item 4 refers to the following diagram where a light aluminium ring stands with its axis
aligned with that of an adjacent coil wrapped on a soft-iron core.

{ Aluminium ring

## 1A# Coil Desktop

West <-------------- ► East

At the instant the switch is closed, the light aluminium ring will

## (A) move to the west, towards the coil.

(B) move to the east, away from the coil.

(C) roll towards north.

%
(D) roll towards south.

®
Item 5 refers to the following diagram. The aluminium rings X and Y stand at rest when

p
steady current flows in the coil.

Coil Desktpp

W hat is the effect on X and Y due to the current in the coil at the instant when the
switch is opened?

## (D) X and Y are respectively pulled and pushed to the right.

124
A bar magnet is allowed to fall through a long hollow vertical coil which is connected
to a centre-zero galvanometer. W hich graph BEST describes the current induced in
the coil?

@ @ 0@
(C) 'f

## The*core of a transformer is laminated with its laminations insulated because

(A) this strengthens the magnetic field within it.

## (B) the insulation between the laminations prevents electrical shock.

(C) eddy currents induced within the core will be reduced significantly.

(D) this allows the current through the core to have a more direct path.

An ideal transformer has 100 turns on its secondary coil. It is used to operate a
6.0 V, 3.0 W device when its prim ary coil is connected to a 120 V a.c. supply.
W hat is the current in the prim ary coil and how many turns does it have?

(A) 25 mA 2000 turns
(B) 10 A 2000 turns
(C) 0.5 A 20 turns *
(D) 0.025 A 200 turns
2.1.6: Electromagnetic Induction (cont.) •

0 A transformer steps down a voltage from 120 V to 30 V. If it is 80% efficient, what is the
current in the prim ary coil when the secondary is connected to a resistance of 20 Q?
(A) 4.8 A ®
(B) 6.0 A
®
(D) 2.1 A
! VT/ w I

A narrow coil of 5 turns and area 2.0 x 102 cm2 is placed with its plane perpendicular to
a uniform magnetic field of flux density 2.0 x 10~2 T. W hat is the average e.m.f. induced
-1 !

in the coil as it is pulled out'of the field, in a direction parallel to its plane in a time
of 0.25 s?

(A) 80 V ®
!

## (B) 8.0 x 10~3V

YxT ! \

(D) 5.1 x 10~3 V ®
AI
/X I

126
Items 11-13 refer to the following diagram, which shows two positions, X and Y, of a
rectangular conducting coil of N turns and cross-sectional area A rotating at angular
frequency co within a magnetic field of flux density B. The axis of rotation is perpendicular
to the field and to the page on which the diagram is drawn.
Axis of rotation

X Y

^ W hat is the maximum e.mi.f. induced in the coil if the period of rotation is T and the
angular frequency is to?
2n
(A) NBAco sin (C) N
T
271
(B) NBAco (D) NBA sin

0 W hat is the magnitude of the instantaneous flux linkage and e.m.f. respectively
at any time t,if t =0 when the coil is in position X?