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Evidense Based Design

Practical Approach on


Practical Approach on Heating
Ventilation & Air-Conditioning
Volume -1 First Edition
For my Father
Senior Technologist HVAC Systems ISRO
BOOK IS FOR YOU HVAC Application is almost
every branch of Industry is associated. The Book aims
to help impart knowledge to students& professionals
who needs fundementals,Book gives worked examples
of various practicals application problems. The author
made sincere effort in simple & precise present of first
edition of this book for HVAC Engineers, Designers &
Final Year students Mechanical & RAC. This is a
fundamental text and Reference Guide in Heating
,ventilation and airconditioning. This text is written in
the such that an practical approached is followed every
portion.Calculations are in FPS to get International
exposure. This book covers all relevant Information
like, topics on equipment. So many basic calculation
with easy understanding like Heat load calculations.
Duct sizing & piping, psychrometry solved solutions
where presented. Ventilation design & static pressure
where discussed and selection also Most of the
standards for course is based on ASHRAE and
This book is mostly helpful for studying engineers and
practicing HVAC Consultants,AMIE/BTech/Diploma
students, pursuing in Mechanical & Refrigeration &Air
-Conditioning. Finally the author wishes to
acknowledge help & guidance from Industry
counterparts to improve this book further.


Consultant for various HVAC projects having More
than 16 Years in the Field of HVAC(Heating ventilation
and Airconditioning).
He is an Technical writer with many years of working experience in the Heat
Ventilation and Air-Conditioning and Consultancy services for various
Private and Public sectors.

Has good experience in projects,worked with various

healthcare projects in united states Wisconsin,Charlotte
United States and India.
He is an Corporate Member of Institution of Engineers
India,ASHRAE,IGBC. His experiences Includes
Commercial as well residential and Hospitality,High
Rise Building Projects, Health care HVAC systems
design,Pharmaceutical projects design. He owns his
HVAC, Design consulting firm Dhruveeth HVAC
Engineers now working towards make in India in
sustainable green design and cost effective HVAC
design solution. Also visiting faculty for HVAC systems
design Training young engineers in various engineering
colleges in india & empowering knowledge & make skill
India in the field of Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning.
2)Job Profiles
3)Basics Thermodynamics
4)Heat Transfer & Basic Understanding.
5)Heat Load Calculations
6)Cooling Loading Calculations
5)Psychrometry,Cooling coil sizing.
6)Ducting & Fans,Blowers.
7)Pipe Sizing
7)Ventilation, displacement ventilation chilled beams,ACH.
8)Static Pressure,Grille sizing,Static pressure calculation.
10) AHU-Selection,HRU.
11) Case Study of HVAC Projects
Train,Car Air conditioning
Willis Havilland Carrier, known to many as "The Father of the
modern Air Conditioner" was born on November 26, 1875 on his
families farm in a small town in Angola, New York.

The term 'Air Conditioning' was coined by Mr. S.W. Cramer in

1906 while he was making efforts in putting the air in a fit

condition for the textile industry. The term has since come into
use in its broader sense implying control of any or all of the physical or
chemical properties of air within any enclosure.

Comfort airconditioning has been defined by Dr. D.W. Carrier as under:

“Artificial simultaneous control within enclosures of variable humidity,
temperature, air motion and air cleanliness.” Odour control is another

In 1902, only one year after Willis Haviland Carrier graduated from Cornell
University with a Masters in Engineering, the first air (temperature and
humidity) conditioning was in operation, making one Brooklyn printing plant
owner very happy. Fluctuations in heat and humidity in his plant had caused
the dimensions of the printing paper to keep altering slightly, enough to
ensure a misalignment of the colored inks. The new air conditioning machine
created a stable environment and aligned four-color printing became possible.
All thanks to the new employee at the Buffalo Forge Company, who started
on a salary of only $10.00 per week.

What is HVAC.
Heating Ventilation and Air-Conditioning.

Heating -This is the process of adding Heat to the Condition space when
Temperatures Outside the Room are Very Low less the 5 C.
Ventilation-This is the Process of supplying Fresh Air to the Condition space
and Removal of Air from the Condition space.

Air-conditioningThe process of controlling,various parameters

1) Temperature,
2) Humidity,
3) Cleaniness of Air,
4) Velocity of Air.
5) Odours
6) Pressure
Scope of HVAC
HVAC Has vast scope in Various Industries,like.
1)Information Technology.
2)Health Care.
7)Electronics Industry.

Heat Loading-The amount of Heat that must be supplied to keep room or
Building at Desired Temparature.

Cooling LoadRate at which Heat Must be removed from the room air. To
maintain it at design Temp and Humidity.

Job Profiles
Project Manager

Supervises design of projects and execution and Instructs designers and

drafter,checks calculations and plans,coordinates with other consultants and
the Architect.Completes the Project within the specified time by co-
ordination with all the Contractors.

Performs Heat Load calculations selects equipment ,plans layout of system
and specification supervises drafters,Equipment selection.
Drafing Engineers or CAD

Prepares drawings with supervision May assist in design work.

Energy Specialist Prepares energy use analyses and conservation studies
studying varied alternatives.

Estimation Engineers & Costing

Uses plan and specifications to determine quantity of Materials,labour,
equipment for projects.Prepares cost from this data.
Sales Engineers
Sells equipment and Installation and service contracts.Furnishes
Product information and Technical advice to customers.

Purchase Engineer
Orders and Purchases materials and equipment .Checks technical
characterictics follow up delivery time.

Service Manager
Is responsible for Maintenance of already existing machines.Determine
solutions to the Problems obtain materials and equipments and direct service
Basics of Thermodynamics
Weight Density

Is the weight per unit volume of a substance. Although weight density and
(mass) density are not the same, they are often used as such, as both are
measured in lb/ft3 in U.S units.

Is the push or pull that one body may exert on another. The U.S unit of force
is the pound force.
Weight (w)
Of a body is the force exerted on it by the gravitational pull of the earth.
Pressure (p)
Is defined as force (F) exerted per unit area (A).
Is the effect created by a force when it moves a body. It is expressed by the
following equation:

Work = Force x distance


Is the form of energy that transfers from one body to another due to a
temperature difference.
Is defined as the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one
pound of water one degree Fahrenheit (F). Note:1 lb = 7000 Grains , 2.2 lb =
1 Kg Temperature
Is a measure of the thermal activity in a body. This activity depends on the
velocity of the molecules and other particles of which all matter is composed.
Chemical energy
Is a form of stored energy in a body that is released from a body by
combustion. When a fuel is burned, its stored chemical energy is released as

Kinetic energy
Is the stored energy in a body due to its motion, or velocity.
Potential energy
Is the stored energy a body has due to its position, or elevation.
What is Process?

When the system undergoes a change from its initial state to the final state,
the system is said to have undergone a process. During the thermodynamic
process, one or more of the properties of the system like temperature,
pressure, volume, enthalpy or heat, entropy, etc. changes. The second law of
thermodynamics enables us to classify all the processes under two main
categories: reversible or ideal processes and irreversible or natural processes.

What is an Irreversible Process?

The irreversible process is also called the natural process because all the
processes occurring in nature are irreversible processes. The natural process
occurs due to the finite gradient between the two states of the system. For
instance, heat flow between two bodies occurs due to the temperature
gradient between the two bodies; this is in fact the natural flow of heat.
Similarly, water flows from high level to low level, current moves from high
potential to low potential, etc.

Here are some important points about the irreversible process:

1) In the irreversible process the initial state of the system and surroundings
cannot be restored from the final state.
2) During the irreversible process the various states of the system on the path
of change from initial state to final state are not in equilibrium with each
other. 3) During the irreversible process the entropy of the system increases
decisively and it cannot be reduced back to its initial value.
4) The phenomenon of a system undergoing irreversible process is called as
What is a Reversible Process?

The process in which the system and surroundings can be restored to the
initial state from the final state without producing any changes in the
thermodynamics properties of the universe is called a reversible process. In
the figure below, let us suppose that the system has undergone a change from
state A to state B. If the system can be restored from state B to state A, and
there is no change in the universe, then the process is said to be a reversible
process. The reversible process can be reversed completely and there is no
trace left to show that the system had undergone thermodynamic change. For
the system to undergo reversible change, it should occur infinitely slowly due
to infinitesimal gradient. During reversible process all the changes in state
that occur in the system are in thermodynamic equilibrium with each other.

Thus there are two important conditions for the reversible process to occur.
Firstly, the process should occur in infinitesimally small time and secondly
all of the initial and final state of the system should be in equilibrium with
each other.

If during the reversible process the heat content of the system remains
constant, i.e. it is adiabatic process, then the process is also isentropic
process, i.e. the entropy of the system remains constant.

The phenomenon of undergoing reversible change is also called reversibility.

In actual practice the reversible process never occurs, thus it is an ideal or
hypothetical process.

Enthalpy is a property of a body that measures its heat content.

The First Law of Thermodynamics

Is the change in total energy in a system equals the energy added to the
system minus the energy removed from the system.
Second law of Thermodynamics

The second law is concerned with entropy (S). Entropy is produced by all
processes and associated with the entropy production is the loss of ability to
do work. The second law says that the entropy of the universe increases. An
increase in overall disorder is therefore spontaneous. If the volume and
energy of a system are constant, then every change to the system increases
the entropy. If volume or energy change, then the entropy of the system
actually decrease. However, the entropy of the universe does not decrease.

For energy to be available there must be a region with high energy level and a
region with low energy level. Useful work must be derived from the energy
that would flows from the high level to the low level.
· 100% of the energy cannot be transformed to work
· Entropy can be produced but never destroyed

Heat only flows from Higher Temp to Lower Temp.It is Impossible for a
system working in cycle to have,as its sole effect transfer of a heat from a
system at a low temperature to a system at a high Temp.

Heat only flows from Higher temp to Lower Temparatures.

Third Law of Thermodynamic
It is impossible for any procedure to lead to the isotherm T = 0 in a finite
number of steps.
It is impossible for any process, no matter how idealized, to reduce the
entropy of a system to its zero point value in a finite number of operations.
The entropy of a perfect crystal at absolute zero is exactly equal to zero The
entropy of a system approaches a constant value as the temperature
approaches zero.
Saturated vapor
Is vapor at the boiling temperature, and saturated liquid is liquid at the
boiling temperature.
When the temperature of the vapor is above its saturation temperature
(boiling point),it is called a superheated vapor.
When the temperature of the liquid is below its saturation temperature, it is
called a sub-cooled liquid.
Sensible Heat
When heat added to or removed from a substance results in a temperature
change, but no change in state, the process is called a sensible heat change.
Latent Heat
When heat added to or removed from a substance results in a change in state,
without Temparature change called Latent heat change.
Latent Heat of Vapourisation

The amount of Heat Required to change a substance from liquid to vapour

state.The enthalpy increase as it changes from a liquid to a vapor is called the
latent heat of vaporization,

the opposite effect, the enthalpy decrease as it changes from a vapor to a

liquid is called the latent heat of condensation,
Latent heats of fusion and sublimation
The Amount of heat needed to change a substance from Solid to Liquid state
is called Latent heats of fusion

At very low pressure and temperature it is possible to change some substance

directly from the solid to the gas state. This process is called sublimation. It
is used in the procedure called freeze drying, to prepare dried foods by first
freezing them and then evaporating the ice in the food directly to vapor, at a
very low pressure.

THE IDEAL (PERFECT) GAS LAWS Under certain conditions, the

pressure volume, and temperature of gases are related by an equation called
the perfect or ideal gas law.
Air Conditioning:
Is the process of treating air in a Internal Environment to establish and
maintain required Temparature,Humidity,cleaniness,and Motion.
Temparature: Air Temparature is controlled by Heating or cooling of the
Air. Humidity: Air humidity the water vapour content of air is controlled by
adding or Removing water vapour from the air (Humidification of

Cleaniness: Air cleaniness of Quality of Air is controlled by either filtration

removal of Undesirable contaminants by using filters and Another method is
by using introduction of outside air into the condition space.

Motion: Air velocity is an Important factor in where the air has to be

distubuted This can also can be controlled by appropriate air distubution
Sound: Controlling sound Inside the condition space is also an Important
factor where inside an Quietness to be maintained.
Thermodynamics is simply the study of changes involving energy but it is
also defined as the study of energy its transformations and its relation to
states of matter. Enthalpy: Is also known as measure of heat contained in a
substance.Enthalpy of vapour is sum of heat total of sensible and Latent Heat.
Entropy: Is defined as quantity of heat crossing the boundary of a reversible
system divided by the absolute temperature of the system,
Entropy is property ot the system and it depends up on the state of the
substance and two other independent properties heat and absolute
Coefficient of Performance or COP :
The ratio of refrigeration produced in one minute to the work input for
compression expressed in the heat units.

Of a heat pump is the ratio of the heating or cooling provided over the
electrical energy consumed. The COP provides a measure of performance for
heat pumps that is analogous to thermal efficiency for power cycles.

Q -Is the Heat supplied to or Removed from the Reservoir

W -Work consumed by the Heat Pump.

EER Energy Efficiency Ratio is the Of AC = Cooling Capacity (Watt) /

Power Consumption (Watt).
1TR = 3.516 KW
Pounds per square inch
It is the pressure resulting from a force of one pound-force applied to an area
of one square inch.

Pounds per square inch absolute (psia) is used to make it clear that the
pressure is relative to a vacuum rather than the ambient atmospheric pressure.
Since atmospheric pressure at sea level is around 14.7 psi.

Atmospheric Pressure
Atmospheric pressure is the force per unit area exerted on a surface by the
weight of air above that surface in the atmosphere of Earth
as elevation increases, there is less overlying atmospheric mass, so that
atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing elevation.

The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure equal to 101.325

kPa ("kiloPascals") or 1013.25 millibars or hectopascals. It is equivalent to
760 mmHg (torr), 29.92 inHg, 14.696 psi
Vacuum Pressure : Vacuum is space that is empty of matter.

Negative gage pressure are also termed as vacuum pressures.

Full vacuum pressure refers to the internal pressure that is below the
atmospheric pressure. It is a negative pressure that is equivalent to
14.7pascals.A standard vacuum or negative gauge pressure range for
measuring vacuum pressure is 0 to -1 bar gauge.
A full vacuum pressure is the pressure measured relative to ambient
atmosphere pressure, often measured in PSIV (Pound per Square Inch,
Vacuum). Atmosphere is 0 PSIV, full vacuum is about 14.7 PSIV, the typical
absolute pressure range for measuring vacuum pressures is 0 to 1 bar

Absolute Pressure : when a vacuum pump is used to evacuate a bottle. The

pressure in a vacuum is called absolute zero, and all pressures refernced with
respect to this zero pressure are termed absolute pressures.

Absolute pressure is zero-referenced against a perfect vacuum, so it is equal

to gauge pressure plus atmospheric pressure.
Gauge pressure is zero-referenced against ambient air pressure, so it is equal
to absolute pressure minus atmospheric pressure. Negative signs are usually
Differential pressure is the difference in pressure between two points
Pressure above atmospheric pressure is gauge pressure. If atmospheric
pressure is 1 then gauge pressure will be 0. Vacuum pressure is pressure less
than 1 atm. Absolute pressure=gauge pressure+atmospheric pressure while
pressure absolute=atmospheric-vacuum pressure.

The excess pressure above atmospheric pressure is usually called gauge

pressure. Total pressure is called absolute pressure
Gauge & atms pressures are related by

Gauge pressure = absolute pressure - atmospheric pressure

Gauge pressure in atm + 1 = absolute pressure in atm.
Heat always flows from a higher temp substance to lower temperature
substance. Heat cannot be destroyed and can tranfered from one body to
another body. Conduction:
Hot water flows through a tube inside the convector, warming the inside
surface of the tube. Heat is transferred, by conduction, through the tube wall
to the slightly cooler fins that are attached to the outside surface of the tube.
Conduction is the process of transferring heat through a solid.

The heat is then transferred to the cool air that comes into contact with the
fins. As the air is warmed and becomes less dense, it rises, carrying the heat
away from the fins and out of the convector. This air movement is known as
a convection current. Convection is the process of transferring heat as the
result of the movement of a fluid. Convection often occurs as the result of the
natural movement of air caused by temperature (density) differences.

is the process of transferring
heat by means of electromagnetic waves, emitted due to the temperature
difference between two objects. An interesting thing about radiated heat is
that it does not heat the air between the source and the object it contacts; it
only heats the object itself.

Cooling Coil Load:

How much Energy is removed by the cooling coilserving various spaces plus
any loads external to the spaces such as duct heat gain,duct leakage,fan heat
out door Heat make up air.
Methods How heat enters the space
Solar Radiation through the window or any Transparent surfaces.
Heat conduction through wall roofs and windows of class.
Heat conduction through Interior Partitions ,ceilings and floors.
Generated heat by occupants such as lights,appliances,People,equipment and
process. Loads that are due to the Ventilation and Infiltration of outdoor air.

Ton Refrigeration : Is defined as the heat to be removed to transform one

ton of water (2000lbs) at 0 deg C to Ice at 0 deg in 24 Hours.
British Thermal Unit (Btu):The Btu is defined as the quantity of heat
energy required to raise the temperature of 1 lb of water 1°F
Sensible Heat Gain– is the energy added to the space by conduction,
convection and/or radiation.

Latent Heat Gain – is the energy added to the space when moisture is added
to the space by means of vapor emitted by the occupants, generated by a
process or through air infiltration from outside or adjacent areas.

Radiant Heat Gain– the rate at which heat absorbed is by the surfaces
enclosing the space and the objects within the space.
Space Heat Gain– is the rate at which heat enters into and/or is generated
within the conditioned space during a given time interval.
Space Cooling Load– is the rate at which energy must be removed from a
space to maintain a constant space air temperature.
1TR = 3.516 KW
BTU – How much heat produced at one Instant.
BTU/HR- Is amount of heat produced in an Hour.
MBM - 1000 BTU/HR
C = 5/9(F-32) F=(9/5C)+32
1 Inch of water -248.84 Pascal
1 Feet of water – 298.9 Pascal 1 Inch of water -25.3 mm H20
1 mm H20- 9.8 Pascal
1 PSI - 703mmwg
1 Pascal – 0.004 Inch of water

The amount of heat that must be supplied to the keep the builiding or room
air at the desire temperature is called heating load the heating load must be
determine because it is in the selection of the heating equipment ,piping an
duct sizing ,an in energy utilization studies.

The heating load requirements for buildings results from two types of heat
losses:Heat Transfer Losses
And Infiltration /ventilation losses
Three different ways that heat transfer occurs. Conduction ,Convection
The rate at which heat is conducted through any material depends on three
1.The temperature differences across which the heat flows.
2.The area of the surface through which heat is flowing.
3.The thermal resistance (R) of the material to the heat transfer.
This can be expressed by the following equation: Q=1/R*A*TD
Q=heat transfer rate ,BTU/hr
R=thermal resistence of material,hr-ft2-F/BTU
A=surface area through which heat flows ft2
TD=tHtL=temperature difference across which heat flows,from higher
temperature tH to lower temperature tL,F

The Thermal resistance R of a material is ability to resist the flow of heat
through it. 1.A 150 ft long by 15 ft high wall is made of 4 in common brick
temperature on the inside surface of the wall is 60F,and on the out side
surface of the temperature is 25F.what is rate of heat transfer through wall?

For brick common value for Inch 0.20 can be taken from ASHRAE data
R=0.20hr-ft2-F/BTU per in .*4 .in
=0.8 hr-ft2-F/BTU
Area of wall A= 150ft*15ft=2250 ft2
TD=tHtL=60-25=35F Using the formula Q=1/R*A*TD
=1/.8*2250*35 =98437.5 BTU/HR


There is very thin film of still air on the each side of a
solid building element such as a wall or roof.The films
also have thermal resistance just as solid materials
do.The resistance of an air film depends on the spatial
orientation of the surface (vertical,horizontal,slope)and
air velocity near the surface.
For winter conditions (heating loads),it is assumed that the air velocity
outdoors is 15MPH, For
The indoor surface of any buliding elements ,still air assumed.


Amount of heat transfered through the material.
The overall thermal resistance for each part of the building.

Structure through which heat flows, however,many tables don’t list the
results as over resistance,called the overall heat transfer coefficient
(u),BTU/hr-ft2-F.The relationship between RO and U is

U=1/RO In terms of U, the heat transfer equation then becomes

Q=U*A*TD Where
Q=heat transfer rate.BTU/hr
U=overall heat transfer coefficient.BTU/hr-ft2-F
A=surface area through which heat flows,ft2
TD=temperature difference,F
If any part of the structure which I above the ground surface calculation for
rate of heat transfer is made with the Formula Q=U*A*TD
However the part which is below the Ground surface U and TD values has to
be taken in different types
Number of Condition exist in the Basement.
1)Basement Heated
The heat loss through the basement using inside basement design temp.If the
basement is portioned a separate calculation for each area is required.
2)Unheated basement
No heat loss through the base ment should be made.
3)Basement heated by the heat source equipment.

When a floor is on the ground the heat loss is greatest near the outside
edges(perimeter) of the building and is proportional to the length of these
edges rather than the area of the floor

Following equation is used

L=Total length of outside edges of floor FT
TD=Design temp difference between inside and outside F
Duct heat Transfer Losses
It is suggested that 2-5% of the Building sen sible heat loss is added to
account for Duct Heat losses.
Duct Leakage
Loss is usually insignificant in Private residencies But can reach upto 5-10%
of the load in the Large buildings.
Pick up Factor
When the building in intermittently heated or when regular nightmare setback
temp is maintained
Some designers allow the extra 10% loss for intermittently heated
buildings,upto 40% for 10F hight setback in residential equipment
Standard pickup factor varies from 15-25% depedding on boiler type and
One of the most important factors determining your climate is your latitude.
Between 23.5S and 23.5N latitude we have the tropics - where high
temperatures are the norm, and the sun can beat down from directly overhead
once or twice each year. From 23.5N to 66.5N and between 23.5S and 66.5S
are the temperate zones, where there are clear spring/summer/fall/winter
seasons. From 66.5N to the North Pole we have the Arctic, and from 66.5S to
the South Pole, the Antarctic. In these arctic zones the sun is above the
horizon at midnight for part or all of the summer and never rises at all during
some day(s) in the winter. At the pole, daily motion is parallel to the horizon.

Besides making it easier for one to locate different places on Earth, latitude is
important to geography because it helps navigation and researchers
understand the various patterns seen on Earth. High latitudes for example
have very different climates than low latitudes. In the Arctic it is much colder
and drier than in the tropics. This is a direct result of the unequal distribution
of solar insolation between the equator and the rest of the Earth.
Increasingly, latitude also results in extreme seasonal differences in climate
because sunlight and sun angle vary at different times of the year depending
on latitude. This affects temperature and the types of flora and fauna that can
live in an area. Tropical rainforests for example are the most biodiverse
places in the world while harsh conditions in the Arctic and Antarctic make it
difficult for many species to survive.

Equator (0 degrees latitude)

Tropic of Cancer (23.5 degrees north latitude)
Tropic of Capricorn (23.5 degrees south latitude)
Arctic Circle (66.5 degrees north latitude)
Antarctic Circle (66.5 degrees south latitude)

Lines of latitude measure north-south

position between the poles. The equator
is defined as 0 degrees, the North Pole is
90 degrees north, and the South Pole is
90 degrees south. Lines of latitude are all
parallel to each other, thus they are often
referred to as parallels.

The memory rhyme I use to help

remember that lines of latitude denote north-south distance is:
"Tropical latitudes improve my attitude"
One degree of latitude is
60 nautical miles, 69 statute miles or 111 km.

One minute of latitude is

1 nautical mile, 1.15 statute miles, or
1.85 km.


Lines of longitude, or meridians, run

between the North and South Poles.
They measure east-west position. The
prime meridian is assigned the value of
0 degrees, and runs through Greenwich, England. Meridians to the west of
the prime meridian are measured in degrees west and likewise those to the
east of the prime meridian are measured to by their number of degrees east.

The memory rhyme I use to help remember that lines of longitude denote
east-west distance is:
"Lines of LONGitude are all just as
LONG as one another."

With this saying in my mind, I picture all of the longitudinal meridians

meeting at the poles, each meridian the same length as the next.

Building Pressurisation:

The outdoor air requirements are sometimes governed by the building

pressurization needs. Most air-conditioning systems are designed to maintain
a slightly higher pressure than the surroundings, a positive pressure, to
prevent or reduce infiltration and untreated air entering the space directly. For
laboratories, restrooms, or workshops where toxic, hazardous, or
objectionable gases or contaminants are produced, a slightly lower pressure
than the surroundings, a negative pressure, should be maintained to prevent
or reduce the diffusion of these contaminants to the surrounding area.

Cooling Load calculation

Cooling Load is the rate at which heat must be removed from the room air to
maintain it at design Temparature and Humidity.

The amount of heat that must be removed (the cooling load ) is not always
equal to the amount of heat received at a given time. This difference is a
result of the heat storage a Time lag effects. Of the total amount of heat
entering the building at any instant, only a portion of it heats the room air
immediately; the other part ( the radiation ) heats the building mass – the
roof, walls, floors, an furnishings. This is the heat storage effect. Only at a
later time does the stored heat portion contribute to heating the room air.

The thermal storage effect and resulting time lag cause the cooling load to
often be different in value from the entering heat ( called the instantaneous
heat gain ). During the time of day at which the instantaneous heat gain is the
highest ( the after-noon ), the cooling load is less than the instantaneous heat
gain. This is because some of this heat is store in the building mass an is not
heating the room air. Later in the day, the store heat plus some of the new
entering heat is released to the room air, so the cooling load becomes greater
than the instantaneous heat gain.

The cooling load calculation procedure that will be explained here is called
the CLF/CLTD/SCL/SHGF method.
External & Internal Sensible Latent Heat Gains
Factors effecting Human
Dry Bulb Temp
Air Movement
Fresh Air
Clean air
Noise Level
Adequate Lighting
The process of Comfort heating and Air Conditioning is simply Transfer
Energy from one substance to Another.
The energy is divided into Two Categories.
Sensible heat is heat energy that, when added to or removed from a
substance, results in a measurable change in dry-bulb temperature.
Latent heat content of a substance are associated with the
addition or removal of moisture. Latent heat can also be defined as
the“hidden” heat energy that is absorbed or released when the phase of a
substance is changed. For example, when water is converted to steam,or
when steam is converted to water.

The heat gain components that contribute to the room cooling load consist of
the following.

1.Conduction through exterior walls, roof, and glass.

2.Conduction through interior partitions, ceilings, and floors.
3.Solar radiation through glass.
7.Heat from infiltration of outside air through openings.

It is convenient to arrange these heat gains into two groups-those from

external sources outside the room, and those internally generated. From the
earlier description, it is seen that items 4 and 6 are internal heat gains.
Infiltration can be considered as a separate class.

It is also convenient to arrange the heat gains into a different set of two
groups: sensible and latent heat gains. Sensible heat gains result in increasing
the air temperature; latent heat gains are due to addition of water vapor, thus
increasing humidity.

Items 1 through 4 are solely sensible gains. Items 5 and 7 are part sensible
and part latent, and item 6 can fall in either category or both, depending on
the type of equipment.

For sunlit surfaces, CLTD has to be obtained from the CLTD tables.
For surfaces which are not sunlit or which have negligible thermal mass
(such as doors), the CLTD value is simply equal to the temperature difference
across the wall or roof.

Heat transfer through opaque surfaces: This is a sensible heat transfer

process. The heat transfer rate through opaque surfaces such as walls, roof,
floor, doors q= U*A*CLTD.
EXTERNAL HEAT GAINSThis load varies widely for given building.
1)Conduction through exterior structure(Roof,Walls,Glass)
The cooling loads cause by conduction heat gains through the exterior roof,
walls, and glass are each found from the following equation:
CLTD factors are used for adjustment to conductive heat gains from walls,
roof, floor and glass
Where Q = Cooling load for roof, wall, or glass, BTU/hr
U= Overall heat transfer coefficient for roof, wall, or glass BTU/hr-ft2-F
A = Area of roof, Wall, or glass,ft2
CLTDC = Corrected cooling load temperature difference, F

The cooling load temperature difference (CLTD) is not the actual temperature
difference between the outdoor and indoor air. It is modified value that
accounts for the heat storage/time lag effects.

Tables list CLTD values for some based on the following conditions:

1. Indoor temperature is 78F DB.

2. Outdoor average temperature on the design day is 85 F DB.
3. Date is July 21 st.
4. Location is 400n latitude.
5. If the actual condition differs from any of the above, the CLTD must be
corrected as follows:

Note: C=5/9(F-32), F=(9/5)C+32)

CLTDC = CLTD + LM + (78 - tR) + (ta- 85)
CLTDC = Corrected value of CLTD, F
CLTD = Temperature from Tables
LM = Correction for latitude and month, from Table
tR = Room temperature, F
ta = Average outside temperature on a design day, F
The temperature ta can be found as follows:
ta=to-DR/2 where
Both to= Outside Design dry bulb Temparature F DR = Daily temperature
range F are found in Table
Tables include U-values for the roofs and walls described. However, it is
always advisable to confirm these values by calculation from individual R-
values, as described.
The hours listed in Tables are Solar Time. This is approximately equal to
Standard Time. A one hour for Daylight Savings Time.
The following two examples illustrate the procedure for finding the cooling
load due to conduction heat gain through a roof and a wall.

2. A 30 ft by 60 ft roof of a building in WISCONSIN Milwaukee., is

constructed of 4 in. heavy weight concrete with 1 in. insulation and a
suspended ceiling. The inside temperature is 70F.
Find the roof cooling load at 12 PM Solar Time on July 21.

Sol ASHRAE data Book Roof Type No:9 With Suspended Ceiling AT 12
ASHRAE data Book Milwaukee. is at 430 N latitude.
ASHRAE data Book For July, LM= 1F Roof surface is horizontal (the HOR
B. Use Equation to find ta, first finding t0 and DR from Tables.
ASHRAE data Book For Milwaukee., t0 = 89 F ASHRAE data Book DR =
17 F.
ta= 89– 17/2 = 80.5 F
C. Using Equation CLTDC = CLTD + LM + (78 - tR) + (ta- 85)
= 24 + 1 + (78– 70) + (80– 85)
CLTDC = 38 F
ASHRAE data Book U = 0.128 Btu/hr-ft2-F
2E. The roof area A = 30 ft * 60 ft = 1800 ft 3. Use equation to find the
cooling load,
Q = U * A* CLTDC = 0.128*1800*38
= 8755.2 BTU/hr
3. Roof has 170 ft2 of single glass windows Aluminium with Thermal Break.
Inside air temperature is 70 F and out- door average temperature on a design
day is 80 F.
Find the cooling load due to conduction heat gain through the windows at 2
PM Daylight Savings Time.

1. ASHRAE data Book (2PM DST = 1 PM ST = 13 hrs), CLTD = 12 F.

2. Using Equation without LM correction,
CLTDC = CLTD + LM + (78 - tR) + (ta- 85)
= 12 + (78– 70)+ (80 - 85)

CLTDC = 15 F.
3. ASHRAE data Book U = 1.01

= 1.01* 170 * 15
= 2575 BTU/hr

2)Conduction through Interior Structure

The heat that flows from interior unconditioned spaces to the conditioned
space through partitions, floors, and ceilings can be found from Equation
Q = Heat gain (Cooling load) through partition, floor, or ceiling, BTU/hr
U = Overall heat transfer coefficient for partition, floor, or ceiling, BTU/hr-
2A = Area of partition, floor, or ceiling, ft
TD = Temperature difference between unconditioned and conditioned space,

If the temperature of the unconditioned space is not known, an approximation

often use is to assume that is at 5 f less than the outdoor temperature. Spaces
with heat sources, such as boiler rooms, may be at a much higher

3)Solar Radiation Through Glass

1) Conductive Q Glass Conductance = U *A *CLTDglass corrected.
U=Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient.
A=Area of Glass.
Pay attention to effect of shading, reflective films, curtains, drapes.
CLTD Glass Corrected= [CLTD Glass+ (78– TR) +(TM– 85)].
CLTD glass corrected will be taken From Tables.
Note:For Conduction & Opaque surface Q=UA(CLTD)

CLTD, or the Cooling Load Temperature Difference. This factor is used to

represent the temperature difference between indoor and outdoor air with the
inclusion of the heating effects of solar radiation.


Glass Types
Glass Thickness,
IG Unit Size & Weight Limits ,
Inert Gas Filling,
Safety Glazing ,
Thermal Stress ,
Windloads ,
High Altitude ,
Hurricane Resistance,
Safety Glazing Acoustics,
Windloads Thermal Performance

Annealed Glass
Annealed glass can be used for vision applicationswhere clear, tinted and Loå
glasses are specified, provided they meet the windload, thermal stress and
building code requirements of the project.

Heat-Strengthened Glass
Heat-strengthened glass is approximately two times as strong as annealed
glass in resisting windload. If it fractures, it usually breaks into large sections
(similar to annealed glass) and usually remains in the opening. If it meets all
requirements, codes and specifications, heat-strengthened glass should be
used in all
applications where annealed glass will not meet thermal or
windload requirements. Heat-strengthened glass can be used for all tinted,
Loå and reflective vision applications. It is the
recommended choice for all spandrel applications.

Tempered Glass
Tempered glass is approximately four times as strong as annealed glass in
resisting windload. If fracture occurs, it will break into very small particles
which usually will evacuate the opening and could cause damage or injury to
people below. Because of this, Cardinal recommends that the use of tempered
glass in commercial construction be restricted to applications where codes
require safety glazing, fire knockout panels or in non-hazardous applications
where glass fallout potential is not a concern.

The acoustical performance of windows and doors is affected by:
• Glass size
• Glass thickness
• Airspace gap
• Presence of laminated products
• Framing members
• Gaskets, sealants, weather stripping
• Window design.
Solar Energy Transmittance Comparison
Solar energy can be broken down into the UV, Visible and
Near Infrared spectrums. Characteristics of these energy
spectrums are as follows:
• UV, 300 to 380 nm - Can cause fading of furnishings
• Visible, 380 to 780 nm - Visible light
• Near Infrared, 780 to 2500 nm- Solar energy that we feel as heat.

The best glass product would

have a low UV transmission, a high visible light transmission and a low near
infrared transmission. Considerations of outdoor aesthetics, color, glare, solar
gain (SHGC), heat loss (U-Factor), comfort, visible light transmission,
etc,should be taken into account on any application.

Energy from the sun which is transmitted through glass can be categorized
into three main regions • Ultraviolet (UV) energy spans from 300 to 380 nm •
Visible light (seen by the eye) spans from 380 to 780 nm • Near infrared
radiation (or heat energy) spans from 780 to 2500 nm.

Solar Heat Gain Coefficient(SHGC).

The fraction of incident solar radiation which enters a building as heat. It is
based on the sum of the solar energy transmittance plus the inwardly flowing
fraction of absorbed solar energy on all lites of the glazing.
Dimensionless and varying between 0 and 1, the smaller the number, the
better the glazing is at preventing solar gain. It is preferred over the shading
coefficient since it can be used for solar incidence angles other than normal to
the glass surface.

SHGF(Solar Heat Gain Factor)

The maximum solar heat gain factor is the maximum solar heat gain through
single clear glass at a given month,orientation,and latitude Values.

Shading Coefficient
The ratio of solar heat gain solar heat gain through a single light of 1/8”
(3mm) clear glass under the same set of conditions. Dimensionless and
varying between 0and 1, the smaller the number,the better the window is at
stopping the entry of solar heat.

In most windows that exist today, the rate of heat flow through the frame and
the 2 1/2” band of glass near the frame is greater than the heat flow through
the center of an argon-filled, Loå2 or Loå3 insulating glass unit.

LOE ( Low Emissivity Coating ) :

These are applied to glass which reflect long wave room side infrared energy
back into the room reducing the U- value 0 to 1. Lower emissivity lower the
resultant U value.

Second Generation LOE

Coating which provide a high visible light transmission while offering a
significant decrease in solar heat gain coefficient & Shading coefficient has 2
silver layers.

U-Value :
Heat flow rate through a given construction the lower is U value the less heat
transmitted through glazing materials.
Value given for summer day time calculate for outside temperature at 890F
(320c) Outside air velocity 6.2mph (2.8 m/s)
Inside Air temperature (750F) 240c
Solar intensity 248 Btu/Hr/Ft2(783 W/M2)
Winter might have Uvalue are calculated for outside air temperature at
0F(180c)Outside air velocity 12.3mph ( 5.5m/s ) Solar intensity (0 w/m2)
Thermal resistance of glazing but it is Reciprocal of U value R=1/U.

Visible Light Transmitance:

In Visible light 380 to 780 The percentage of light that transmitted through
the glass relative to
CFE (International Commision on illumination) standard observation.
Standard coefficient depends on

1. Color of glass.
2. Degree of reflectivity.
3. Type of reflective metal oxide for case of reflective glass.

Sputtered -Coated reflective

Sputtered– Coated low emissivity glasses tend to have lower SC compared to
Same Pyrolitically coated reflective and low emissivity glass.
Value ranges from 1.00 to 0.00
Expect SC 0.98 to 0.10
Selection of glass and High temperature areas low SC is needed to lower the
Solar heat gain through glass.

Glazing Centre of Al window no Al window glass U thermal with thermal

value Break Break

Clear 0.47 0.85 0.58

Triple pane 0.15 0.63 0.36 All Clad Wood or Wood or Vinyl Refined
Windows vinyl

0.48 0.44
0.28 0.44
Shaded Coefficient :

The ratio of solar heat gain through a window to the solar heat gain through a
single light of 1/8(3mm) clear glass under the same set of conditions vary
between 0 to 1. Smaller the number better the window is at stopping the
entry of solar heat.

LSG=Visible Transference/Solar Heat Gain Coefficient

CLTD( Corrected ) Glass Exterior.
Depends on
Based on Latitude
Time of Day
R-Value of the Component CLF=Factors are used for adjustments to heat
gains from internal Loads,Such as Lights,Occupancy,Power appliances.
SCL=Factors are used for adjustments to Transmissions Heat gains from the
Out door average Temp on the Design Day 85 F BD
Indoor Temp 78 F
Date July 21 Location 40 N Latitute.

CLTD is a theoretical temperature difference that accounts for the combined

effects of Inside & Outside air Temp difference ,daily Temp Range,Solar
radiation,Heat Storage in
CLF factors are used for adjustment to conductive heat gains from
wall,roof,floor,glass. CLF Accounts for the fact that all the radiant energy
that enters the conditioned space at

a particular time doesn’t become apart of the cooling load Instantaneosly.

CLF values for various surfaces have been calculated as function of solar
time & Orientation.
4)Solar Transmission, Heat Gains through windows Glazed surfaces
QGlass Solar=A*SC*SCL.
A=Area of Glass.
SC=Solar Cooling Load Factor.
SCL=Solar Cooling Load Factor from Tables
5)Glass Cooling Load for Radiation
A=Area of Glass.
SC=Shaded Coefficient.
SHGF=Solar Heat Gain factor from tables.
CLF=Cooling Load Factor from tables.
Note: Opaque substance Not Transparent,Not allowing Light to Pass
Through,Not Transmitting radiation,Sound,Heat,Not Shining(or)Dark Dull.
CLTD( Corrected ) Glass Exterior.
Depends on
Based on Latitude
Time of Day
R-Value of the Component

Cooling Load Factor (CLF) This coefficient accounts for the time lag
between the outdoor and indoor temperature peaks.Depending on the
properties of the building envelope,a delay is present when observing the
amount of heat being transferred inside from the outdoors. The CLF is the
cooling load at a given time compared to the heat gain from earlier in the day.

All the radiant energy that enters the conditioned space at a particular time
does not become a part of the cooling load instantly. As solar radiation enters
the conditioned space, only a negligible portion of it is absorbed by the air
particles in the conditioned space instantaneously leading to a minute change
in its temperature.Most of the radiation, is first absorbed by the internal
surfaces, which include ceiling, floor, internal walls, furniture etc. Due to the
large but finite thermal capacity of the roof, floor, walls etc, their temperature
increases slowly due to absorption of solar radiation, surface temperature
increases, heat transfer takes place between these surfaces and the air in the
conditioned space, Thus it can be seen that the radiation heat transfer
introduces a time lag and also a decrement factor depending upon the
dynamic characteristics of the surfaces.

CLF=Factors are used for adjustments to heat gains from internal Loads,Such
as Lights,Occupancy,Power appliances.They are also storage part of solar
Heat gain.
These also accounts for storage part of the solar heat gain depends on
Medium, Heavy, Light and Direction.
SCL=Factors are used for adjustments to Transmissions Heat gains from the

4.A building wall facing northwest has a window area of 270 ft2 .The double
glass is ¼ in Clear glass with Medium-Coloured Interior Venetain Blinds.The
Building is of Meduim Construction and is Located at 44o N Latitude.Find
the solar cooling load in the may 3PM Solar Time.

ASHRAE data Book SHGF -162 ,From ASHRAE data Book,SC-0.62 - Page
ASHRAE data Book CLF-0.52.
=14101 BTU/hr
INTERNAL HEAT GAINS This load remains fairly constant for given
1)PEOPLE (Sensible & Latent Heat). 2)LIGHTING (Sensible).
3)EQUIPMENT (Sensible & Latent)
(a)Receptables of Electical Plug Loads (Sensible Heat Gains Only)
(b)Processes Such as Cooking and Boiling Coffee Makers (Sensible and
Latent Heat gain)
(IHG)Internal Heat gains are major component of the total building Cooling
Load.This particularly True for Non-Residential (Commercial, Institutional,
Industrail) Buildings. IHG for Lights can be calculated if the type and
Number of Light Fixures are Known.
This is also True for the Electrical Appliances and Equipment.
IHG for people and Process Loads are approximate and varies with the Level
of Activities.
Latent Heat(Moisture or Water Vapour) from the people and equipment
added to the space in an
Instantaneous Cooling Load
Sensible Heat Generated by Internal Heat sources(People,Light,Equipment)
is time Delayed cooling Load.

As with the Solar radiation heat entering the space a part of sensible heat
generated by Internal Sources is first absorbed by the surroundings and then
gradually released into air increasing its Temperature.

To allow for the Time delay due to Thermal Storage,Cooling Load

Factors(CLF) were developed to estimate the Heat gains from the Internal
heat emiting sources.
CLFS are based on the Time(Hour) when the Internal source starts to
Generate heat Load and the Number of Hours it Remains in Operation.
PEOPLE (Sensible & Latent Heat Gain Only).

Heat Gain from the people is Composed of two parts ,Sensible and Latent
Heat Gain resulting from Perspiration(Breathing and Release of Air to
Atmosphere adds Water Vapour to Space).

CLF for Given Hour depends on Zone Type, Hour Entering Space & Number
of Hours after entering into Space.
Sensible Heat is first absorbed by the surroundings and Then released into the
air.Cooling Load Factor Accounts for this Time Delay.
Ql=ql*n. qS and ql =Sensible Heat and Latent Heat Gains per person
n=Number of People.
CLF=Cooling Load Factor for People.
If the Air-Conditioning system is shut Down at Night No Storage Effect
CLF=1 If the space Temp is not Maintained Constant.
CLF=1 If the Systems Shut down at Night and for High occupant densities
such as Theatres and Auditorium.

Electrical ballast is a device intended to limit the amount of current in an

electric circuit. A familiar and widely used example is the inductive ballast
used in fluorescent lamps, to limit the current through the tube

Incandescent light bulb ,is an electric light which produces light with a
filament wire heated to a high temperature by an electric current through it,
until it glows (see Incandescence). The hot filament is protected from
oxidation in the air with a glass bulb that is filled with inert gas or
evacuated.Most incandescent bulbs convert less than 5% of the energy they
use into visible light

household and commercial lighting, for portable lighting such as table lamps,
car headlamps, and flashlights, and for decorative and advertising lighting.
Infrared heating for industrial heating and drying processes, But waste heat
can also significantly increase the energy required by a building's air
conditioning system. In a halogen lamp, filament evaporation is prevented by
a chemical process that redeposits metal vapor onto the filament, extending
its life

Fluorescent lamp or fluorescent tube is a gas-discharge lamp that uses

electricity to excite mercury vapor. The excited mercury atoms produce
short-wave ultraviolet light that then causes a phosphor to fluoresce,
producing visible light. A fluorescent lamp converts electrical power into
useful light more efficiently than an incandescent lamp

fluorescent lamps, compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), cold cathode

fluorescent lamps (CCFL), high-intensity discharge lamps, and light-emitting
diodes (LEDs)
The equation for determining cooling load due to the heat gain from lighting
Q= 3.4 * W * BF * CLF BTU/hr
Q = Cooling load from heating, BTU/hr
W = Lighting capacity, watts
BF = Ballast factor
CLF = Cooling load factor for lighting

The term W is the rated capacity of the lights in use, expressed in watts. In
many applications, all of the lighting is on at all times, but if it is not, the
actual amount should be used. The value 3.4 converts watts to BTU/hr.

The factor BF accounts for heat losses in the ballast in fluorescent lamps, or
other special losses. A typical value of BF is 1.25 for fluorescent lighting. For
incandescent lighting, there is no extra loss, and BF = 1.0.

The factor CLF accounts for storage of part of the lighting heat gain. The
storage effect depends on how long the lights and cooling system are
operating, as well as the building construction, type of lighting fixture, and
ventilation rate.

No storage effect can be allowed for any of the following conditions: Cooling
system operates only during occupied hours
Cooling system operates more than 16hr

Temperature of the space is allowed to rise during non-occupied

hours(temperature swing)
These conditions cover so many possible situations that it is suggested that
heat storage effect for lighting should be used with extreme caution. Building
use patterns often change and may be unpredictable. Energy conservation
operating techniques may also result in one of the conditions discussed
earlier, even though not planned for originally.

For these reasons, the CLF tables for lighting are not presented here. For
these cases where they are applicable, they may be found in the ASHRAE
Fundamentals Volume. Otherwise use a value of CLF = 1.0

CLF=Depends on the zone type Total Hours Lights are ON,and Number of
Hours after Lights are Turned on.
Lighting load - 1 Watt per sqft
5)A room has 10 Numbers of 60 W fluorescent lighting fixtures in use. The
cooling system operates only during occupied hours. What is the solar
cooling load from the lighting?

A value of BF = 1.25 for the ballast heat will be assumed. CLF = 1.0 for the
operating conditions.
Using Equation
Q= 3.4 * W * BF * CLF BTU/hr
= 3.4 * (10*60) * 1.25 * 1.0
= 2550 BTU/hr
EQUIPMENT(Sensible Heat +Latent Heat) Equipment consists of three

1. Electric resistance sensible load ( ex. Toaster )

2. Electric inductive sensible load ( ex. Motor )
3. Sensible and latent loads ( ex. Electric or Gas Tea Kettle )

Note– Heating Types – Natural condensing ,Gas fired Boiler,Domestic water

heating. supply Domestic water heater - Gas fired water heater requires 2100
BTU/HR Person.
Equipment Sensible Heat Gain Q-es = (W * 3.412) * Fu * Fp * CLF-h
(sensible heat gain from electric resistance, btu/hr)
Q-es = 2545*(HP/ Eff) * Fu * Fp * CLF-h h (sensible heat gain from electric
motor, btu/hr)
W = Equipment output in Watts (Btu/hr = W*3.412)
Fu = Usage factor or percentage of maximum design for each hour of the day
= 0 when all equipment are off = 1 when the maximum design number
equipment are on
0<=Fu <= 1 Example Fu = 0.5 when 50% of equipment are on.
Fp = Part load operating factor for motor type. Example, a compressor
operating at 50%
Capacity might still use 80% of electric power.
HP = Rated electrical horsepower of equipment motor (Btu/hr = HP * 2545)
Eff = Motor Efficiency
CLF-h = Cooling Load Factor (CLF) for given hour.This depends on zone
type, total hours that lights are
on, and number of hours after lights are turned on,

The sensible heat has to be first absorbed by the surroundings and then
released into the air. The cooling load factor accounts for this time delay. The
heat generated by a motor is a cooling load only if the motor is located inside
the air-conditioned space or in the ducted supply air stream and it is not
directly exhausted away from the source.

Equipment load– 5 Watt per sqft

Equipment load– People occupancy x 0.15
Example: P=VA 10 Lights each are 100 watts = 10x 100watts -
1000watts/1000= 1KW
Equipment Latent Heat Gain
Q-el = Mw* Hfg * Fu * Fp Q-el = Latent heat gain from equipment (btu/hr)
Mw = Mass (lbs) of water converted to steam (evaporated or boiled)
Hfg = Heat (btu/hr) required to convert 1 lb of water to steam = 1075 at
standard conditions
The latent heat from equipment such as tea kettles and dish-washers is an
instantaneous cooling load. Cooling Load Factors (CLF) do not apply to
latent loads.

The Heat Gain from equipment may sometimes be Found directly from the
Manufacturer or the Name Plate data.CLF factors applies Only if the System
Operates 24 Hours.

6)A Software Firm Kitchen has following Equipment Operating in the Air-
Conditioned area without Hoods.
1 coffee Maker(2 Burners), 1 Tea Heater(1 Burner), 1 Bread Toaster (Large)
What are Sensible,Latent,and Heat Gains, from the Equipment. QS QL QT
3450 2050 5500
Coffee Burner
280 150 430
Coffee Heater
9600 7000 16600
Total Heat Gains 13330 9200 22530
The two means by Which Cold Air may enter Into the Buildings are called
Infiltration and Ventilation.
The Amount of Heat Required are Called Infiltration Heating Load and
Ventilation Heating Load.
Sensible Heat Loss Effect of Infiltration Air.
Qs=Sensible Heat Loss from Infiltration or Ventilation Air BTU/HR
CFM=Air Infiltration Flow Rate Ft3 /Min
TC=Change in the Between Indoor and OutDoor air F.
Latent Heat Loss Effect of Infiltration Air.

Since the Infiltration Air is Lesss Humid Than room Air Humidity May Fall
to Unacceptable Level.Room .The room Air Humidity is to maintained water
vapour Must be added.r

Addition of Moisture Requires Heat (Latent Heat of Vapourisation)

Ql =latent Heat Required for Infiltration or Ventilation air, BTU/Hr.
CFM=Air Infiltration or Ventilation Ft3 /Min
Wi’ W0’=Higher (Indoor) and Lower(Outdoor) Humidity Ratio in Grains
water/lb dry Air(gr w/l d a)
Duct Heat Tranfer Losses 2-5% ADD TO THE BSCL
Duct Leakage 5 % ADD TO THE BSCL
Duct Heat Gains 10% ADD TO THE BSCL There are two Methods by which
Infiltration CFM of Air
1)Crack Method
2)Air Change Method

The crack method is the most accurate means of calculating heat loss by
infiltration, because it is based on actual air leakage through cracks around
windows and doors, and takes into consideration the expected wind velocities
in the area in which the structure is located. The air-change method does not
consider wind velocities, which makes it a less accurate means of calculation.

Calculating heat loss by air infiltration with the crack method involves the
following basic steps:

1. Determine the type of window or door

2. Determine the wind velocity and find the air leakage
3. Calculate the lineal feet of crack
4. Determine the design temperature difference

The data obtained in these four steps are used in the following formula:
H = 0.018 X Q(t1 – t0) X L
H = Heat loss, or heat required to raise the temperature of air leaking into the
structure to the level of the indoor temperature (t1) expressed in Btu’s per
Q = Volume of air entering the structure expressed is cubic feet per hour
t1 = Indoor temperature
t0 = Outdoor temperature
0.018 = The specific heat of air (0.240) times the density of the outdoor air
(approximately 0.075)
L = Lineal feet of crack.

7) Determine the infiltration heat loss per hour through the crack of a 3 X 5
ft. average double-hung, non-weatherstripped, wood window based on a wind
velocity of 20 mph. The indoor temperature is 80°F and the outdoor
temperature is 20°F. The air leakage for a window of this type at a wind
velocity of 20 mph is 59 cubic feet per foot of crack per hour. This will be the
value of Q in the air filtration formula. The lineal feet of crack is (2 X 5) plus
(3 X 3), or 19 feet (the value of L in the formula). t1 = 80°F and t0 = 20°F.
Substituting this data in the air infiltration formula gives the following

H = 0.018 X Q(t1 – t0) X L = 0.018 X 59(80 – 20) X 19 = 1.062 X 60 X 19

= 1210.6 Btuh

There are two methods from which we can findout infiltration rate, these
methods are following
· Crack method
· Air change method
Crack method
Commonly we use this method because it gives us best results. By using this
relation, we can measure correct infiltration per foot of crack. The list of
some infiltration rates based upon 25 mph wind speed is as following

Residentail Doors Non residential Doors

Infiltration Rate
0.37 CFM per ft of sash cra
0.5 CFM per ft2 of door area 1.00 CFM per ft2 of door area

By multiplying infiltration rate with the length of crack, we can findout the
value of CFM. While calculating heating load, we recommended using crack
method for heating load calculations of nonresidential construction.

Corner room infiltration

Suppose we want to calculate the infiltration rate of a corner room whose two
adjacent walls are exposed. On these walls, we have doors and windows.
Suppose the wind is moving towards the corner of the room, so the projected
length of the crack will be less but overall effect of the infiltration rate will be
same if we consider only one side. But if we have different types of opening
in one wall then we will consider the infiltration rate of that opening whose
value is maximum.

Door usage

For finding out the infiltration rate of door usage, the first thing we need to
know is to findout the usage of doors and this information can be found from
architect. In case of those doors which left open indefinitely, we need to use
special means of heaters in order to equalize heat loss. In such type of
conditions, it becomes difficult for us to findout the effect of building heating

In case of high rise building, the effect of infiltration increased because warm
air due to less density moves upward and leaves the building through cracks.
Air change method
In this method, we findout air changes per hour due to infiltration and one air
change can be defined as the amount of air equal to the volume of room air.
For building the value of ACH varies from 0.5 to 1.5 from tight to loose
construction type.

Type Ft3 per Person Swinging door no vestibule 900

Swinging door vestibule 550
Revolving Door 60
ACH can be related with CFM as following
CFM = ACH x V/60
Where in the above expression, V is the volume of room and CFM is the air
infiltration rate.
While calculating heating load, we recommended using air change method
for heating load calculations of residential construction.
8) The windows are 3 ftW*6ftH double hung Type .Indoor and Outdoor
design Temparatures are 70F and 20F What will be sensible Heat loss due to

Infiltration. A)From the Tables

Allowed Infiltration Rate is 0.37 CFM.
Total Crack Length L=3(3)+2(6)=21 ft
Total Infiltration rate for window is 0.37*21ft=7.7CFM
Infiltration sensible Heat Loss=QS=1.1*CFM*TC
1.1*7.7*50=423 BTU/HR
9) A 20ft by 10ft by 9ft High Room in a House Has 0.7 Air Changes per
Hour Due to Infiltration.Find Infiltration rate in CFM.
The room Volume is V=20*10*9=1800 Ff3
CFM=ACH*V/60 =21 CFM

Ventilation Load
Some outside air is Brought into non residential air through the Mechanical
ventilation in order to maintain Indoor Air Quality.
Outside ventilation air will be additional part of the building heating Load
since the entering air is at outdoor Temparature and Humidity.
Ventilation load is not Load on the room it is it is load on the Cooling
Ventilation sensible Load Qs=1.1*CFM*TC Latent Load Ql=0.68*CFM*
W0-Humidity Ratios at Outside Temparature
Wi- Humidity Ratios at Inside Temparature
Ventilation reheat = CFM X Temp Diff X 4.5(1-0.5).
Demumidified Air Qty = ERSH/(1.08XDR).
Dehimidifies Rise DR = (1- BF) x (Inside DB – ADP).
Corrected Dehumidified Air Qty =( ERSH+(RH X 3400)/ (1.08XDR).

10)The Indoor stadium seats 70,000 people in USA.The space design

conditions are
80F and 50%RH, and outdoor design conditions 94F DB and 74F WB. What
is the cooling load due to ventilation?

Equation 3.10 and 3.11 will be used. ASHRAE Tables lists 15 CFM of
outside air per person.
Qs=1.1 *CFM *TC
=16170000 BTU/hr The humidity ratios at the inside and outdoor conditions
are 77.0 and 95.0gr.w./lb d.a Psychrometry charts
Ql=0.68*CFM*(Wo’-Wi’) =0.68*15*70,000*(95.0-77.0)
=12852000 BTU/hr
=29022000 BTU/hr/12000

Some of the energy from the system fans and pumps is converted into heat
through friction and effects,and becomes part of the sensible heat gain that
should be added to the load.


The building cooling load is the rate at which heat is removed from all air-
conditioned rooms in the building at the time the building cooling load is at
its peak value.
Total heat process
QS Sensible heat transfer QS +QL Total heat transfer
RSHRoom sensible heat
RLHRoom latest heat
RTHRoom total heat RTHRSH+RLH
RSHF ( Room sensible heat factor)
Room Sensible ->RSH
Room Latent -> RLH
Sensible OASH--- ---Outside air Sensible Heat Latent OALH----- -Outside
air Latent Heat
Total Sensible TSH = RSH +OAH.
Total Latent TLH =RLH + OAH.

Sample project details Ontario Ottawa 108 000ft2

Overall roof value U – Value(BTU/hr-ft2-K)- U- 0.048(R20)

Overall Wall U – Value (BTU/hr-ft2-K)- U-0.071(R15.2)

Double Low e - air filled
Glass U Value– 0.478 Domestic hot water usage– 2100 BTU/hr.person
Light power density– Bed room– 1.11 w/ft2
Corridor – 0.66 w/ft2
Kitchen– 0.99 w/ft2
Lobby- 0.90 w/ft2
Mechanical – 0.95 w/ft2
Office– 1.11 w/ft2
Rest rooms – 0.98 w/ft2 Detail– 1.68 w/ft2
Storage– 0.63 w/ft2 Office– 0.50 w/ft2
AHU-1 (Suites)
Fan Static Pressure
Supply– 1.88 in wg,7.5 hp,12650 cfm
HR Return – 1.97 in wg,7.5 hp,9500 cfm
AHU -2 (1 st Floor Retail) Fan static pressure
Supply– 1.98 in wg,5HP,6100CFM,(+1700 CFM Relief) 7800 cfm
5 HP
For commercial purposes AHU with Reheat
For residential purposes –DOAS-Roof top dedicated Air systems with fan
coil Terminals
Heating equipment– gas fired hot water boiler
Cooling– Air cooled chiller
Heat recovery– Heat pipe air– air. Domestic water heater– Gas fired storage
tank heater.
Ventilation Controls – Zone level Thermostat.
Heat recovery– Air to air heat recovery with 56.2 % sensible effectiveness.
Hot water loop
Design supply = 71.1c
Design loop DT = -6 C
Hot water supply temp is based on load reset.
Cooling type– Design supply– 6.66C Design loop DT = -12 C
Chilled water supply temp is reset based on outdoor air temp.
Pumps:Primary/Secondary variable speed drives.
Ventilation control heat recovery– Air
Heating load (MBH) - 1.5 to 2.5 MBH per 100 square feet. Domestic hot
water usage - 2100 Btu/h.person.
Study of Properties of Moist Air(Dry Air Water Vapour) The physical
properties of atmospheric air are defined as follow.
Dry Bulb Temperature (DB):

The temperature of the air, as sensed by a thermometer.The words

temperature and dry bulb temperature will be used to mean the same thing
with regard to air. When people refer to the temperature of the air, they are
commonly referring to its dry bulb temperature

Sensible Heat of air : The Quantity of Heat that can be measured by

measuring dry bulb temp of air .
Wet bulb Temperature (WB):

When the air is fully saturated all the Temperature Dry Bulb Wet Bulb
Dewpoint have same value.
The temperature sensed by a thermometer whose bulb is wrapped with a
water-soaked wick, in rapidly moving air. The wet bulb temperature (WBT)
is a temperature associated with the moisture content of the air.

Because of the evaporative cooling effect, Wet bulb temperatures are always
lower than dry bulb temperatures and the only time that they will be the same
is at saturation (i.e. 100% relative humidity).

Dew Point Temperature (DP):

The temperature at which the water vapor in the air would begin to condense
if the air were cooled, at constant pressure. Dew point temperature indicates
the temperature at which water will begin to condense out of moist air. When
air is cooled, the relative humidity increases until saturation is reached and
condensation occurs. Condensation occurs on surfaces which are at or below
the dew point temperature.

Dew point is represented along the 100% relative humidity line on the
psychrometric chart. Dew point temperature is determined by moving from a
state point horizontally to the left along lines of constant humidity ratio until
the upper, curved, saturation temperature boundary is reached. At dew point,
dry bulb temperature and wet bulb temperature are exactly the same.

Humidity Ratio (W):

This is also called

the moisture content. The weight of water vapor per pound of dry air, in lb/lb
dry air, or grains/lb dry air.
Relative Humidity (RH)
The ratio of the actual water vapor pressure in the air to the vapor pressure if
the air were saturated at that dry bulb temperature. It is expressed in percent.
Relative humidity (RH) is a measure of the amount of water air can hold at a
certain temperature. Air temperature (dry-bulb) is important because warmer
air can hold more moisture than cold air. As a rule of thumb, the maximum
amount of water that the air can hold doubles for every 20°F increase in

It is defined as ratio of actual weight of water vapour in a given volume to

weight of water vapour contained in same volume at same temp when air is
Specific Volume (V):
The volume of air per unit
weight of dry air, in ft3/lb dry air.
Specific Enthalpy (h):

The heat content

(enthalpy) of air per unit weight, in BTU/lb dry air.
Sensible Heat Changes :

The sensible heat change process is one where heat is added or removed from
the air and the DB temperature changes as a result, but there is no change in
water vapor content.

Humidification and
The process of adding water vapor to the air is called humidification, and
removal of water vapor from the air is called dehumidification,
Cooling and Dehumidification
Air conditioning for human comfort usually requires a process where both
sensible and latent heat are removed from air- that is, the air is cooled and
Heating and Humidification
The process of adding Heat to the air where the Temparatures of Air Outside
are Very Low.And Symultaneously adding Humidity to the Air.
The Air Mixing Process

The air mixing process is one where two streams of air are mixed to form a
third stream. This process occurs frequently in air conditioning, particularly
in mixing outsie air with return air from rooms. If the conditions of the two
airstreams that are to be mixed are known, the conditions after mixing can be
Sensible Heat Ratio:
Any supply air condition that will satisfactorily remove the proper proportion
of room sensible and latent heat gains will be on this line; in addition, any
supply air condition that is not on this line will not b satisfactory.

Ax/AR = hs/ht = RSCL/RTCL

The ratio RSCL/RTCL is called the room sensible heat ratio, RSHR. (It is
also called the room sensible heat factor, RSHF.) That is

HS + HL =
Sensible heat Factor
The process of cooling & dehumidification ocurs frequently in A/C that the
psychrometric lne which represents sensible heat factor line.
Grand sensible heat factor = Total sensible heat/Grand Total Heat

11)An Five star Hotel has an complains on one July day that It feels very
“sticky.” The manager turns down the thermostat. Owner gets so cold. Soon
all of the customers complain. The manager calls service person,
troubleshooter.Data air conditioning system design, which are.

RSCL = 150,000 BTU/hr RLCL = 53,000 BTU/hr

Room design conditions = 78 FDB, 50% RH
Design supply air = 62 FB

1. The actual supply air conditions are first measured, using instruments.
They are 61 FDB and 59 FWB.
2. The RSHR is calculated.

= 150,000/203,000
= 0.74

3. The RSHR line is plotted on the psychrometric chart. This is the line with
the slope equal to the value of the RSHR (0.74) that passes through the room
air point.

4. The actual supply air condition is located on the chart, and it is seen that it
does not lie on the RSHR line. Therefore the proper room design conditions
will not be maintained.
12) Indoor Conditions are 27 DBT & 50% RH Outdoor Conditions are 17
DBT & 15 C WBT.

SHF Value=0.6 Means 60% Heat Loss in Sensible 40% Latent Heat Loss 6
Ton Equipment Required to Remove 60 Sensible & 40 Latent Loads.
Coil Process Line:
The coil process line may then be defined as the straight line drawn between
the air conditions entering and leaving the coil.
The Contact Factor And Bypass Factor:
The Contact Factor (CF) is defined as the proportion of air passing through
the coil that touches the cooling surface (contact air) and is thus cooled.
The Bypass Factor (BF) is defined as the proportion of air that does not touch
the surface (bypass air), and is therefore not cooled. From this definition, it
follows that
CF + BF = 1
The Effective Surface Temperature:

The temperature of the outside surface of a cooling coil is not the same at all
places along the coil tubing. It will vary due to a number of factors, which
need not be discussed here. However, we can think of an average coil surface
temperature that will be called the effective surface temperature (EST).

Reheat refers to the process where, after the warm air is cooled by the cooling
coil, it is partially before being supplied to the air-conditioned space. The
reheat process may be accomplished with a reheat coil or by using return air
or mixed air.

Psychrometrics :
Psychrometrics is the science of studying the thermodynamic properties of
moist air. The amount of moisture vapour in the air varies quite significantly
under different conditions.

Moist air :
Moist air is a mixture of dry air and water vapor. For practical purposes,
moist air and
atmospheric air can be considered equal under the range of conditions

Dry air :
Exists when all of the contaminants and water vapor have been removed from
atmospheric air. By volume, dry air contains about 78 percent nitrogen, 21
percent oxygen, and 1 percent other gases.

Atmospheric air :
Contains nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, other gases, and
miscellaneous contaminants such as dust, pollen, and smoke. This is the air
we breathe and use for ventilation.

Adiabatic Processes:
The term 'Adiabatic' simply means without energy loss or gain. This refers
mainly to the processes of evaporative cooling and desiccant

Sensible Heat Factor:

An air-conditioning process describes the change in thermodynamic
properties of moist air between the initial and final stages of conditioning as
well as the corresponding energy and mass transfers between the moist air
and a medium, such as water, refrigerant, absorbent or adsorbent, or moist air
itself. The energy balance and conservation of mass are the two principles
used for the analysis and the calculation of the thermodynamic properties of
the moist air.

The thermal properties of air can be separated into latent and sensible heat.
The sensible heat ratio (SHR) of an air-conditioning process is defined as the
ratio of the change in absolute value of sensible heat to the change in absolute
value of total heat, both in Btu/hr.

SHF = Sensible heat factor

SH = Sensible heat
LH = Latent heat
TH = Total heat

Room Sensible Heat Factor (RSHF):

The room sensible heat factor (RSHF) represents the psychrometric process
of the supply air within the conditioned space.Room Sensible Heat Factor is
the ratio of room sensible and room latent heat.

RSHF = Room sensible heat factor

RSH = Room sensible heat
RLH = Room latent heat
RTH = Room total heat

Grand Sensible Heat Factor (GSHF):

Grand Sensible Heat Factor is the ratio of the total sensible heat to the grand
total heat load that the conditioning apparatus must handle including the
outdoor air heat loads.This ratio is

GSHF = Grand sensible heat factor

TSH = Total sensible heat
TLH = Total latent heat
GTH = Grand total heat

A cooling coil serving one or more conditioned spaces is sized to meet the
highest sum of the instantaneous space loads for all the spaces served by the
coil, plus any external loads such as fan heat gain, duct heat gain, duct air
leakage, and outdoor airventilation loads (sensible and latent). At design
condition, a cooling coil provides design air flow at design off-coil air
temperature and humidity, which are determined to meet each zone’s
temperature and humidity requirements. For dehumidification applications,
the cooling coil should have adequate latent cooling capacity as well as
sensible cooling capacity.

The nodes description is as follows:

1. The outside air conditions are located at point “o” in figure above.
2. The coil leaving conditions are located at point 1.
3. The supply air conditions are located at point 2 (note with the arrangement
depicted, supply fan motor heat is added to the air stream)
4. The inside air conditions are located at point 3.

5. The mass flow rate of return air is located at point 4 ( temperature

conditions are essentially similar to point 5, but the mass flow rate varies
depending on what portion of return air will be exhausted)

6. The mixture conditions are located at point 5 (note proportion of return air
and outdoor air are mixed)
Coil Load Calculation Example

12)Determine the minimum cooling coil load and required chilled water flow
for a system serving an office space with a sensible cooling load of 30,800
Btu/h and a latent load of
13,500 Btu/h. Indoor design conditions are 75°F/50% RH, and Outdoor
design conditions are 85°F DB/70oF WB. The minimum ventilation air is
25% of the total supply air which is delivered at 55°F. The fan selected is a
70% efficient "draw-through" arrangement, and delivers air at 4.0 inches total

pressure. No manufacturer’s coil data is available. Assume 10°F chilled water

temperature rise through the coil.

RSH = 1.08 x CFM x ΔT

CFM = RSH / (1.08 x ΔT)
CFM = 30,800 / [1.08 (75 - 55)]
CFM = 1425
SHR = 30,800 / (30,800 + 13,500) = 0.70

Plot Space Conditions of 75°F/50% RH Find the intersection of the SHR line
with space temperature and supply air temperature
Plot Outdoor
Conditions of 85°F/ 70°F WB; Locate Mixed Air Condition (25% OA) and
Account for Fan ΔT (consider 2 degree rise).
Assuming the perfect mixing occurs, the mixed air conditions can be found
by equation:

TMixed Air = % Outside Air [T Outside Air – T

Return Air] + T Return Air
TMixed Air = 0.25 [85– 75] + 75
TMixed Air = 77.5° F
Determine enthalpy for coil entering and leaving conditions Q coil = 4.5 x
CFM x Δh
Q coil = 4.5 x 1425 x (29.8 - 20.5)
Q coil = 58,636 Btu/hr

Chilled Water Flow
Q total = m* Cp * ΔT (m=Mass of water,Cp=Specific Heat of water)
3 and Cp = 1.0For water at ρ = 62.34 lbm/ft
Q total = 500 x GPM x ΔT
GPM = Q coil / (500 xΔT) = 58,590 / (500 x 10°F)
GPM = 11.7
Relative Humidity

13)The relative humidity of moist air leaving the water cooling coil or DX
coil depends mainly on the outer surface area of the coil including pipe and
fins. For coils with ten or more fins per inch, if the entering moist air is
around 80°F dry bulb and 68°F wet bulb, the relative humidity of air leaving
the coil (off-coil) may be estimated as:

Four-row coil 90 to 95%

Six-row and eight-row coils 96 to 98%

ADP(Apparatus Dew Point)

Apparatus dewpoint parameter has become one of the common methods for
selecting cooling coils.

ADP is a coil surface dew point temp temperature required to accomplish a

cooling and dehumidifying process

Apparatus dew point (ADP) is the dew point temperature of the cooling
coil,which should be below the dew point of the return air entering the
cooling coil.To determine ADP, you can use the psychrometric chart.
Establish your return and supply statepoints on the chart, then draw a straight
line through both points until it hits the saturation curve (the "instep") on the
left side of the chart. Mark where it hits the curve, that's the ADP. It will
typically be below the discharge air temperature.

ADP is also known as Effective Coil Temperature (ECT). The dew point and
the sensible temperature are the same, since ADP/ECT represents the
moisture in the air being in a saturated state. ECT/ADP is useful for
calculating coil bypass factor, to see to what extent air passing over the coil is
left unaffected by the cooling coil.

Suppose i have outside air conditions of 80*f DB and 70*f WB / indoor

conditions needed are 56*f DB and 55*f WB. How do i know the Apparatus
dew point from the chart?
ADP is used for Selection of coils cooling coils and Dehumidifying coils

Coil surface temp is above or equal to the dewpoint temp of surroundings

heat is removed from the air.
if the temp on the cold surface is lower than dewpoint temp of humid air
vapour in air condensates on the surface(Latent Heat Removed).

Coil selection and sizing

Log mean enthalpy or log equilent dry bulb temp difference. Types of coils
chilled water and DX system coils
Average air velocity across the face area coil face/frontal velocity Face
velocity (m/s)=Air flow rate (kgs/sec)/Face area m2.

Some of the Factors that Influence coil design are,

1)Tube Dia5/8”,3/8”,1/2”, or 7”mm.
2)Tube spacing and Arrangement.
3)Coil Circuiting.
4)Fin thickness,fin material construction-Either plane ,corrugated ,slitted.
5)Material construction of coils and fins and its thermal conductivity.

Size of the face of the coil should be governed by the air volume the coil to
handle Face velocities should be above 295 fpm to encourage even
distribution below 500 fpm velocity to ensure condenser water is not carried
away by air.

Efficiency of coil increases with face velocity so provide air pressure drop is
within desired limits 500 fpm.

Concept DX Systems:
The refrigerant entering the coil is a low pressure,low temperature mixed of
saturated liquid of vapour.As the refrigerant mixture of travels towards the
coil ,the liquid,while absorbing the heat gets converted,into vapour,and the
outlet ,the entire refrigerant is in the form of super heated gas.
The refrigerant flow and the super hear is controlled by the thermostatic
expansion value.the super heat ensures that,the compresser is protected,at all
varying load conditions,from liquid entering the compressor and their by
preventing it from damage.

In the direct expansion evaporators,once the saturated and mixture of liquid

and gas enters a circuits ,it only follow in one direction ,towards the re
circulation possible,which only happens in flooded evaporaters .

The distubutor and length feeder pipes ensure equal distribution of

liquid/vapour being fed to each circuit .this ensure that the lower portion of
the coil does not doesnt get flooded with liquid and the upper portion with a
higher portion of gas,making it less effection. The length of feeder pipes are
therefore adjusted for equal pressure drop in each circuit.

Inorder to get the optimum performance form the cooiling coil we try to
ensure the maximum proportion of the liquid enters the evaporator inlet with
minimum portion of vapour.

It is the latent heat which while converting liquid refrigerant into vapour
absorps a large amount of heat from surroundings .The portion of vapour to
liquid can be increased by sub cooling the liquid before it enters the
expansion valve so that at the evaporator entry less flash gas is formed.

To utilize the coil more effectively we shave hould liquid refrigerant upto end
of the coil instead we provide some area of the end coil to superheat the
refrigerant.To protect the possibility of liquid entry into compressor.
The electronic expansion valve which works on very low super heat settings
allows more coil length to be used for liquid refrigerant.

Finned height of an cooling coils can have effect under wet conditions,so
generally height is often limited to 750– 900mm,If a higher coils is nessary it
should be specified as 2 coils installed .

Effect of Increase in the air flow –Air outlet temperature will be higher
compared to the coil subjected to the lower air flow.Refrigeration capacity
increases as air flow rate increases.By increasing the heat flow heat removal
will be faster and temp will be uniform in the conditioned space.Increases in
the high fan power as well as Noises levels.

Bypass Factors: Design of the coils effects bypass factor.when air travels
over the coils and remains in contact for longer duration bypass factor
reduces,which indicates supply air condition is nearer to the saturation line,as
the air leaving the coil is is nearer to the saturation line required air quantity
reduces.means supply air temp is lower and air leaves in the drier condition
as more moisture is removed. As number of coils row increases air remain in
contact for longer duration leading to lower bypass factor.If we increase the
velocity air passes over coils faster bypass factor increases,If we reduce
velocity at a particular point chance of coil freezing occurs.

While estimating the cooling loads and air quantity we have to assume the
bypass factor and which depends on coil configuration.

Number of coil rows: As the number of rows for coils increases for the same
face area or coil is deeper lower the air leaving temp and moisture
content.Refrigeration capacity inceases ,results less moisture removal,less
temp drop.
Moisture level to the temp drop is greatest at the last row or exit of the coils.
Coil with large face area and low number of rows with high air quanties is
used where we need to maintain more humidity levels in the space.

Coil Load:Load of coils should be determined from heat load calculation

where sensible +latent heats are added.

Fins spacing close fin spacing is the ,most economical way to increase heat
transfer Performance. To otain required thermal capacity 236 to 551fins per
meter,Often 472 or 394 are fins per meter specified max for slow this
However closer fins means higher pressure drop across the coil resulting
decrease in the air quantity or increase in the fan horse power for same air
quantity.Incase of lower temp applications defrost becomes difficult if the
coils has closer fin spacing.

5./6 ,1/2 ,3/8 Inch tubes. Coils of 3,4,6,8 are used.

Water supply temp: Return water temp,flow rate effects coils performance.
Higher flow rate with lower temperatures results in reduced heat transfer.
Higher tube sizes and low water entries results in ineffieciencies
Water velocity should be kept above 59 fpm to ensure turbulent flow.But
below 295 fpm to avoid erosion.General water temp are 6- 12 degress.water
pressure drop is restricted to 30 -40 kpa

Wet Bulb depression: of the air leaving the coil usually falls between 0.1– 2
degrees c wide fin spacing lowers it.specifying large wet bulb depression
usually results in over design.For general the wbt should be between 0.5 and
1 C.
Coils are arranged in staggered or no staggered along the length of the coil.
Generally refrigerant of chilled water for enters coil first row and leaves from
the last Row.

Face velocity of 500 FPM is mostly restricted.


Star Plate fin

Fins are attached to the tubes by expansion of each tubes
Star fin pattern corrugation around the tubes provides low air friction these
patterns are used when there is no need for tranfer large heat capacity.
Wavy fin- has corrugation across the fins provides max heat transfer for
given surface area is the standard fin configaration used.

Flat fin-has no corrugation which results

in lowest air friction drop and low fan hp consumption.

They are made of

aluminium copper,carbon steel or stainless steel.

Cooling coils Sizing is done by

In an cooling coils refrigerant or chilled water flows inside the tubes and air
passes over bundles of tubes.Since the coolant fluid temp is less than the dew
point temp to ensure the dehumidification process there is possibility of heat
and moisture transfer between them .The direction of heat and moisture
transfer depends upon the temperature and vapour pressures differences
between air and wetted surface as the Heat transfer rate which is some of
sensible and latent heat transfers.
Cooling coil Capacity Qcoil=4.5 x cfm x (Leaving enthalpy– Entering
enthalpy). Q total = m* Cp * ΔT
GPM= Qcoil/(500 xΔT)

1)Calculate the Load
CFM X1.08X (Leaving air Temp– Entering air Temp)=7900x1.08(142-
50)=785,000 BTU/HR
2)Calculate GPM =BTU/HR /(500XWater Temp Diff)
3)Calculate Face Area =CFM/Air Velocity
4)Pick a Coil size as you wish
5)Select water velocities from charts(From Charts)
GPM /(Tubes X(5/8 OD”) 6)Select the U Factor(From Charts)
7)Figure MTD (Meantemperature difference)
Entry water – Lvg Air=
Leaving water – Ent Air=
MTD(Counter Flow)=78.6 MTD
8)Actual Rows Required=BTH/HR /(MTD XU Factor x Face Area)=3.6
Means 4 Rows
Method 3 Sizing of cooling coil requires two energy equations air side and
coolant side coupling with heat and mass transfer
3 Governing equations By knowing the process data,Coil Geometry,design
cooling load imposed on coil
Coil sizing is expressed by the face area number of rows of a finned tube coil
for satisfying design coil cooling load
ST - Traverse tube spacing
SL - Longitudenal Tube Spacing Outside diameter
Inside diameter
Longitudinal spacing
Traverse tubing spacing
No of Fins
Aluminum fin thickness
Exchanger compactness
Outside area inside Area Aflow /Aface on the Air side
Finned surface weighted efficiency
No of tubes passes for water loop
Moist Air
Total cooling load at Full load
Inlet Air conditions
Air Face velocity
Air heat transfer co-efficient Air mean specific heat
Chilled water
Inlet water temp
Water mass flow rate
Water inlet velocity
Heat transfer coefficient on water side
No of tubes passes per water loop Exit water temp
Water specific heat To be Calculated
1)We can find coil dimension(Tube length,Finned width,Coil depth)
2)Number of coil rows and Total Number of Tubes 3)Exit Air Temp
Ducts are used to transfer air from one place to another for supplying air in a
space. They are used for the removal of the exhaust fumes from the interior
space. used for supply of Fresh air into the Condition space.

They are Generally made of

GI(Galvanised Iron).
Fibre Glass.
Asbestos. Stainless Steel.
Types of Ducts Available are
Round Ducts
Rectangular Duct
Square Ducts
Oval Ducts
Joining Method of Ducts
Ducts should be joined by fixing the gasket on the each sides of the Ducts
Joints. Ducts are also Joined by the Method of Flanges and Riveting
Various types of ducts available are straight pieces, Offset,
Sheet Metal Thickness (Gauge) Chart

16 G = 1.6 mm
18 G = 1.2 mm
20 G = 1.0 mm
22 G = 0.8 mm
24 G = 0.6 mm
26 G = 0.5 mm Only upto certain gauges limits can be used for ducting 26G.

All the Values are in Inches

Gauge Mild Steel Aluminum Galvanized Steel Stainless Steel

3 0.2391 0.2294 0.2500
4 0.2242 0.2043 0.2344
5 0.2092 0.1819 0.2187
6 0.1943 0.1620 0.2031
7 0.1793 0.1443 0.1875
8 0.1644 0.1285 0.1680 0.165
9 0.1495 0.1144 0.1532 0.1562
10 0.1345 0.1019 0.1382 0.1406
11 0.1196 0.0907 0.1233 0.1250
12 0.1046 0.0808 0.1084 0.1094
13 0.0897 0.0720 0.0934 0.0937
14 0.0747 0.0641 0.0785 0.0781
15 0.0673 0.0571 0.0710 0.0703
16 0.0598 0.0508 0.0635 0.0625
17 0.0538 0.0453 0.0575 0.0562
18 0.0478 0.0403 0.0516 0.0500
19 0.0418 0.0359 0.0456 0.0437
20 0.0359 0.0320 0.0396 0.0375
21 0.0329 0.0285 0.0366 0.0344
22 0.0299 0.0253 0.0336 0.0312
23 0.0269 0.0226 0.0306 0.0281
24 0.0239 0.0201 0.0276 0.0250
25 0.0209 0.0179 0.0247 0.0219
26 0.0179 0.0159 0.0217 0.0187
27 0.0164 0.0142 0.0202 0.0172
28 0.0149 0.0126 0.0187 0.0156
29 0.0135 0.0113 0.0172 0.0141
30 0.0120 0.0100 0.0157 0.0125

Duct Systems are classified into

There are two types of transmission systems used for air-conditioning
systems.They are Low Velocity and High Velocity systems.
Commercial comfort Airconditioning.
Low velocity-up to 2500 fpm.
Factory comfort air conditioning.
High Velocity-above 2500 to 5000 fpm.
Return Air systems
Normally return air systems for both low and high velocity supply air
systems are designed as low velocity systems.
Commercial comfort air conditioning-Low velocity up to 2000fpm.Normally
between 1500 and 1800 fpm.
Factory comfort air conditioning-Low velocity up to 2500 fpm.Normally
between 1800 and 2200 fpm.
Ducting standards used are
Airconditioning Contractors National Association)
DW142 Standards
Air distubution systems are divided into three pressure categories
Low, Medium,High
LOW Pressure-Up to 3 ¾ in. wg Class 1 FAN
MEDIUM Pressure-Up to 3 ¾ to 6 ¾ in wg-class 11 FAN
HIGH Pressure-Up 6 ¾ to 12 ¾ in wg-class 111 FAN
Low Velocity and High Velocity Groups
1)Low Velocity Ducting systems used for Equal Friction Method 1,500 -
2,000 ft/min 0.1 - 0.2 inches W.G./100 ft.
2)High Velocity Ducting systems used by the Static Regain Method.
2500 fpm to 4000 fpm(0.6 in w/100 ft).
Velocities for designing
Friction for commercial building - 0.1“100 ft for entire length. Fresh air in
take from outside - 500 - 900 fpm.
Main duct 780 - 1380 fpm
Main branch duct 500 - 985 fpm
Branch duct 200 - 590 fpm
Evaporation 400 fpm
Condensers 1000 fpm
Hot water coils 700 fpm
Disposable filters 700 to 750 fpm Hepa filter– 250 fpm
Electronic filter 500 fpm

This chart is suitable for clean galvanized steel round ducts with about 40
joints per 100ft, and with air at standard conditions. It can be used for the
general range of HVAC temperatures and for altitudes up to 2000 ft.(Chart to
be scanned and placed)
Friction loss (Inches H20 per 100 Feet)charts for Ducts(Courtesy: Carrier

14)A 12 in. diameter round galvanized duct 300 ft long has 1000 CFM of air
flowing through it. What is the pressure loss due to friction and the velocity
in the duct?
The Solution is found in Friction charts friction loss charts for air flow.
Hf/100 ft = 0.20 in. w.
Hf = 0.20 in. w./100 ft * 300 ft
= 0.60 in. w. V = 1900 FPM
15)A 40 in. by 10 in. rectangular duct is delivering 5000 CFM of air. What is
the friction loss per 100 ft?
Solution as seen in the sketch in Figure , the equivalent round diameter to a
40 in. by 10 in. duct is
D = 21 in. Find the friction loss in the rectangular duct, as shown previously:
Hf/100 ft = 0.3 in. w.


At first consideration, it might seen that the equivalent round duct would
have the same cross-sectional area as a rectangular duct for the same friction
loss. This is not quite true. A rectangular shape, with a greater ratio of surface
to cross section, causes more friction. This problem becomes worse as the
aspect ratio increases. The aspect ratio is the ratio of the dimensions of the
two adjacent sides of a rectangular duct.
As a general rule, the aspect ratios of rectangular ducts should be as low as
possible to keep friction losses reasonably low and thereby avoid excess
energy consumption. A high aspect ratio will also mean more sheet metal and
therefore a more expensive system. Unfortunately, the height available for
horizontal ducts is often limited by the clearance above hung ceilings,
resulting in high aspect ratios.

It is the ratio of the long side to the short side of the duct.This ratio is very
important in intial duct designing.Increasing the aspect ratio increases both
the installed cost and the operating cost of the system.

Designing the duct for low aspect ratios and higher velocities to minimize the
heat gain.
Aspect Ratio = Width of the Duct/Height of the Duct
Aspect ratio of 2– 5 is acceptable value,best is 2

However aspect ratio

is defined as the ratio of the width to depth of a rectangular duct.
In design aspect ratio is generally kept to a maximum of 4.This is to reduce
the effect on the pressure losses of the duct distribution system.
Higher aspect ratio will increase total surface area of duct.So wet area will

It results in more frictional resistant against air flow. Aspect ratio is the ratio
between width of the duct to height of it. Theoretically it is best to keep 1:1.
But due to space constraint, always we compelled to increase.

The aspect ratio is the ratio of the long side to the short side of a duct. As we
increase the aspect ratio, both the installed cost and the operating cost of the
system will increase.

Hence as a good engineering practice, ASPECT RATIO should not exceed 4

The most economic ratio is 1:1. It is however advisabe to keep aspect ratios
to a maximum of 1:4
Pressure Loss in Duct Fittings
In any duct section if air is flowing there is a continous loss of pressure.These
losses are called friction losses in a duct depends on
1)Air Velocity
2)Duct Size
3)Interior Surface rougness
4)Duct Length

In addition to the pressure loss in straight lengths of duct, there is a pressure

loss when the air flows through duct fittings (elbows, tees, transitions). These
pressure losses, called dynamic losses, are due to the turbulence and change
in direction. They can be expressed in either of two ways. One is the
equivalent length method., where it was used for pipe fittings.

Another procedure is called the loss coefficient method. With this method,
the pressure loss through a duct (or pipe) fitting is expressed as follows;
Hf = C * Hv = C * (V/4000)2
Hf = Total pressure loss through fitting, in. w.
C = a loss coefficient Hv = velocity pressure at fitting, in. w.
V = velocity, ft/min
Some values of C for various duct fittings are shown in tables
Loss coefficients for various Fittings
16)A 900 smooth radius elbow without vanes has the dimension shown in
Figure. It has 1500 CFM flowing through it. Find the pressure loss through
the fitting.
Solution The loss coefficient is found in the Table
H/W = 12/8 = 1.5
R/W = 16/8 = 2.0 From Table SMACNA
C= 0.14
The duct cross- sectional area and velocity are
A = 12 in. * in. * 1 ft2/144 in.2
= 0.6667 ft2
V = 1500 ft3/min * 1/ 0.667 ft2
= 2250 ft/min
Using Equation the pressure loss is HF=C X HV 2Hf = 0.14(2250/4000)
= 0.04 in. w.
17) The diverging transition piece in Figure is handling 12,000 CFM. Find
the pressure loss through the fitting.
From Table SMACNA with A1/A = 2.0, read C = 0.25. Using Equation
V = 12,000 ft3/min * 1/ 8ft2
= 1500 ft/min
Hf = 0.25(1500/4000)2
= 0.04 in. w.
Pressure Loss at Fan Inlet and Outlet

There will also be a pressure loss at the fan inlet and outlet, the value of
which depends on the shape of the fan-duct connection. This is called the
system effect. Some values of the resulting loss coefficient C are shown in
table. An inspection of the types of connections in Table
Will sow the importance of considering the system effect and of installing
fans with good connections. A list of system effects can be found in the Air
Moving and Conditioning Association (AMCA) Manuals.

18) A contractor installs the inlet connection to a fan as shown , instead of as

shown, The fan inlet Velocity is 2000 ft/min. what is the pressure loss inlet to
the fan in each case?

From Table we read the values of C = 1.2 and C= 0.25 for the poor and good
connection. The pressure loss for each, using Equation
2Poor H = 1.2 (2000/4000)
= 0.30 in. w.
Good Hf= 0.25(2000/4000)2
= 0.06 in. w.
Note the greatly increased pressure loss with the poor connection, resulting in
wasted energy.
Duct System Pressure Loss
The duct pressure loss must be found in order to determine fan capacity,
check equipment performance, and balance air quantities.
The system total pressure loss is defined as the total pressure loss through the
duct path that has the largest pressure losses.
Duct Design Methods
Three methods of sizing ducts will be explained here, the equal friction
method and the static regain method,Velocity Method.
1)Equal Friction Method 2)Static regain Method
3)Velocity Method
Equal Friction Method
With this method, the same value friction loss rate per length of duct is used
to size each section of duct in the system.

The friction loss rate is chosen to result in an economical balance between

duct cost and energy cost. A higher friction loss results in smaller ducts but
higher fan operating costs.

Duct systems for HVAC installations may be loosely classified into low
velocity and high velocity groups, although these are not strictly separate
Typical ranges of design equal friction loss rates used for low velocity
systems are from 0.08 to 0.15 in. w./100 ft of duct. Maximum velocities in
the main duct at the fan outlet are limited where noise generation is a
problem. However, sound attenuation devices and duct sound lining can be
used if needed.

This method is used for sizing supply,exaust and return ducts systems this
method is superior to velocity reduction as it requires less balancing for
symmetrical layouts.

Operation Theatre for Healthcare Project

Duct sizing
Each Opeartion Theatre is 541 Sqft Area,CFM = 3600, 0.1 Inch water c per
100 Feet (6) Nos filter from drawing each filter we need to get 600 CFM
from each filter.
For 600 cfm 0.1 Inch wc,velocity 800 fpm, duct size is to be found (400 x
Step1- Based on the CFM,Friction Value,Velocity we can select the Duct
Step 2-Keeping the Height of the duct with ref to ceiling. Based on the width
to Height aspect ration we need to have around 2 value which is acceptable.
Step 3- Design of duct as follows below.
Drawing based on the location of diffusers with sizes mentioned. Note:Here
the length of the duct varies,Friction is keept constant that is 0.1 in ,size e
duct varies as per the cfm.
SA-Cardiac OT1 SA-Cardiac OT2 Friction Loss Velocity (FPM) CFM
Supply Air Supply Air
400 X300 400 X 300 0.1 Inw/100 1300 900
400 X 300 400 X 300 0.1 Inw/100 900
300 X 300 300 X 300 0.1 Inw/100 450
300 X 300 300 X 300 0.1 Inw/100 450 300 X 300 300 X 300 0.1 Inw/100
300 X 300 300 X 300 0.1 Inw/100 450
Return Air Return Air
800 X 300 800 X 300
750 X 300-2 Nos 750 X 300- 2 Nos
Static Regain Method
The static regain method of sizing ducts is most often used for high velocity
systems with long duct runs, especially in large installations.

With this method, an initial velocity in the main duct leaving the fan is
selected, in the range of 2500-4000 FPM. The corresponding friction loss
rates may be as high as 0.6 in. w./100ft.

After the initial velocity is chosen, the velocities in each successive section of
duct in the main run are reduced so that the resulting static pressure gain is
enough to overcome the frictional losses in the next duct section.

The result is that the static pressure is the same at each junction in the main
Several factors that must be considered when designing duct system.
Space availablity,Installation cost,Air friction loss,Noise Levels,Duct heat
Transfer and Air flow leakage,
Codes and standards requirements.
Noise level in the ducts are undersized ducts with Higher Velocities creates
noise in the ducts systems.
Poorly installed fittings are also creates turbulence which creates noise .
Dampers are used to balance which are not located nearer to the diffuser.
Velocity Method:Here duct sizing is done by varing the velocity in the main
and Branch ducts.
Supply air velocities
Low Velocities: Upto to 2500 fpm
High Velocities: Above 2500 fpm
Factory Velocity
Low Velocity: Up to 2500f pm
High Velocity: 2200 to 5000 fpm
Return Air Velocities
Commercial Low Velocity Upto 2000 fpm
Normally : 1500 to 1800 fpm
Factory Comfort
Low velocity Upto 2500 fpm
Normally: 1800 to 2200

Ducts are classified based on the load on duct due air pressure and
Turbulence.The classification varies from application to application such as
residential and commercial,Industrail ,systems.

Low pressure systems Velocity < 1968 fpm static pressure 1.968 inch H20
Medium pressure systems- Velocity < 1968 fpm static pressure 5.90 inch
High pressure systems– Velocity > 1968 fpm static pressure 5.9< ps < 9.842
inch H20
High Velocities in the Ducts Results in
1)Smaller ducts and hence lower initial cost and lower space requirement
2)Higher pressure drop hence Higher fan power consumption
3)Increased noise hence increased noise attenuation.
Residence—590 fpm 984 fpm
Theatres ---787 fpm – 1280 fpm
Restaurants-1476 fpm - 1968 fpm

If nothing is specified then velocity of 984fpm to 1574 fpm used for main
ducts.Velocity of 787 fpm to 1181 fpm is used in the Branches.
19)Find the size of each duct section for the system shown in Figure, using
the equal friction design method. Use rectangular ducts. The system serves a
conference Hall building.


1. Sum up the CFMs backward from the last outlet, to find the CFM in each
duct section. The results are shown in Table Initial CFM 4000CFM.
2. Select a design velocity for the main from the fan. Using Table . A velocity
of 1330 ft/min. will be chosen, which should be reasonably quiet for the
3. From Figure, the friction loss rate for the main section AB is read as 0.13
in. w./100 ft. The equivalent round duct diameter is read as 22 in.
4. The equivalent round duct diameter for each duct section is read from
figure at the intersection of the design friction loss rate (0.13 in. w./100 ft)
and the CFM for the section.
5. The rectangular duct sizes are read from Figure. In the actual installation,
the duct proportions chosen would depend on space available.

Section CFM V FT/min Friction Loss Eq Dia in Rec Ducts Size(mm) w per
100 ft
AB 4000 1300 0.13 22 1000X300 BC 3334 1276 0.13 20 900X300 CD 1842
1104 0.13 16 500X300 DE 1228 1000 0.13 13 400X300 EF 614 843 0.13 12
350X300 CG 1535 1056 0.13 16 500X300 GH 1228 1000 0.13 13 400X300
HI 614 843 0.13 12 350X300

The following general guides are offered to help the engineer understand
the various factors influencing duct design:

1. Larger duct aspect ratios have more heat gain than ducts with small aspect
ratios, with each carrying the same air quantity. Chart 3 illustrates this

2. Ducts carrying small air quantities at a low velocity have the greatest heat
3. The addition of insulation to the duct decreases duct heat hain; for
example, insulating the duct

Often ducts must be reduced in size to avoid obstructions.It is good practice

not to reduce the duct more than 20% of the Original area.The recommended
slope of the transformation is 1 Inches in 7 Inches.When reducing the duct
area .Where its is impossible to maintain this slope it may be increased to a
maximum of 1 Inch in 4 Inch


Duct transformations are change the shape of a duct to increase the duct
area.When the shape of a rectangular duct is changed but the cross sectional
area remains the same, a slope of 1 Inch in 4 Inch should not be exceeded.

If an obstruction restricts only the corner of the duct,that part of the duct is
transformed to avoid the obstruction.The reduction in the duct area must not
exeed 20% of the Original area.

A Variety of elbows is available for round and rectangular duct systems.The

following list the more common elbows.

Rectangular Duct
1. Full radius elbow
2. Short radius vaned elbow
3. Vaned square elbow

Round Duct
1. Smooth Elbow
2. 3-piece elbow
3. 5-piece elbow Duct Strengthning , Duct Vibration Isolation

When stiffening ductwork or other sheet metal products, there are two
primary techniques fabricators can employ, cross-braking or beading.

Cross-braking is a technique performed using a press brake. To form, the

operator marks the bend line on the sheet as a guide, then lines it up with
punch tip and performs a shallow bend. A second bend is made across this
initial one, leaving an “X” impression on the sheet.

A duct that lacks the strength provided by stiffening can warp, leading to
impaired air flow or rattling and banging noises during operation.
Since we’re talking about constant or near-constant air flow through these
parts, the material needs to be durable enough to handle the pressure and
temperature changes.
Beading strengthens duct in a similar fashion in that it leaves an impression
in the sheet, but these impressions will not intersect like they do in cross-
Cross-braking and beading are both techniques that are used with rectangular
Round ducts are strengthened by implementing stiffening ribs at equal
One consideration fabricators must make is whether they are working with a
round or oval duct, or a rectangular duct.
Spacing and Duct Supporting Systems
Reinforment for long duct,rod in side the avoid sagging,

Straight Duct

Radius Bends

Square Bends



Flexible Duct Connectors - Rectangular

Square to Round Transitions

Meshed Outlets
Grille Saddles
Note:if the supply register cfm exeeds
the return grille cfm ,pressure in the room from the system fan is positive
Main duct velocity 1000– 1500 fpm
Branch Duct Velocity 800 Fpm
Velocity at Collars 500 to 600 fpm
Speed at grills – 250 to 450 fpm
75 cfm for the Toilet
1.5 cfm per sqft
1 cmh– 0.588 cfm
1 Tr – 400 cfm
75 to 125 CFM per 100 sqft
Duct junction connecting piece = Branch Duct cfm x Main duct size / Main
duct cfm Leakage from the Room Q= 2610X A X (DP)0.5
Q= Room leakage flow in cfm, 2610- Conversion factor DP=Differential
Pressure, A=Net open crack area of the room.
To measure the room pressure using Manometer
To measure difference between indoor & outdoor
1)Place one long hose outdoor away from effect of winds.
2)Attach it to your manometer
3) Leave the other port on the manometer open to measure the indoor
building pressure.
4)The building difference pressure difference of indoor &outdoor with appear
on the manometer.

Velocities thru the return grille depends on 1)Static pressure allowed2)Effects
on occupants and materials in the room,determining the pressure loss
calculations based on the free velocity thru grille not on face velocity.

Louver Dampers : Is used for Three Important function in air handling


(1) To Control and Mix outdoor and return air (2) To bypass heat transfer
(3) To Control air quantities handled by fan
The Requirement of Air Duct Systems are
1)Specified flow rates are required as per design.
2)It should be economical in operation and fan operating cost.
3) Generation of noise need to be restricted,Based on the heat load
calculation the fan locations, Are fixed then duct layout is prepared.
Divergence sections should be gradual. Angle of divergence -< 20.
Aspect ratio should be as close as possible close to 1.Normally it should not
be exceeded 4.
Air velocities should be within the permissible limit to reduce noise and
vibration. Duct materials should be as smooth as possible to reduce te
frictional losses.
Sudden change in the direction should be avoided when not possible turning
vanes should be used to reduce the pressure loss.

In the balancing of AHU systems first we need to know how much air is
passing throurg the supply and return,Then the dampers are adjuted according
to that,The system balancing also requires adjusting the fan speed to get
requied temp drop across cooling coils as well as heating coils and required
air flow rates in that zone. Sample ESP Calculation Procedure

What is an static pressure.

Pressure established at a point when velocity becomes 0 Static Regain. Total
Pressure=Static Pressure(HS) + Velocity Pressure(HV)
Dynamic Losses

The pressure loss in a Straight lengths of ducts there is pressure loss when air
flows through ducts fittings(Elbows,tees,Transitions)These pressure losses
are called Dynamic Losses are caused due to Turbulence and Change in

System Pressure Loss

The system total pressure loss is defined as total pressure loss through the
duct path that has largest pressure loss.
Static Pressure:
Static pressure can increase in the direction of flow if the velocity
decreases.This is caused by a conversion of velocity energy to static energy
called static regain.
Velocity energy has been converted to pressure energy called static pressure
SPR=R({V1/4000}2)- ({V2/4000}2)

The Fan is an essential and one of the most important components of almost
all the air conditioning systems.Thus a basic understanding of fan
performance characteristic is essential in the design of air conditioning
systems.The centrifugal fan is most commonly used in the air conditioning
systems as it can

Efficiently move large quantities of air over a large rangeof pressures.The

operating principle of a centrifugal fan is similar to that of a centrifugal
compressor .The centrifugal fan with forward curved blades is widely used in
the low pressure air conditioning systems.The more efficient backward
curved and airfoil Type fans are large capacity high pressure systems.

Fans, blowers and compressors are differentiated by the method used to move
the air, and by the system pressure they must operate against. As per
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) the specific ratio– the
ratio of the discharge pressure over the suction pressure – is used for defining
the fans, blowers and compressors.

Fans fall into two general categories: Centrifugal flow and Axial flow. In
centrifugal flow, airflow changes direction twice - once when entering and
second when leaving (forward curved, backward curved or inclined, radial)
In axial flow, air enters and leaves the fan with no change in direction
(propeller, tubeaxial, vaneaxial).

Centrifugal Fan: Types

Types of centrifugal fan are: Radial, Forward Curved and Backward

Radial fans
Are industrial workhorses because of their high static pressures (upto 1400
mm WC) and ability to handle heavily contaminated airstreams. Because of
their simple design, radial fans are well suited for high temperatures and
medium blade tip speeds.These are used to handle abrasives dust and Large
Exaust Fumes.

Forward-curved fans
Are used in clean environments and operate at lower temperatures.
They are well suited for low tip speed and high-airflow work - they are best
suited for moving large volumes of air against relatively low pressures.Less

Backward-inclined fans are more efficient than forward-curved fans.

Backwardinclined fans reach their peak power consumption and then power
demand drops off well within their useable airflow range. Backward-inclined
fans are known as "nonoverloading" because changes in static pressure do not
overload the motor.

Backward Curved–Costlier used in the AHU Blowers in the HVAC

Axial Flow Fan: Types
The major types of axial flow fans are: Tube axial, Vane axial and

Fans have a wheel inside a cylindrical housing, with close clearance between
blade and housing to improve airflow efficiency. The wheel turn faster than
propeller fans, enabling operation under high-pressures 250– 400 mm WC.
The efficiency is up to 65%.Air distubution is uneven.

models TXD and TXB, direct and belt drive axial fans, are designed for use
in low to medium pressure ducted applications. They are generally used for
removing contaminated air or hot air found in industrial applications. They
can also be used to supply air through duct work for cooling or pressurizing
interior spaces. Tubeaxial fans are very versatile and compact units that move
large volumes of air in duct systems having relatively low pressure losses.

ans are similar to tubeaxials, but with addition of guide vanes that improve
efficiency by directing and straightening the flow. As a result, they have a
higher static pressure with less dependence on the duct static pressure. Such
fans are used generally for pressures upto 500 mmWC. Vaneaxials are
typically the most energy-efficient fans available and should be used
whenever possible.Vanes are Stationary here in this Type.Suitable for ducts
in Airconditioning Systems.

Fans usually run at low speeds and moderate temperatures. They experience a
large change in airflow with small changes in static pressure. They handle
large volumes of air at low pressure or free delivery. Propeller fans are often
used indoors as exhaust fans. Outdoor applications include air-cooled
condensers and cooling towers. Efficiency is low Approximately 50% or
less.Used as free blow Exaust systems. .
Static Pressure,Total Pressure,Velocity Velocity measurement by Pitotube

CFM1/CFM2=RPM1/RPM2=SP1/SP2 No of relations among fan
performance characteristics for a given fan operating at changed conditions
(or) different size fan of similar construction called fan laws.
These relation ships are useful for predicting performance if conditions are
Sound Control
Most cause of the sound generation in the Airconditioning system is due to
fan& Noise Generation of Air in the Duct system.
Fan Performance
Performance of fan is useful for correct fan selection& Proper
operation&Trouble shooting procedures
Its Performance best understood in seen in curved.
Higher max efficiency can be often achived with backward curved fan.
BHP in the backwardcurved blade fan increases gradually peaks at maximum
then falls.
Fan selection
Depends on the fan performance characteristics (or) performance
curves(BHP,Mechnical Efficiency,Static Pressure).
Determine the proper size to be used manufacturers have fans ratings are
presented as either performance curves (or) Tables for each fan Size.
Note:Each fan curve represents performance at specific fan speed &air
Performance curves enables an engineer to visualize changes in the static
pressure BHP & Efficiency easily.
Tables are used more often than curves to select fan.
Operating near maximum efficiency results in less noise output by Fan. To
select the fan duct system static pressure resistance is first calculated

Then manufacturer data are then used to select the fan that will produce
required CFM against system static pressure resistance.
Fan may also be selected based on the Total pressure rather than static
pressure suitable for low velocities.
For High velocities systems it is sometimes more accurate to use Total

Fan rating are based on Testing the fans based on (Air Movement &Control
When ever there is an duct work centrifugal fans has to be used as static
pressure drop is considerable They are Quiet& Efficient at High Pressures
moves air against Pressure.
When ever there is an no duct work propeller & Axial Fans are Used.
Most exaust Fans used are axial Fans They occupy Less space handles large
Volumes of air& Noise is more.
Majority Fans are centrifugal and Radial.
In the forward curved fan horsepower continues to raise
In the backward curved fan horse power rises to maximum then dropps off.
For efficiently wise backward curved fan has Higher peak efficiency.
Steps in Selecting Fan or Blower
1)Type of Application & Fan to be used.
2)Space available to which the fan to be estimated & determined Volume of
3)Air Changes per Hour Required for That Application. 4)External Static
Pressure of air Handler at 1000 cfm.
Wet Coil-------------0.1wc
Air Filter-------------1.5wc
Total Available Static Pressure 5)Choose Fan TypeCentrifugal
-Axial 2)Total Air Flow CFM-Determine the cfm required
3)Static Pressure-Resistance to Air Flow Moving Through Duct & Pipe.
Pressure Drop through Filters,Control Dampers,Louwers,Inlet &Outlet of
4)Density of air changes from Temp and Altitudes must be corrected before
selecting blower.
5)Air Temparature-Temp of air going through blower will effect make temp
Note:Tables and Fan curves can be found from Data Book.
Fan selection CFM required for ventilation =Building Cube/Minutes per Air
1)Ex:Building 100*75*12 Typical air change Required for every 4 Minutes
90000/4=22,500 cfm
2)Fan selection 22500 cfm Industrail Heavy Duct Exaust Fan@1/8 or .125
static pressure.
How to select the fan for Bath room
Bath room Size-----à5’*7’*8’
-----à280 Cubic or static air space. 2) If you want to change air for 3 Times in
One hour Then you need to move 280 cuft*3 Exchanges =840 cuft
840cuft/60min(One Hour)=14 cfm
A small fan of 14 would serve the purpose.
Air Washer( Evaporative Cooling Unit )Can be used in low Humidity areas
CAPACITY RANGE :- 1000– 2500000 CFM Features of these products:
There units are used where humidity is very low area just for humidification
the corridors,where we can avoid use of compressor and AHU.
Single and Double Skinned Construction
Galvanised Steel frames of superior quality is used for construction of these
units, with minimum thickness range of 1.4 millimeter
Double Skin Air Washer are fabricated out of Extruded Aluminium hollow
Profile with 25/43 mm thick Double Skin Panels wit CFC and HFC for PUF
and density of 40Kg/cum

Centrifugal fans used by are of DIDW Forward/Backward curved Or

Aerofoil AMCA Certified generally of NICOTRA or KRUGER makes. All
fans are statically and dynamically balanced
Common base frame for Motor and Blower
Multi slope S.S-304, Aluminium or G.I. drain pan ensures proper drainage of
Induction motor with TEFC Squirrel cage for 50/60 cycle, 415+10% volts
with AC supply in 3 phase or 1 phase
Motor make: SIEMENSE/ ABB / KIRLOSKAR or any other western origin
Microvee filter along with primary filters are offered along with these
Cellulose pad/ Spray type (single bank/ double bank) humidification systems
are manufactured by us
Evaporative cooling pads make: HUTEK (THAILAND) or Munters (USA)
and also can be provided as per specification of a client
Spray type humidification systems are fabricated out of G.I/ M.S. Header and
Brass/PVC Nozzle
Perforated sheet is also provided in spray type humidification systems to
ensure proper distribution of air thought out the humidification chamber

4 bend PVC /G.I Eliminators to ensure that no water is carried away to

Blower section and further to duct system

Evaporative cooling is especially well suited for climates where the air is hot
and humidity is low. In the United States, the western/mountain states are
good locations, with evaporative coolers prevalent in cities like Denver, Salt
Lake City, Albuquerque, El Paso, Tucson, and Fresno where sufficient water
is available. Evaporative air conditioning is also popular and well-suited to
the southern (temperate) part of Australia. In dry, arid climates, the
installation and operating cost of an evaporative cooler can be much lower
than that of refrigerative air conditioning, often by 80% or so. However,
evaporative cooling and vapor-compression air conditioning are sometimes
used in combination to yield optimal cooling results. Some evaporative
coolers may also serve as humidifiers in the heating season.

Direct evaporative cooling (open circuit) is used to lower the temperature of

air by using latent heat of evaporation, changing liquid water to water vapor.
In this process, the energy in the air does not change. Warm dry air is
changed to cool moist air. The heat of the outside air is used to evaporate

Indirect evaporative cooling (closed circuit) is similar to direct evaporative

cooling, but uses some type of heat exchanger. The cooled moist air never
comes in direct contact with the conditioned environment.

Two-stage evaporative cooling, or indirect-direct. Traditional evaporative

coolers use only a fraction of the energy of vapor-compression or absorption
air conditioning systems. Unfortunately, except in very dry climates they
increase humidity to a level that makes occupants uncomfortable. Two-stage
evaporative coolers do not produce humidity levels as high as that produced
by traditional single-stage evaporative coolers.

In the first stage of a two-stage cooler, warm air is pre-cooled indirectly

without adding humidity (by passing inside a heat exchanger that is cooled by
evaporation on the outside). In the direct stage, the pre-cooled air passes
through a water-soaked pad and picks up humidity as it cools. Since the air
supply is pre-cooled in the first stage, less humidity is needed in the direct
stage to reach the desired cooling temperatures. The result, according to
manufacturers, is cooler air with a relative humidity between 50 and 70
percent, depending on the climate, compared to a traditional system that
produces about 70–80 percent relative humidity air.


The piping that is used to circulate Hot or Chilled water for Air-Conditioning
or various application like firefighting,Hospitality, purpose is Called
Hydronic Piping system.
ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials.
BIS - Bureau of Indian Standards.
BS - British Standards.
ANSI - For Dimensions
Physical Specifications of Steel and Copper Tubing are Standardized by
Black Carbon Steel refers to ASTM-A-120 or ASTM A-53 BIS Mild steel –
Butterfly Valve - 13095
MS C Class Pipes Used for Chilled water Systems.There different classes of
Pipes A B C.
Wall thickness is refered by Schedule Number 20,30,40,80 Standard, Extra
strong, Double Extra Strong.
Choice of Correct Schedule Number Depends on Pressure and Temparature
Schedule 40 is Mostly Used in Very Large Diameters Schedule 20 or 30 is
15 NBX SCH40
Class -1 ASTM 02846 28.6 mm NSF-61-CPVC-Hot water and chilled water
Insulation Material – Class O Armaflex 16mm Aramacell ZLN3A As per BS
476 part 7&61.
Copper Tubing Specification.
The wall Thickness of Copper Tubing is specified by K,L,M,DMW Where
K- is the Thickness wall and used with High Pressure Refregerants.
L- has an Intermediate Thickness wall is Usually Used for Hydronic Piping
M- Is Used for Low Pressure Plumbing.OD is same for all these Types and
ID Changes.
Pressure Drop will be Greatest for Type K.
Flanges and Fittings
Screwed,Welded,Fitted and Flanged fittings are Establised by
ANSI(American National Standards Institute)

Type of Piping Systems

Types of water systems
Open system, Closed System
Open system
Open systems the water is exposed to the atmosphere like inclusion of
cooling tower,no countinue closed pipe circuit.
Closed System
Flow cannot be provided by static head difference,Pumpsdo not provide static
lift,entire piping is always filled with water
HVAC Water Systems can be classified by
Operating Temperature Flow generation
Piping Arrangement
Pumping Arrangement
Piping Materials
Chilled water :Black & galvanized steel
Hot water:Black steel,Hard Copper
Condenser water:Black steel,Galvanised ductile iron,pvc

Series Loops : Entire water supply flows through each terminal unit and then
returns to the Pump.Maintenance and repair of each terminal requires shut
down of Entire system.Seperate control of each unit and water flow rate is not

One Pipe Main :In this system water flows through the main Line and each
terminal is connected by supply and return by locating valves each unit can
be controlled separately.As in the series loop if there are too many units water
going to the later units may be too cool to heat rooms.
Two Pipe Direct
Return.To get the water temperature supplied to each terminal unit Equal.

The total system flow rate (GPM) is split up among Terminals.This is called
direct return because the return main is routed to bring the water back to the
source by shortest path.Since flowing water prefers path as least resistance
too much water going to nearest unit to pump so balancing valve each branch
to be installed.Length of supply and return piping through subcircuits is
Balancing of water cannot be done in this type.

Pipe Reverse Return.

Balancing problem in the direct return arrangement would be overcome if the

circuit length out to each terminal unit and back was made approximately
same.Note that path Length for water is about the same regardless of which
unit passes through.Providing total lengths for all terminal circuits,More pipe
length is needed.combination of direct and reverse.
Three Pipe

Simultaneous heating and cooling can be made available by use of three-pipe

system.There are Two main supply One circulating Chilled water and Other
Hot water.Threeway control valves in the branch to each Terminal unit
determines it Receives Chilled water or Hot water.

Four Pipe System: Four pipe systems is actually two separate two pipe
systems one for chilled water and one for Hot water therefore no Mixing

Pressure Drop In Pipe

Pressure drop is defined as the difference in pressure between two points of
a fluid carrying network. Pressure drop occurs with frictional forces, caused
by the resistance to flow, on a fluid as it flows through the tube. The main
determinants of resistance to fluid flow are fluid velocity through the pipe
and fluid viscosity. Pressure drop increases proportional to the frictional
shear forces within the piping network. A piping network containing a high
relative roughness rating as well as many pipe fittings and joints, tube
convergence, divergence, turns, surface roughness and other physical
properties will affect the pressure drop. High flow velocities and / or high
fluid viscosities result in a larger pressure drop across a section of pipe or a
valve or elbow. Low velocity will result in lower or no pressure drop.

Mainly Friction losses depends on Water Velocity, Interior Surface

Roughness,Pipe Length,Diameter.
Water Velocities
Service Velocity FPS
Boiler Feed Water 8 to 15
Chilled Water 4 to 10
Condenser Water 4 to 10
Pump Suction 4 to 6
Pump Discharge 8 to 12 Header 4 to 15
Riser 3 to 10
Friction Losses in the Fitting Calculation
1) Equivalent Length Method.
2)K factor Method.
3)Friction Losses in the Straight Pipe Lines
4)Hager Williams Method
5)Darcy Wishbach Method GPM(Gallons per Minute)– A unit measure of
flow. Equals a flow rate of one gallon in one minute.
Hydronic heating system are divided
L T W - Low temperature below (250F).
M T W - Medium temperature hot water (250-350F).
H T W - High temperature water hot water (350-450F).
As water temperature increase the boiler pressure must be increased to
prevent the water .from evaporating and strength of boiler to be increased .
L T W select supply water temperature (180-240F) & system temperature
drop between –(180-240F) for
Private residence supply water temperature–(180-210F) temperature drop of
For commercial temperature up to 240F & drops to 40F.
Chilled water don’t have temperature categories supply temperature
depends on dehimudification needed (40-50F)
System temperature usually raises (5-15F)
Condensing temperature water temperature(80-100F) Q = 500X GPMXTC
TR= GPM XDeltaT/24
Cop of Chiller = Cooling provided / Work Input
Maximum water velocity to minimize erosion based on normal operation in
hours / year

1500 hrs/year - 15 fps

2000 hrs/year - 14 fps
3000 hrs/year - 13 fps
4000 hrs/year - 12 fps
6000 hrs/year - 10 fps
8000 hrs/year - 8 fps Unfortunately no single recommendation will be correct
for all possible circumstances, but the table below can be used as a general
guidance for the water flow capacity in Steel pipes schedule 40

Pipe Size Maximum Flow Velocity Head Loss (inch) (gal/min) (ft/s)
(ft/100ft) 2 45 4.3 3.9 2 1/2 75 5.0 4.1 3 130 5.6 3.9 4 260 6.6 4.0 6 800 8.9
4.0 8 1,600 10.3 3.8 10 3,000 12.2 4.0 12 4,700 13.4 4.0 14 6,000 14.2 4.0 16
8,000 14.5 3.5 18 10,000 14.3 3.0 20 12,000 13.8 2.4 24 18,000 14.4 2.1

Steel Schedule 40 Pipe

Flow Rate, GPM Nominal Pipe Size, inches 64 to 130 3

130 to 280 4
280 to 660 6
660 to 1,150 8
1,150 to 2,200 10
2,200 to 3,200 12
3,200 to 4,250 14
4,250 to 5,700 16
The maximum flow of water for different diameter pipes can be gotten off
charts that show general flow. The charts list the size of the pipes and the
gallons per minute (GPM). Using the right flow for the right size pipe will
give more efficient flow without back pressure.

Characteristics of Pipe
Roughness Diameter
Flow Area
Relative Roughness
Fluid Data,Type of Fluid.
2K Method for Laminar for Valve & Fittings for Entrances & Exits.(Predicts
Head Losses in the Pipe Fitting).

Water Hammer
When water velocity in a flowing pipeline changes abruptly the pressure will
spike so high that it can cause entire pipelines to explode, implode, or
otherwise break. Water doesn't compress, is heavy, and has a lot of
momentum at high velocities. Pipes with water running at high velocities are
therefore at much higher risk for bursting due to water hammer. The bottom
line is to open and close valves slowly and don't let water hit the end of a
closed pipeline at high velocities.

Friction loss
Pressure losses caused by friction of the water on the pipe walls and
turbulence inside the pipe. Friction losses are a function of the pipe length,
the pipe's inside diameter, the pipe material, and the flow rate.

Some piping systems will experience corrosion, scaling, dirt accumulation,

etc. This accumlation will decrease the inner diameter avaliable for flow and
change the roughness of the pipe. Both these changes will increase the
pressure drop in the system. A typical increase is 20% of the clean pressure
drop. If you would like to add this use factor to your calculation enter the
percent increase desired below

Q = m*c*(delta T)
Q = heat energy
m = mass
c = specific heat
Delta t = change in temperature = ( final - initial temp)

If the Valves are not known thumb rule is we will take high side.
Different Types of Pipes are.
IPS Schedule 40
Ductile Iron
Steel CPVC
Cast Iron
Glass Polyester
Steel black
Steel Galvanised
Copper PPR
Copper Pipe.
NPS-Nominal Pipe Size for diameter based on Inches. Schedule - for wall
thickness of Pipe.
Velocity Dependent Noise in the Piping Systems Results from Turbulence.
Release of Entrained Air.
Water Hammer.
3 - 12 FPS Lie within the Allowable Range Noise Levels for Residential and
Commercial Buildings.
Friction allowable is 1.5– 3.5 ftw/100ft
Head Loss Head Loss is equal to the Total Frictional Losses in the Highest
resistant circuit of the Piping. To Calculate the Head Losses,Calculate the
Total Friction Losses
Valves and Fittings Cause pressure losses Greater than caused by Pipe Alone.
Fitting Losses are Expressed in Equivalent Length of Pipe.
Too low flow rates effects chiller efficiency Too High flow causes vibration
Designers Tips
Design flow
Pressure drop required for the most resistant loop,Minimum system
flow,Type of control valves two way - 3way
Continous or Variable
Pump environment No: of pumps & Stand by Electric voltage & current
Motor quality vs Service life Water treatment,conditions material selection
Thermal capacity of chilled water system is determined by both the temp
differential(DeltaT) & Rate of water flow.
A large Delta T allows for the use smaller pipes which reduces the capital
investment for construction of systems.
System operating efficiency also increases with an increased due to reduced
pumping requirements(Power) caused by DeltaT reduced flow rates in
distubution system.
Problems on Piping Continuity Equation
A1=Cross sectional Area of Pipe or Duct.
V1=Velocity of Fluid
VFR=Volume Flow Rate of Fluid.

20) A if the proper flow rate is circulating in the chilled water piping on a
job. This engineer measures a water velocity of 10 ft/sec. The cross-sectional
area of pipe is 4ft2. What is the water flow rate through the pipe in GPM

Using Equation
VFR = A1*V1=4ft2 * 10 ft/sec

= 40 ft3/sec
Converting from ft3 to GPM
VFR = 40 ft3/sec * 60 sec/1min * 7.48 gal/1 ft3
= 17952 GPM
a flowing fluid is defined as

Ht= Hs+ Hv
Ht= total pressure
Hs =static pressure
Hv= velocity pressure

The static pressure is the pressure the fluid has at rest. The velocity pressure
is defined as

Hv= V2/2g
Thus the total pressure energy that a fluid has at any point can be considered
to consist of two parts, its static pressure energy and its velocity pressure
energy. The velocity pressure concept is useful in measuring velocities and
flow rates in piping and ducts. If the velocity pressure can be measured, the
velocity can be found by solving Equation

V =velocity, ft/ sec
g = gravitational constant, ft/sec
Hv= velocity head, ft of fluid

Conversion of Velocity pressure to Static pressure (Static Regain)

One of the remarkable things that can occur in flow in a duct or pipe is that
the static pressure can increase in the direction of flow if the velocity
decreases. This is caused by a conversion of velocity energy to static energy,
called static regain. Velocity energy has been converted to pressure energy.
This effect is called static pressure regain. The proportion of static regain that
can be recovered, called the recover factor R.

SPR = R ( [V1/4000]2-[V2/4000]2)
Diagrams for Static Pressure and Total Pressure ,Velocity Pressure.

Friction Loss Charts for schedule 40 steel pipe-closed system.(Courtesy:


Friction Loss Charts for schedule 40 steel pipe-Open system(Courtesy:

Friction Loss Charts for copper tubing pipe-Open & Closed system.
(Courtesy: Carrier
21)What is the pressure loss due to friction and the velocity in 700 ft of 2 in.
Schedule 40 steel piping through which 40 GPM of water at 60 F is flowing
in a closed system?
The information can be found from Closed systems. The solution is indicated
Figure8.13 page24 at the point of intersection of 40 GPM flow rate and D= 2
in. Note
that the chart lists friction loss per 100 ft of pipe, which is then converted to
the loss in
the actual length of pipe.
At 40 GPM and D= 2 in., Hf per 100 ft = 3.2 ft w., therefore
Hf = 3.2 ft w./100 ft * 700 ft = 22.4 ft w.
The velocity at the intersection point is V = 3.9 ft/sec

22)A copper tubing system is to be used to circulate 30 GPM of water at 60
F. The system is to be designed to have a friction pressure drop no greater
than 3 ft w. per 100 ft pipe. What is the smallest size tubing that can be used?
Refer to page friction loss in copper tubing.

The intersection point of 30 GPM and 3 ft w./100 ft pipe lies between a 2 in.
and 11/2 in. diameter. If a 11/2 in. diameter is used, the pressure drop will be
greater than 3 ft w./100 ft at 30 GPM, so this is unacceptable. If a 2 in.
diameter is used, the pressure drop will be less that the maximum allowed ;
therefore, this is the correct solution. Note that the actual rather than the
allowed pressure drop should be recorded. The solution is

D = 2 in., Hf = 2.0 ft w./100 ft

Pressure Loss in Pipe Fittings

In addition to the pressure loss in straight pipe, there will be Pressure losses
from turbulence and change of direction through fittings and valves. These
are called dynamic losses. The pressure losses are expressed in a way that is
called the equivalent length. The listings for a particular fitting of a given size
show the equivalent length (E.L.) of straight pipe that would have the same
pressure drop as that fitting. After finding the E.L. from Table.
23)Find the pressure droop through a 4 in. 900 cast iron (C.I.0 standard elbow
in a chilled water system though which 300 GPM of water is flowing.
From Table , find the equivalent length of the fitting
E.L. = 11.0 ft
Using Figure Hf/100 ft = 5.2 ft w . The pressure droop through the fitting is
Hf = 5.2 ft w./100 ft * 11.0 ft
= 0.6 ft w
Pressure drop calculation Problem.Refer page 70 Fig 8.15
Friction loss Rate Should be between 1 to 5ft w/100.
1.5 to 3.5 ft w/100 are commonly Used for most applications.
Velocities in the Large mains 4-6 Fps (For small systems).
8-10 Fps(For Large Sytems).
2” Dia & Below 4fps

2” Dia & Below 4fps 8 fps for 2” Dia & Above

Velocities in any Pipe passing Through occupied areas not to Exceed 4FPS
Regardless of System Size.

Velocities in any Pipe section should not be below 1.5fps.

4ps max velocity in occupied spaces such as main floors
6-8 non occupied spaces such as risers and plain main
2in pipe and smaller velocity 4FPS
Black Pipe 6-8/100ft Velocity 6 ft/sec
Velocity of living place 2-4 FPS.
Manufacturing place up to 10 FPS.
2.5/100 for FCU.
3/100ft AHU and ducted FCU.
High velocity should be used in down-comes return main feeding into air
separate units located in the basement
Maintenance of minimum velocity is particularly important in the upper
floors of highrise buildings when air tends to come out or solutions because
of reduced pressures.
In absence of venting air can be entrained in water carried to separate units at
flow velocity
1.5 to 2ft/s.
Air separator should be equipped to measure amount of entrapped air in
circuit pump. Air should be vented at highest Point.
Above 2in diameter pumping velocity in excess of 4ft/s can be used in
pumping of layer size.
Closed loop pipe is generally sized velocity level 4FPS for 2-in pipe and
under pressure drop level 4/100ft.
Choosing more friction more money has to be paid for pump.

Erosion in the Pipe caused by the water bubbles,sand,Other Solid Materilas

impinging on the Other Surface of Pipe.Velocities lower Than 100ft/s erosion
is no significant as long as there is no cavitation .When solid materials are
entrained in the fluid at Higher Velocites,Erosion occurs rapidly in
Bends.Higher velocities should not be used in the system carrying sand
particles and Slurry.

Allowing of Ageing Process

Internal surface of Pipe Becomes very Rough which reduces the available
flow with fixed pressure supply.Designing with excessive age allowance may
result in oversized piping.

Age related also decreases in the capacity depends on Type of water ,Type of
Pipe material,Temparature of water and System Open or Closed.
Darcy-Weibach equation with friction factors from Moody Chart or
ColeBrook equation
Is fundamental for calculating pressure drop in the Hot and Chilled water
Most table and charts for water are calculated for properties at 60F.
Using these for hot water introduces some error ie Coldwater calculation
overstate the pressure drop for Hot water.
Using 60f water charts for 200f water with Pressure exepting 20%.

Pump Head Calculations

Determining pressure losses in the piping in a closed systems,Basically the
system pressure losses are total losses through the suction to
discharge,Including piping,Fittings,Valves,Length of pipe,to find the pressure
drop the circuit with greatest pressure drop choosen.
By comparing the values from the chart with Pipe Dia & GPM. Hf Can be

Generally pressure losses in the straight piping there will be irregular flow
and change in direction, through fittings valves are called dynamic losses
Basic formula is Hf= Friction drop based on the GPM & Dia/100X E.L
Friction drop based on the GPM & Dia/100X Total Length of Pipe. Take the
EL values from the table above
Pump HP=( GPM X ft Head / 3960xEfficiency )x (Specific Gravity).
Small Pumps 0.40 to 0.60 efficiency
Large Pumps 0.70 to 0.85 efficiency
Fire Fighting piping overwiew
Standards for Plumbing fire fighting calculation
SCH -40 12 bar pressure
Mostly Used Pipes
20mm Sprinkler designing
Q = (design density) x Area
Q = k(p)0.5
p = (q/k)2
p= 6.05 (Q1.85/C1.85XD4.87)x105
Types of Copper Pipes and Sizes
Common wall-thicknesses of copper tubing in the USA are "Type K", "Type
L", "Type M", and "Type DWV"

· Type K has the thickest wall section of the three types of pressure rated
tubing and is commonly used for deep underground burial such as under
sidewalks and streets, with a suitable corrosion protection coating or
continuous polyethylene sleeve as required by code. In the United States it
usually has green colored printing.

· Type L has a thinner pipe wall section, and is used in residential and
commercial water supply and pressure applications. In the United States it
usually has blue colored printing.

· Type M has an even thinner pipe wall section, and is used in residential
and commercial water supply and pressure applications. In the United States
it usually has red colored printing.

· Type DWV has the thinnest wall section, and is generally only suitable for
unpressurized applications, such as drains, waste and vent (DWV) lines.

Types K and L are generally available in both hard drawn "sticks" and in rolls
of soft annealed tubing, whereas type M and DWV is usually only available
in hard drawn "sticks".

In the American plumbing industry, the size of copper tubing is designated by

its nominal diameter, which is 1⁄8th inch less than the outside diameter. (This
nominal diameter does not match any other physical dimension on the pipe; it
may be larger or smaller than the inside diameter depending on the size of
pipe). The American refrigeration industry uses different copper pipe called
ACR (air conditioning and refrigeration field services) pipe, which is sized
directly by its outside diameter (OD) and a type letter indicating wall
thickness. Therefore, 1 inch nominal type L copper tube and 1 1⁄8th inch type
D ACR tube are exactly the size with different size designations. ACR pipe is
manufactured without processing oils that would be incompatible with the
oils used to lubricate the compressors in the AC system.

Except for this difference between ACR (types A and D) and plumbing
(types K, L, M and DWV) pipes, the type only indicates wall thickness and
does not affect the outside diameter of the tube. Type K 1⁄2 inch, type L 1⁄2
inch, and type D 5⁄8 inch ACR all have the same outside diameter of 5⁄8 inch.

Common wall-thicknesses in Europe are "Type X", "Type Y" and "Type Z",
defined by the EN 1057 standard.

· Type X is the most common, and is used in above ground services

including drinking water supply, hot and cold water systems, sanitation,
central heating and other general purpose applications.

· Type Y is a thicker walled pipe, used for underground works and heavy
duty requirements including hot and cold water supply, gas reticulation,
sanitary plumbing, heating and general engineering.
· Type Z is a thinner walled pipe, also used for above ground services
including drinking water supply, hot and cold water systems, sanitation,
central heating and other general purpose applications.

In the plumbing trade the size of copper tubing is measured by its outside
diameter in millimetres. Common sizes are 15 mm and 22 mm.Tubing in
8mm and 10mm outside diameters is called "micro bore" and is easier to
install although there is a slightly increased risk of blockage from scale or
debris. It is sometimes used for central heating systems and 15mm adaptors
are used to connect it to radiator valves.

Thin-walled types used to be relatively inexpensive, but since 2002 copper

prices have risen considerably due to rising global demand and a stagnant

Piping Supports and Vibration Isolators

Determining fresh air needed in a building simply select the type of bld you
are cosidering to add fresh air, no of people bld multiply no of people by
required cfm per person to determine fresh air flow.

Generally most fresh air calculations are from certain cfm per person,rate
changes,depending on type of bld and activity process going on.
How to calculate the Ventilation

Indoor air quality, fresh air ventilation is recommended by HVAC engineers

and is prescribed in ASHRAE standard 62.2.* In many states, fresh air
ventilation is required to meet building codes for new construction or to
obtain energy tax credits in existing homes.
1)Measure the room's width and length. Also measure the height of the room
from the ceiling to the floor.

2)Multiply the three measurements from step 1 to determine the cubic

footage of the room. For instance, if a room is 8 feet wide, 10 feet long and 8
feet high, multiply 8 times 10 times 8 to get 640 cubic feet.

3)Multiply the cubic volume of the room by the number of times you want
the air to turn over or exchange in an hour. For example, if you expect the air
to be exchanged twice per hour, multiply 2 times 640 to get 1,440.

4) Divide your answer from step 3 by 60 to calculate CFM. In this example,

you would divide 1,440 by 60 to get a CFM of 24.
Calculate the Ventilation for Toilet
1.Measure the dimensions of your bathroom.

Use a tape measure to measure each dimension of your bathroom - the length
of each wall and the height from floor to ceiling. For a bathroom with a
rectangular floor plan, you can keep these numbers in your head for the CFM
calculation. If you have an irregular floor plan, you may want to draw and
label the plan on paper to help you calculate your bathroom's volume.

2 Calculate the floor area of your bathroom.

For a rectangular bathroom, this is done by multiplying the width and length.
For example, a 7 ft x 10 ft (2.1 m x 3 m) bathroom has a floor area of 70
square feet (6.5 square meters). If your bathroom has a more complex shape,
break the floor plan into simpler shapes, calculate their areas, and then add
those areas together to arrive at the total floor area.

3 Calculate the total volume of your bathroom.

This is done by multiplying your bathroom's floor area by the ceiling height.
For example, a bathroom with a 90 square feet (8.4 square meters) floor area
and a 9 ft (2.7 m) ceiling height has a total volume of 810 cubic feet (22.9
cubic meters).

4 Determine the required CFM for your bathroom fan.

An effective bathroom fan should be capable of replacing the entire volume
of air 8 times per hour, or every 7.5 minutes. To arrive at your required CFM,
simply divide your bathroom's volume by 7.5. For example, a bathroom with
a volume of 1000 cubic feet (28.3 cubic meters) needs a fan capable of
moving (1000 / 7.5) or 133 CFM (3.8 cubic meters per minute).

Per Toilet 75 cfm to be considered in design.

CO2: add 5% for rooms with CO2 enrichment
Filters: if a carbon filter is to be used with the exhaust system then add 20%
Ambient temperature: for hot climates (such as Southern California) add
25%, for hot and humid climates (such as Florida) add up to 40%.
Hospitals HVAC Design
Infection control experts have put together guidelines on hospital HVAC
system filtration, temperature, humidity, air change, pressurization and
exhaust. Unlike, for a typical building HVAC system which is maintained for
comfort, a hospital HVAC system's job is to improve indoor air quality,
mitigate airborne transmission of diseases, and in general providing superior
patient care, minimum standards for health care ventilation, air changes,
temperature, humidity, filtration and design.
Pharmaceutical Industry HVAC Design
In this sector Amount of 100% fresh air calculation involved no recirculation
allowed main parameters controlled
Relative Humidity 40– 50%,
Differential Pressure 50 Pascals,
Temp 24 C.
Change room should have pascal 35 pascals lower pressure to trap all
For Sterlization process 120 C – 140 C & (30– 35)% Relative Humidity.
Positive pressure of (45 kpa) (+ve) and Room to Room diff (20 kpa).
Formulation and Injectable are areas need to control temp and humidity ,for
increasing the humidity levels increase the flow of cold water into the

1Determine an efficient pathway for installing ventilation ductwork from the

proposed smoking room to the outdoors. This ductwork must collect all the
smoke-filled air at the ventilation fan and propel it out of the home or
building. Cover all exterior vents with bird-, insect- and rodent-proof covers.

2)Install a fresh air supply duct system as well. You'll need to draw fresh air
into the room from an outdoor intake vent that empties into the smoking
room, usually at the floorboard level. This fresh air supply must be wholly
separate from other fresh air supply ducts in the building.

3)Install one or more powerful ventilation fans in the ceiling. Ventilation fans
must be able to forcefully pull or push smoke-filled air out of the room at a
high rate of "exchange." Cigarette smoke, like smoke generated by cooking,
must be removed from a location at a higher rate of speed than a bathroom
ventilation fan is capable of. Fan power is rated in CFMs or "cubic feet per
minute." Do research and purchase one or more fan units rated at 200 CFMs
or more.

4)Do research on high-CFM ventilation fans that are also relatively quiet. Fan
noises are rated in sones. Look for high CFM fans that are rated at six sones,
or lower, for quieter operation. This problem is one of the dilemmas of
constructing a smoking room: the fans that do the most good are often so
noisy they make other activities, such as watching television, difficult.

5)Insulate the room as tightly as possible. Remove all drywall on walls and
ceilings and install a plastic vapor barrier. Install a solid door with generous
rubber gasket insulation strips around the edges and a good rubber "sweep" at
the bottom of the door.

6)Test the speed of this air exchange system thoroughly before closing up
any access points in the walls or ductwork. Smoke one or more cigarettes in
the room. Use the nose of a nonsmoker volunteer to test whether the odor of
cigarette smoke can be detected in other rooms while you are smoking.
7)Conduct another test: Turn on a powerful flashlight and set it in the middle
of the room, pointing up, with the other lights turned off. Five minutes after
you cease smoking, determine visually how much smoke may be collecting
in the room by looking at the flashlight beam. If there is a still lot of smoke in
the room, the smoke will be illuminated by the flashlight beam. The fan may
not be removing enough air from the room at a fast enough rate of exchange.
In this case, upgrade to a more powerful CFM model or add a second or third

8)Run a final test of your system: An hour after extinguishing the last
cigarette, and turning off the ventilation fan, have a new nonsmoker volunteer
enter the premises without any warning as to why their help is needed. Ask
him immediately upon entering the room what, if anything, he smells. If he
instantly says "cigarette smoke," more work needs to be done on your system,
including switching to a higher CFM fan or increasing the insulation.

(ACH)- Air changes per Hour

How many times in an hour the air is to be replaced in a
room by taking air from outside & replacing inside air
to outside. Measure of air volume added to or removed
from the space within an hour.
Q=Volumetric flow rate of air in cfm Volume-
LXBXH(In cubic feet)
N=Number of Air changes per hour.
Air Change Rates in some common types of rooms and buildings
Building / Room Air Change Rates
Attic spaces for cooling 12 - 15
Auditoriums 8 - 15
Bakeries 20
Banks 4 - 10
Barber Shops 6 - 10
Bars 20 - 30
Beauty Shops 6 - 10
Boiler rooms 15 - 20
Bowling Alleys 10 - 15
Cafeterias 12 - 15
Churches 8 - 15
Club rooms 12
Clubhouses 20 - 30
Cocktail Lounges 20 - 30
Computer Rooms 15 - 20
Court Houses 4 - 10
Dental Centers 8 - 12
Department Stores 6 - 10 Dining Halls 12 -15
Dining rooms (restaurants) 12
Dress Shops 6 - 10
Drug Shops 6 - 10
Engine rooms 4 - 6
Factory buildings, ordinary 2 - 4
Factory buildings, fumes and moisture 10 - 15
Fire Stations 4 - 10
Foundries 15 - 20
Galvanizing plants 20 - 30
Garages repair 20 - 30
Garages storage 4 - 6
Homes, night cooling 10 - 18
Jewelry shops 6 - 10
Kitchens 15 - 60
Laundries 10 - 15
Libraries, public 4
Lunch Rooms 12 -15
Luncheonettes 12 -15 Nightclubs 20 - 30
Malls 6 - 10
Medical Centers 8 - 12
Medical Clinics 8 - 12
Medical Offices 8 - 12
Mills, paper 15 - 20
Mills, textile general buildings 4
Mills, textile dye houses 15 - 20
Municipal Buildings 4 - 10
Museums 12 -15
Offices, public 3
Offices, private 4
Police Stations 4 - 10
Post Offices 4 - 10
Precision Manufacturing 10 - 50
Pump rooms 5
Restaurants 8 - 12
Retail 6 - 10
School Classrooms 4 - 12 Shoe Shops 6 - 10
Shopping Centers 6 - 10
Shops, machine 5
Shops, paint 15 - 20
Shops, woodworking 5
Substation, electric 5 - 10
Supermarkets 4 - 10
Town Halls 4 - 10
Taverns 20 - 30
Theaters 8 - 15
Turbine rooms, electric 5 - 10
Warehouses 2
Waiting rooms, public 4
Note that in many cases local regulations and codes will govern the
ventilation requirements.
OAT- Outside Air Temperature. This is the temperature of the air entering
the system or equipment from the outdoors.

RAT - Return Air Temperature. This is the return air entering the
equipment. This temperature may be different from the temperature entering
the return grilles due to duct loss or gain.

MAT - Mixed Air Temperature. This is the air temperature past the outside
air inlet where the temperatures of the return air and the outside air have
mixed together. This may be in the return plenum, or in the blower
The formula is:

Fresh Air % = ((MAT - RAT) / (OAT - RAT)) X 100

Here’s an example of how the formula works. let's say the Outside Air
Temperature is 100F, the Return Air Temperature is 75F, and the Mixed Air
Temperature is 80F.
Apply the formula:
Fresh Air % = ((80 - 75) / (100 - 75)) X 100
Fresh Air % = (5 / 25) X 100
Fresh Air % = 0.2 X 100
Fresh Air % = 20%
In this example, 20% of the total airflow of the system is being pulled into
the system from outside.

Next, to find the fresh cfm, multiply the percentage of fresh air by the fan
airflow. Let’s say we have a 3 ton system moving 1,200 cfm. Multiply the
20% fresh air by the 1,200 cfm to find a fresh air cfm of 240.

Building use and required fresh air (in cfm) per person:

· Homes 5-15
· Offices 15-20
· Light commercial buildings 15-25 · Retail stores 15-20
· Classrooms 15
· Churches 15
· Restrooms 35
· Conference rooms 20
· Restaurants 20
· Restaurants, smoking 25-30
· Bars 30
· Exercise rooms 30-40
· Manufacturing 25-40
· Dry cleaners 30
· Hotel rooms 20-30
· Dance clubs 25-35
· Makeup air = 80% to 100% of exhaust air One of the best rules of thumb
for residential fresh air requirements is 100 cfm for every 600 to 900 sq.ft. of
living space. The number varies depending on the tightness of the home and
the outdoor weather conditions.

Displacement Ventilation: Displacement ventilation (DV) It is a room air

distribution strategy where conditioned outdoor air is supplied at a low
velocity from air supply diffusers located near floor level and extracted above
the occupied zone, usually at ceiling height.
Radiant Cooling & Chilled Beams

Chilled beams are available in three variations: passive, active, and

integrated/multiservice beams. The difference between passive and active
beams revolves around the way airflow and fresh air are brought into the
space. Integrated/multi-service beams are chilled beams that include lighting,
speakers, sprinkler openings, cable pathways, etc.

A chilled beam is a type of convection HVAC system designed to heat or

cool large buildings. Pipes of water are passed through a "beam" (a heat
exchanger) either integrated into standard suspended ceiling systems or
suspended a short distance from the ceiling of a room. As the beam chills the
air around it, the air becomes denser and falls to the floor.

The passive approach can provide higher thermal comfort levels, while the
active type ("induction diffuser") uses the momentum of ventilation air
entering at relatively high velocity to induce the circulation of room air
through the unit (thus increasing its heating and cooling capacity).
Chilled beams are about 80 percent more effective at convection than chilled
ceilings. The chilled ceiling must cover a relatively large ceiling area because
it provides heating and cooling mainly by radiant, rather than convective,
heat transfer.

Passive Chilled beams

Passive chiiled beam consists of fins and tube exchanger is suspended from
the ceiling. Chilled water pases through tubes warm air from the spaces rises
towards ceiling and air sorrounding chilled beam is cooled causing it to
desend back towards floor creating covective air motion to the cool space,this
allows cooling without the use of fan. Passive chilled beams require
ventilation air to be delivered by a separate airhandling system.

Active Chilled beams while the active type (also called an "induction
diffuser") uses the momentum of ventilation air entering at relatively high
velocity to induce the circulation of room air through the unit (thus increasing
its heating and cooling capacity).

With active chilled beams, chilled beam air is introduced into the space
through a slot diffuser creating a Coanda effect – that is, the tendency of a
fluid jet to be attracted to a nearby surface like the ceiling.
Primary/ventilation is introduced into the active chilled beam through a series
of nozzles. This induces room air into the chilled beam and, in turn, through a
water coil. Induced room air is cooled and/or heated by the water coil and
then mixed with ventilation air and released, which controls room

Active Chillled Beams consists of fin and tube heat exchanger contained in
the housing that is suspended from or recessed in the ceiling,ACB contains
Integral air supplies,Primary air passes through nozzles,which induce air
from the space up through the cooling coil.This induction process allows the
acb to provide much more cooling capacity than pcb
Pressure relief dampers
These are air volume controlling dampers used to work based on the pressure
inside the room,ie I pressure exeeds the design room specs it automatically
opens the damper.

How to pressurize the room.

Pressurisation in the room can be done Increasing the Supply more than the

Sample -Total static pressure calculation entire system.(Duct System) -


Mixing Box 0.250

Supply Dampers 0.200
Preheating Coil 0.250 Cooling Coil 0.350
Reheat Coil 0.250
Diffuser section 0.400
Fine Filters 1.250
Discharge Plenum 0.150
EXTERNAL STATIC PRESSURE Supply Duct Run (ft) 37.000
Friction\100ft 0.080
Duct Work 0.097
Fittings 15% 0.015
Return Duct Run (ft) 88.000 Volume Control Damper 0.100
Duct Heater (if any) 0.000
Fire Damper 0.000 Terminal Box (if any) 0.000
Friction Drop for Supply & Return Ducts 0.100 Discharge Plenum
Final Filters
Med Pressure Duct
Terminal Box
Reheat Coil
Low Pressure SA Duct
Supply Air Grille 0.080
Return Air Grille 0.080 Low Pressure RA Duct
Return Air Plenum
Pre-Filter Plenum 1.580
O A Louveres
HEPA Filters 1.000
Out side Air Damper
Heating Section Humidity section
Out side Fresh Air Duct
Fresh Air Filters 0.500
Fresh Air Louver 0.000
Safety Factor 30% Safety 0.000
Total External Pressure (In wg) 7.4 inwg
1 inch of water = 25.5 mmwg HP = Q.SP(inwg)/6356*(Efficiency(0.60))
Low duct systems has - 0.08– 0.15 in wg/100 Feet Row 22 & 22
Total length of duct = 125 Feet
How to Calculate the Velocity at Grille
CFM = 3600
No of Grilles =6
CFM in each Grille = 600 CFM
Grille size to selected = Required Velocity at Grille for laminar Flow = 90 to
120 Fpm
Area of Grille = 5.27 sqft
Grille Size in mm= (750 x 750)
Static at Grille =
Velocity = CFM/AREA
= 600 /5.27
=105 FPM Required Velocity.
Conclusion we need an Grille size with Area of Grille = 5.27 sqft to get an
velocity of 105 fpm.
Based on the velocity & cfm & static pressure we can get grille size from
manufacturers manual.
How to find the static of grille 125mm at Grille. With Velocity of 90 to 120
AX- has 600 x 600 has Laminar Flow Panel.
BX- The size of Planair will be 1800mm X 1800mm, 1800mm X 2400mm,
2400mm X 2400mm, 2400mm X 2800mm, 2800mm X 2800mm, as per
theatre size. Gravity Air Louvers
This is an Air operated device .It is known as an better non return valve it
allows air to pass in one direction only.
Total Static Pressure(TSP), External Static Pressure(ESP), and Unit
Static Pressure(USP)

It is the static pressure losses, which the fan needs to overcome to create a
certain amount of CFM flow through the unit. It may or may not include
those losses created by the filter boxes, dampers, louvers, etc. All other static
pressure losses not considered internal can be notes as ESP (External Static
Pressure). The absolute value of the sum of the ESP and ISP is referred to as
Total Static Pressure (TSP), which is the pressure that the fan will have to
overcome to generate the rated CFM.

Total Static Pressure(TSP), External Static Pressure(ESP), and Unit

Static Pressure(USP). The first thing to note is that total static pressure is
different than total pressure. Total Static Pressure is defined as the sum of
External Static Pressure and Unit Static Pressure.

External static pressure is the static pressure in the supply and return duct
work that a fan would typically need to work against. Unit static pressure,
also known as Internal Static Pressure, is the pressure drop across filters,
coils, and twists and turns inside the air handler

Static Pressure – Used for fan selection(Resist to flow measured in Inches of

water),Independent of Flow.
Velocity Pressure – Used for measuring CFM in a system
Total Pressure – Used to find velocity pressure

The refrigerants that are the most widely used in the compressors are in a
chemical group called fluorinated hydrocarbons or halocarbons.These
refrigerants have be 1930s because of their excellent characteristics.They
have good physical properties for performance–temperature,pressures,oil
mixing feature,heat transfer, specific heat ,etc.they nontoxic .stable and
inexpensive.It is not our intension here to investigate those matters in a great
detail.that properly left to refrigeration texts and manuals.we do wish to
discuss,how ever,important issues about them that effect the practice work in
the HVAC industry.

All of the halocarbon refrigerants can be divided into three

subgroups,according to their constituents.

1. Choloflourocarbons (CFCS).These are composed fluorine,chlorine,and

carbon atoms.some in this group are CFC-11,CFC-12,and CFC-114.(The
more familiar identifications is R-11,R-12, and R-114)

2.Hydrocholoroflurocarbons (HCFCS).These are composed of

hydrocarbon atoms.some in this group are HCFC-22(R-22)and HCFC-123
3.Hydroflourocarbons(HFC),These are composed of
Hydrogen,Flourine,and carbon atoms.some in this group are HFC-134a (R-
134a) and HFC-125 (r-125). These are also mixtures of othr substance that
are used as refrigerants .these fall into two classes : Azeotropes and Blends
Azeotropes are mixtures that behaves as a single substances.for instance,all
parts of the mixure
Evaporate and condensate at same conditions Two frequently used in this
group are
R-500 CFC/HFC Mixure 502HCFC/CFC Mixure

Zeoprtropes are mixures that they don’t behave always as an single

substance.They may not evaporate or condensate at constant
temperature(called Temparature Glide).They complicate when in operating
and servicing problems

Properties of Good Refrigerants

Oil Mixing Features
Heat Tranfer
Specific Heat Non Toxic
One Chlorine atom damages 10000 ozone Molecules.
ODP-Relative ability of substance to deplete ozone layer is called ODP
Ozone depletion Potential
Refrigerants OPD(Ozone Depletion Potential)
CFC=11---------------1.0 CFC-12----------------1.0
HFC 134A--------------0


Air Handling units is HVAC Machine used to transfer air through ducts into
the at area to be supplied and re-circulate the air inside and reduce the temp
and RA while allowing to fall on the coil temp decreases and filters the
contaminants present in the inside condition area.

An air handler is usually a large metal box containing a blower, heating or

cooling elements, filter racks or chambers, sound attenuators, and dampers.
This box is connected by SA & RA ducts.
A mixing chamber is therefore used which has dampers controlling the ratio
between the return, outside, and exhaust air.
Ceiling suspended AHU
Floor mounted AHU
Coil selection based on temperature difference for air, water, and velocities.
1. Selection of filters according to specs requirement and face velocities.
2. Fan selection based on internal, & external static pressure air flow rate.
3 .Humidifier selection depends on RH needed.
4 .The tonnage shall be as per requirements.
5 .CFM shall be as per requirements.
6 .The filtration shall be as per requirements.

7. Type shall be as desired like its with upward flow, downward flow, is it
above ceiling or in separate room, is it with heater or heat recovery system, is
it for fresh air only or for mix air.

8. Some other requirements like body type, casing type, fan type.
9. Fan selection from highest pressure drops in ducts and air inlet outlets.

10. Control selection like it is coming with which types of controls, is it

standalone type or can be controlled by BMS only.
11. Air handling unit (AHU) is mainly with Fan, coils (heating & cooling) &
filters. As per project requirement add UV lights & humidifier.
12.Always keep in mind that the capacity required and selected capacity
should mach with the requirement.

13.While selecting Give priority related to Performance, efficiency,

maintainability, and space constraints to select a unit that has the lowest
lifecycle cost for a given application.

14.Fan must generate required air pressure to overcome internal and external
static pressure.
15Fan more than 5 hp required to have a minimum FEG of 67 and will need
to operate within10% of their peak efficiency.
16.A critical part of any fan selection is acoustic performance. Proper
selection and specifying of fans and AHU casing can reduce the need for
silencers / sound attenuator.
(The best way to reduce fan sound is to reduce the fan power; efficient fans
frequently have the best acoustic performance.)
17)Coils can be selected for Chilled Water, Hot Water, Steam, Refrigerant,
and Refrigerant Heat Recovery & Coil Run-around Loop Heat Recovery

18)Cooling coil selection shall be selected on the base of environment and

operation situation (copper tube /copper fin or copper tube with Al fins), coil
frame (proper material say SS316), corrosion protection coating etc.
19)3-kind of your zoning (single zone/multi zone) depends on your system

20)UVC lights (ultraviolet light in the C band) reduce the growth of bacteria,
mold, and algae on coils and drain pans.

Depending upon the location, external fresh air flow, difference of moisture
content between indoor / outdoor conditions required steam capacity will be
arrived.Depending upon the required stream capacity humidifier selected.
22)Filters selection

G-filters – based on average arrestance (gravimetric method) with ASHRAE

52.1 test dust at final pressure drop of 250 Pa.
M- Filters based on average particle size efficiency at 0.4 μm at final pressure
drop of 450.
F-filters – based on minimum efficiency and average particle size efficiency
at0.4 μm at final pressure drop of 450.
AHU with Supply and Return Ducting
Supply and Return Hot & Cold Piping

A thermal wheel, also known as a rotary heat exchanger, or rotary air-to-air

enthalpy wheel, or heat recovery wheel, is a type of energy recovery heat
exchanger positioned within the supply and exhaust air streams of an air
handling system, or in the exhaust gases of an industrial process, in order to
recover the heat energy. Other variants include enthalpy wheels and desiccant

Energy Recovery Wheels also known in the industry as Energy Conservation

Wheels, Energy Recovery Wheels, Enthalpy Wheels, Sensible Wheels,
Hygroscopic Wheels, Condensation Wheels or Sorption Wheels. These air-
to-air Heat Exchangers can recover both sensible (Heat) and latent (Moisture)
energy but may use different technologies and offer different efficiencies.

In a typical installation, the wheel is positioned in an Air Handling Unit so

that it is divided into two half moon sections.

Stale exhaust air is drawn through one half and outdoor air through the other
in a counter flow pattern. At the same time, the wheel is rotated. Sensible
heat is transferred as the metallic substrate picks up and stores heat from the
warmer air stream and gives it up to the cooler one.

Latent heat is transferred as the desiccant coating on the metallic substrate

adsorbs moisture from the air stream that has the higher humidity ratio and
releases the moisture into the air stream that has the lower humidity ratio.

Latent heat is transferred as the synthesized metallic substrate condenses

moisture from the air stream that has the higher humidity ratio through
adsorption by EcoSorb (with a simultaneous release of heat) and releases the
moisture through evaporation (and heat pick-up) into the air stream that has
the lower humidity ratio.
study on Train AIR-CONDITIONING T1 – T2
Efficiencyc = ——————— Where, Ts
are in ° kelvin. T1
Since the refrigerating machine is a reversed heat engine theoretical carnot
efficiency for a refrigerating machine is given by the following formula.
Efficiencyc = ———————

T1 – T2
Where, T1 is the condenser temperature (absolute)
T2 is the evaporator temperature (absolute)


The co-efficient of performance of a refrigerating cycle is an expression of
the cycle efficiency and is stated as the ratio of the heat absorbed in the
refrigerated space to the equivalent heat energy supplied to the compressor.

Heat absorbed from the refrigerated space C.O.P. =

——————————————————————— Equivalent heat
energy supplied to the compressor.


A measure of refrigerating machine efficiency that has been used is KW per
ton. On an actual performance test under "standard" conditions for the type of
service intended, the net output cooling rate in K. Cal / hr. is determined The
average KW input to the machine during the test is also measured. The KW
per ton ratio (KW/ton) is then calculated.
A recently popular measure of efficiency, especially for unitary conditioners
of small to medium capacity is the ratio K.Cal per hour per watt (
W). This measure is called the "Energy efficiency ratio" (E.E.R.). The
average cooling capacity of the unit is

determined by a test run under standard conditions. The average power input
to the condensing units in watts is measured. From this data the E.E.R. can be
calculated by using the following formula. cooling rate

E.E.R. =———————————
Watts input

AC airconditioned coach has to work under widely varying conditions of

ambient temperature, latitude, passenger load etc. In deciding the capacity of
the plant, certain assumptions regarding number of adverse conditions of the
working are to be made and based on these assumptions the plant capacity
required is worked out.

RDSO specification No. TRC-1-72 stipulates certain standard comfort

conditions, volume of fresh air required per passenger per minute, coefficient
of heat transfer for various parts of the coach etc.

Data and constants used and the assumptions made are,

T.D = Amb. Temp. diff.
T.D.S = Solar Temp. diff.
K = Coefficient of heat 'transfer-K cal/Hr/m2/°C
U = Coefficient of heat transfer for window due to solar heat gain.
G.D. = Grains difference.


Wall and end partitions = 0.615
Roof = 0.65
Floor = 0.72
Window (Conduction) . = 1.94
'U' for window = 5.34

The internal temperature in relation to the outside temperature and relative

humidity to be maintained when operated with full compliment of'46
passengers, lighting and fan load etc.

DBT WBT RH Moisture grains

°C °C % *
Outside conditions 45 25 -82 Inside conditions 25 ~ 40 56

T.D. = 20 G.D. = 26 T.D. for end portions is always considered to be 3°C less
than T.D. for other parts of the coach, since non-airconditioned space
adjacent to the airconditioned compartments is considered to have a
temperature of 3°C less than the ambient temperature.

Solar Temp.Difference (TDS)

Side wall = 9° C Roof = 10.55°C Window = 95.55°C
Requirement of fresh air for non-smoking compartments
= 0.35m3 /passenger/ minute.
Quantity of ventilating air for 46 passengers (Q)
0.35x46 = 16.1 m3 / minute 16.1x35.3 = 568.33 Ft3 / minute(CFM) The
following are the wattages considered for various-electrical appliances. 2
Flourescent tube light - 24 W.

Eventhough the wattage of the tube is 20 W, the choke also consumes energy.
Hence, 1.2 times the wattage i.e. 1+2 x 20 = 24W has been considered for the
purpose of heat load calculations.

Incandescent lamps = 15W

Carriage Fan = 29W
Heat transfer from equipments and fans = 2545 BTU/HP/Hr Heat transfer
from fluorescent lights and = 3.4 BTU/Watt/Hr. incandescent lamps
Sensible heat per passenger = 205 BTU/Hr. (51.6 K.Cal/Hr)
Latent heat per passenger = 195 BTU/Hr (49.12K.CaI/Hr)
1 Ton of refrigeration = 12000 BTU/Hr. (3024 K.Cal/Hr)
1 k-calorie = 3.97 BTU/Hr.
Length of AC portion (A) = 15.2 M
Width of roof (B) = 3.245 M Width of floor (C) = 3.04 M Height of A.C.
portion (D) = 2.03 M
Area of side wall (A x D) = 30.856 M2 Area of roof (A x B) = 49.324 M2
Area of floor (A x C) = 46.208 M2

Area of end partitions = 6.17 M2 Height of window = 0.56 M

Width of window = 0.61 M

Area of window 0.56 X 0.61 = 0.3416 M2 No. of windows per side wall = 16
Total area of windows per side wall = 0.56x0.61x16=5.466M2
Area of side wall excluding windows = 30.856 - 5.466 = 25.2 39M .


COMPARTMENT Fluorescent lights 2' long = 30 Nos.
Incandescent lamps = 16 Nos.
Fans = 8 Nos.
Blower Fan motors (0.65 HP) = 2 Nos.

1. Heat gain due to conduction = AxKxTDX3.97 BTU/Hr.

Side wall : 50.78 x 0.615 x 20 x 3.97 = 2479.64 BTU/Hr. (624.59 K.Cal/Hr.)
Roof : 49.324 x 0.65 x 20x3.97 = 2545.61 BTU/Hr. (641.21 K.Cal/Hr.) Floor
: 46.208 x 0.72 x 20x3.97 = 2641.62 BTU/Hr. (665.4 K.Cal/Hr.) End
partition : 2 x 6.17 x O.615 x (20– 3) 1 7x 3.97 = 512.288 BTU/Hr. Window :
5.466 x 2 x 1.94x20 x 3.97 = 1683.8 BTU/Hr.
Total : 2479.64 + 2545.61 + 2641.62 + 512.288 + 1683.8 = 9862.954
BTU/Hr. …(I)

2. Solar Heat Gain : A x K x TDS x 3.97

Side wall : 25.39 x 0.615 x 9 x 3.97 = 557.92 BTU/Hr. (140.53 K.Cal/Hr.)
Roof : 49.324 x 065 x 10.55 x 3.97 = 1342.81 BTU/Hr (338.24 K.Cal/Hr)
Window : 5.466 x 5.34 x 95.55 x 3.97 = 11071.34 BTU/Hr. (2788.75
K.Cal/Hr) Total : 557.92 + 1342.81 + 11071.34 = 12972.069 BTU/HR …(II)

3 Heat gain due to passengers (BTU/Hr.)

S.H. = 205 x No. of passengers.
L.H. = 195 x No. of passengers.
S.H + L.H = 400 X No. of passengers. = 400 x 46 = 18400 BTU/Hr. …(III) =
(4634.76 K.Cal/Hr)
4. Heat gain due to ventilation (BTU/Hr.) =
S.H. = 1.08 x Q x TD x 9/5 = 1.08 x 568.33 x 20 x 9/5 = 22096.67 BTU/Hr.
= (5565.91 K.Cal./Hr)
L.H. = 0.68 x Q x Gd = 0.68 x 568.33 x 26 = 10048.07 = (2531 K.Cal./Hr)
Total = 22096.67 + 10048.07 = 32144.7 BTU/Hr … (IV) = (8096.91
5. Heat gain due to elect, appliances = Wattagex3.4 BTU/Hr. or, H.P. x 3600
BTU/Hr. Flouroscent Light 20W = (20 x 1.2) W. = 1.2 x 20 x 3.40 x 30 =
2448 BTU/Hr. = (616.62 K.Cal./Hr)

Incandescent lamps = 15 x 16 x 3.40 = 816 BTU/Hr. = (205.54 K.Cal/Hr)

Fan = 29W x 8 x 3.4 = 788.8 BTU/Hr. = (198.69 K.Cal./Hr)
Blower fan = 0.65HP x 2 x 2545 = 3308.5 BTU/Hr = 833.37 K.Cal./Hr
Total = 2448 + 816 + 788.8 + 3308.5

= 7361.3 BTU/Hr. = 1854.22 K.Cal / Hr …(V)

Total of l + II + III + IV + V = 80741 023 BTU/Hr (20337.78 K.Cal/Hr)
Heat gain due to infiltration @ 10% = 8074.1 BTU/Hr. = (2033.78 K.Cal./Hr)
Gross Total Heat gain = 81003 07 - 8100.3 = 88815 BTU/Hr.
= 22371.56 K.Cal./Hr 88815
Refrigeration capacity (TR) = ————— = 7.4 TR

= ————— = 7.4 TR 3024


• Evaporator Unit.
• Compressor.
• Condenser Unit.
• Gauge panel.
• A/C control panel.
• Air Duct.
• Refrigerant piping & joints.
• Wiring.
Evaporator Unit
The evaporator unit consists of a thermostatic expansion valve, a heat
exchanger, a resistance heating unit and centrifugal blower driven by a motor
The thermostatic expansion valve controls quantity of high pressure liquid
refrigerant and allow to expand to a lower pressure corresponding to the load
demand The expanded refrigerant passes through the distributor into the heat
exchanger consisting of finned copper tubes. The return air from the air
conditioned compartment (75 %) is mixed with fresh air (25%) and this
mixture is drawn/blown through the heat exchanger, where heat in the air is
transferred to the cool refrigerant causing cooling of the air and the
evaporation of the refrigerant inside the tubes. The cooled air is led through
the ducting to the various compartments and diffused by means of air
diffusers Filters are provided in the fresh air and return air path to eliminate
dust. When the outside ambient temperature is very low, heater is switched
on according to the setting of the thermostats.

The refrigerant vapour drawn from the evaporator is compressed by means of
a multi cylinder reciprocating compressor and compressed to a pressure
ranging from 10 to 15 Kg/Cm2 according to the load demand. The work done
due to compressor raises the temperature of the refrigerant vapour.

The condenser serves the function of extracting the heat absorbed by the

vapour in the evaporator and the heat absorbed during the compression
process. The condenser consists of a heat exchanger, which is forced-air-
cooled by means of two or three axial flow impeller fans. The refrigerant
vapour is liquified when ambient cool air is passed through the heat
exchanger. The refrigerant liquid leaving the condenser is led into the liquid
receiver from where it proceeds to the expansion valve on the evaporator.
The liquid receiver is a cylindrical container which contains a reserve of the
refrigerant liquid. A dehydrator and filter are also provided to ensure that the
refrigerant is free from moisture and dust particles.

Gauge panel
Gauge panel consists of pressure gauges (HP, LP, and OP) and pressure
cutouts to

protect the compressor against, (i) High pressure, (ii) Low pressure and (in)
low oil pressure.

High pressure cutout

It is a safety device against build up of excessive delivery pressures and
protects the compressor and piping system from damage. It is a pressure
operated switch which switches off the compressor drive motor when the
pressure exceeds a preset value ( 17.6 Kg/Cm2). The plant can not be
restarted unless the cutout is reset manually.

Low pressure cutout It is also a pressure operated switch similar to the H.P.
cutout switch, but it shuts down

the compressor if the suction pressure drops down below 0.7 Kg/Cm2. It
protects the system against unduly low evaporator temperatures and
formation of frost on the evaporator. No manual reset is provided on this and
therefore the compressor starts automatically if the suction pressure rises
above the preset value.

Low oil pressure cutout

It ensures adequate lubrication of compressor to avoid piston seizure due to
less lubricating oil or failure of oil pump. This cutout is set at 2.5 Kg/Cm2.

A/C control panel

The control of the airconditioning system is achieved by means of air
conditioning control panel. The design of the various elements in the control
panel takes into account the system safety requirements. The safety
requirements for the operation of the A/C system are listed as under:
a. The working of blower fan of the evaporator and the blower fan of the
condenser have to be ensured before the compressor starts functioning.
b. Suitable protection to ensure adequate lubrication of compressor to avoid
piston seizure.
c. The excessive pressure on the discharge side of the compressor (High Head
Pressure) should be avoided.
d. The suction pressure should not be lower than 0.7 Kg/Cm to prevent
frosting of the evaporator.
e. The compressor motor has to be soft started to limit the sudden in rush of
starting current.
f A suitable interlock has to be provided to ensure that heater is not on, when
the compressor is working.

g A low voltage protection for compressor motor to ensure that voltage does
not go below 100 volts in order to avoid undue drain on battery.

h. The blow er fan has to come 'ON’ before the heater comes 'ON'. Over load
protection and short circuit protection for all electrical circuits. The A/C
control panel incorporates all the above safety requirements.

Air duct
The air conditioning system includes three air ducts as follows: a. Fresh
(Inlet) air duct.
b. Main air duct.
c. Return air duct.
Actually there is no separate return air duct provided in A/C coaches. In the
case of

a.c. two tier coach and A.C. chair car, the return air is drawn through the
return air filters directly from the nearest compartment In 1st class A.C.
coach, the corridor acts as return air duct and the return air is drawn through
return air filters located at the corridor ceiling near the first compartment.

Fresh (Inlet) air duct

This is provided at the rate of two per AC plant. It is mounted on the side
wall just below the roof evaporator unit. There is an opening in the side wall
with louver hinge door arrangement and with the provision to house a fresh
air filter. The fresh (inlet) air duct has been designed with damper valve to
control the quantity of fresh air to be drawn into the compartment. This
arrangement has been standardised for all types of air conditioned coaches

Main air duct

The conditioned air from the evaporator unit is blown into the main air duct
by means of
two centrifugal blower fans driven by a motor with double extended shaft,
The air is distributed to each compartment in the case of 2 tier sleeper coach
and full AC first class coach through adjustable diffusers. In the case of a c
chair cars, the conditioned air from the main air duct is distributed along the
hall through longitudinal apertures suitably set at factory. The main air duct
has been provided with central diagonal partition making it two independent
taper ducts so that each compartment is influenced by the diffused air of both
plants. Further air distribution to the entire compartment is maintained at
constant velocity. The cross section of the main air duct has been designed in
such a way that air velocity inside the duct shall not be higher than 350
metre/min. in order to reduce turbulence and noise due to air motion in the
duct. For the same reason the main air duct has been connected to evaporator
outlet by means of an intermediate transition duct made of fire resistant
canvas to prevent transmission of noise produced by the blower unit- The
aperture of air diffuser has been designed to deliver the required quantity of
air into the compartment at a velocity not greater than 250M/min. This
diffuser is provided with a knob to deflect the air to the required angle. By
the above arrangement the air velocity inside the compartment obtained is
between 6M/min. to 12M/min. (0.1 M/sec. to 0.2M/sec.) at the face level of
the passenger.

Refrigerant piping and joints

The refrigerant piping consists of the suction line (from the evaporator out let
to compressor inlet) discharge line (from compressor outlet to condenser
inlet) and liquid

line (from the liquid receiver to the inlet side of expansion valve),
connections to the gauge panel from the compressor delivery side (high
pressure side), low pressure side and from the compressor crank case. The
lubricating oil connections are also part of the piping system Only copper
pipes to specification BS:2017-63, C-106 Sec - 3 are used. Main pipelines are
jointed with couplers or elbows by means of silver brazing where as joints to
various components like gauges pressure cutouts, hand shut off valves,
expansion valve, strainer etc. are connected by means of flare joints to
facilitate easy removal of the above elements for replacement and inspection.

All wiring has been done by means of multistranded PVC insulated copper
cables to

specification. ICF/Elect./857. All cables have been laid on steel

trough/conduits for easy maintenance and prevent fire hazards. Crimped type
of connections have been adopted throughout. All the terminal boards are of
fire retardant FRP material, Reliability of wiring has been made very high.

Temperature setting

The temperature inside the airconditioned compartment is controlled by

mercury in glass thermostats with different settings as mentioned below.
Operation of cooling or heating takes place in accordance with ambient

The temperature control thermostats are fitted in the return air passage. Two
types of thermostats are used, one for controlling the cooling and the other
for controlling the heating. Both these thermostats are alike, each consisting
of a sealed glass tube

containing a column of mercury. Presently there are two settings for cooling
at 25 C and 23OC and for heating at 21OC and 19OC respectively. The
mercury thermostats are being replaced by electronic thermostat with one
setting each for cooling at 24OC and for heating at 20OC.

The roof-mounted AC equipment for AC coaches of Indian Railways would
provide more comfortable journey and also help attach more coaches in the
superfast trains like

Rajdhani Expresses. These roof-mounted AC units of new design are more

efficient and lightweight and are manufactured indigenously.

Two high capacity packaged air-conditioning units of minimum of 7.0 TR of

cooling in 45°C ambient i.e. 14.0 TR for one coach, will replace the present
underframe open type AC system of capacity 5.2 TR each (Total 10.4 TR) for
each coach. Two packaged units are used in one coach each mounted above
the toilets on both ends supplying conditioned air into a tapered duct to serve
the coach end to end. The units (two in each coach) are fitted with 4
compressors but operate under normal with 3 compressors and the 4th one
acts as standby and works only during peak days of the summer.
Compressors are started in sequence with time delay to reduce the peak
demand of electricity during start ups. These units are thus more energy
efficient and are more reliable than the existing open units and would be
better in operation.
The high capacity AC units of roof mounted type is a fore runner to futuristic
super fast trains. This units can work on E.O.G. systems in addition to S.G.
systems . The roof mounted unit needs approximately 11.5 KW, 20 ampere at
normal condition. Modular type AC units for rail coaches is a major
breakthrough in rail-coach technology. A modular type roof-mounted
packaged AC unit for rail coaches, the first of its kind brings India abreast
with the latest in the state of the art of air-conditioning technology prevalent
the World over. The units are extremely energy efficient and reliable. They
use two hermetically sealed compressors of half capacity in each packaged
unit. These compressors are specially developed for rolling stock application
under varying dynamic conditions after rigorous testing and trials before
being used in the AC units.

The AC coaches running on Indian Railways can be broadly divided into two

• Self generating (S.G.) coaches.

• End-On-Generation (EOG) coaches.

Self-Generating Coaches
Power supply demand for AC equipments is met from axle driven transom-
mounted brushless alternator which is rated for 110 V DC supply. At low
speeds and during halts the power requirement is met from 110 V lead acid
battery housed in battery boxes mounted on the underframe of the coach.

End-On-Generation Coaches
AC coaches draw power from the diesel-generating sets carried in coaches
put in the front and rear of the rake, functioning at 415/750 V, 3 phase, 50 Hz
AC supply. The power is distributed to entire rake and thus to each coach
through two sets of 3 phase 415/750 V feeders. Each coach is provided with
control, distribution and feeder changeover arrangement on 415/750 V
control panel. The AC equipments operate at 415 V, 3 phase, 50 Hz AC
The airconditioning system in both types (SG or EOG) of Indian Railways
stipulates use of open type compressor, condenser, liquid receiver with
dehydrator separately mounted on the underframe of the coach. The
evaporator comprising cooling coils, heater elements and blower fans with
motor is mounted between coach roof and false ceiling. The conditioned air is
blown through the central duct and distributed inside the coach through
adjustable grills diffusers.

Draw-backs of conventional AC system

The existing system using open type compressor, poses problems such as
refrigerant leakage from pipes and their joints heavy weight, large space
occupation, more maintenance problems, consuming more power and thus
less energy efficient.


• Light in weight, saves fuel for hauling. Total weight of both units is 900 Kg
as compared to 2700 Kg for conventional AC unit. Saves in fuel
consumption. In the Rajdhani express e.g. the total weight reduction in 20
coaches (1.8 x 20 = 36 MT) equals the weight of one coach. Therefore, one
additional coach can be hauled.
• Keeping in view the low price and light weight, the unit pays for itself in
one year operation.
• Low cost of installation at the coach building factory since the system is
factory made, assembled, gas charged and tested for performance prior to
• The installation requires simply to lower the unit in the false ceiling above
the toilets on both ends of the coach and connection of wiring, drain pipe and
flexible duct.

• In case of failure, replacement of the unit with new unit can be done in less
than two hours by simply lifting the defective unit by a crane and lowering
the new one in place.
• The A.C unit remains outside the partition wall and therefore, no chance of
water leakage on passengers
• Fresh air is taken from the roof through condenser area which gives a
relatively clean air free of the smells of toilets which are common in
conventional A.C. coaches.
• Hermetically sealed system with no fittings or openings, thus it presents
little potential of gas leakages and break-downs.
• The unit is almost maintenance free since it uses 3ph AC motors which
have no commutators or brushes to wear out.
• Uses more environment friendly refrigerant R-22 and very small quantity
less than 3 Kg.
• Mounted on the roof, thus dirt or dust collection in condensers is negligible
and therefore, requires practically no maintenance or water spraying on
condenser coils.
• No chance of damage due to flash floods during the monsoons.
• No chance of damage due to cattle run.
• Energy efficient - uses less electricity, saves fuel for generation.
• Humidity control in monsoons possible through use of micro processor -
based control system. It will also provide optimum use of all equipments and
even wear to compressors through rotation of operation.




3. No. Description

Roof mounted A.C. Unit

Conventional A.C. Unit

Installation time
5. Refrigerant

System design
6. Ref. Leak

900 Kg
4 hrs. 2700 Kg 4 days

Less than 3.0 Kg
R-134 A
15 – 20 Kg.

7. Maintenance
8, Dust collection

9 Damage due to cattle run 10. Damage due to flash floods

11. Performance Little Little Nil

Heavy Heavy Heavy

Nil Heavy
12. Technology Latest
13. Water drop on passengers 14. Fresh air
15. Capacity control
16. Down time for repair

Nil Deteriorates quickly due to dust collection under coach

Old and
Some times

From roof (Does not take toilet smell)

25% to 100% (4

4 Hrs-(Replace unit)
From sides
(Takes toilet

50% to 100% (2

Very long
repairs to be made on coach itself)


The A/C unit shall be capable of maintaining inside conditions as under :
DBT WBT RH (ºC) (ºC) (ºC)
Outside (Dry Summer) 45 25–
Outside (Wet Summer) 40 28–

Inside (Dry & Wet Summer) 24 40 Each coach shall be provided with two
roof mounted A/C units each with a minimum cooling capacity 20,000
K.Cal/hr (6.6TR). The roof mounted A/C package unit shall generally
confirm to RDSO specn. No.ELPS/SPEC/AC/01.

Refrigerant Compressor

Hermetic or semi-hermetic refrigerant compressors working with Freon 22

(monochloro difluoro methane) are provided in the A/C package unit. The
compressor motor is rated for 415V, 3Ph, 50 HZ, AC Power Supply.

Make & Model – Kirloskar. Hermetically Sealed.

Power Consumption– 5. 25KW +/-20% depending upon Ambient temp.
Current (Amps.) – 8.25 +/- 25% at 415V, 3Ph,50HZ,AC Power Factor - 0.8
C.F.M. – 12.033
Volume– 117.65 CC/Rev. Refrigerant Condenser
Refrigerant Condenser
Condenser Coil– Fin-on-Tube
Face Area– O.67 M2 x 2
Material of tube– Copper
Tube O.D. – 9.62 mm Fin material – Aluminium
Fin Thickness – 0 19 mm
No. of Fins/cm – 4.3 +/- 1
Refrigerant – R22,Less than 3.0Kg each circuit
Condenser Fan– Propeller type (2 Nos)
Diameter – 533.4 mm (21 x 2)
Air Flow (CFM) – 5000 min. x 2
Pressure (External Static) – Open to atmosphere
Speed (RPM) – 1400 +/- 10% Motor size– 1 H.P x 2 Current consumption
(Amps)– 1.8 +/- 10%x2 at 415V, 3 Ph, 50 HZ, AC
Power Factor – 0.7 The condenser motor shall confirm to 15:325-1970 with
IP 55 protection confirming to 15:4691-68.
Evaporator Unit – Fin-on-tube type
Face Area– 0.265 M2 x 2
Material of tube– Copper
Tube O.D. – 9.62 MM (3/811)
Fin Material – Aluminium
Fin Thickness – 0.19mm No. of fins/cm– 4.3 +/- 1
Evaporator Fan– Centrifugal type blower
Diameter – 254-279 mm (10º-11 º)
Air Flow (CFM) – 2000 (3400 cu Mtr/Hr.)
Pressure (External Static) – 20 mm. Min. water gauge
Speed (RPM) Motor size– 1400 +/- 10%
Speed (RPM) Motor size– 1.5 Hp Current consumption(A) 2.2 +/- 10% at
415V, 3ph, 50HZ, AC
Power Factor – 0.7
The evaporator blower fan motor shall generally conform to IS ; 325 with IP
44 protection as indicated in IS : 4691-68.

The AC system is designed to introduce fresh air at the rate not less than 0.35
M3/min/ person into the A.C. compartment. Keeping in view the above
requirement of fresh air, quantity of fresh air per package unit will not to be
less than 11.7 Cu.M/min.

The main duct carrying conditioned air is so designed that the air velocity
inside it does not exceed 360 m/min. The air distribution system is so
designed as to ensure that the max. air velocity at 150 mm below
duct/diffuser is 10m/min. and at 1.2 m from floor level is 15m/min

Four types of diffusers are used in the conditioned compartment for

distribution of cool .air. Type 'A' larger diffuser and type B smaller diffuser
are provided on the main duct. Type 'C' and type 'D' diffusers are provided on
the branch ducts for transverse and longitudinal berths respectively. Branch
ducts of size not less than 50 mm is brought down near the window from the
main duct on both sides. The diffusers on both the branch ducts are mounted
in the inclined position to direct cool air towards lower berths. The branch
diffuser on the longitudinal berth's side is provided with adjustable vanes to
control quantity of cool air. The diffuser on branch ducts for transverse berths
is made in two parts, each part directing cool air towards the lower most
berths of the bay. These are also provided with variable vanes.


The AC system for all type of coaches and generator cars of Indian railways
provides the following functions in all rooms used by either the train staff of
passengers, such as the passenger compartment, staff compartment, WC,
kitchen and rooms accommodating the switchgear.
• Ventilation
• Air heater
• Air cooling
• Air dehumidification
• Air filtering
The AC system for the Passenger and Generator cars consists of the
following assemblies:
• Compact air conditioning unit
• Duct system

• Exhaust air system

- Exhaust air unit
- WC/WC exhaust fan

- WC/switch cabinet exhaust fan

• Circulating air duc t system

• Fresh air screen
• Open/closed-loop control devices

• Sensors
The compact air conditioner unit has been designed for the air conditioning
of 2 tier, 3 tier & chair car for Indian Railways.

The outside air (fresh air) is sucked in via the two fresh air screens and their
air filters on the carriage side wall. It is mixed in the unit with the outside air/
recirculating air ratio can be set by means of air dampers, the positions of
which are controlled by the computer of the air conditioning system.

The dimensions of the air conditioning units have been designed to match the
car profile. Being installed in a recessed trough, it does not protrude from the
car profile. The compact air conditioning unit has two separate cooling
circuits consisting of the following components:
• two hermetic refrigeration compressors with oil heaters
• two condenser with Cu pipes and Al. Fins
• two axial fans for cooling the condensers
• two evaporators
• two twin-sucking radial fans for the supply air (driven by the motor)
• three maintenance covers
• two air inlets for circulating air
• one air outlet for supply air
• control and safety devices
• pipelines/fittings
• two mixed air filters
Operating modes

Preheating and cooling operation

The outside air dampers are closed to facilitate rapid heating up or cooling
down of the carriage.

Normal operation
In the normal operating mode, the dampers are set to ensure the envisaged
fresh air volume of 21 m3/h per person.
Emergency operation
Should the AC system fail due to a failure of the power supply, the adjusting
dampers of the circulating air duct close so that the system is operated
exclusively with outside air.

The supply air fan of the compact air conditioning unit sucks the air from the
mixing chamber across the two mixed air filters and evaporators and forces it
via the electric heater into the supply air duct of the carriage.

The condenser fans concurrently suck fresh via ventilation slots provided on
both sides to cool the compressor-condenser section.

The supply air is first carried via silencers into the thermally insulated supply
air duct, which is diagonally split in the longitudinal direction. The air is then
supplied via openings in he bottom into a compensating chamber and from
there via the perforated ceiling into the passenger compartment.

All controlling and regulating functions are performed by the digital

It is built in an EMC proof standard plug-in rack using socalled 19”

technology that is designed for plug-in cards of Eurocard form factor. This
rack contains all required electronic cards needed for the unit. This
combination of cards and wiring between the cards have been specifically
designed that have been used for many years in high quantities in various
railway HVAC equipment.

All signals are passed into this device via 2 front-side multiple cable
connectors on position X1 and X2, Where as 110V supply is located on a
separate front side connector on card A1of controller.

Software / operating modes

The control of air-conditioning system is divided into the following operating
- Test mode
- Emergency mode
- Control mode
Test mode

This mode only supports a test run that uses the dedicated service program
PRUEFWIN (in case of Sidwal) and a PC. The PC is connected to a/c
computer via the serial port. There is one, command “H”, for “test mode”.
The software will switch off all outputs and enter testing mode for duration of
2 hours. During this time any output may be manually. Set or reset with the
help of ‘Z’ command, To escape prematurely from testing mode the HVCV
controller must be reset by powering off and on the 110V supply. Then the
user can test the individual operating functions of the system.

Parts of Train HVAC

Compress motor
Condenser motor and fan
Liquid receiver
Dehydrator -cum strainer
Antivibration mounting
Flexible connection (discharge)
Flexible connection (discharge)
Evaporator (Blow through Type)
Heater,Blower fan,Blower Motor
Expansion valve
Fresh air duct
Fresh air filter
Return air filter
Adjustable diffuser
Perforrated diffusers
Charging valves Hard shut off valves
Service valves
Liquid Line-(15.9mm OD)
Discharge Line(28.6mm OD)

Evaporator,Blower,Condenser coils

Internal view of Trail with Supply ,Return Grilles.
Case StudyPassenger Cars Air-Conditioning

Air conditioning facilitates the removal of heat from inside the vehicle. The
principle applied is that heat is removed by conduction and convection. An
evaporator which is cold absorbs the heat from the air that is passed through
it and then cold air is forced out through the vents inside the car by the
blower motor. This is done by pressurizing refrigerant (134a) with a
compressor and then releasing refrigerant (134a) inside the air conditioner
Mostly Scroll or Rotary compressor used in the Automotive
HVAC.Compressor motor is attached to the Engine drive.
on the BX design for HVAC Systems
Sedan compressor capacity for Bus vehicles
32 kw for 12 m Vehicle.
47 kw for 14 m Vehicle.
All ways the AC Compressor is back side of the vehicle coupled with engine
fly wheel. Condenser is on the top
1967 Ashrae Hand Book for Velocity of Air for Different application product
1997 Ashrae Hand Book Fudementals ( Occupants).
1993 Ashrae Hand Book Fudementals-Shading coefficient,Heat gain from
1989 -Ashrae Hand Book Fundementals CLTD,Corrected Latitude
month,SGHF,CLF,Wall values,SCL.
SMACNA HVAC Systems Duct Design Manual – 1981.
1979 - Ashrae Hand Book Fundementals Load Calculation manual. (Carrier
Corporation) Charts.

Thanks to All for suggestions.