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CE 423 - PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Project Management

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Project Management

Why care about project management?

10% of projects successful between 1998 and 2004

90% FAILED.

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Project Management

Many organiza;ons today have a new or renewed interest in project management.

Computer hardware, soJware, networks, and the use of interdisciplinary and global work teams have radically changed the work environment.

The U.S. spends $2.3 trillion on projects every year, or one-quarter its gross domes;c product, and the world as a whole spends nearly $10 trillion of its $40.7 gross product on projects of all kinds.*

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*PMI, The PMI Project Management Fact Book, Second Edi;on, 2001.

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History of Project Management

Some people argue that building the Egyptian pyramids was a project, as was building the Great Wall of China Most people consider the Manhattan Project to be the first project to use modernproject management This three-year, $2 billion (in 1946 dollars) project had a separate project manager and a technical manager

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Historical Perspective

Phases

Use

Methods

1960-1970

Tradi;onal Project Management

Construc;on,

Technology and schedule driven

Aerospace,

 

Defense

 

1970-1985

Focused Project Management

High tech businesses, mul;- discipline developments

SoJware

engineering,

 

matrix

management

1985-1993

Renaissance of Project Management

All organiza;ons, developing formal methods

Total quality management, concurrent engineering

1993-

Modern Project Management

Accept by top management, Recognize as a discipline

System engineering, change and risk management

present

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Why Need Project Management?

Complex project needs coordina;on of:

Mul;ple people Mul;ple resources (labs, equipment, etc.) Mul;ple tasks – some must precede others Mul;ple decision points – approvals Phased expenditure of funds Matching of people/resources to tasks

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Project Management

What is Project Management?

a method for organizing tasks

a structured framework to help a group work productively

tools to aid in task sequencing, dependency analysis, resource allocation, scheduling, etc.

tools to track progress relative to plan

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What is Project Management?

Project management by defini;on:

the applica;on of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project ac;vi;es to meet project requirements.*

*PMI, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) (2004), p. 8.

CE 423 - PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Project Management – 4 Ps

People — the most important element of a successful project Product — the product or service to be built Process — the set of framework activities and software engineering tasks to get the job done Project — all work required to make the product a reality

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Project Management Objective

Achieve the project goal

Do a great thesis – on ;me

Keep customers (e.g., clients) happy Keep the team focus on the goal Make sure that team members work well Everyone shares the load

Scope, Resources, Schedule & Customers

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Advantages of Using Formal Project Management

Bejer control of financial, physical, and human resources. Improved customer rela;ons. Shorter development ;mes. Lower costs. Higher quality and increased reliability. Higher profit margins. Improved produc;vity. Bejer internal coordina;on. Higher worker morale (less stress).

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Project

What is a PROJECT?

Defini;on used by PMI: A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result.

Specific objec;ves to be completed within a certain specifica;on Defined start & end dates Funding limits and consumes resources

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Project

Project: an organized undertaking

SAMPLES:

Master of Engineering Thesis Project Finding a job Building a porch Buying a house Design and manufacture a car (Large Program) Put a man on the moon (Huge Program)

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What Is a Project?

Opera;ons is work done to sustain the business.

A project ends when its objec;ves have been reached, or the project has been terminated.

Projects can be large or small and take a short or long ;me to complete.

*PMI, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) (2004), p. 5.

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Project Attributes

A project:

Has a unique purpose. Is temporary. Is developed using progressive elabora;on. Requires resources, oJen from various areas. Should have a primary customer or sponsor.

The project sponsor usually provides the direc;on and funding for the project.

Involves uncertainty.

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Communicate the Essence

The 5Ws:

Who

Where

What

Why

When

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Typical Project Life Cycle

100 Needs Tidying Up At The End Gets Very Busy Starts Slow 0 Time Percent
100
Needs Tidying Up
At The End
Gets Very Busy
Starts Slow
0
Time
Percent Completion
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SOME GUIDLINES

1.

Start Promptly – NOW!!

2.

Your Project DefiniFon Should Be Well Founded And Agreed

3.

Any Changes To The Project DefiniFon And Your ObjecFves Need

To Be Made In the Early Stages Of The Project 4. IdenFfy Individual Tasks 5. Established The Sequence Of They Need to be Undertaken 6. Determine The Risks And Accommodate Them In Your Plan 7. Recognise That Changes In Any One Element Will Affect Some Or All The Other AcFviFes

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Typical Causes of Project Failure

STARTING - Failure To Put A Dra[ Plan Together In Time To Review It Fully With Peers And Academics PLANNING - Poor Planning Of The Tasks DOING - Failure To Get On With The Tasks CONSIDERING – Incomplete and/or Misunderstood SpecificaFons or Proposals THINKING IT THROUGH - UnderesFmaFng The Difficulty or Risks In CompleFng The Tasks TIME ALLOCATION – CompeFng Time Pressures SCOPE- Over-ambiFous Targets

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The Triple Constraint of Project Management

Every project is constrained in different ways by its:

Scope goals: What work will be done?

Time goals: How long should it take to complete?

Cost goals: What should it cost?

It is the project manager’s duty to balance these three oJen- compe;ng goals.

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The Triple Constraint of Project Management

Successful project management means mee;ng all three goals ( SCOPE, TIME, COST ) – and
Successful project
management means
mee;ng all three
goals ( SCOPE, TIME,
COST ) – and
sa;sfying the project
sponsor’s
requirements
( QUALITY) !
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Project Management Process

Planning

Project Defini;on, Scope, Buy-ins

Mechanics of puqng together a plan

Tools: Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) GANTT, PERT, etc. charts - computerized

Tracking plan progress

Communicate and follow-up

Complete project

Managing and control

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Project Management

Project Management

- PROJECT MANAGEMENT Project Management Project Management Project Planning •   Define objec;ve •  
- PROJECT MANAGEMENT Project Management Project Management Project Planning •   Define objec;ve •  

Project Planning

Define objec;ve Define work/tasks • Iden;fy resources • Plan schedule • Iterate • Plan modifica;on

Execu;on Management

Get objec;ve signed-off • Track plan progress • Communicate within team • Customer communica;ons • Secure resources Project discipline

Technical

People

Scope, Resources, Schedule & Customers

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How to Get Started

Start with the essence of what you are trying to do Draw a block diagram of your system

Architecture

Do a high level flow chart of your soJware

Iden;fy modules

Postulate the end result of your prototype

User interface, typical use scenarios

List all possible tasks that needed to be done

Organize tasks

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Mechanism of Planning

Define project objec;ve Define work breakdown structure (WBS)

Iden;fy tasks and subtasks -- deliverables Lowest element – stand alone work package

Iden;fy tasks rela;onship Iden;fy possible risks Es;mate work packages (people, ;me, etc.) Create ini;al schedule Iterate plan Document

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Some Estimation Considerations

Completeness in defini;on of tasks and interfaces Time for mee;ngs and communica;ons The range of abili;es of team members Experience with similar job/ tasks Learning ;me for new equipment or soJware Availability of special facili;es

Earlier iden;fica;on of unknowns or risks • A priori calcula;ons

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Closing Summary

Project Management – Lead an endeavor Planning is a map, a guide, especially for a team

Rela;vely simple and helpful techniques

Management is mostly about people

Goal, discipline, communicate

Risks are inevitable, planning helps to avoid stupid ones Experience counts

Assessing the scope of work, ;ming, risks

Risks are Essen;al in Achievements Luck is an Element of Success

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Suggested Steps in Project Management

Generate a formal defini;on of the project, with goals, constraints, assump;ons Iden;fy project start/end dates, any mandatory milestones, including reports, signoffs, deliverables, etc. List constraints – money, equipment availability, holidays, etc. Iden;fy tasks to be accomplished – high level (i.e., by categories), then details within each, using brainstorming method – green light

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Suggested Steps, cont.

Refine detailed task list, dropping/ combining, adding things omijed Then, for each task in list:

Es;mate ;me (person hours, calendar period) Iden;fy dependencies among tasks Iden;fy resources (people, money, parts, etc.)

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Suggested Steps, cont.

Organize task groups roughly by star;ng date List dependencies that should or MUST hold Use MS Project to make a GANTT chart First capture tasks and task groups, milestones Iden;fy cri;cal path, see if it can be shortened (get more slack) Assign person-hours and specific team member(s) to each task – iden;fy task leads

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Suggested Steps, cont.

As project progresses:

Monitor, record progress on all tasks, at least weekly – use

Tracking Ganj Chart

Pay par;cular ajen;on to those on cri;cal path Revise plan as needed to take into account changes, adapt to meet milestones

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Project Stakeholders

Stakeholders are the people involved in or affected by project ac;vi;es. Stakeholders include:

Project sponsor Project manager Project team Support staff Customers Users Suppliers Opponents to the project

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Stakeholders are people too

Senior managers who define the business issues that often have significant influence on the project. Project (technical) managers who must plan, motivate, organize, and control the practitioners who do software work. Practitioners who deliver the technical skills that are necessary to engineer a product or application; often make poor team leaders Customers who specify the requirements for the software to be engineered and other stakeholders who have a peripheral interest in the outcome. End-users who interact with the software once it is released for production use.

Your job is to organize and bring value from these people

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9 Project Management Knowledge Areas

Knowledge areas describe the key competencies that project managers must develop.

4 core knowledge areas lead to specific project objec;ves (scope, ;me, cost, and quality). 4 facilita;ng knowledge areas are the means through which the project objec;ves are achieved (human resources, communica;on, risk, and procurement management). 1 knowledge area (project integra;on management) affects and is affected by all of the other knowledge areas. All knowledge areas are important!

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Project Management Framework

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Project Management Tools and Techniques

Project management tools and techniques assist project managers and their teams in various aspects of project management.

Specific tools and techniques include:

Project charters, scope statements, and WBS (scope). Ganj charts, network diagrams, cri;cal path analyses, cri;cal chain scheduling (;me). Cost es;mates and earned value management (cost).

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How Project Management Relates to Other Disciplines

Much of the knowledge needed to manage projects is unique to the discipline of project management Project mangers must also have knowledge and experience in

general management the application area of the project

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Project Portfolio Management

Many organiza;ons support an emerging business strategy of project porcolio management:

Organiza;ons group and manage projects as a portolio of investments that contribute to the en;re enterprises success. (For more informa;on, see Chapter 7, Project Cost Management.)

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Project Success Factors*

1. Execu;ve support

7. Firm basic requirements

8. Formal methodology

9. Reliable es;mates

10. Other criteria, such as small milestones, proper planning, competent staff, and ownership

2. User involvement

3. Experienced project manager

4. Clear business objec;ves

5. Minimized scope

6. Standard soJware infrastructure

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*The Standish Group, Extreme CHAOS (2001).

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Projects get into trouble when…

Software people dont understand their customers needs. The product scope is poorly defined. Changes are managed poorly. The chosen technology changes. Business needs change [or are ill-defined]. Deadlines are unrealistic. Users are resistant. Sponsorship is lost [or was never properly obtained]. The project team lacks people with appropriate skills. Managers [and practitioners] avoid best practices and lessons learned.

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Sample Gantt Chart

CE 423 - PROJECT MANAGEMENT Sample Gantt Chart The WBS is on the left, and each

The WBS is on the left, and each tasks start and finish date are shown on the right using a calendar timescale. Early Gantt Charts, first used in 1917, were drawn by hand.

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Sample Network Diagram

Each box is a project task from the WBS. Arrows show dependencies between tasks. The
Each box is a project task from the WBS. Arrows show dependencies between tasks. The
CE 423 - PROJECT MANAGEMENT

bolded tasks are on the critical path. If any tasks on the critical path take longer than planned,

the whole project will slip unless something is done. Network diagrams were first used in

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1958 on the Navy Polaris project, before project management software was available.

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The Project Management Profession

Professional socie;es such as the Project Management Ins;tute (PMI) have grown significantly. There are specific interest groups in many areas, such as engineering, financial services, health care, and IT. Project management research and cer;fica;on programs con;nue to grow.

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Project Management CertiRication

PMI provides cer;fica;on as a Project Management Professional (PMP). A PMP has documented sufficient project experience, agreed to follow a code of ethics, and passed the PMP exam. The number of people earning PMP cer;fica;on is increasing quickly. PMI and other organiza;ons are offering new cer;fica;on programs.

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Growth in PMP CertiRication,

1993-2003

# PMPs

80,000

70,000

60,000

50,000

40,000

30,000

20,000

10,000

0

40,343 27,052 18,184 10,086 6,415 1,000 1,900 2,800 4,400

40,343

40,343 27,052 18,184 10,086 6,415 1,000 1,900 2,800 4,400

27,052

40,343 27,052 18,184 10,086 6,415 1,000 1,900 2,800 4,400

18,184

40,343 27,052 18,184 10,086 6,415 1,000 1,900 2,800 4,400

10,086

40,343 27,052 18,184 10,086 6,415 1,000 1,900 2,800 4,400

6,415

1,000 1,900 2,800 4,400
1,000 1,900 2,800 4,400

76,550

52,443

1993 1994

1995 1996 1997

1998 1999 2000

2001

2002 2003

Year

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Ethics in Project Management

Ethics is an important part of all professions. Project managers oJen face ethical dilemmas. In order to earn PMP cer;fica;on, applicants must agree to the PMP code of professional conduct. Several ques;ons on the PMP exam are related to professional responsibility, including ethics.

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You Can Apply Project Management to Many Areas

Project management applies to work as well as personal projects Project management applies to many different disciplines (IT, construction, finance, sports, event planning, etc.) Project management skills can help in everyday life

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The Project Manager

Project Managers are special people who will ensure project success

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Project and Program Managers

Project managers work with project sponsors, project teams, and other people involved in projects to meet project goals.

Program : A group of related projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually. *

Program managers oversee programs and oJen act as bosses for project managers.

*PMI, A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) (2004), p. 16.

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Project Manager Finance Engineering Contracts Manufacturing Planning Purchasing CE 423 - PROJECT MANAGEMENT
Project
Manager
Finance
Engineering
Contracts
Manufacturing
Planning
Purchasing
CE 423 - PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Example of Project Manager responsibili;es

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Functional Manager

Project Manager

In charge of 1 functional dept.

Oversee many functional areas

Specialist in the area they manage

Generalist-wide b.ground of experience and knowledge

Analytically oriented

More skills at synthesis

Know some details of each operation

Rarely has in depth knowledge of all areas

Responsible for each job/ task

Use systems approach

Direct,technical supervisor

Facilitator

Know the technology to advise and solve problems

Facilitate cooperation

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PM Career Path

Par;cipa;on in small and then larger project Give command over small and large project Project engineer, manufacturing manager, deputy project manager, project manager

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The Triple Constraint

Every project is constrained in different ways by its:

Scope goals: What work will be done?

Time goals: How long should it take to complete?

Cost goals: What should it cost?

It is the project managers duty to balance these three oJen- compe;ng goals.

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Project Success

Customer Requirements saFsfied/exceeded Completed within allocated Fme frame Completed within allocated budget

Customer Requirements saFsfied/exceeded

Customer Requirements saFsfied/exceeded Completed within allocated Fme frame Completed within allocated budget

Completed within allocated Fme frame

saFsfied/exceeded Completed within allocated Fme frame Completed within allocated budget Accepted by the
saFsfied/exceeded Completed within allocated Fme frame Completed within allocated budget Accepted by the
Completed within allocated budget Accepted by the customer
Completed within allocated budget Accepted by the customer

Completed within allocated budget

Completed within allocated budget Accepted by the customer

Accepted by the customer

Completed within allocated budget Accepted by the customer
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Project Failure

Scope Creep

Poor Requirements Gathering

Project Failure Scope Creep Poor Requirements Gathering Lack of resources UnrealisFc planning and scheduling 55 L-2

Lack of resources

UnrealisFc planning and scheduling

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Project Manager’s Job Description

Job descrip;ons vary, but most include responsibili;es such as planning, scheduling, coordina;ng, and working with people to achieve project goals.

Remember that 97 percent of successful projects were led by experienced project managers.

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Scope Management

Primarily it is the definition and control of what IS and IS NOT included in the project.

Management •   Primarily it is the definition and control of what IS and IS NOT
Management •   Primarily it is the definition and control of what IS and IS NOT
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Issue Management

Issues are restraints to accomplishing the deliverables of the project. Typically identified throughout the project and logged and tracked through resolution.

the project and logged and tracked through resolution. Rope not thick Issue … already impacting the

Rope not thick

Issue already impacting the cost, time or quality

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Cost Management

This process is required to ensure the project is completed within the approved budget and includes:

is completed within the approved budget and includes: Resources people equipment materials Quantities Budget 59 L-2
is completed within the approved budget and includes: Resources people equipment materials Quantities Budget 59 L-2
is completed within the approved budget and includes: Resources people equipment materials Quantities Budget 59 L-2

Resources

people

equipment

materials

Quantities

is completed within the approved budget and includes: Resources people equipment materials Quantities Budget 59 L-2

Budget

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Quality Management

Quality Management is the process that insure the project will meet the needs

is the process that insure the project will meet the needs “ conformance to requirements ”

conformance to requirements- Crosby

fitness for use- Juran

the totality of characteristics of an entity that bear on its ability to satisfy stated and implied need- ISO 8402:1994

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Communica;ons Management

This process is necessary to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, dissemination, and storage of project information

to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, dissemination, and storage of project information 61 L-2
to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, dissemination, and storage of project information 61 L-2
to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, dissemination, and storage of project information 61 L-2
to ensure timely and appropriate generation, collection, dissemination, and storage of project information 61 L-2
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Risk Management

Risk identification and mitigation strategy Risk update and tracking

Risk POTENTIAL negative impact to project

and tracking Risk … POTENTIAL negative impact to project Tree – location, accessibility, ownership Weather 62

Tree – location, accessibility, ownership

and tracking Risk … POTENTIAL negative impact to project Tree – location, accessibility, ownership Weather 62

Weather

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Change Control Management

Define how changes to the project scope will be executed

Scope Change

changes to the project scope will be executed Scope Change Technical Specification Changes Schedule changes All

Technical Specification Changes

be executed Scope Change Technical Specification Changes Schedule changes All changes require collaboration and buy

Schedule changes

Change Technical Specification Changes Schedule changes All changes require collaboration and buy in via the project

All changes require collaboration and buy in via the project sponsors signature prior to implementation of the changes

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Project Manager

Responsible for implemenFng and compleFng the project Prepare preliminary budget and schedule Select people to serve the project team Know the client Ensure that proper faciliFes are available Ensure that supplies are available when needed Take care of rouFne details

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PM Task of Synthesis

At the beginning you should ask yourself these questions

Why is the product being developed? What will be done? When will it be accomplished? Who is responsible? Where are they organizationally located? How will the job be done technically and managerially? How much of each resource (e.g., people, materials, tools, database) will be needed?

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Role of a Project Manager

•   Project issues •   DisseminaFng project informaFon •   MiFgaFng project risk •
•   Project issues
•   DisseminaFng project informaFon
•   MiFgaFng project risk
•   Quality
•   Managing
scope
•   Metrics
•   Managing the overall work plan
Process
Responsibilities
•   ImplemenFng standard processes •   Establishing leadership skills •   Seeng expectaFons •
•   ImplemenFng standard processes
•   Establishing leadership skills
•   Seeng expectaFons
•   Team building
•   Communicator skills
People
Responsibilities
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Fifteen Project Management Job Functions*

Evaluate project requirements. Iden;fy and evaluate risks. Prepare con;ngency plan. Iden;fy interdependencies. Iden;fy and track cri;cal milestones. Par;cipate in project phase review. Secure needed resources. Manage the change control process. Report project status.

Define scope of project. Iden;fy stakeholders, decision- makers, and escala;on procedures. Develop detailed task list (work breakdown structures). Es;mate ;me requirements. Develop ini;al project management flow chart. Iden;fy required resources and budget.

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*Northwest Center for Emerging Technologies, Building a Founda;on for Tomorrow: Skills Standards for Informa;on Technology,Belleview, WA, 1999.

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Management of the Project

With your team members

Create a plan for the en;re project Set milestones for tracking progress Provide more detail for near-term tasks Use with your facilitator to report progress and revise/add detail to plan Assign specific tasks to team members Revise plan and acFviFes as required to achieve objec;ves

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Project Mgr Responsibilities

Parent organiza;on Project & client Members of project team

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Responsibilities to Parent Company

Proper conserva;on of resources Timely and accurate project communica;on Competent management of the project Keep management informed – projects status, cost, ;ming and prospects Running over budget or delay Protect firm from risk Damage control

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Responsibilities to the Project

Preserve integrity of the project Resolve conflic;ng demands made by many par;es – engineering, marke;ng, manufacturing, administra;on, purchasing

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Responsibilities to Project Team Members

Finite nature of the project Specialized nature of the team Concern with future of project people Transi;on back to func;onal units

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Suggested Skills for Project Managers

Project managers need a wide variety of skills…

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Suggested Skills for Project Managers

Project managers need both hardand so[skills.

Hard skills include product knowledge and knowing how to use various project management tools and techniques.

So[ skills include being able to work with various types of people.

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Suggested Skills for Project Managers

CommunicaFon skills: Listens, persuades. OrganizaFonal skills: Plans, sets goals, analyzes. Team-building skills: Shows empathy, mo;vates, promotes esprit de corps. Leadership skills: Sets examples, provides vision (big picture), delegates, posi;ve, energe;c. Coping skills: Flexible, crea;ve, pa;ent, persistent. Technology skills : Experience, project knowledge.

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Good Project Management Skills

Leadership and professionalism are crucial. Know what your sponsor expects from the project, and learn from your mistakes. Trust your team and delegate decisions. Know the business. Stand up for yourself.

Be a team player. Stay organized and don t be overly emo;onal. Work on projects and for people you believe in. Think outside the box. You should always aim high.

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Most SigniRicant Characteristics Project Managers

Effective Project Managers

Ineffective Project Managers

• Leadership by example

• Sets bad example

• Visionary

• Not self-assured

• Technically competent

• Lacks technical expertise

• Decisive

• Poor communicator

• Good communicator

• Poor motivator

• Good motivator

• Stands up to upper management when necessary

• Supports team members

• Encourages new ideas

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Project Manager

Management is using tools and techniques

Leadership is inspiring people to do the right thing

Leadership with poor management practices can be successful, management with poor leadership will fail.

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Importance of Leadership Skills

Effec;ve project managers provide leadership by example.

A leader focuses on long-term goals and big-picture objec;ves while inspiring people to reach those goals.

A manager deals with the day-to-day details of mee;ng specific goals.

Project managers oJen take on both leader and manager roles.

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PM’s job as a leader

The MOI Model

Motivation. The ability to

encourage (by push or

pull) technical people to produce to their best ability.

Organization. The ability to mold existing processes (or invent new ones) that will enable the initial concept to be translated into a final product.

Ideas or innovation. The ability to encourage people to create and feel creative even when they must work within bounds established for a particular software product or application.

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PM’s job as a leader

Make sure these happen

Formal risk management Empirical cost and schedule estimation Metrics-based project management

estimation •   Metrics-based project management •   Tracking – amount of work done, costs, work

Tracking – amount of work done, costs, work remaining, etc…

Defect tracking against quality targets People aware project management

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Special Demands on the Project Manager

Acquiring Adequate Resources Acquiring and Mo;va;ng Personnel Dealing With Obstacles Making Project Goal Trade-offs Failure and the Risk and Fear of Failure Breadth of Communica;on Nego;a;on

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Acquiring Adequate Resources

Human resource, material, machine, subcontractors, consultants, space, u;li;es Resource trade-offs Human resource – skills, pay Subcontrac;ng – cost, delay, control Under and overes;mate of resources Resource acquisi;on

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Acquiring Personnel

Top producers and high skill Challenge and variety in project Influence over salary and promo;ons Effec;ve team members:

üHigh quality technical skills üPoli;cal sensi;vity üStrong problem orienta;on üStrong goal orienta;on üHigh self esteem

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Motivating People

Use monetary rewards cautiously Use intrinsic rewards

Recognition Achievement The work itself Responsibility Advancement Chance to learn new skills

CE 423 - PROJECT MANAGEMENT
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Dealing With Obstacles

Bejer planning, fewer crises Project incep;on – resources Budget and schedule Change in technical plans, schedule Uncertainty surrounding what happens at the end of the project Open communica;on with all par;es

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Problem-Solving Skills

Be a good problem solverCE 423 - PROJECT MANAGEMENT Problem-Solving Skills Start with the early iden;fica;on of a problem or

Start with the early iden;fica;on of a problem or poten;al problem problem

Encourage project team members to iden;fy problems early and solve themSkills Be a good problem solver Start with the early iden;fica;on of a problem or poten;al

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Ability to Handle Stress

Must be able to handle the stressCE 423 - PROJECT MANAGEMENT Ability to Handle Stress Remain calm Cope with constantly changing condi;ons

Remain calmAbility to Handle Stress Must be able to handle the stress Cope with constantly changing condi;ons

Cope with constantly changing condi;onsHandle Stress Must be able to handle the stress Remain calm Act as a buffer between

Act as a buffer between the project team and either the customer or upper managementstress Remain calm Cope with constantly changing condi;ons Have a good sense of humor Keep physically

Have a good sense of humorthe project team and either the customer or upper management Keep physically fit to improve ability

Keep physically fit to improve ability to handle stressAct as a buffer between the project team and either the customer or upper management Have

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Making Project Goal Trade-offs

Trade-offs – cost, ;me, performance Technical and managerial func;ons Project forma;on – no difference in importance Build-up stage – schedule Final stage – performance Smoothness of running project team for technical progress

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Breadth of Communication

Top management, func;onal department, clients, suppliers, authori;es, subcontractors Engineering change management Use of cyber communica;on tools PM fully understand projects intent PM has managed projects that failed Have support of top management Build and maintain solid informa;on network PM must be flexible

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Ability to Develop People

Train and develop the project teamCE 423 - PROJECT MANAGEMENT Ability to Develop People Believe that all individuals are valuable Encourage

Believe that all individuals are valuableAbility to Develop People Train and develop the project team Encourage ini;a;ve Iden;fy situa;ons for mentoring

Encourage ini;a;vethe project team Believe that all individuals are valuable Iden;fy situa;ons for mentoring Assess opportuni;es for

Iden;fy situa;ons for mentoringBelieve that all individuals are valuable Encourage ini;a;ve Assess opportuni;es for growth Encourage self reflec;on for

Assess opportuni;es for growthindividuals are valuable Encourage ini;a;ve Iden;fy situa;ons for mentoring Encourage self reflec;on for learning 91 L-2

Encourage self reflec;on for learningthat all individuals are valuable Encourage ini;a;ve Iden;fy situa;ons for mentoring Assess opportuni;es for growth 91

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Communica;on Skills

Be good communicatorsCE 423 - PROJECT MANAGEMENT Communica;on Skills Communicate and share informa;on Spend more ;me listening than

Communicate and share informa;onPROJECT MANAGEMENT Communica;on Skills Be good communicators Spend more ;me listening than talking Inform the customer

Spend more ;me listening than talkingBe good communicators Communicate and share informa;on Inform the customer of progress Determine any changes

Inform the customer of progressand share informa;on Spend more ;me listening than talking Determine any changes Provide ;mely feedback to

Determine any changesmore ;me listening than talking Inform the customer of progress Provide ;mely feedback to the team

Provide ;mely feedback to the team and customerand share informa;on Spend more ;me listening than talking Inform the customer of progress Determine any

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Interpersonal Skills

Develop a rela;onship with each team memberCE 423 - PROJECT MANAGEMENT Interpersonal Skills Maintain interpersonal rela;onships for dura;on of the project Influence

Maintain interpersonal rela;onships for dura;on of the projectSkills Develop a rela;onship with each team member Influence the thinking and ac;ons of others Deal

Influence the thinking and ac;ons of othersteam member Maintain interpersonal rela;onships for dura;on of the project Deal with disagreements or divisiveness 93

Deal with disagreements or divisivenessmember Maintain interpersonal rela;onships for dura;on of the project Influence the thinking and ac;ons of others

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Negotiation

Employ nego;a;ng skills in interac;onsCE 423 - PROJECT MANAGEMENT Negotiation Develop a trus;ng rela;onship with the other person Use effec;ve

Develop a trus;ng rela;onship with the other personNegotiation Employ nego;a;ng skills in interac;ons Use effec;ve listening Take cultural differences into

Use effec;ve listeningDevelop a trus;ng rela;onship with the other person Take cultural differences into considera;on Strengthen

Take cultural differences into considera;onDevelop a trus;ng rela;onship with the other person Use effec;ve listening Strengthen rela;onships, not erode them

Strengthen rela;onships, not erode thema trus;ng rela;onship with the other person Use effec;ve listening Take cultural differences into considera;on 94

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Time Management Skills

Manage ;me wellCE 423 - PROJECT MANAGEMENT Time Management Skills Have self-discipline Be able to priori;ze Show a

Have self-discipline423 - PROJECT MANAGEMENT Time Management Skills Manage ;me well Be able to priori;ze Show a

Be able to priori;ze423 - PROJECT MANAGEMENT Time Management Skills Manage ;me well Have self-discipline Show a willingness to

Show a willingness to delegateCE 423 - PROJECT MANAGEMENT Time Management Skills Manage ;me well Have self-discipline Be able to

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Selecting the Project Manager

Strong technical background Hard-nosed manager Mature individual Someone who is currently available Someone on good terms with senior execu;ves A person who can keep the project teams happy One who has worked is several departments A person who can walk on the waters

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Common-Sense Approach to Projects

Start on the right foot. This is accomplished by working hard (very hard) to understand the problem that is to be solved and then setting realistic

objectives and expectations.

Maintain momentum. The project manager must provide incentives to keep turnover of personnel to an absolute minimum, the team should emphasize quality in every task it performs, and senior management should do everything possible to stay out of the teams way.

Track progress. For a software project, progress is tracked as work products are produced and approved as part of a quality assurance activity.

Make smart decisions.

In essence, the decisions of the project manager

and the software team should be to keep it simple.

Conduct a postmortem analysis. Establish a consistent mechanism for extracting lessons learned for each project.

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Developing the Skills Needed to Be a Project Manager

Gain experience — work on as many projects as you can; each project presents a learning opportunityDeveloping the Skills Needed to Be a Project Manager Seek out feedback from others Interview project

Seek out feedback from othersas you can; each project presents a learning opportunity Interview project managers who have skills that

Interview project managers who have skills that you want to develop develop

Conduct a self-evalua;on and learn from your mistakesSeek out feedback from others Interview project managers who have skills that you want to develop

Get a mentorproject managers who have skills that you want to develop Conduct a self-evalua;on and learn from

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Developing the Skills Needed to Be a Project Manager (Cont.)

Par;cipate in training programsDeveloping the Skills Needed to Be a Project Manager (Cont.) Join organiza;ons, such as the Project

Join organiza;ons, such as theBe a Project Manager (Cont.) Par;cipate in training programs Project Management Ins;tute Read and subscribe to

Project Management Ins;tute

Read and subscribe to journalsJoin organiza;ons, such as the Project Management Ins;tute Earn a creden;al (PMP, etc.) Volunteer Learning and

Earn a creden;al (PMP, etc.)Project Management Ins;tute Read and subscribe to journals Volunteer Learning and development are life;me

VolunteerRead and subscribe to journals Earn a creden;al (PMP, etc.) Learning and development are life;me ac;vi;es—there

Learning and development are life;me ac;vi;es—theres no finish line

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Cri;cal Success Factors

Successful project managers accept responsibility for making sure the customer is sa;sfied and the work scope is completed accept responsibility for making sure the customer is sa;sfied and the work scope is completed in a quality manner, within budget, and on ;me.

The project manager needs to be proacFve in planning, communica;ng, and providing leadership to the project team to accomplish the project proacFve in planning, communica;ng, and providing leadership to the project team to accomplish the project objec;ve.

The project manager needs to inspire the project team to succeed and to win the confidence of the customer. inspire the project team to succeed and to win the confidence of the customer.

By involving the project team in developing the project plan, the project manager ensures a more involving the project team in developing the project plan, the project manager ensures a more comprehensive plan and gains the commitment of the team to achieve the plan.

Successful project managers are proacFve in addressing problems . They do not take a proacFve in addressing problems . They do not take a

let s wait and see how things work outapproach.

The project manager needs to have a project management informa;on system that disFnguishes accomplishments from busy-work. disFnguishes accomplishments from busy-work.

EffecFve project managers have strong leadership ability, the ability to develop people , excellent communicaFon skills, project managers have strong leadership ability, the ability to develop people , excellent communicaFon skills, good interpersonal skills, the ability to handle stress, problem-solving skills, negoFaFng skills, and Fme management skills.

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Cri;cal Success Factors (con;nued)

Successful project management requires a parFcipaFve and consultaFve leadership style in which the project manager provides guidance and coaching to parFcipaFve and consultaFve leadership style in which the project manager provides guidance and coaching to the project team. The effec;ve project manager does not tell people how to do their jobs.

Project managers show they value the contribu;ons of team members when they seek advice and suggesFons from team members . advice and suggesFons from team members.

Project managers can foster moFvaFon through recogni;on. People want to feel they are making a contribu;on and need foster moFvaFon through recogni;on. People want to feel they are making a contribu;on and need to be recognized. Posi;ve reinforcement helps s;mulate desired behavior; behavior that is recognized or rewarded gets repeated.

The effec;ve project manager does not monopolize, seek the spotlight, or try to take credit for the work of does not monopolize, seek the spotlight, or try to take credit for the work of others.

Capable project managers are opFmisFc and have high, yet realisFc, expectaFons of themselves and each person on the project opFmisFc and have high, yet realisFc, expectaFons of themselves and each person on the project team.

Projects should be fun . Project managers should enjoy their work and encourage the same posi;ve aqtude on the . Project managers should enjoy their work and encourage the same posi;ve aqtude on the part of the project team members. The project manager should set a posi;ve example for the team in terms of expected behavior.

A good project manager provides opportuniFes for learning and development by encouraging team members to take the ini;a;ve, take risks, opportuniFes for learning and development by encouraging team members to take the ini;a;ve, take risks, and make decisions. Rather than create a fear of failure, the project manager realizes that mistakes are part of the learning and growth experience.

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Cri;cal Success Factors (con;nued)

Cri;cal Success Factors ( c o n ; n u e d ) Good project managers

Good project managers spend more Fme listening than talking. They listen to the needs expressed by the customer and the ideas and concerns expressed by the project team.

Communica;on by project managers needs to be Fmely, honest, and unambiguous . Fmely, honest, and unambiguous .

The project manager should create an atmosphere that fosters Fmely and open communicaFon without fear of reprisal, and must be understanding of differing fosters Fmely and open communicaFon without fear of reprisal, and must be understanding of differing viewpoints.

When unforeseen events cause turmoil on a project, effec;ve project managers remain composed and do not panic. composed and do not panic.

Effec;ve project managers recognize that the best soluFon oJen emerges from differences of ideas, viewpoints, experiences, and opinions. best soluFon oJen emerges from differences of ideas, viewpoints, experiences, and opinions.

The project manager must maintain integrity and respect for the other party throughout the nego;a;ng process. maintain integrity and respect for the other party throughout the nego;a;ng process.

To make effec;ve use of their ;me, project managers need to have self-discipline , be able to prioriFze , and be willing to delegate . self-discipline, be able to prioriFze, and be willing to delegate.

At the start of a project, the project manager needs to establish a change control system to define how changes will be documented, approved, and communicated. establish a change control system to define how changes will be documented, approved, and communicated.

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Define success and failure

Dont lie to yourself!

Be confident, trust yourself for success!

Quantify your project outcomes to allow success or failure

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