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Fluid Friction Prof.

Patil Umesh Prabhakar

Que 1) Define Thrust and State its SI unit.


Answer:
Definition: The total force exerted by a liquid on a surface in contact is called as thrust of a
liquid. Or

Definition: The total force acting on a body perpendicular to its surface is called as thrust.

S.I. unit of Thrust is Newton (N)


CGS unit of Thrust is dyne.

Que 2) Define Pressure and State its SI unit.


Answer:
Definition: The perpendicular force acting on unit surface area of the object is called as
pressure. Or

Definition: The thrust exerted by a liquid (at rest) per unit area of the surface in contact with
the liquid is called Pressure.
Force
Pressure =
Area
S.I. unit of Thrust is N/m2 or Pascal (Pa)
CGS unit of Thrust is dyne/cm2.

Que 3) State the examples of the Pressure.


Answer:
1) The pointed nail tip can be penetrating easily in the wall.
2) Camel can walk over desert sand very easily because of his spreaded foot.
3) The large area of Wooden Sleepers and Metal are placed below the railway tracks to
avoid depressing of tracks in the ground.
4) It is comparatively easy to stand on the bundle of nail tips than on the single nail tip.
Que 4) Define Density and State its SI unit.
Answer:
Definition: Density is defined as mass per unit volume.
Density is denoted by symbol (ρ) rho.

Mass (m)
Density (ρ) =
Volume (V)

S.I. unit of Density is kg/ m3.


CGS unit of Density is gram/ cm3.

. ZEAL EDUCATION SOCIETY’S DNYANGANGA POLYTECHNIC, NAHRE .


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Fluid Friction Prof. Patil Umesh Prabhakar

Que 5) State and explain the Pressure-Depth relation. Give meaning of each term in
it.
Answer:

The perpendicular force acting on unit


surface area of the object is called as pressure.
Consider the cylindrical flask containing
a liquid of density (ρ) having unit cross sectional area
(A) and (h) is the depth of liquid inside the cylinder.

The total force exerted by the = Weight of the liquid inside the
liquid on surface in contact cylindrical flask
F = W
Here, W = mg Where, m is the mass of liquid inside the cylinder .
g is the acceleration due to gravity.
V is the volume of liquid inside the cylinder.

F = (mass of the liquid) × g


mass (m)
But, Density( ρ) = then, mass = V × ρ
Volume (V)

F = ( Volume of the liquid (𝐕) × Density of the liquid (𝛒) ) × g

Now, V = πr 2 h and 𝐴 = 𝜋𝑟 2
Thus, V=A × h
F = (𝐴 × ℎ × 𝜌 ) × g
F
Where, P =
A
F (𝐴 × ℎ × 𝜌 ) × g
=
A A
Therefore, P= ℎ × 𝜌 × g

This is the equation for Pressure – Depth relation. The pressure depends on the depth of
the liquid and density of the liquid, more is the depth then more is the pressure.

. ZEAL EDUCATION SOCIETY’S DNYANGANGA POLYTECHNIC, NAHRE .


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Fluid Friction Prof. Patil Umesh Prabhakar

Que 6) Define Atmospheric Pressure and State the standard value for it.
Answer:
Definition: The force exerted on unit surface area by the weight of air above the surface of
the earth’s atmosphere is called as Atmospheric Pressure.
The atmospheric pressure is used by using Barometer. At the sea level the
standard value of atmospheric pressure is 1.013 ×105 pascal (Pa).

Que 7) State Archimede’s Principle and Pascal’s Law (4 marks)


Answer:
Archimede’s Principle: Archimede’s Principle States that, when a solid insoluble body can
immersed completely or partially in a liquid, it loses its weight and that loss of weight of the
body is equal to the weight of displaced liquid.
For Example,
Archimedes principle is used for the designing of ships.

Pascal’s Law
Statement: Pascal’s law states that, at any point in an enclosed liquid the pressure is
changes by some amount, equal amount of change in pressure transmitted thought the liquid.
This change in pressure acts normal to the surface everywhere.
For Example,
1) Hydraulic lifts are used to lift the heavy objects like cars, jeeps, trucks etc.
2) Hydraulic breaks are used in vehicles, aircrafts etc.
3) Hydraulic press machine is used to compress the metal sheet and wood.

Que 8) State and Explain Archimede’s Principle.


Answer:
Principle: Archimede’s Principle States that, when a solid insoluble body immersed
completely or partially in a liquid, it loses its weight and that loss of weight of the body is
equal to the weight of displaced liquid.

Loss of weight = Weight of displaced liquid.

. ZEAL EDUCATION SOCIETY’S DNYANGANGA POLYTECHNIC, NAHRE .


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Fluid Friction Prof. Patil Umesh Prabhakar

When a solid insoluble body is immersed in a fluid, then fluid exerts an upward force and
liquid displaces; such force is called as buoyant force or upthrust force
Weight of displaced liquid = Magnitude of buoyant force.
Therefore weight of displaced liquid is
Loss of weight = Weight of displaced liquid
W in air - W in liquid = ( mass of liquid) × g
W in air - W in liquid = (V disp × ρ liquid ) × g …………… (1)
Therefore weight of body is
W of solid = (V solid × ρ solid ) × g …………… (2)
If body is floating then,
Weight of body = Weight of displaced liquid
(V solid × ρ solid ) × g = (V disp × ρ liquid ) × g
Thus ,
V solid ρ liquid
=
V disp ρ solid
This formula is called as Archimedes Relation,
Where, W in air = Actual Weight
W in liquid = Apparent Weight
V disp = Volume of displaced liquid
V solid = Volume of solid
ρ liquid = Density of liquid
ρ solid = Density of solid.

. ZEAL EDUCATION SOCIETY’S DNYANGANGA POLYTECHNIC, NAHRE .


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Fluid Friction Prof. Patil Umesh Prabhakar

Que 9) Define Viscous force or viscous drag


Answer:
Definition: The force of friction acting between two liquid layers which tries to oppose
relative motion between the liquid layers is called as viscous force.

Que 10) Define Viscosity.


Answer:
Definition: The property of fluids on account of which liquid tries to oppose relative
motion between its adjacent layers is called as viscosity.
Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to flow.

Que 11) Define Velocity gradient and give SI unit of velocity gradient.
Answer:
Definition: The ratio of change in velocity to distance between two liquid layers is called as
velocity gradient.

Where, dv = ( v2 − v1 ) = change in velocity.


dx = distance between two liquid layers.
v2 −v1
Velocity gradient =
dx

dv
Velocity gradient = dx
Unit of velocity gradient
dv 𝐦𝐞𝐭𝐞𝐫⁄
𝐬𝐞𝐜
Velocity gradient = = = 1⁄sec
dx 𝐦𝐞𝐭𝐞𝐫

The SI unit of Velocity gradient is (per second) or (sec -1) or ( 1⁄sec)

. ZEAL EDUCATION SOCIETY’S DNYANGANGA POLYTECHNIC, NAHRE .


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Fluid Friction Prof. Patil Umesh Prabhakar

Que 12) State and explain Newton’s law of viscosity and define coefficient of viscosity
hence state the units of coefficient of viscosity.
Answer:
Statement: Newton’s law of viscosity states that, the viscous force (F) developed between
two liquid layers is directly proportional to,
1) The surface area of liquid layer; F ∝ A
dv
2) The velocity gradient; F ∝
dx

Explanation:
dv
From equation (1) and (2), F ∝ A×
dx

dv
F = constant × A ×
dx

Where constant of proportionality is called as coefficient of viscosity (η)


dv
F = η×A×
dx

Definition of coefficient of viscosity (η):


F
From above equation, η = dv

dx
𝐝𝐯
If A = 1 m2 , = 1 𝐬𝐞𝐜-1
𝐝𝐱
F
then, η =
1×1
The coefficient of viscosity is defined as viscous force per unit surface area of liquid layer
per unit velocity gradient.

Unit of coefficient of viscosity (η):


F N
From equation, η = dv = = 𝐍. 𝐬𝐞𝐜⁄𝐦𝟐
A× m2 × sec−1
dx

SI unit of coefficient of viscosity is 𝐍. 𝐬𝐞𝐜⁄𝐦𝟐


F dyne
η = dv = = 𝐝𝐲𝐧𝐞. 𝐬𝐞𝐜⁄𝐜𝐦𝟐
A× cm2 × sec−1
dx

CGS unit of coefficient of viscosity is 𝐝𝐲𝐧𝐞. 𝐬𝐞𝐜⁄𝐜𝐦𝟐

. ZEAL EDUCATION SOCIETY’S DNYANGANGA POLYTECHNIC, NAHRE .


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Fluid Friction Prof. Patil Umesh Prabhakar

Que 13) Define 1) Streamline flow


2) Turbulent flow
3) Critical velocity.
Answer:
Streamline flow: The flow of liquid in which every particles of the liquid are moves in
same direction and with constant velocity is called as streamline flow.
e.g. Flow of river water in summer season, flow of liquid through capillary tube.

Turbulent flow: The flow of liquid in which every particles of the liquid are moves in
random direction and with different velocity is called as turbulent flow.
e.g. Flow of river water in rainy season, Waterfalls, Flood water.

Critical Velocity :The maximum velocity of flow of liquid below which flow is streamline
and beyond which flow is turbulent is called as critical velocity.
Critical velocity is denoted by symbol (Vc)

Que 13) Distinguish between streamline flow and turbulent flow.


Answer:
Streamline flow Turbulent flow
1 1

2 The streamline flow is steady flow 2 The turbulent flow is non-steady flow
3 The every particles of liquid are moves 3 The every particles of liquid are moves
in same direction. in random direction.
4 The velocity at every point within the 4 The velocity at every point within the
liquid remains constant liquid does not remains constant
5 The velocity of flow of liquid is less 5 The velocity of flow of liquid is greater
than critical velocity than critical velocity
V < Vc V > Vc
6 The value of Reynolds Number is less 6 The value of Reynolds Number is greater
than 2000, (R ≤2000) than 3000, (R >3000)
7 The molecules from one layer does 7 The molecules from one layer has
not allow to jump into another layer allow to jump into another layer
8 e.g. Flow of river water in summer 8 e.g. Flow of river water in rainy season,
Season, flow of liquid through Waterfalls, Flood water.
capillary tube.

. ZEAL EDUCATION SOCIETY’S DNYANGANGA POLYTECHNIC, NAHRE .


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Fluid Friction Prof. Patil Umesh Prabhakar

Que 14) Define Terminal velocity.


Answer:
Definition: The constant velocity with which a body falls freely through a liquid column is
called as terminal velocity.

Que 15) What is Reynolds Number and Give the physical significance of Reynold’s
Number?
Answer:
Scientist Reynolds studied the motion of flow of liquid through a tube of radius 1cm
and he observed that the critical velocity (Vc) depends upon coefficient of viscosity (η),
density of liquid (ρ) and the radius of tube (r),

Rη 𝑉𝑐 𝜌𝑟
Vc = or R=
ρr 𝜂

Where R is constant known as Reynolds number which is used to determine the


nature of flow of liquid through a tube.

Physical Significance of Reynolds Number:

1) When R is less than 2000, then the nature flow of liquid is streamline.
2) When R is in between 2000 and 3000, then the nature flow of liquid is unstable.
3) When R is greater than 3000, then the nature flow of liquid is turbulent.

Que 16) State and Explain Stoke’s law of viscosity.


Answer:

Statement: Stoke’s law states that, “The viscous force experienced by a spherical body,
falling freely through a liquid column with constant velocity is directly proportional to
(1) The coefficient of viscosity of fluid (η) i.e. F ∝ η
(2) The radius of spherical body (r) i.e. F ∝ r
(3) The terminal velocity attained by a spherical body (v) i.e. F ∝ v

Therefore, F∝ηrv
F = 6𝜋 η r v
Where 6𝝅 is a constant of proportionality.
The above relation is known as Stokes formula.

. ZEAL EDUCATION SOCIETY’S DNYANGANGA POLYTECHNIC, NAHRE .


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Fluid Friction Prof. Patil Umesh Prabhakar

Que 17) Determine the coefficient of viscosity by using Stoke’s method


Answer:

Consider the spherical body of radius ‘r’ and density ‘d’


falling freely through a liquid having density ‘𝜌’ moving with a constant
velocity ‘v’ therefore spherical body experience three types of forces.
1) Weight of the body (W), acting downwards
2) Viscous force (FV), acting upwards
3) Upthrust force or Buoyant force (FT) of liquids, acting
upwards.
The Viscous force is given by the Stoke’s law of viscosity,
F = 6𝜋 η r v ……….. (1)
The Upthrust force is given by the Archimedes Principle,
According to Archimedes Principle,
Upthrust force = Loss of weight
= Weight of displaced liquid.
= Mdisp × g
= Vdisp × 𝜌 × g
4
= πr 3 × 𝜌 × g ……….. (2)
3

The downward force is weight of that spherical body,


Downward force = Weight of the spherical body
= Mdisp × g
= Vdisp × 𝑑 × g
4
= πr 3 × 𝑑 × g ……….. (3)
3
From equation (1), (2) and (3)
When the body falling freely with a constant velocity then,
The Upward force = The Downward force
[Viscous force] + [Upthrust force] = [Weight of spherical body]
4 4
[6𝜋 η r v] + [ πr 3 × 𝜌 × g] = [ πr 3 × 𝑑 × g]
3 3
4 4
[6𝜋 η r v] = [ πr 3 × 𝑑 × g] - [ πr 3 × 𝜌 × g]
3 3

. ZEAL EDUCATION SOCIETY’S DNYANGANGA POLYTECHNIC, NAHRE .


9
Fluid Friction Prof. Patil Umesh Prabhakar

4
[6𝜋 η r v] = [ πr 3 × (𝑑 − 𝜌) × g]
3
4
[ 𝜋𝑟3 × (𝑑− 𝜌) × 𝑔]
3
η=
[6𝜋 r v]

[𝟐×𝒓𝟐 (𝒅− 𝝆) × 𝒈]
η=
[𝟗 × 𝐯]
Where,
η = coefficient of viscosity
r = radius of spherical body
d = density of spherical body
𝝆 = density of liquid
g = acceleration due to gravity
v = terminal velocity.

This is the equation of coefficient of viscosity by using Stoke’s method.

Que 18) What is the effect of temperature an adulteration on viscosity?


Answer:

. ZEAL EDUCATION SOCIETY’S DNYANGANGA POLYTECHNIC, NAHRE .


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