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Types and Components of Computer Systems


Input & Output Devices


Storage Devices & Media


Networks & the Effects of Using them


The Effects of Using ICT


ICT Applications


System Life Cycle


Safety & Security

51 Audience



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54 File Management

54 Images

54 Layout

54 Styles

54 Proofing

55 Document Production

55 Data Manipulation

55 Data Analysis

56 Website Authoring

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1. TYPES AND COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER 1.2 The Main Components of Computer
1.1 Hardware & Software • Processing done by central processing unit
Hardware • Three main components:
• Tangible physical components of a computer system o Control unit - coordinates input and output devices
• You can feel it or touch it and carries out program instructions
• Internal Hardware Devices: o Arithmetic and Logical Unit (ALU) - performs
o Processor calculations and logical comparison: A < B?
o Motherboard o Immediate access store (IAS) - holds data and program
o RAM & ROM instruction in current use
o Video & Sound Cards • Microprocessor:
o Internal Hard Disk Drives o Used instead of CPU
• External Hardware Devices: o Single integrated circuit
o Monitor Internal/Main Memory
o Keyboard • Stores all data: application software, operating system,
o Mouse data files
o Printer • Consists of ROM and RAM
o External Storage Devices • Both RAM and ROM are integrated chips
Software • RAM:
• Programs that control computer systems o Random access memory (RAM) is an internal chip
• Set of instructions that make computer do something where data is stored temporarily
• You cannot physically touch software o Memory can be written to and read from
• Relates to ideas & instructions for using physical objects o RAM > ROM (usually; except washing machines)
Two types of software: o Stores anything that needs to be changed
• Application software: o All program and data being used are on RAM
o Programs that allow the user to do specific task o Contents lost when computer is turned off
o Design to carry out tasks o Referred to as volatile memory
o Can be general purpose software or custom-made • ROM:
software (specialist software) o Read only memory (ROM) is memory used to store
o E.g. Spread sheets, databases, word processing permanent information
• System Software: o Used to contain configuration data for a computer etc.
o Programs that allow the hardware to run properly o Chips cannot be altered, only read from
o Control computer's hardware and application program o Data not lost when computer is turned off
o Communicate with user o Referred to as non-volatile memory
o E.g. Operating system, device drivers, compilers • BIOS:
o ROM contains boot file, referred to as BIOS (basic
input/output system)
o Tells computers what to do when it first starts
o Does hardware check when computer is turned on
o Then it loads operating system into RAM
o BIOS stores date, time and system configuration

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Input & Output Devices • Advantages
• Input devices: o Knowing the correct commands, this can be much
o Purpose is to provide data for processing faster than any other interface type
o Data is raw facts which alone have no meaning o Uses much less RAM than any other interface type
o Examples: keyboard, mouse o Low resolution, cheap monitors can be used
• Output devices: o CLI does not require Windows to run
o Displays result of processing • Disadvantages
o Information is processed data which has been given o Can be confusing
meaning o Commands must be typed precisely, if there is a
o Examples: monitor, printer spelling error the command will fail
o If you mistype an instruction, it is often necessary to
Secondary/Backing Storage start all over again
• Stores data/information & programs not being used at o Large number of commands need to be learned
current time GUI - Graphical User Interface
• Backing store device = reader or recorder • Uses graphics to stand for the complicated actions
o Example: Hard disk drive • Uses icons
• Backing store media = hardware containing data • Uses a mouse to selector the icons
o Example: Hard disk • Screen divided into windows allows different things on
Basic Computer Model each
• WIMP - Windows Icons Menus Pointers
• Advantages
o Easy to use because requires little IT knowledge
o Easy to explore and find your way around the system
o Do not have to learn complicated commands
o Exchange data between different software
o Good help facilities provided with GUIs
• Disadvantages
1.3 Operating Systems o Larger amount of hard disk space than other interfaces
• Enables users to communicate with computer systems o Significantly more memory (RAM) to run than other
• Controls operation of input, output & backing storage interface type
• Supervises loading, running & storage of application o GUI use more processing power than other types of
program interfaces
• Deals with error in application programs o GUI can be slow for experienced programmers to use,
• Maintains security of whole computer system they find CLI much faster
• Maintains a computer log
• Two main types of interfaces: CLI & GUI 1.4 Types of Computers
CLI - Command Line Interface Desktop/Personal Computers
• Types commands to tell the computer what to do • Refers to general purpose computers
o The user must know all the commands • PC refers to IBM compatible computers, distinguishing
o Must not make typing errors them from the Macs
• Used by technicians • Made up of separate monitor, keyboard, mouse and
• Can access everything on the computer system processing unit
• GUI users can only access places they have icons for • Advantages
o Spare parts standardized results in low costs
o Tend to have better specifications
o Large casing allows good dissipation of heat build up

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• Disadvantages Smartphone
o Not portable since they are made up of separate • Modern phones that can perform similar tasks to all the
components above
o Wiring clutters up desk space • Main use of smartphones is social media & day-to-day
o Necessary to copy files as they aren't portable planning
Laptop/Notebook Computers • Use varies from person to person
• Refers to computers where monitor, keyboard, pointing • Advantages:
device and processor together in a single unit o Smallest lightest most portable
• Extremely portable systems o Integrated/virtual keyboard
o Low weight o Often the least expensive device
o Low power consumption o More practical for day-to-day use
o Processor doesn't generate too much heat • Disadvantages:
• Advantages o Small screen may be difficult to use
o Portable because monitor, pointing device, keyboard, o Not as powerful as other devices
processor & backing store units are together in one box o Often has the lowest battery life
o No trailing wires o Small size makes it easy to steal/lose
o Full advantage of Wi-Fi
o Can link into any multimedia system 1.5 Impact of Emerging Technologies
• Disadvantages • This is technology that is being newly developed
o Easy to steal • These can have several impacts on our society
o Limited battery; need to carry charger Artificial Intelligence (AI)
o Keyboard and pointing device awkward to use • Technology that focuses on creating a computer system
o Heat dissipation is difficult due to laptop structure that can closely mimic or simulate human intelligence
Tablet Computer • AI can be used to:
• These are small hand-held devices that can perform o Enhance video games and computer tactics
many functions that PCs & laptops do o Help decision making steps in expert systems
• Often use touch screens to operate o Make robots to imitate human behaviour
• On-screen virtual keyboard replaces physical keyboard o Understand different human languages
• Often used by graphic designers to digitalize their • Impact on everyday life:
content with a stylus pen o Can be used to accurately predict hazardous weather
• Can be used like a PC and/or a Smartphone conditions and signal warnings automatically
• Advantages: o Take over menial tasks for humans; increasing our
o Small light & portable leisure time
o Built in cameras for photos & videos o Can be used for safer automated travel; cars that can
o Touchscreen can be used with a stylus pen drive and park by themselves
o Long battery life o Increases home safety by being able to tell the
• Disadvantages: difference between owner & intruder; call authorities
o Less storage spaces automatically
o Lacks power of laptop/PC o Improved medical care as decision making skills and
o Digital keyboard can be difficult to use precision can be enhanced
o Touchscreen may be difficult to use for detailed work

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Biometrics • Impacts on everyday life:
• A part of a person’s body is used to identify that o Increased personal time since robots can take over
individual domestic chores
• Can be: o Increased manufacturing efficiency since robots are
o Fingerprints much faster and less expensive than human labour
o Retina o Unemployment as robots replace humans in
o Iris autonomous jobs
o Face o Safer working environments since robots can perform
o Voice tasks that are too dangerous for humans
• These are all unique to everyone thus can be used as an Quantum Cryptography
authentication technique • Technology that allows messages and data to be sent
• Must be added initially to a system to use as with complete privacy; basically, advanced encryption
identification • Older encryption is based on mathematics, but this new
• Impacts on everyday life: tech uses physics
o Better security at the airport since most use at least • Makes it much more complex to decrypt
one form of biometric check if not more • Impacts on everyday life:
o Increased security in certain places as only authorized o Completely secure voting ensuring that votes cannot
personnel can gain entry be tampered with or changed
o Reduced vehicle theft since newer car doors come o Completely secure communication eliminating the risk
with a fingerprint lock on the door handle of being read/heard by the wrong eyes/ears
o More secure mobile devices as most now have some o Completely secure bank transactions so money goes
sort of biometrics integrated into them exactly where it is intended
Vision Enhancement o Completely secure personal information preventing
• LVES: low vision enhancement systems: video projected hackers access to intrusive details about a person
inside a headset in front of the user’s eyes. Brings the Computer Assisted Translation (CAT)
objects closer for the viewer. • When human translators use computer software to help
• NVE: Night vision enhancement: amplifies visible and in the translation process
infrared light. Light passed through image intensifier • Can reduce translation time
tube where light is converted to electrons, then • May not be 100% accurate
amplified (increase in no.) and then light up screen with • Common CAT tools:
phosphor dust. o Spell checkers
Robotics o Translation memory software
• Programmed machinery widely used to do physically o Language search-engine software
demanding tasks • Impacts on everyday life:
• Can be automated or manually operated o More accurate documents since most software can
• Used to perform several tasks: automatically detect errors
o Dangerous jobs such as bomb disposal o More multilingual society since anyone with an
o Exploring extreme environments such as volcanoes internet connection can now essentially learn multiple
o Repetitive manufacturing jobs such as welding languages using translators
o Moving heavy objects such as large engines o Quicker translations
3D & Holographic Imaging
• Technology that makes images appear to be 3-
dimensional by adding a layer of depth
• Holograms use 2 regular 2D images and manipulate
them to produce a 3-dimensional image

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• Different laser beams are used to record the 2D images
onto a single photographic plate 2. INPUT & OUTPUT DEVICES
• This creates an illusion of one 3D images
• Impact on everyday life: 2.1 Input Devices & their Uses
o Improved security since majority of credit/ID cards & Keyboards
bank notes use holograms to prevent forgery • QWERTY- layout
o Better movie experiences since 3D viewing can provide • Ergonomic- reduces
a more immersive experience for the audience health related problems
o Greater data storage since holographic layers can • Uses
potentially decrease the thickness of disc storage o Keyboards are used
Virtual Reality (VR) to input data into application software
• When computers create an artificial environment that o Also used to for typing commands to the computer
users can virtually interact with (CTRL + P)
• Uses: • Advantages
o Allow architects to walk around a virtual version of o Enables fast entry of new text into a document
their design o Well-tried technology & well-known method of entry
o Training soldiers for combat by allowing them to fight o Most people find them easy to use
against virtual enemies o Easy to do verification check as data is entered, as it
o Training surgeons by allowing them to operate on appears on the screen simultaneously
virtual patients • Disadvantages
o Playing games and enhance the level of immersion o Users with limited arm/wrist use can find keyboards
• General VR equipment: hard to use
o Eye goggles that produce 3D images to develop the o Entering data is slow when compared to direct data
artificial environment entry (e.g. Optical mark recognition)
o Special gloves or controllers to perform precise actions o They use up desk space as they are quite large
inside the simulation Numeric Keypads
o Headphones to control what is heard in the virtual • A numeric keypad is used to
world enter numbers only
o Powerful computer to run the entire VR system in real • Although some have function
time key to allow input of alphabetical
• Impacts on everyday life: characters
o Improved medical surgeons/soldiers • Uses
o Stronger buildings o Used in Automatic teller machines (ATMs), where
o Treatment of phobias as certain situations can be customers can key in their personal identification
treated using simulations number (PIN), or an amount of money
o More realistic education as students can learn in a o Used to key in phone numbers into telephones
more interactive environment o Electronic point of sale (EPOS) terminals have numeric
keypads in case the barcode reader fails
o Used in Chip and PIN devices to key in PIN, or amount
of money
o Used to enable fast entry of numeric data into a
spread sheet
• Advantages
o Numeric keypads are faster than standard keyboards
for entry of numeric data
o Since many are small devices (e.g. mobile phones),
they are easy to carry around
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• Disadvantages • Advantages
o Can be difficult to use due to the very small keys o Faster to select an option by a touchpad than a
o Difficult to use for entering text keyboard
o Sometimes the order of numbers isn’t very intuitive o Enables rapid navigation through applications and the
Mouse internet
• An example of a pointing device o Since the touchpad is integrated into laptop computer,
• The ball underneath the mouse is used to detect there is no separate mouse, aiding portability
movement o They can be used when no flat surfaces are available
• The left button is for selecting by double on it and the • Disadvantage
right is to bring drop-down menus o People with limited hand/wrist movement can find
• There is usually a scroll button which speeds up the touchpads hard to use
process of moving through a document o It can be more difficult to control the pointer when
• Uses compared to a mouse
o Used for opening, closing and minimising software o They are more difficult when doing operations such as
o Used for grouping, moving and deleting files ‘drag and drop’
o Useful when editing images (e.g. controlling the size Tracker Ball
and position of the image) • Tracker ball is like a mouse
o Used for controlling the position of a pointer on the except that it has a ball on the
screen to allow: top of the device
▪ Selection from a menu • Users control the pointer on the
▪ Selecting an icon screen by rotating the ball
▪ Scrolling up/down and right/left • Uses
• Advantages o Have the same pointing/cursor control capability as a
o Faster to select an option by a mouse than a keyboard mouse
o Enables rapid navigation through applications and the o Used in applications where the user has a disability
internet (RSI)
o Mice are small and don’t take much area o Used in a control room environment, where it is faster
• Disadvantages than a mouse to navigate through process screens and
o People with restricted hand/wrist movement can find more robust than a mouse
it hard to operate a mouse • Advantages
o Easily damaged and can easily be clogged up with dirt o Tracker balls don’t need the same fine control as a
o They are hard to use if there is no flat surface available mouse
Touchpad o People with limited hand/wrist movement find easier
• Touchpads are used in many laptop computers as a to use than a mouse
pointing device o The pointer can be positioned more accurately on the
• The pointer is controlled by the user moving their finger screen than with a mouse
on the touchpad o They take less desk space than mice since they are
• Uses stationary
o Used for opening, closing and minimising software • Disadvantages
o Used for grouping, moving and deleting files o Tracker balls are not supplied with the computer as
o Useful when editing images (e.g. controlling the size standard, so they are more expensive
and position of the image) o User may need training since they are not standard
o Used for controlling the position of a pointer on the equipment
screen to allow:
▪ Selection from a menu
▪ Selecting an icon

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Remote Control • Use
• A remote control is used to control the operation of o Used for service tills e.g. petrol stations
other devices remotely by using infra-red signals o Used where selections are made on a screen e.g.
• Uses ATMs, public information systems, airports and railway
o In home entertainment devices such as Televisions, stations
DVD player/recorder and satellite system o Used in PDA’s
o Used to control multimedia systems o Used in Interactive white boards
o Used in industrial applications to remotely control o Used in computer based training (CBT)
processes, stop and start machinery • Advantages
• Advantages o Enable faster entry of options than a keyboard/mouse
o Enable devices to be operated from any distance, ▪ Very easy to choose options
which is useful for people with disabilities ▪ User friendly method for inputting data
o Some chemical processes are hazardous, so it is safer ▪ They are tamperproof, preventing people from
to operate equipment from a distance keying in information (which could corrupt the
• Disadvantages system)
o People with limited hand/wrist movement can find • Disadvantages
them hard to use o There is a limited number of options available
o The signal between the control and the device can be o Using touchscreens often can lead to health problems
easily blocked e.g. (straining of arm muscles and RSI)
Joystick o The screen can get very dirty with constant touching
• By gripping the stick, a pointer Scanners
on the screen can be controlled • Used to input information on hardcopy e.g. text
• Buttons are used to make document
selections • Uses
• Uses o Used to scan in documents and convert them into a
o Video/computer games are format for use in various software packages
often controlled by joysticks o Old and valuable documents and books can be
o They are used in simulators to mimic actual controls scanned, protecting the original copies from damage
• Advantages o Non-digital photographs can be scanned for storing on
o Easier to navigate round a screen compared to a a computer
keyboard • Advantages
o Control is in three dimensions o Images can be stored for editing later
• Disadvantages o Scanners are much faster and more accurate than
o More difficult to control the on-screen pointer with a typing in documents again
joystick than with other devices such as mice o It is possible to recover damaged documents and
Touch Screen photographs by scanning them and then using
• User can choose an option by simply touching a appropriate software to produce an acceptable copy
button/icon on the screen • Disadvantages
• The selection is automatically made without the need for o The quality can be limited depending on how good the
any pointing device scanner resolution is

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Digital Cameras • Advantages
• Photographs are stored in memory Faster to read in text than to type it using a keyboard
• They can be easily transferred to a computer using a USB o Possible to manipulate sound in real time using special
• Uses software
o Digital cameras can produce o If used in a voice activation system, this has the
photographs for direct transfer advantage of improving safety
to a computer or to print out • Disadvantages
o Digital cameras allow short o Sound files can use up a lot of computer memory
video clips to be produced o Voice recognition software isn’t as accurate as typing
o Photographs can be uploaded directly into application in manually
software such as word processor Sensors
o Easier to produce better quality photographs than TEMPERATURE Automatic washing machines,
with a tradition camera central heating systems,
o Easier and faster to upload photographs to a computer automatic green houses, ovens
o There is no need to develop film and print out PRESSURE Burglar alarm systems, robotics,
photographs (saves paper and no longer needs the environmental monitoring,
chemicals to produce photographs from films) Automatic washing machines
o Easy to delete an image from the memory if it’s not LIGHT Automatic doors, street lighting
satisfactory control, Burglar alarm systems,
o The memory card can store several hundred automatic greenhouses
photographs SOUND Burglar alarm systems,
• Disadvantages monitoring liquid and powder
o The camera user needs to be computer literate to use flow in pipes
the camera properly HUMIDITY/MOISTURE Automatic greenhouses,
o There is some artistry lost since clever software environmental monitoring,
corrects errors in the photographs factories where moisture levels
o The resolution is not yet as good as traditional are crucial
cameras PH Automatic greenhouse, chemical
o Images often need to be compressed to reduce the processes, environmental
amount of memory used monitoring
o It is possible to fill up computer memory very quickly • Advantages
with several photos of the same subject (to find the o Readings by sensors are more accurate than taken by
perfect snap shot) humans
Microphone o Readings are continuous, there is no break in
• Can be connected directly to a monitoring
computer o Because it is a continuous process any necessary
• Sounds can be inputted and action or warning will be initiated immediately
manipulated o The system can be automatic, removing the need for
• Uses human intervention, this is particularly important if the
o Microphones are used to input speech/sounds to be process is hazardous
used in various applications • Disadvantages
o They are used in voice recognition software- for o Faulty sensors can give spurious results
conversion of speech into text, and recognition of

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Graphic Tablet 2.2 Direct Data Entry & Associated Devices
• A graphic tablet is used with a stylus to produce Magnetic Stripe readers
freehand drawings • Used to read information on the
• Uses magnetic stripe
o Graphics tablets are used to • The stripe contains useful
produce drawings, computer information such as start and
graphics expiry date
o In countries where characters are complex e.g. japan • Uses
they are used as a form of input o Credit and debit cards have magnetic stripes that are
o They are used in computer aided design (CAD) work used by ATMS or EFTPOS (electronic funds transfer
point of sale) terminal
• Advantages o Security cards for entering building e.g. hotel rooms
o It is possible to modify drawings before they are input o Travel systems e.g. train and underground tickets
o They offer an accurate method of drawing • Advantages
• Disadvantages o Data entry is fast compared with keying in using a
o They are more expensive than other pointing devices keyboard or keypad
Video Camera o System is error free, no typing involved
• DV (digital video) camera store compressed photo o Information is secure since there is no typing and the
frames at 25 MB/s – motion jpeg. information can’t be read directly by a person
• Light turned into electronic signal through light sensitive o Can prevent access to restricted/secure areas
sensors and automatically converted to a digital file o Magnetic stripes are unaffected by oil water and
format. moisture
• Advantages: o No moving parts therefore physically robust
o Easy to edit footage in a video editing. • Disadvantages
o High quality video captured, therefore o If the magnetic stripe is damaged the data is lost
• Disadvantages: o Card needs to be in close contact with the reader
o Storage medium (Memory cards) more expensive to o Since the information is not human readable, they
buy than films. need to find a way to show the information to the
Web Cam customer (e.g. hotel room number not printed on
• Connected directly to a computer cards)
via a USB port Chip & PIN readers
• Uses • The device has a slot where
o While chatting online webcams the card is placed, and the
can be used to have chip is read
conversations • A small screen is part of the
o Used to enable video reader which gives
conferencing to take place instructions to the operator
• Advantages • Uses
o Can be left on constantly and activated when required o Chip and PIN readers are
o Allow people to keep in contact with each other used where payments are made using cards e.g. travel
without the need to travel, particularly useful for agents
disabled or elderly people
• Disadvantages
o Webcams have limited features and the picture is
often of poor quality
o They need to be connected to a computer

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• Advantages • Disadvantages
o Provide a more secure payment system than requiring o Only certain characters can be read, and the number
a signature or using magnetic stripe, since the PIN of different characters is very limited
typed in must match up with the PIN stored on the chip o It is a more expensive method than other methods
o Provide a more robust system than magnetic stripe used for direct data entry
since the chip does not need to be in contact with the Optical Mark Reader
reader • Optical mark recognition is a
• Disadvantages system which can read marks
o Customer needs to be careful when typing in the PIN, written in pen or pencil
so nobody reads it giving an opportunity for Fraud • Uses
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Readers o OMR devices are used to
• RFID readers work in similar ways to a bar code reader read questionnaires, multiple choice examinations
• An RFID tag is attached to/inside a surface papers and other types of forms in the form of lines or
• The reader reads the data held on the tag which is then shaded areas
input into the computer system for processing • Advantages
• Radio waves are used to transmit data thus can be used o A very fast way of inputting results of a survey
through most materials o Since there is no typing, it is more accurate than
• Uses keying in data
o Used in retail or supermarkets as barcode alternatives o OMR is more accurate than OCR
o Used to identify pets • Disadvantages
o Used in passports o Forms need to be carefully designed to make sure that
• Advantages the marks/shadings are correctly positioned to gather
o Can hold a lot of data accurate information
o Can be read from long distances o There can be problems if forms aren’t filled correctly,
o Does not require direct line of sight sometimes they must be checked manually before
o Information can be read faster than barcodes being read by an OMR, this is both time consuming and
o Can alter information expensive
• Disadvantages Optical Character Reader
o Thieves can steal information easily • Optical Character recognition is
o RFID tags are expensive a software that takes scanned
o Radio waves can experience interference text and converts it into a
Magnetic Ink Character Reader computer readable form
(MICR) • Uses
• Magnetic ink character recognition o Processing of passports and Identity cards
is a system which can read o OCR is used when scanning documents to modify them
characters printed in a special ink using a suitable software
• Uses • Advantages
o Used to process cheques in banking operations – o Much faster data entry system than manually keying in
cheque is read using a batch processing method data
• Advantages o Since there is no manual data entry, the number of
o MICR offers great security than OCR since the oriented errors is reduced
characters cannot be altered • Disadvantages
o There is no manual input, thus errors are reduced o The system has difficulty reading handwriting
o If somebody writes over the magnetic ink characters, it o It is still not a very accurate technique
can still be read

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Barcode readers • Advantages
• Used to read information in the o Produce higher quality images than TFT monitors
form of a barcode o Angle of viewing is better than a TFT monitor
• Handheld scanners or wands are o They work with light pens in CAD and CAM
very common for reading applications (Computer Aided Design/Manufacturing)
barcodes • Disadvantages
• Uses o Tend to be heavy, weight hazard if not supported
o Used in supermarkets and other shops where the properly
goods are marked with a barcode o Run very hot, can cause fires if left unattended –
o Used in libraries to scan user’s library card and especially if they are old
barcodes on books (to keep track of books on loan) o Consume more power than TFT monitors
o Used as a safety function in many companies to ensure o They can flicker, this leads to headaches and eyesight
that electrical equipment is checked on a regular basis problems with prolonged use
• Advantages TFT Monitor
o Faster than keying in information, and fewer mistakes • Thin Film Transistor monitors
are made • Taking over from CRT monitors as the
o Used as a way of recording data, can improve safety main output device
o Barcodes enable automatic stock control • The progress in TFT technology is one
o Barcode scanning is a tried and trusted technology of the reasons for the rapid development of laptop
o When an item price is changed, only the central computers
database needs to be updated, there is no need to • The screen is made up of thousands of tiny pixels which
change the prices individually on each item are made up of transistors controlled by a
• Disadvantages microprocessor
o Barcode scanning is an expensive system to administer • Each pixel has three transistors-red, green or blue; the
since every item in the shops needs a barcode and intensity of each determines the colour of the pixel seen.
every barcode needs to be entered on the system • Uses
o Also, there is a need to invest in the computer o Primary output device for computers, user can
technology together with staff training, which can all immediately see what they are typing in
be expensive o Integral part of laptop computers
o The system is not fool proof- barcode can be swapped • Advantages
around on items o Lightweight, so no weight hazards like CRT monitors
o Less glare produced than in CRT monitors; also emit
2.3 Output Devices & their Uses less radiation
CRT Monitor o Consume much less power and generate less heat
• Cathode Ray Tube monitors than CRT monitors
• Least expensive type of monitor, becoming rarer as TFT • Disadvantages
monitors take over o Angle of viewing is critical, image appears unclear if
• Come in various sizes viewed slightly from the side
• Picture created is made up of tiny dots (red green or o This is an issue if several people are looking at the
blue), the intensity of the colour of the dot determines screen at the same time
the colour perceived by the eye o They cannot yet be used with light pens,
• Uses
o Primary output device for computers, user can
immediately see what they are typing in
o Used with light pens to allow designs to be created on

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IPS/LCD Monitor Multimedia Projector
• Front layer made from liquid crystal diodes; grouped • Receive analogue and digital
together to form pixels (RGB or RGBY-more vivid colours) signals, although most modern
• Receive analogue and digital signals, although most projectors only work with digital
modern projectors only work with digital inputs inputs
• IPS (In-plane switching) is the technology used in LCD • The signal source is usually from a computer, television,
monitors. or DVD player
• Advantages: • The image from the source is magnified and projected
o Colour can be seen accurately from different viewing onto a large screen
angles • The devices usually work with a remote control, but can
o No lightening on touching also use virtual mouse technology – cordless PC mouse
• Disadvantages: (has a laser pointer)
o Expensive o It is then possible to direct the presentation without
o High power consumption being tied to the computer
o Slow response time o Most multimedia projectors take input from various
• Note: Old LCD monitors used CCFL (cold cathode types of video format e.g. PAL, NTSC or SECAM
fluorescent lamp) technology to light up the screen. • Uses
LED Monitor: o Used for training presentations (allows the whole
• Front layer made from liquid crystal diodes; grouped audience to see the images from a computer)
together to form pixels (RGB or RGBY-more vivid colours) o Also used for advertising presentations (shown at
• For the image to show up on-screen a light source of LED exhibitions, shopping malls etc.)
backlight is used. o Home cinema systems (projecting the images from a
• Advantages (over LCD monitors): DVD or television) use multimedia projectors
o Lighter and thinner • Advantages
o Longer life o Enables many people to see a presentation rather than
o Lower power consumption all of them crowded around a small computer screen
o Greater contrast and more vivid colour o Avoids the need for several networked computers
o Relatively more robust o e.g. when looking at a video clip on the internet,
• Disadvantages: everybody can see the video on the large screen rather
o Glare gives viewers headaches than logging on to several computers
o Images too sharp, so can cause eye strain • Disadvantages
Touch Screen o Images can sometimes be fuzzy
• Automatic selection without a pointing device o Expensive to buy
• Uses: o Setting up projectors can be a little difficult
o Automatic teller machines
o EFTPOS (electronic fund transfer point of sales) Laser Printer
o PDA • Produce very high-quality hard copy
o Smartphones output
o Public information points • Print rate per page is fast if many
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES pages are being printed
Faster data entry Limited options • Rely on large buffer memories – the
Easy to choose Frequent usage can lead to RSI, data for the whole document is stored
options etc. before pages can be printed out
User-friendly and Constant usage results in the
intuitive screen getting dirty; visibility and
sensitivity decreases

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• Uses • Disadvantages
o Used where noise levels need to be kept low e.g. in an o Output is slow if several copies needed – there is little
office buffer capacity to store the pages
o The best option for fast, high quality, high volume o The ink cartridges run out too quickly to be used for
printing large print jobs
• Advantages o Printing can smudge if the user is not careful
o Printing is fast for high volumes, slightly faster than o Can be expensive to run if they are used a lot – original
inkjet if only a few pages are to be printed ink cartridges are expensive
o Can handle very large print jobs Dot Matrix Printer
o Quality is consistently high • A type of impact printer
o Toner cartridges last for a long time; laser printers can • A print head made up of a matrix
be a cost-effective option if colour outputs are not of pins presses against an inked
required ribbon
• Disadvantages • Uses
o Expensive to buy o Can be used in noisy environments e.g. garage
o Only fast if several copies are being made workshops
o Colour laser printers tend to be expensive to run since o Can be used in applications were the print quality is
four cartridges are needed as well as diffuser kits, etc. not very important
o Produce ozone and volatile organic compounds • Advantages
because of their printing method and type of toner/ink o Can be used in environments which would be a
used problem for laser and inkjet printers – dusty, dirty or
o These have been linked to health hazards in the office moist atmospheres
Inkjet Printer o Carbon copies or multi-part outputs can be produced
• Used to produce good quality hard o Very cheap to run and maintain
copies – the quality is not as good as in o Easy to use if continuous stationary is required e.g.
laser printers but much better than long print jobs such as wage slips
that of dot matrix printers • Disadvantages
• Do not have large buffers like laser o Very noisy – not good in an office environment
printers, so printing is done a bit at a time o Cost more than an inkjet printer to buy
• Therefore, printing is sometimes paused – the whole o Very slow
page can’t be stored in the buffer, it must wait for the o Printing is of poor quality
computer to send more data Wide Format Printer
• Uses • Devices that produce hard
o Used where low volume outputs are needed copies but operate in a
o Ideal for high quality printing for small print jobs or different way to printers
single pages e.g. for photo quality printouts • Not limited to normal printer
• Advantages paper size and can produce
o High quality output highly accurate, very large
o Cheaper to buy than laser printers drawings and posters
o Very lightweight and take up little space (small • The most common types are
footprint) pen plotters, electrostatic
o Do not produce ozone and volatile organic (similar method to laser printers) and inkjet plotters
compounds, unlike laser printers o With pen plotters, coloured pens are controlled by a
computer and the paper can move backwards and
forwards to allow accurate shapes to be drawn

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• Uses Speakers
o Used to produce large drawings e.g. blueprints of • Can be connected directly to a computer or are built into
buildings; are often used with CAD applications the monitor or casing (as in
o Used to produce large pictures for use on billboards or laptop computers)
giant posters • Uses a digital to analogue
▪ They can also print on plastic coated paper converter (DAC) to convert digital
• If the pens are replaced by cutting tools, it is possible to data from the computer to analogue from so the
make large signs speakers can process it; the signal is then amplified
• Advantages through the speakers.
o Can produce huge printouts • Uses
o Print quality is extremely high o Used to output sound from multimedia presentations
• Disadvantages o Used in home entertainment centres
o Slow in operation o They can help blind people through audio output of
o Expensive to buy and maintain text on the screen (together with speech generation
3D Printer software)
• A new type of printer that o Used to play downloaded sound files
produces solid 3D models using • Advantages
modified inkjet technology called o Usually long lasting and durable (if operated within
tomography their intended power levels)
• Very thin layers of fine powder o Often provided with the computer/laptop although
(plaster, resin, starch) are bonded together as a 3D these may not be the best quality
model is slowly built up • Disadvantages
• Items produced are known as prototypes o Can take up a lot of desk space, compared to
• Uses headphones
o Used to produce prototypes which work from CAD o Can distract people around you, everyone can hear
packages, photograph images, stored drawings etc. what you are playing
o Scale models are produced in colour before the real o May not be able to hear the full sound spectrum, this
thing is manufactured requires multiple speakers
o The ultimate objective is to produce organic objects Actuators
using this layering technology (such as replacement • A type of controlling device
human organs) • Transducers that are used to take signals from a
computer and convert them into some form of motion
• Advantages e.g. operating motors, pumps, switches and valves
o Save a lot of money, other methods of making • Digital signals are sent from the computer to an actuator
prototypes are very time consuming and expensive to operate a device
o The powders used can often be ground up and reused • Conversion of the digital signal to analogue is required
o Physical scale models are produced with working first (using a DAC)
parts, which gives a better idea of how the product will
• Disadvantages
o Expensive to buy
o Slow at producing their output
o Product is sometimes a little rough, often further work
needs to be done

PAGE 16 OF 57
• Turned on or off by the actuator 3. STORAGE DEVICES & MEDIA
• Uses
o Used in many domestic appliances 3.1 Magnetic Backing Storage Media
o Automatic washing machines (to Fixed Hard Disks/Drives
make the drum rotate) • Available on all computers and is the main method used
o Cookers (to switch on fans) for data storage
o Water pumps in central heating systems • Uses a read/write head to write and read data from it
o Automatic greenhouses to open windows and switch • Disk surface coated in magnetic film, storage is done by
on fans altering binary codes to 1s or 0s
o Used to control robot arms in the industry • Uses
o Operate fans, disk drives and DVD drives in computers o Used to store operating systems and working data
Buzzers o Used for storing application software
• Switched on or off by the actuator o Real time systems and online systems used fixed hard
• Uses drives
o Used in cookers and microwave ovens to tell the o Used in file servers for computer networks
operator when the cooking process is complete • Advantages
o Used in burglar alarm systems to warn if intruders are o Very fast data transfer rate and fast access times to
present data
Heaters o Have very large memory capacities
• Actuators are connected to switches which turn the • Disadvantages
heater on or off o Can be easily damaged
• Uses o They lack portability
o Used in automatic washing machines, cookers and Portable & Removable Hard Disks/Drives
central heating systems • Like fixed hard disks but are usually connected via
o Used in automatic greenhouses to control the universal serial bus
temperature • Uses
Lights o Can be used as backup systems to prevent loss of data
• The actuator is connected to the switch that turns the o Can be used to transfer data, files and software
lights on or off between computers
• Uses • Advantages
o Security lights o Data access time and transfer rate is very fast
o Used in greenhouses to control the lighting conditions o Large memory capacities
o Can be used to transfer information between
• Disadvantages
o Can be easily damaged
Magnetic Tapes & Drives
• Thin strip of plastic which is coated in a magnetic layer
• Read and written by read/write head
• Uses
o Application where batch processing is used
o Used as a backup media
• Advantages
o Generally, less expensive and very robust technology
o Data transfer rate is fast

PAGE 17 OF 57
• Disadvantages • Advantages
o Access time is very slow o Cheaper than RW disks
o When updating another tape is needed o Once burned (and finalized) they are like ROM
Memory Cards • Disadvantages
• A form of electrically erasable programmable read only o Can only be reordered once
memory (EEPROM) o Not all CD/DVD players and can read CD-R
o Used to store photos on digital cameras • ‘RW’ means that these disks are re-writable media can
o Mobile phones use them as memory cards be written over several times
o Used in MP3 players to store music • Unlike CD-R/DVD-R they don’t become ROMs
o Used as a backup in hand held devices • The recording layer uses a special phase-changing metal
• Advantages alloy
o Very compact • The alloy can switch between crystalline and amorphous
o Very robust (non-crystalline) phases, thus changing its reflectivity to
• Disadvantages light, depending on the laser beam power
o Very expensive per Gb of memory when compared to • Spots are produced which can be read by a laser
hard drive disks • System allows data to be written, erased and re-written
o Has a finite life in terms of the number of times they many times
can be read from/written to. • Uses
o CD-RWs and DVD-RWs are used to record radio and
3.2 Optical Backing Storage Media television programs
CD-ROM/DVD-ROM o They are used in closed circuit television (CCTV)
• Read only memory – cannot be overwritten systems
• Data is stored as a series of pits and lands formed by a • Advantages
laser beam etching the surface at manufacturing stage o Can be re used many times
• Uses o Different file formats can be used each time
o Store music files and software. o Less wasteful than R format since files or data can be
o Very large storage capacity and are used to store films. added at a later stage
• Advantages • Disadvantages
o Holds more data than floppy disks o Relatively expensive media
o Less expensive than hard disk drives o Possible to accidentally overwrite
• Disadvantages DVD-RAM
o Data transfer rate and data access time are slower • Recent addition to optical media group
CD-R/DVD-R • Unlike other CD and DVD formats, DVD-RAMs have
• The letter ‘R’ means the disc is recordable only once and several discrete concentric tracks rather than a single
then it becomes ROM spiral track
• Use a thin layer of an organic dye as the recording media • Gives them advantage that writing, and reading can
• DVDs also use an additional silver alloy or gold reflector occur at the same time
• Laser beam produces heated spots and unheated spots • Makes it possible to watch an already recorded
• Uses television program at the same time as a different
o They are used for home recording of music (CD-Rs) program is being recorded
and films (DVD-Rs) • Recording layer is made from similar phase-changing
o They are used to store data for later use material to that used in RW technology
o Used in applications where it is necessary to prevent • Shiny and dull marks represent data to a computer
the deletion or over-writing of important data where they are interpreted

PAGE 18 OF 57
• Uses • Built with an array of semiconductors that form its
o DVD-RAMs are used in recording devices such as memory and operated using an integrated circuit
satellite receivers to allow simultaneous recording and • Uses
playback o Used to store operating systems and working data
o They are used in camcorders to store films o Used for storing application software
• Advantages o Used in file servers for computer networks
o Have a long life (30 years) • Advantages
o Can be re written on more than the DVD-RWs o Faster than hard disks because they do not need to
(100,000 times) ‘spin up’ the disk
o Very reliable as they have built in verification software o Robust because no mechanical parts
to ensure accuracy of data o Read performance is fast even when data fragmented
o Access is very fast o Less susceptible to data loss
o No need to finalize the disk o Lighter, quieter and require less power than hard disks
o Very large capacities • Disadvantages
o Ability to read and write data at the same time o More expensive than hard disks
• Disadvantage o Have a smaller capacity than modern hard disks
o DVD-RAMS are not as compatible as R or RW, many o Lower number of write cycles causing performance to
systems will not recognize this format diminish over time
o More expensive than DVD-RW Flash Drives
Blu-Ray Discs • Otherwise called pen drive/memory stick/USB stick
• Uses • Can store several GBs of data and use solid state
o Blu-ray disks are used in home video consoles technology
o Used for storing and playing back films • Connected to a computer through USB port and power
o PCs can use this technology for data storage or backing to operate drawn from host computer
up hard drives • Some expensive software increasingly uses these storage
o Camcorders can use this media to store film footage methods as a form of security
• Advantage • Uses
o Very large storage capacity o Used to transport files between computers
o Data transfer rate is very fast o Used as a security device – a dongle – to prevent
o Data access speed is faster than with other optical software piracy
media • Advantage
• Disadvantage o Very compact and portable media
o Disks are relatively expensive o Very robust
o Blu-ray disks still have encryption problems • Disadvantage
o Not possible to write protect the data and files
3.3 Solid State Backing Storage o Small physical size and are easy to lose.
• Solid state systems control the movement of electrons o Lower storage capacity than hard disk
within a microchip: if the transistor conducts a current,
this is equivalent to a 1, otherwise it is a 0 4. NETWORKS & THE EFFECTS OF USING THEM
• Have no moving parts, consume much less power and
are extremely robust 4.1 Routers
• Used primarily as removable storage devices and are • A device that enables data to be sent between different
collectively known as flash memory types of networks
Solid State Drives • Commonly used to connect computers and other
• Supports reading/writing data & maintains stored data in network capable devices to the internet
a permanent state even without power • They can be connected to through cables or wirelessly
• Functions much like a hard drive but different tech
PAGE 19 OF 57
Function Hubs
• Makes decisions on messages being passed between the • They are devices that can have multiple devices
networks connected to them
• Reads information about the message and decides • Main task is to receive data from different ports and
where the message should go and the best route for it to send it to each device
get there • The information will be received to the device whether
• Formats the messages making it suitable for the new its relevant, or not
network Bridges
How it Works • It connects 2 different types of networks together e.g. a
• To send data to a specific device, a router needs a bus and star network
something like an address • It can only connect networks that use the same way for
• Internet Protocol Address: a unique number assigned to handling messages
all computers and devices connected to the internet • They do this by changing the form of message to suite
which can determine its exact physical location the different type of network
• A router can use this IP to send data from the internet to Switches
the exact device that requested it • More efficient than hubs in distributing data
• Storing IP Addresses: • Each device has an access control media address MAC
o Routers store IP addresses in a routing table which identifies it uniquely
o Routing tables list all the different routes to other • MAC Address: a number unique to each device
networks connected to the network (like fingerprints)
o Routing table determines best route for data • Data sent will have a mac address which tells the source
Sending Data between Devices and receiving device
• Routers can also send ‘packets’ of data between devices Modems
on different networks • It stands for modulator demodulator.
• Each packet contains the data itself and the IP address of • Converts computer’s digital signals (modulates it) into
the device being sent to analogue for transmission through telephone lines
• Occurs globally using multiple routers & re-routing until • Reverse this process- analogue signal from a telephone
the data reaches its intended IP address line into digital for a computer to process the data
(demodulates it)
4.2 Common Network Devices • The main use it to connect to computer networks over
Network Interface Cards long distances using existing telephone lines
• Used to connect individual computers/devices to a Types of Modems:
network • Dial-up modems: operate at 60 kilobits/sec
• NICs come in two distinct types: o slow compared to modern standards
o Wired: cards that have ports which allow network • Asymmetric: faster at downloading than uploading
cables to be plugged in directly o (ADSL) asymmetric digital subscriber line modems
o Wireless: cards that connect to networks using Wi-Fi operate at 11,000 kilobits/sec
signals o Don’t tie up line while accessing internet, which allows
simultaneous internet access and usage of telephone
• Cable modems: allow cable TV users to receive TV signals
as well as internet access

PAGE 20 OF 57
4.5 Web Browser
4.3 Wi-Fi & Bluetooth • Software used to retrieve, present & traverse the World
Wi-Fi Wide Web
• Any system which allows you to connect to a network or • World Wide Web: system of interlinked hypertext
computer through wireless communication documents accessed via the Internet
• Examples: HTTP Proxy Server
o WLANs • Type of server that acts as a buffer between a WAN and
o PDAs a LAN
o Laptop computers
• Retrieves web pages and passes them onto the
o Peripheral devices such as printers
computer that made a request
• Wi-Fi Hotspots
• Stores any page retrieved on the server, which means
o Wi-Fi systems rely on AP (radio frequency technology)
that when a different computer requests the same page
to enable the device to receive and send signals
it would be available
o Wi-Fi hotspots are places where you can access Wi-Fi
• Speeds up the browsing process
(free or paid)
o Hotspots are found in public places like Airports,
• Web is made up of millions of websites and web pages
hotels, and cafés
• Web pages are documents on a computer screen
o War driving: The act of driving and searching for
containing various multimedia and text, pictures
unsecured Wi-Fi hotspots
• A website consists of many of these pages linked
o This gives a risk to the Wi-Fi system
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
• Bluetooth is an example of wireless personal area
• Web browsers use URLs to retrieve files
networking (WPAN) technology
• They are multiple ways of locating on the internet
• Spread spectrum transmission (radio waves) is used to
• Standard form: 4 numbers e.g.
provide wireless links between to devices such as mobile
phones and allow connection to the internet • Alphanumeric form:
• A small home network can be created with this system • protcol://web address/path/filename
o Where; Protocol is usually http
• Uses:
o Site address consists of: computer name, domain
o Transfer photos from camera to mobile phone
name, domain type, and country code
o Wirelessly connect different external devices
o Path is the web page
4.4 Accessing the Internet o Filename is the item on the page
• User can access by web browser
4.6 Email
DESCRIPTION • A method for sending text and attachments from one
computer to another over a network
DIAL UP • Slowest type (60kbps) • Advantages
INTERNET • Telephone line gets tied up while a dial up o Speed of sending and receiving replies is quick
ACCESS modem is in operation o Low cost (no stamps, paper etc.)
o Not needing to leave home to send the mail
CABLE • Disadvantages
• Local cable television operators give user
access through cable networks o Possibility of virus threats and hacking
o Need for the email address to be correct
INTERNET • Fastest download speed connections (at
o Inability to send bulky objects via emails
least 11000kbps)

PAGE 21 OF 57
4.7 Internet Service Provider (ISP) • One of the hubs or switches will usually be connected to
• These are companies that provide users with access to a router/modem to allow LAN to connect to the internet
the internet • In doing so it then becomes part of a wide area network
• Provider in return for these services is charged a monthly • Advantages
or annual fee o The sharing of resources
• After paying this fee, a username and password are o Communication between users
issued which can be used to connect to the internet o Network administrator can control and monitor all
aspects of the network
4.8 Common Network Environments • Disadvantages
Internet o Easier spread of viruses throughout the whole network
• A worldwide collection of networks and computers that o Development of printer queues
have joined together o Slower access to external networks e.g. internet
• Uses of the Internet: o Increased security risk
o Web Browsing o If main server breaks down, usually the networks will
o Email no longer function
o File Sharing Wireless LANs (WLANs)
o Entertainment • Do not involve any wiring or cabling
o Video Conferencing • Provide wireless network connection overs a short
o Online Banking distance
o Advertising & Blogging • They use radio or infrared signal's instead of cables
o Social Media • Devices known as Access Points (APs) are used for a
Intranet larger range
• Like the internet but only accessible to specific users • APs usually use spread spectrum technology (larger
• Basically, a private internet where outsiders cannot range)
connect to it • Advantages
• Uses of an Intranet: o All computers can access the same services and
o Web Browsing resources
o Email o No cabling is involved
o File Sharing o The system is more flexible
o Schools: share information and learning resources o Adding new computers and devices is very easy
with students o Cost is reduced, and safety is improved
o Businesses: share private information within a large • Disadvantages
company securely o Security is an issue
Comparing Internet & Intranet o Problems and interference can affect the signal
INTERNET INTRANET o The data transfer is slow than in the wired LAN
Phrase International Network Internal Restricted Access Wide Area Networks (WAN)
Origin Network • WAN is formed by several LANs being connected through
Purpose Globally share data Privately share data a router or a modem
Audience Wide range of people Specific company or
• Some companies set up Private WANs, it is expensive
however it comes with a more enhanced security
Access Anywhere if you are Only from within the
connected company • It is common to use an Internet service provider (ISP) for
Local Area Networks (LAN) connections to the internet and communicate via this
• Not over a large geographical area (e.g. in one building) network system
• Typical LAN will consist of several computers and devices • Additional hardware is needed for a WAN: Routers,
• Devices and computers will be connected to hubs or modems and proxy servers
PAGE 22 OF 57
4.9 Using Different Types of Computers to MOBILE PHONES
LAPTOP COMPUTERS • Smallest most portable of • Websites are often not
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES all devices fully displayed
• More portable than • Less portable than • People more likely to • Small screen size makes
desktops can access internet tablets/smartphones carry this wherever they viewing websites difficult
in more locations • Screens not as large as go • Small keyboards make it
• Larger screen than tablets & desktop PCs may not appear • Much easier to connect difficult to type
smartphones which allows as clearly to internet on-the-go • Allow children access to
easier reading • CPUs are not as powerful as internet anywhere; can
• Keyboards are bigger than those in desktops be dangerous
those on
tablets/smartphones 4.10 Network Security Issues
• Touchpads allows easy
navigation even on slanted • Connection to a network exposes a user to:
surfaces o Hacking: Unauthorised access given to computer.
DESKTOP COMPUTERS o Phishing: Phishing involves getting sensitive
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES information such as usernames, passwords, and credit
• Most websites are designed • Not portable so are limited card detail, for malicious reasons, by mimicking a
to be viewed on a desktop to use in one room reliable webpage on the network
• Have larger keyboards • Require keyboard and o Pharming: Explained in section 8.2
making it easier to type on mouse as extra peripheral
o Viruses: Explained in section 8.2
• Screens are larger so giving • Screen and Monitor Policing the Internet
an easier and better viewing consume separate power. • Currently, the internet has no boundaries
experience • Anything and everything can be put online
• Usually use wired internet • Cannot usually connect to • For Policing:
connections which is more devices like Bluetooth o Prevent illegal material being posted
stable/reliable than Wi-Fi speakers without external
o People can easily find info on how to become hackers
or make bombs
• Robust • Take up large desk space
o Prevent children from accessing undesirable websites
• Good heat dissipation- large • Bulky to carry around
body. o Could reduce the amount of incorrect information
• Against Policing:
TABLET COMPUTERS o Material already available in other sources i.e. books
• Smaller & lighter than • Larger & less portable o Users would have to fund
desktops & laptops than smartphones o Difficult to enforce rules
making it easier to carry • Uses Wi-Fi to connect to o Against freedom of information
• Larger screen than the internet which is less o Laws already exist to deal with perpetrators
smartphones reliable than wired Inappropriate Websites
• On-screen keyboards • Screens are smaller than • Risk of finding undesirable websites
larger than those on those on laptops & • Risk of doubtful websites which are not genuine
smartphones desktops • They could lead to problems such as undesirable web
• On-screen keyboard is links, security risks
not easy to type on

PAGE 23 OF 57
4.11 Password Interception Face Recognition: Verifies the face of the person
Spyware attempting to access the data using a face recognition
• Spyware is software that gathers user information algorithm and identifies facial features by extracting
through their network connections without them being landmarks, or features, from an image of the subject's
aware that this is happening
Fingerprint Scanning: Scans the pattern on fingers and
• Once spyware is installed, it monitors all key presses and
verifies it against a stored database of authenticated
transmits the information back to the person who sent fingerprints using pattern-matching software to allow
out the spyware access to a user.
• This software can install other spyware software, read
cookies and personal information, and change the 4.13 Data Protection Act
default home page or web browser • Failure to abide to rules can lead to fines or
• Anti-spyware can be used to search out this software imprisonment
and correct the corruption Rules (SAREF DES SAS)
Weak & Strong Passwords 1. Data must be Fairly and lawfully processed
• Strong passwords: A random mix of alphabets 2. Data can only be processed for the Stated purpose
(uppercase and lowercase), numbers, and keyboard 3. Data must be Adequate, Relevant and not Excessive
symbols (@, %, ^ etc.) 4. Data must be Accurate
• Weak passwords: Easy to guess, e.g. users name or 5. Data must not be kept longer than necessary (Short
date of birth or 1234556, etc. time)
• Frequent password changes can help reduce the chances 6. Data must be processed in accordance with the data
of password interception too Subject’s right
• Passwords must not be shared, their strength is then of 7. Data must be kept Secure
little use. 8. Data must not be transferred to another country unless
(Domestic) they have adequate protection
4.12 Authentication Techniques Guidelines
Magnetic Stripes: Card swiped through a magnetic stripe • Do not leave personal information lying around
reader that authenticates the user after reading iron-
• Lock all filing cabinets when leaving an office
based magnetic particles on a band of
magnetic material on the card which • Do not leave computer without locking or logging off
is also called a magstripe. • Protect passwords
ID Cards: Usually a photo ID with a • Change passwords regularly
QR or barcode that authenticates the • Do not fax or email anything of sensitive nature.
Passports: Have an RFID chip on it that responds to a 4.14 Network Communication
signal sent by a RFID reader that sends information about Facsimile (Fax)
the passport holder to the computer system • A system that scans documents electronically and
Physical Tokens: A security token (sometimes called an converts them into a bit map image (a bit is a binary digit
authentication token) is a small hardware device that the and is a 1 or a 0)
owner carries to authorize access to a network service. • Then transmitted as a series of electrical signals through
The device may be in the form of a smart card or may be
the telephone network
embedded in a commonly used object such as a key fob.
• Receiving fax machine converts the electronic image and
Retina Scans: Scans the unique pattern of blood vessels in
the eye of a user using an unperceived beam of low- prints it out on paper
energy infrared light into a person's eye as they look • It is also possible to generate fax signals from a
through the scanner's eyepiece. computer to allow documents to be sent to a fax
Iris Scans: A scanner scans and compares the pattern in machine
the iris of a user to a database of stored iris patterns, if it • Saves printing out the document first and then passing it
finds a match, the user is authenticated. Iris scans are through the fax machine
generally more accurate than retinal scans.
PAGE 24 OF 57
• Fax/modem software in the computer converts the • How it works:
image into a form fax machines can be recognized o Delegates at one end speak into a microphone and
• Physical Faxing: dedicated fax machine connected via consider the webcam
telephone line that copies and electronically sends files o The other delegates can see them and hear them using
to the dialled recipient speakers and monitors
• Electronic Faxing/Online Faxing: uses the internet to o However, there are several problems with these as the
send documents through computers. conference call often lags and quality not always high.
PHYSICAL FAXING ELECTRONIC FAXING o Also, as travelling tickets increase in price, terrorists
Associated with a phone Associated with an email can use this way of communicating with each other,
no. Only address and phone no. increasing risk
Need actual fax machine, Cheaper- no fax machine, Audio-Conferencing
paper, etc. paper and ink • Same as video-conferencing but without webcam
No encryption Better safety- encryption • VOIP is often used
The signal can get busy No busy signal issues • VOIP (Voice over internet protocol) is a method used to
talk to people over internet
Email • VOIP converts sound (picked up by a microphone) into
• A method for sending text and attachments from one discrete digital packets that can be sent to a destination
computer to another over a network via internet
Comparing Faxing & Email • Advantage: free and can be used all over the world
Fax Email • Disadvantage: sound quality is usually bad
Singed faxes are legally More secure (user id and • Security Issues:
acceptable password needed to access o Identity and service theft
files) o Viruses and malware
Poor quality prints at times Digital files (no need to
o Spamming (sending junk mail)
print – eco-friendly)
o Phishing attacks (illegitimate scams)
Delay is telephone line busy Better quality
Slow if several documents Files can be transferred
need to be sent between any device 5. THE EFFECTS OF USING ICT
connected to the internet
Every recipient must be Faster sending of 5.1 Effects of IT on Employment
dialled up one by one documents per document • IT led to unemployment in many areas
and even if multiple o Manufacturing - robots have taken over many tasks
recipients and are much faster
Expensive to buy No dedicated device o Computer controlled warehouses – automatic, does
needed not need people
o Labour intensive work - printing industry and filing
4.15 Web-Conferencing • New jobs have been created in ICT
o Writing software
• This is a method of communication between people at 2
o Maintenance of robots
or more separate locations
o Internet related jobs
• It is done in real time and makes use of LAN, if internal,
Effects on People:
or WAN if through the internet
• People need to be retrained due to new technology
• Uses hardware like; webcam, microphones, speakers
• Cleaner working environment
and monitors
• De-skilling of workforce
• It also uses special software like CODEC converts and
• Computers can now do tasks that required high skill level
compresses analogue data into digital data to send down
• Safer working environment
digital lines
• Fewer manual tasks such as heavy lifting

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Effect on Companies: CAUSES PREVENTION
• Can employ less people • Typing for extended • Take periodic breaks
• Robots do not take holiday, get sick or need breaks periods of time • Use ergonomic keyboard
• Greater consistency in products made • Typing with incorrect & mouse
posture • Use a wrist rest
5.2 Effects of IT on Working Patterns • Clicking on mouse • Ensure sufficient space
• Part-time working: A contract where someone works rapidly/extendedly for comfortable work
fewer hours per week than a full-time employee, in • Holding mouse
shifts. incorrectly
• Flexible working (flexi-time): Workers can choose their • Working in a cramped
working time but will have to complete the day’s work. space
• Job sharing: Two or more part-time workers divide their Back Problems
job, replacing one full-time worker. • Headaches are a potential consequence
• Compressed hours: Employees can work longer hours CAUSES PREVENTION
per day but over fewer days, completing the workload • Not sitting upright while • Take periodic breaks
sooner. working • Use adjustable chairs with
• Sitting with poor posture good back support
5.3 Microprocessor-Controlled Devices in the • Working in a cramped • Sit upright with good
Home space posture
POSITIVE EFFECTS NEGATIVE EFFECTS • Incorrect computer • Keep feet flat on floor
• Lead to more leisure time • Unhealthy diets screen positioning
since devices can be • People become lazy and Eye Problems
programmed to do tasks rely on devices • Headaches are a potential consequence
• More time to socialize • Dependency on CAUSES PREVENTION
• Becoming very technology increases • Staring at a computer for • Take periodic breaks
sophisticated and can • More wasteful society extended periods of time • Use TFT rather than CRT
make use of embedded since devices thrown • Working with poor room • Use anti-glare screens
web technology away if they fail, not lighting • Ensure good room
• Save energy - switch off economic to repair • Computer screen lighting
automatically • Leaving on standby glare/flicker • No direct light on screen
• Easier to program device wastes resources • Dirt can cause eye strain • Clean dirt
rather than set timings &
dates manually 6. ICT APPLICATIONS
5.4 Potential Health Problems 6.1 Communication Applications
Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI)
• This is when joints such as the shoulder, wrist or fingers
• Paper-based communication used to inform people
swell, causing pain
about their interests
• Damage gets worse if left untreated
• Schools use these to inform parents about events/dates
• Can lead to hand/arm immobility
• Advantages
o Released regularly
o The recipients have a permanent copy

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• Disadvantages • Software can automatically correct music notes in a
o Requires distribution score
o There are no special effects; sound/video/animation • There is no need to understand music notation to write a
o There are printing costs; paper/ink music score
Websites • Music notes are automatically printed out in the correct
• Collection of webpages, text, graphics, video and sound format
• Hosted on a web server on the internet Cartoons
• Need to write code or use a web authoring application • Animations can be produced using computer hardware
• Hyperlinks to other pages can be added and software
• Interactive websites require programming knowledge • With 3D animations objects are designed on a computer
• Can use a camera, scanner, microphone to input data and a 3D skeleton is produced
• Usually hire space from web hosting company • Parts of the skeleton are moved by the animator using
• Advantages key frames
o Ability to add sound/video/animation • The difference in appearance of the skeleton in these
o Links to other websites/hyperlinks key frames is automatically calculated by the software
o The use of hot spots and is known as tweening or morphing
o Buttons to navigate/move around the website • The final stage is to make a realistic image by a
o Hit counters to see who has visited the websites technique known as rendering
• Disadvantages Flyers & Posters
o Can be hacked and modified or viruses introduced • A Word processor/Desktop publisher is used to create it
o Need for a computer and internet connection • Need to hold minimum amount of information and be
o Lack of portability compared with paper based system accessible very quickly
o Need to maintain website once it is set up • Need to make an immediate impact when people look at
Multimedia Presentations them
• Uses a mixture of media to present information: • Anyone can produce them but there are highly skilled
animations, video, sound, transitions, hyperlinks professionals who can produce expert posters
• Produced using software packages • Some posters require larger printers than A4
• Used with a projector so large audience can view • Sequence in which a flier or poster is produced on a
• Advantages computer system
o Use of sound and animation/video effects • A word processor or DTP application is opened
o Interactive/hyperlinks built into presentations o The user creates frames, boxes and text boxes
o More likely to hold audience’s attention o If necessary, photos are taken, using a camera
• Disadvantages o The images are uploaded from the camera, loaded
o Need for special equipment – expensive from a CD/DVD, scanned from hard-copy photos or
o May require internet access downloaded from the internet
Music Scores o The photos are saved to a file
• Music samplers and mixers allow original tracks that o The photos are imported or copied and pasted into the
were recorded in a studio to be modified document
• Electronic instruments can play back through electronic o The photos are edited and typed in or imported from a
effects machines file and then put into required style
• Synthesizers combine simple wave forms to produce Mobile Phones
complex music creations • Wireless devices that allow users to make phone calls
• Electronic organs can mimic any other instrument from anywhere with cell reception
• Music scores can be generated from music itself using • They connect to the telephone system using radio signals
software • This requires them to be in range of a mobile tower

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• Used for communication via
o Phone calls 6.2 Data Handling Applications
o Text messaging Surveys
o Social Media • All data handling starts with data collection
Internet Telephony/VOIP o Data capture forms can be used for many applications
• VOIP (Voice over internet protocol) is a method used to o Decide what needs to be collected and then what
talk to people over internet questions should be used to collect it
• VOIP converts sound (picked up by a microphone) into o Paper or electronically
discrete digital packets that can be sent to a destination • Rules for creating forms
via the internet o Make them look official
Publicity & Corporate Image Publications o Spaces should be thought about giving enough space
• Business Cards: for answers
o Miniature printed documents that provide information o Restrict the amount of possible answers, do not use
about the business/organisation open questions
o Usually printed on thick cards o If open questions are used limit the amount of space
o Easily distributable to potential clients available for answers
o Information includes company logo, services, address, o Asking for ‘Name’ needs to be carefully thought about
contact numbers, email, website ▪ Are you asking for sensitive information?
o Gives a professional impression ➢ People may not feel comfortable being truthful
• Letterheads: ▪ What names do you want?
o Found at the top of official printed documents to be ➢ First name, family name etc.
mailed to clients or for internal use o Date of Birth
o Makes it clear to reader who the sender is ▪ What format do you want it in?
o Information includes company logo, name, address, o Give instructions about how to answer questions
contact numbers o How will the data be collected?
o Gives a professional impression • Paper surveys are scanned using OMR or OCR
o Easy to reply to o Advantages
• Flyers: ▪ Faster to get results
o Generally printed on single sheets of A4 paper ▪ Fewer errors
o Handed out directly to people for promotions ▪ It is easier to do statistical analysis
o Cheap to produce and easily distributable (locally) ▪ Less expensive to carry out; requires fewer people
o Information includes company logo, promoted • Online questionnaires
product or service, contact details o Usually use radio buttons
o Makes it easier to target a specific audience o No data preparation needed
• Brochures: o Results sent directly to database for analysis
o Also called leaflets & are like flyers Address Lists
o Difference is that they are often folded into sections An address book on a computer or mobile phone might
o Left on counters for pick up rather than handed out have a contact’s home address, phone number, email
address, personal information like the date of birth etc.
o Information includes company logo, promoted
product or service, contact details
o Makes it easier to target a specific audience

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Clubs & Society Records • If the computer sends signals to motors, valves, etc. then
• Need to keep a record on members usually in a database this data also needs to be converted to analogue using a
• Usually payment details, contact details and interests digital to analogue converter (DAC) so that the computer
• It makes it easy to match people with interests and send can effectively control these devices
information about what they are interested in Analogue to Digital Converter (ADC)
• This can be done my using mail merging • Used when you want to attach an analogue input
• Easy to check memberships and send out reminders device to a digital device such as a computer.
• It is important to follow the data protection act • This is so the analogue data can be
School Reports understood/processed by the computer since computers
• Database applications such as SIMS store large amounts only work w/digital data
of data which can be used to create annual and termly • E.g. When processing data sent from a sensor
school reports Digital to Analogue Converter (DAC)
• Things able to be gathered from here are: • Used when you want to attach an analogue output
o Data individual to student – tests/exam results device to a digital device such as a computer
o Student progress – target grades being met or not • E.g. If the computer is being used to control a device
o Number of absences – create a percentage of amount (motor/valve) the device will be controlled by variable
of days attended school voltages; the DAC will be used to send out analogue
o Teacher comments – adds comments on to report signals
Pollution Monitoring
6.3 Measurement Applications • Example: monitoring oxygen levels in a river
• Sensors are used to send data to a computer where the • Sensors read data from the river (oxygen levels and
data is processed acidity levels using a pH sensor)
• The computer simply reviews the data from the sensors • The data from the sensors is converted into digital using
(by comparing it to data stored in memory) and updates an ADC
its files and/or gives a warning signal if the values are • The computer stores the received data
outside given parameters • The oxygen levels and acidity levels are compared to the
• No changes to the process are made historical data stored in memory and they are also
• Examples: compared to alarm levels stored in memory
o Scientific experiments • One of two things will now happen: either the data is
o Weather stations transferred to a CD/DVD or to a memory stick and taken
Analogue & Digital Data away for analysis later or the computer is connected into
• Digital data: discrete, fixed value (used by computers) a mobile phone network and transmits the data back
• Analogue data/signals: continuous value that varies automatically to the monitoring station
smoothly Intensive Care Units in Hospitals
o Analogue device = measure length, weight, • Sensors read key vital signs (such as pulse/heart rate,
temperature etc. temperature, blood pressure, respiration, etc.)
o E.g. Thermometer – represents temp. by the height of • The data from the sensors is converted into digital using
the liquid column an ADC
o Sensors: measure physical and analogue qualities • The data is stored in the computer memory
• Analogue data from sensors needs to be converted into • The computer compares the data from the sensor with
digital data using an analogue to digital data converter the values stored in its memory
(ADC) so that the computer can understand and process • The results are output on a screen in the form of graphs
the data from the sensors and/or digital read-outs
• An alarm is activated if any of the data is outside
acceptable parameters

PAGE 29 OF 57
• The system continues to monitor the patient until the COMMAND MEANING
computer is turned off FORWARD 𝑥 Move 𝑥 cm forward
Advantages of Using Computers in Measurement BACKWARD 𝑥 Move 𝑥 cm backward
• The computer will not forget to take readings LEFT 𝑑 Turn left through 𝑑 degrees
• The computer’s response time is much faster, which is RIGHT 𝑑 Turn right through 𝑑 degrees
particularly important in the patient monitoring example REPEAT 𝑛 Repeat next set of instructions 𝑛 times
• Doctors, nurses, scientists, etc. can all get on with other ENDREPEAT Finish the repeat loop
tasks while the monitoring is done automatically PENUP Lift the pen up
• Computer give 24 hours cover every day (i.e. 24/7) PENDOWN Lower the pen
• The readings will tend to be more accurate
• Readings can be taken more frequently if they are done Automatic Washing Machines
by a computer and sensors • Have a microprocessor in them which contains the
• It could also be safer if whatever is being monitored may software which controls the washing machine
have potential hazards (e.g. children falling into the river • Appling the factors
whilst attempting to take readings) o Inputs
Disadvantages of Using Computers in Measurement ▪ Pressure sensor on the door to detect if open or
• Expensive to purchase and set up closed
• If performed for educational purposes, reduced practical ▪ Sensor to detect if the required level of water is in
hands-on experience and learning. ▪ Temperature sensor to check temperature
• Will not function in a power cut if no backup power o Outcome
present (expensive to have reliable backup power) ▪ Clothes have been washed
o Outputs
6.4 Microprocessors in Control Applications ▪ Heater
• Sensors are used to send data to a computer where the ▪ Motor to spin drum
data is processed ▪ Lights on machine to show user stage the cycle is at
• The computer reviews the data from the sensors (by ▪ Actuators to turn the inlet valves on to allow hot and
comparing it to data stored in memory) cold water into the machine
• If the values are outside the given parameters/pre-set ▪ Actuator to turn the outlet valve on to let the water
value it acts to try and get the values within acceptable out of the machine when the wash is complete
ranges ▪ An actuator to control the pump
• It does this by sending signals to devices controlling the o Processing
process ▪ Software to make decisions which will allow the
Turtle Graphics clothes to be washed
• Based on computer language called LOGO and is now o Time taken before next inputs
usually known as turtle graphics ▪ Timer as part of the software
• It is the control of the movement of a ‘turtle’ on a ➢ Time different cycles (when to add
computer screen by several key instructions which can soap/conditioner/etc.)
be typed in ➢ Time delay in measuring temperature
• The use of ‘repeat’ instructions makes a piece of code ➢ Needs to be time for changes to have effect
more efficient o Unmanageable situations
▪ Door may not be shut
▪ Needs to draw user’s attention
▪ Usually a buzzer and light

PAGE 30 OF 57
Central Heating System Glasshouse
• Applying factors • Temperature controlled the same as central heating
o Inputs system
▪ Inputs from the user • Humidity must also be controlled
➢ Room temperature required o Humidity sensor tells computer how humid it is
➢ Time systems turns on/off o Computer then decides to turn the water supply to
▪ Inputs from the system sprayers
➢ Actual room temperature • Windows also operated by the computer
➢ Clock giving the time o Need to find the balance of how often to have
o Outcome windows open
▪ Heating or cooling room during the required times • Blinds that can be computer controlled
o Outputs o Light sensor measures light intensity
▪ Boiler o When sun is strong the computer actuates electric
▪ Air conditioner motors which close blinds
o Processing • Control in glasshouse is more likely to be used in
▪ Check time against the one input and switches on commercial areas or large glasshouses not in gardens
when that time is reached
▪ Same done to check when to turn off 6.5 Modelling Applications
▪ When on, microprocessor reads temperature from • A mathematical computer model is created to
sensor and compares it with desired temperature manipulate variables and see real time changes in
➢ If too low, it will heat up by turning the boiler on terms of figures.
and if it’s too high it will turn the air conditioner on • Used to find how mechanisms control a system.
➢ These will stay on until desired temperature is • Advantages:
reached o Cheaper than building physical system to test
Automatic Cookers o Safer than building system and experimenting
• Have temperature sensors and timers with manual o Easier to experiment with various scenarios
o Quicker as no need to build system
controls to set start and end times, and temperature for
o Near-impossible tests involving space and volcanic
scenarios can be modelled risk-free
• Working similar to Central Heating System. • What if analysis can be conducted that allow a certain
Burglar Alarms figure to be computed by letting the computer change
• Burglar alarms detect any intrusion. other variables that affect the value needed to be set.
o Sensors such as motion sensors, door and window o E.g.
sensors, magnetic sensors, multi-functional sensors
(vibration, shutter, and temperature) measure the
physical quantity and inputs the value to a
o The microprocessor compares the input values with
the preset values, if changes are detected, the
microprocessor sends signals to the actuator
o The actuator activates the sirens or gives a phone call
or messages the input mobile number.

PAGE 31 OF 57
• There is greater consistency – every car coming off a
production line is identical
• They can do boring, repetitive tasks, leaving humans free
to do more skilled work
• Robots find it difficult to do ‘unusual’ tasks (e.g. one-off
• When making a computer model, consider: glassware for a chemical company)
o What and how data should be collected • They replace skilled labour, leading to unemployment
o Working of the system in real life. • Since robots do many of the tasks once done by humans,
there is a risk of de-skilling
6.6 Applications in Manufacturing Industries
• Because robots are independent of the skills base,
• Robots are used in many areas of manufacturing, from factories can be moved anywhere in the world, again
heavy work right through to delicate operations e.g. car causing unemployment
bodies, welding bodywork, manufacturing of microchips
6.7 School Management Systems
• Learner registration and attendance
• Control of robots is either through embedded
o ID cards with magnetic tapes: The students will have
microprocessors or linked to a computer system
to swipe their ID cards, which contain the student’s
• Programming of the robot to do a task is generally done
name, school’s name, date of birth and the registration
in two ways:
ID, when they enter and leave the school, this way time
o The robot is programmed with a sequence of
is saved and the attendance is more accurate.
instructions which allow it to carry out a series of tasks
o Biometrics: Every student’s fingerprint is stored on a
o Alternatively, a human operator manually carries out a
database along with their personal information, the
series of tasks and how each task is done is relayed
students must put their finger on a fingerprint scanner
back to the robot (embedded processor) or controlling
to enter or leave the school premises.
computer. The sequence of instructions is remembered
so that the robot can automatically carry out each task ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
identically each time (e.g. assembling parts in a • Fingerprints are unique, • Collecting every
television) so another student student’s fingerprint
• Robots are often equipped with sensors so they can can’t give their initially is time-
gather important information about their surroundings attendance for consuming.
• Sensors also prevent them from doing ‘stupid things’, somebody else, like • Fingerprint scanners are
such as stopping a robot spraying a car if no car is with an ID card. more expensive than
present, or stopping the spraying operation if the supply • ID cards can be lost, magnetic stripe readers.
of paint has run out etc. whereas fingerprints • Damages on the finger
• Robots are very good at repetitive tasks can’t be. will deny access.
• However, if there are many different tasks (e.g. making • Magnetic fields can • There is an invasion of
specialist glassware for some scientific work) then it is affect an ID card. privacy in storing
often better to still use human operators • Copies of ID cards can fingerprints on a school
Advantages be made easily. database.
• Robots can work in environments harmful to human
• Learner performance
• The can work non-stop (24/7)
o Spreadsheets can be used to record students’
• They are less expensive in the long term (they don’t
performances. It is easier to compare each other’s
need wages) however they are expensive to buy initially
performances and an individual student’s performance
• Productivity is higher, since they do not need holidays, over the academic year.
are not ill etc.
PAGE 32 OF 57
• Organising examinations • The final details are shown on the screen, together with
o Makes sure that the students are enrolled for the right a reference number
exams. • An email is sent to the customer which they print out as
o Prints the exam timetables. their proof of purchase. In some cases, this also acts as
o Allots examination rooms and the invigilator. their printed ticket when they go to the theatre – an e
o Gathers the results and puts them into the student ticket
database. • The database is updated with the transaction
• Creating timetables and managing teaching Advantages: Disadvantages
No double booking as Set-up and Maintenance
o Considers the student’s choices, availability of
very minimal delay. expensive
teachers and rooms, subject clashes and the number of
Immediate booking and Computer and reliable
hours needed for each subject to produce accurate
selection of seats internet access required
timetables that can easily be made changes to and
Bookings can be made Sever crashes can result in
cover with teacher to be substituted.
any time the bookings completely
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Digital ticket; printing Need for website to be well
• Absenteeism can be • Operating the software and postage costs designed to ensure ease of
addressed more easily. will need some training. reduced/eliminated use
• Parents are kept updated. • The initial cost of the QR codes for No special relation built
• Reduced workload for software is expensive. authentication; no need with booking agent who
teachers. • Unauthorised access will for human, can use can give special
• They are helpful for the have to be prevented as scanner; reduced costs promotions etc.
decision making of the there is lots of personal
administration department information. Real-time (transaction) Processing
• An example of online processing
6.8 Booking Systems • It is used in things like booking seats in a flight or at a
• Booking systems are used for transport (flights, trains theatre
and buses), cinemas and theatres • This type of processing is required so when a query is
Theatre booking system example: sent the response to it should be immediate to prevent
• Customer clicks on performance they wish to see any problems (e.g. in booking seats if the response is not
• They enter date and time of performance and required immediate then can cause problems like double
number of seats booking)
• A seating display at theatre is then shown on screen and Real-time Process Control
user clicks where they want to sit • An example of online processing
• Database searched to check availability of selected seats. • Very different to real-time (transaction) processing
If seating plan shown on screen, this isn’t required • System usually involves sensors and feedback loops
• If seats available, sear numbers are shown together with • In real-time process control, physical quantities are
total price continually monitored and input is processed sufficiently
• If customer is happy with this, they select ‘confirm’ quickly to influence the input source
• The seats are now temporarily set at ‘no longer
• The customer then enters their personal details or
indicates that they are a returning customer
• They select a payment method and make the payment
• The theatre seats are then booked in the customer’s
PAGE 33 OF 57
• Although ATMs are very convenient for customers, they
6.9 Banking Applications do have a few disadvantages:
• Online banking systems rely on the ability to update files o Often in places where theft can take place unnoticed
immediately, thus preventing double booking, which o ‘Fake’ ATMs can be set up to gather information about
could happen if the system response time was slow the card and retain the card
• The use of computer technology has revolutionized how o Some banks charge customers for the use of ATMs
we do our banking transactions, for example: o Someone else could see the PIN being entered and
o Internet banking could use it to commit fraud at a later date (also known
o The use of automated teller machines (ATMs) as ‘shoulder surfing”)
o Chip and PIN technology Clearing Cheques
Automated teller machines (ATMs) • The recipient deposits the check to their bank (Bank A),
• Automated teller machines (ATMs) are places where from where the cheque is sent to a clearing centre.
customers can get cash (or carry out certain other • A sorter/reader reads the sort code (unique 6-digit
banking activities such as order a statement) using their figure), cheque number, the account number and
credit or debit car amount on the cheque.
WHAT GOES ON BEHIND • Depending on the sort code, the cheque is sent to its
THE SCENES respective exchange centre
Customer puts card into Contact is made with • The data from the cheque is encrypted and stored in a
ATM bank’s computer file called IBDE (inter-bank data exchange) along with a
PIN is checked to see if it digital signature to certify the cheque’s authenticity.
PIN is entered using the is correct • From the exchange centre, the cheque is passed to the
keypad Card is checked to see if
respective bank (Bank B)
it is valid
• The bank’s system verifies the digital signature and then
A number of options are
has its sorter/reader sort the cheques in order of the
cheque’s pertaining branch
• Change PIN
• The payee’s A/C is checked to see if adequate funds are
• Top up mobile
• See balance
• The cheque’s details (date, signature, etc.) and only if
• Get money
everything is correct, money is deducted from the
The customer selects the
payee’s A/C and transferred to the recipient’s A/C (in
cash option & several cash
bank A). If the payee’s A/C has insufficient funds/ the
options are shown
cheque is not signed, written correctly, dated etc. /
• The customer’s account is
identified as fraudulent, the cheque is dishonoured/
accessed to see if they
The customer accepts of bounced
have sufficient funds
the options or types in a Phone Banking
• It is checked to see if they The same as internet banking which doesn’t require a
different amount
are withdrawing more computer, but only a telephone.
than their daily limit
The customer is asked if
they want a receipt
The card is returned • Transaction is okay
• Customer’s account is
Money is dispensed

PAGE 34 OF 57
Internet Banking • Patient monitoring:
• Using a username and a password, logging on to a o Sensors measure changes in temperature, heart rate,
banking site from your computer or smart phone to breathing rate, brain activity, blood pressure, blood
make payments, transfer money, view statements, apply sugar levels and oxygen levels in the patient’s body.
loans, etc. o The analogue signals from the sensors are converted
into digital signals using an analogue to digital
TO THE BANK converter.
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES o Graphs are produced to show trends over time.
• Costs reduced, as some • Personal services are o The readings are constantly compared with the pre-set
of the branches can be reduced, so customers may values, if the values aren’t in the prescribed range, the
closed. move their accounts. medical staffs are notified.
• Fewer employees hence • Loans are easier to lend • Hospital management system: All the above-mentioned
reduced wage bill. face-to-face. points come under the hospital management system
• Less qualified workers • IT officials are needed to which holds all of them, and can be used to access data
are accepted which set up and run online from all the departments.
reduces wage costs. banking. • Expert systems:
• Redundancy costs have to o The interactive screen asks a series of question for the
be paid for staffs who lose doctor to answers, using a keyboard or a touch screen.
their job. o The inference engine compares the symptoms with
the knowledge base, using the rule base to find
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES o The system suggests the possible illness with a
• Travelling costs and time • Prone to hacking. probability of each, cures and recommendations on the
are saved. • Lack of personal service next step to be taken.
• Can be accessed 24/7. that you get at the bank. o The explanation system will explain how that
• Easier way of tracking • Cash can’t be withdrawn. particular diagnosis was suggested.
balances. • Using 3D printers in medicine:
o Surgical and diagnostic aids: A CT or MRI is used to
6.10 Computers in Medicine produce images of the internal parts of the body. A 3D
• Patient records: Database that holds patient details and printer can then be used to reproduce the internal
can be accessed from any computer within the hospital organs as a solid object.
intranet. o Prosthetics: 3D printers are used to print out artificial
• Patient identification: Barcodes on wristbands of the body parts such as false tooth, artificial limbs, hearing
patients can be used to access their patient record. aids, etc. This is a less expensive method of replacing
• Pharmacy records: body parts.
o Generates labels for drugs o Tissue engineering: Used to produce layers of cells to
o Checks if the patient is allergic to a particular drug. replace damaged tissues.
o Design of medical tools and equipment: Tools can be
made faster and with reduced costs. They can also be
made changes to easily, whereas it wasn’t the same
with traditional methods.

PAGE 35 OF 57
6.11 Computers in Libraries 6.12 Expert Systems
• Many library systems are computer controlled • These systems have been developed to mimic the
• They usually involve the use of barcodes on the books expertise and knowledge of an expert in a particular field
being borrowed and on the borrower’s library card • Examples include:
• The following describes a computerized library system o Diagnosing a person’s illness
based on barcodes o Diagnostics (finding faults in a car engine, finding
• There are two files: faults on a circuit board, etc.)
o Book file, containing fields for example: barcode, book o Prospecting for oil and minerals
title, name of author etc. o Tax and financial calculations
o Borrower’s file, containing fields for example: o Chess games
borrower’s number, borrower’s name etc. o Identification of plants, animals and chemical
• When a borrower takes out a book, the book’s code is compounds
scanned o Road scheduling for delivery vehicles
• The book details are then found on book file
• The borrower’s library card barcode is then scanned for
the borrower’s unique number
• The book file is linked to the borrower’s file and both
files are updated to indicate which book has been
borrowed and when it is due back
• The borrower’s file is interrogated daily by the computer Expert System Setup
to see which books are overdue for return: • Experts in the field are interviewed to find out what is
o The computer reads a record from the book file needed in the expert system
o It compares the date due back with the current date • Data is then collected from these experts
o If the date due back is less than (or equal to) the
• A knowledge base is designed and then created
current date (i.e. earlier date) …
• The rules base is designed and created
o …using the barcode number of the book…
• The inference engine is designed and created
o …the book file is linked to the borrower’s file…
• The input screen and output format are also designed
o …and the corresponding record is read from the
and created – this is known as the user interface
borrower’s file
• The expert system is tested against known conditions
o The customer details are then found and a letter or
and scenarios
email is automatically sent out
• It is also checked to see if it meets the original
o The next record in the book file is then read…
o …until the whole file has been checked
• Experts are interviewed about how effective it is before
the expert system goes out on general release
• Expert systems provide consistent answers
• They never ‘forget’ to answer a question when
determining the logic
• Using expert systems reduces the time taken to solve a
• A less skilled worker force is needed, which gives the
potential of saving money, but also allows areas of the
world access to expertise which they could not normally

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Disadvantages 6.13 Computers in the Retail Industry
• They tend to lack common sense in some of the Automatic Stock Control
decision-making processes • Automatic stock control systems rely on the use of
• Errors in the knowledge base can lead to incorrect barcodes
decisions being made • Barcodes now appear on most products sold in shops
• It can be expensive to set up in the first place • They allow quick identification of product details once
• Considerable training is necessary to ensure the system the barcode has been scanned by a barcode reader
is sued correctly by the operators • Supermarkets use electronic point of sale (EPOS)
Components of an Expert System terminals, which incorporate a barcode reader that scans
User Interface the barcode, retrieve the price of the article and relay
• This is the only thing that the end user sees information back to the computer system allowing it to
• Allows the user to interact with the system update its files
• Often requires training to operate effectively • Barcodes are made up of alternating dark and light lines
Knowledge base of varying thickness
• This is a database designed to allow the complex storage • A number underneath the barcode usually consists of
and retrieval requirements of a computerized four parts: country code, manufacturer’s code, product
knowledge-based management system (in support of an code, and a check digit
expert system) • The check digit is a form of validation which is used to
Inference engine make sure no errors occurred during the reading of the
• This is software that attempts to derive answers from barcode
the knowledge base using a form of reasoning • Every time the barcode is read, this calculation is
• It is how expert systems appear to use human-like performed to ensure that it has been scanned correctly
reasoning when accessing information from the Electronic Funds Transfer at Point of Sale (EFTPOS)
knowledge base in an effort to find a conclusion to a • Many credit cards are equipped with a chip as well as a
given problem magnetic stripe – containing the PIN
• The inference engine is a type of reasoning engine • This system is designed to enhance security since it is
Rules base better than relying only on a signature
• This is made up of a series of ‘inference rules’ (e.g. IF the • When paying for items using a chip and PIN card, a form
country is in South America AND the language used is of electronic funds transfer (EFT) takes place
Portuguese THEN the country must be Brazil)
• These inference rules are used by the inference engine
to draw conclusions
• They closely follow human-like reasoning
Suggesting Diagnoses
• The interactive screen asks a series of question for the
doctor to answers, using a keyboard or a touch screen.
• The inference engine compares the symptoms with the
knowledge base, using the rule base to find matches.
• The system suggests the possible illness with a
probability of each, cures and recommendations on the
next step to be taken.
• The explanation system will explain how that particular
diagnoses was suggested.

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Paying for a meal example TO SELLER
• Waiter inserts card into chip and PIN reader ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
• Restaurant’s bank contact customer’s bank • No need to pay rents • ICT knowledge needed to
• Card is checked to if valid • No fixed working hours set up website
• If card is stolen or expired, then transaction is • Less/no shoplifting • Unemployment
terminated • Sell goods to customers • Business abroad is lost if
• Customer enters PIN using keypad anywhere in the world the prices are cheaper
• PIN is read from chip on card and is compared to one • Cheaper to contact there
just keyed in customers (via e-mail) • At times of network
• If they are the same, the transaction can proceed • Site warehouse where failures, there will be no
• Check is then made on whether they have enough funds rental is cheap access
• If there are not enough funds available, transaction is • Sell goods 24/7 • Not everybody can access
terminated. Otherwise, transaction is authorized the internet, so a few
• Authorization code is sent to restaurant customers are lost
• Price of meal is deducted from customer’s account • Customer’s personal data
• Same amount of money is credited to restaurant’s bank can be hacked
account • Postal charges discourage
• Receipt is produced as proof of purchase people at times
Internet Shopping
• Online shopping: Shopping over the internet.
TO CUSTOMER 6.14 Recognition Systems
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES • Automatic Number Plate Recognition(ANPR) systems:
• Cheaper goods (the • Quality isn’t assured o A sensor sends signals to a microprocessor, which
company doesn’t have to • People are worried about instructs a camera to capture the front of a vehicle.
pay rent for stores and giving their card details o OCR software is used to read the number plate from
doesn’t need more online. the image. The characters are then converted to text
employees) • Packing and postal format in order to store it in a database
• Wide range of products charges are added
• Delivery at your doorstep • Personal services that • Processing of cheques:
• You can shop 24/7 you get from stores are o The value of a cheque is printed in special ink
• Shop from any part of the missed. containing iron particles when a cheque is presented.
world • Returning the products is o MICR is used to read the characters at the bottom of
• You save the travelling harder the cheque.
costs of going for shopping • No relaxation that you o A batch processing method is then used to process all
get from actual shopping the cheques at the end of a specific time period.
• Bogus sites are present
where you pay and never • OMR media in schools:
receive the product o School registers: Paper-based registers are fed into
OMR to be scanned and are then stored on a database.
o Multiple-choice examination papers: The position of a
mark is stored in a computer’s memory after being
read by the OMR device using a template that maps
out the X-Y coordinates of each lozenge (pen/pencil

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• RFID in passports: • Employee call monitors: Allows the employer to listen to
o The data on the RFID chip is read when the passport is employee’s telephone calls. There are three ways it can
scanned. be used:
o A photo of you is clicked which is then compared with o Monitor: The manager/supervisor can listen to calls
the image stored in the RFID chip. without the employee or the customer’s awareness.
o If the face-recognition passes, some checks are made o Whisper: The manager can help the employee with
in turn to make sure you are eligible to enter the the call, but the customer can’t hear the manager
country, and if you are, the gate opens automatically. speak.
• RFID in contactless payments: o Barge: Both the employee and the customer can hear
o The embedded chip on credit/debit cards and the the manager
antenna enable customers to wave their card over a • Employee call monitors: Allows the employer to listen to
reader at the point of sale terminals to make payments employee’s telephone calls. Call monitors can be used:
o Smartphone apps can also be used to make o to improve the employee’s performance
contactless payments. o to allow the manager/supervisor to join a call where
6.15 Monitoring & Tracking Systems o as a training tool
• Public monitoring/tracking: • Uses of Automatic Number Plate Recognition(ANPR)
o Ankle monitor: uses RFID chip to give out the person’s systems:
location and other details. It is tamper proof and will o Traffic enforcement: the system can check if a vehicle
alert authorities if tried to remove. is taxed, recognize cars parked illegally, cars speeding
o Phone call tracking: the service provider tracks the or going through red lights so a fine can be imposed.
calls and the exact position from which they were o Car park management: the system reads the
made registration number and if allowed into the car park,
• Worker monitoring/tracking: Workers are the barrier is raised.
monitored/tracked in the following ways: o Electronic toll collection: the system recognizes the
o Supermarket workers: have the number of items vehicle and deducts the fare accordingly.
passing through the tills over a period of time Cookies
monitored. • Cookies are small files sent to a user’s computer via their
o Internet use is monitored by network managers: web browser when they visit certain websites
they can check sites visited and time spent on that site • They store information about the users and this data is
during working hours. accessed each time they visit the website
o Emails can be read: Employers can check that no • For example:
personal mails are sent during office hours. o They remember who the user is and send messages
o Delivery drivers: Their location can be tracked using such as “Welcome Sarah” each time they log onto the
GPS systems. It can also be checked if they are website
following the shortest route and aren’t speeding. o They recognize the user’s buying preferences e.g. if a
• Key logging: Software that records the keys pressed by a user buys CDs, pop ups related to their buying habits
user on the keyboard. They are used to find username will appear on the user’s screen each time they visit
and passwords of a user. the website
• Without cookies, web server would have no way of
knowing that the user had visited website before
• For this reason, cookies could be used to monitor one’s
internet activity

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6.16 Satellite Systems 7. SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE
Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Introduction
• Used to determine the exact location of several modes • A systems analysis team is often brought in to review an
of transport existing system and suggest several improvements
• Cars usually refer to GPS as satellite navigation systems • The existing method used may be either a manual paper-
• Satellites surrounding the Earth transmit signals to the based system or a computer-based operation that is no
surface longer regarded as adequate for the task
• Computers installed in the mode of transport receive
and interpret these signals 7.1 Analysis
• Knowing their position on the Earth depends on very • The basic steps in the analysis stage can be summarized
accurate timing – atomic clocks are used in the satellites as follows:
which are accurate to within a fraction of a second per 1. Fact finding/collecting data from the current
day system
• Each satellite transmits data indicating its position & 2. Description of the current
time system – establishing the
• The computer on board the mode of transport calculates inputs, outputs and
its exact position based on the information from at least processing being done
three satellites 3. Identification of the
Satellite Navigation problems with the current
• Used to determine the exact location of a car. system
o The computers onboard can be used to show 4. Agreeing the objectives
directions to a destination. with the customer
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) 5. Identifying and agreeing
• Used to capture, manage, analyse and display the customer’s
geographically referenced information. requirements
o Use to determine distance between two places. 6. Interpreting the
o Used to find the nearest petrol station or restaurant, customer’s requirements
etc. 7. Producing a cost-benefit analysis
o To protect animal and plant life in certain vulnerable 8. Producing a data flow diagram
o Can be used in geography, science or engineering
Media Communication Systems
• Using satellite signals for communication.
o Used by media companies when sending
stories/videos/pictures from remote locations.

4 Common Methods of Fact Finding

• Involves watching personnel using the existing system to
find out exactly how it works
• Advantages
o The analyst obtains reliable data
o It is possible to see exactly what us being done
o It is a relatively inexpensive method

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• Disadvantages • Advantages
o People are generally uncomfortable being watched o It allows information to be obtained which was not
and may work in a different way possible by any of the other methods
o If workers perform tasks that violate standard o The analyst can see for themselves how the paper
procedures, they may not do this while being watched system operates
Interviews o It allows the analyst to get some idea of the scale of
• Involves a one-to-one question-and-answer session the problem, memory size requirements, type of
between the analyst and the employee/customer input/output devices needed
• Advantages • Disadvantages
o It gives the opportunity to motivate the interviewee o It can be very time consuming
into giving open and honest answers to the analyst’s o Because of the analyst’s time, it is a relatively
questions expensive method
o It allows the analyst to probe for more feedback from
the interviewee, as it is easier to extend a question 7.2 Design
o It is possible to modify questions as the interview • Once the analysis has taken place and the systems
proceeds and ask questions specific to the interviewee analyst has some idea of the scale of the problem and
o It is a good method if the analyst wants to probe what needs to be done, the next stage is to design the
deeply into one specific aspect of the existing system key parts of the recommended system
• Disadvantages • A list of tasks is summarized here
o It can be rather time consuming o Designing data capture forms/input forms
o It is relatively expensive, due to the use of the o Designing screen layouts
analyst’s time o Designing output forms and reports
o The interviewee cannot remain anonymous o Producing systems flowcharts and/or pseudo code
Questionnaires o Selecting and designing validation rules that need to
• Involves sending out questionnaires to the work force be used
and/or to customers to find out views of the existing o Selecting the most appropriate data verification
system and find out how some key tasks are carried out methods
• Advantages o Designing and agreeing the file structures and tables
o The questions can be answered quite quickly o Selecting and designing the hardware requirements
o It is a relatively inexpensive method o Selecting and designing the software requirements
o Individuals can remain anonymous if they want o Producing algorithms or program flowcharts
o It allows quick analysis of the data o Designing a testing strategy/plan
• Disadvantages Verification
o Often the number of returned questionnaire is low • A way of preventing errors when data is copied from one
o The questions are rather inflexible since they have to medium to another
be generic • Double entry: data is entered twice, using two different
o There is no immediate way to clarify a vague or people
incomplete answer to a question o The computer compares the two entries, either after
Looking at Existing Paperwork data entry or during the data entry process, and
Allows the analyst to see how the paper files are kept, identifies any differences
look at operating instructions and training manuals, check • Visual check: checking for errors by comparing entered
the accounts, etc. data on the screen with the data in the original
document (not the same as proof reading)

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Validation Development stages
• Process where data is checked to see if it satisfies certain • If the system contains files (e.g. a database) then the file
criteria when input into a computer, for example to see structure needs to be finalized at this stage (e.g. what
if the data falls within accepted boundaries type of data is being stored in each field, length of each
• Range Check: Checks whether data is within field, which field will be the key field, how the data files
given/acceptable values. will be linked, etc.)
o E.g. A person’s age should be in range > 0 but < 150 • Once the file structure has been determined, it is then
• Length Check: Checks if the input data contains the created and fully tested to make sure it is robust when
required number of characters the system actually goes live
o E.g. If a field needs six digits then inputting a five- or • Since it is important that correct data is stored in files,
seven-digit number, for example should cause an error there are certain techniques that need to be adopted to
message make sure the data populating the file and database is at
• Character/type Check: Checks that the input data does least of the right type & that it conforms to certain rules
not contain invalid characters • Validation routines and verification methods are used to
o E.g. A person’s name should not contain any numbers, ensure this happens
but a person’s height should only contain digits • Again, routines have to be fully tested to ensure they
• Format/picture Check: Checks that data is in a specific trap unwanted data but also to make sure any data
format transferred from a paper-based system to an electronic
o E.g. Date should be in the form dd/mm/yyyy system has been done accurately
• Limit Check: Similar to range check except that only one • Any system being developed will have some form of user
of the limits (boundaries) is checked interface
o E.g. Input data must be > 10 • The types of hardware were chosen in the design stage
• Presence Check: Checks if data is actually present and • How these are used to interface with the final system
has not been missed out now needs to be identified, for example how the screens
o E.g. In an electronic form, a person’s telephone will be used to collect the data and the way the output
number may be a required field and if no data is will be presented
present this should give rise to an error message • If specialist hardware is needed (e.g. for people with
• Consistency Check: Checks if fields correspond (tie up) disabilities), then it will be necessary to finalize how
with each other these devices are used with the system when it is
o E.g. If ‘Mr’ has been typed into a field called title then implemented
the gender field must contain either ‘M’ or ‘Male • This will be followed by thorough testing to ensure the
• Check Digit: Look at an extra digit which is calculated user screens are user friendly and that the correct
from the digits of a number and then put on the end of output is associated with the inputs to the system
the number Testing strategies
o E.g. Check digits can identify three types of error: • Testing of each module needs to be done to ensure each
▪ If two digits have been inverted during input one functions correctly on its own
▪ An incorrect digit entered twice • Once the development of each module is completed, the
▪ A digit missed out altogether whole system needs to be tested (i.e. all modules
functioning together)
7.3 Development & Testing • Even though each individual module may work
• Once the design stage is completed, it is then necessary satisfactorily, when they are all put together there may
to create the system and fully test it be data clashes, incompatibility and memory issues
• This section considers some of the development stages • All of this may lead to a need to improve the input and
and testing strategies which are often adopted by output methods, file and database structures, validation
system analysts and verification methods
• Then the system will need to be fully tested again

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• It is a very time-consuming process but the system must
be as perfect as possible before it goes live
• Testing will use many different types of data, which will
fall into one of three categories: normal, extreme or
• Let us suppose one of the fields in a database is the date
and this must be in the form dd/mm/yyyy, where each
element of the date must be numeric:
o Normal: this is data which is acceptable/valid and has
an expected (known) outcome, e.g. the month can be
any whole number in the range 1 to 12
o Extreme: this is data at the limits of
acceptability/validity, e.g. the month can be either of
the two end values i.e. 1 or 12
4 Common Methods of Changing Systems
o Abnormal: this is data outside the limits of Direct
acceptability/validity and should be rejected or cause • The old system is stopped overnight and the new system
an error message introduced immediately
o For example, all the following values are not allowed • Advantages
as inputs for the month: o The benefits are immediate
▪ Negative numbers (e.g. -1, -15) o Costs are reduced - since only one system is used
▪ Any value greater than 12 (e.g. 32, 45) there is no need to pay for two sets of staff
▪ Letters or other non-numeric data (e.g. July) o There is less likelihood of a malfunction since the new
▪ Non-integer values (e.g. 3.5, 10.75) system will have been fully tested
• Disadvantages
7.4 Implementation
o This method can be disastrous if the new system fails
• Once the system is fully tested, the next stage is to fully
Parallel Running
implement it
• The old and new systems are run side by side for a time
• We will now consider changeover to the new system in
before the new system takes over altogether
more depth
• Advantages
• There are four common methods used for changing over
o If the new system fails, the old system is still available
from the old system to the new system
as a back-up
• Each one has advantages and disadvantages which need
o It is possible to train staff gradually
to be weighed up before the most appropriate method is
o Staff have time to get used to the new system
chosen for a particular application
• Disadvantage
o It is more expensive than direct changeover, since
extra staff are needed to run both systems together
Pilot Implementation
• The new system is introduced into one part of the
company (e.g. into a warehouse of a supermarket) and
its performance assessed

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• Advantages
o If the new system fails, only one part of the company 7.5 Documentation
is affected • Once the new system is fully developed, a considerable
o It is possible to train staff in one area only, which is amount of documentation needs to be produced
much faster and less costly than parallel running o For the end user
o The costs are also less than parallel running, since only o For people who may need to modify or develop the
one part of the system is being used in the pilot system further at some later stage
• Disadvantages • There is some overlap between the two types of
o It is more expensive than direct changeover, since documentation, but the basic requirements are shown
each pilot scheme needs to be evaluated before the below
next stage is introduced Technical Documentation
Phased Implementation • Technical documentation is designed to help
• Initially, only part of the new system is introduced programmers & analysts who need to make
• Only when it proves to work satisfactorily is the next part improvements or repair/maintain to the system
introduced, and so on, until old system is fully replaced • This can consist of any of the following:
• Advantages o purpose of the system/program/software
o If the latest part fails, it is only necessary to go back in o program listing/coding
the system to the point of failure, hence failure is not o programming language used
disastrous o flowchart/algorithm
o It is possible to ensure the system works properly o input formats
before expanding o hardware requirements
• Disadvantages o software requirements
o This is more expensive than direct changeover, since it o minimum memory requirements
is necessary to evaluate each phase before moving to o known bugs in the system
the next stage o list of variables used (and their meaning/description)
Comparing Changeover Methods o file structures
CHANGEOVER o sample runs (with test data and results)
RELATIVE o validation rules
Low High Medium Medium o meaning of error messages
NEEDED BY Medium High Low Medium
Low* Low Medium Medium
High Low Low Medium

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User Documentation • To evaluate the system, the analyst will:
• User documentation is designed to help users to learn o compare the final solution with the original
how to use the software or system requirement
• This can consist of any of the following: o identify any limitations in the system
o the purpose of the system/program/software package o identify any necessary improvements that need to be
o how to log in/log out made
o how to load/run the software o evaluate the user’s responses to using the new system
o how to save files o compare test results from the new system with results
o how to do a search from the old system
o how to sort data o compare the performance of the new system with the
o how to do printouts performance of the old system
o how to add, delete or amend records o observe users performing set tasks, comparing old
o screen layouts (input) with new
o print layouts (output) o measure the time taken to complete tasks, comparing
o hardware requirements old with new
o software requirements o interview users to gather responses about how well
o sample runs (with test data and results) the new system works
o error handling/meaning of errors o give out questionnaires to gather responses about the
o troubleshooting guide/help lines/FAQs ease of use of the new system
o tutorials • Some results from the evaluation may require changes
to either hardware or software. Hardware may need to
7.6 Evaluation be updated because:
• Once a system is up and running it is necessary to do o of feedback from end users
some evaluation and carry out any maintenance, if o new hardware comes on the market, making change
necessary. necessary
• This is done to ensure the efficiency of the system, the o there are changes within the company which require
ease of use of the system, and the appropriateness of new devices to be added or updated
the system. • Software may need to be updated because:
• The following is a list of some of the things considered o of feedback from end users
when evaluating how well the new system has worked. o changes to the company structure or how the
This can ultimately lead back to a re-design of part of the company works may need modifications to the
system if there is strong evidence to suggest that software
changes need be made. o changes in legislation may need modifications to the

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Personal Data
8. SAFETY & SECURITY • Any data regarding a living person who can be identified
against the data or the data along with any other
8.1 Physical Safety information.
WAYS OF ELIMINATING OR • Examples of personal data:
• Use a residual circuit breaker o Home Address
(RCB) o Banking details (A/C no, pin, etc.)
ELECTROCUTION • Check insulation on wires o Medical history (suffered from depression, etc.)
FROM SPILLING regularly o Personal data like ethnic origin, political views,
DRINKS • Do not allow drinks near criminal activity, mental health history,
computers o Sexual orientation and religion can be used to
• Check equipment regularly blackmail victims of data breaches
• Cable ducts- make wires safe • If personal data is leaked (data breach), the following
• Cover wires/tuck them away can occur:
• Use wireless connections o Identity theft
• Strong desk/tables to support o Bank fraud
heavy hardware o Damages to personal property
• Use large desks and tables so o Kidnapping (if kidnappers get access to the victim’s
that hardware doesn’t fall off address.
edge o Etc.
• Have a CO2 fire extinguisher • To prevent the above, it is essential that personal data is
nearby protected.
FIRE RISK FROM • Don’t cover equipment vents- • Personal data can be leaked intentionally and
OVERLOADING can cause equipment to unintentionally. Electronic data is at risk due to: hacking,
SOCKETS OR overheat viruses, spyware, phishing, pharming, Smishing, vishing,
EQUIPMENT • Make sure hardware is fully ransomware1, spam, moderated and un-moderated
OVERHEATING maintained forums, cookies, etc.
• Do not overload sockets with too • If a student shares a photograph of themselves in their
many items school uniform on social media, then paedophiles, child
predators, kidnappers, etc. can physically reach the
8.2 E-Safety student. This should not be done
• E-safety refers to the safety of data and personal
information while using the internet.
• E-safety is required to make sure a user’s personal
information is not made vulnerable and even leaked to
hacker’s for e.g., which can lead to identity fraud, bank
A/C issues, etc.

A malicious program that encrypts data on a computer system
and demands for a ransom to provide and decrypt the data
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Internet Safety Online Games
• To keep personal data safe, one must: • Similar measures apply to that taken when using social
o Not give unknown people (on the internet) personal media.
information or send pictures of oneself to them. • Additionally, players should be careful about:
o Maintain privacy settings to control which cookies are o In-game violence
on their computer o Cyber bullying
o Use learner friendly search engines and websites o Keeping their webcams off (other potentially
recommended by your educational institution, e.g. dangerous players have direct access to your image) o Predators may use voice masking technology to lure a
o The website being accessed is from a trusted source, user to reveal their age, sex etc.
or has a padlock symbol/ https protocol (s for secure): o Cyber-attacks involving viruses, ransomware, etc.

8.3 Security of Data

• Hackers are people who get into your computer system
without having the rights. It can lead to corruption or
loss of data or a data breach
o Some prove that a system is vulnerable - maybe
employed to test (ethical hacking)
o Some want to steal data
o Alter or destroy data
o For fun or a challenge
Email Safety • Prevention:
• Open emails from known sources, and do not click on an o Protect with authentication techniques (user ID and
emails wit hyperlinks without confirming with the sender password, etc.)
of the email. Think before opening an email from an o Have a backup of data in case of damage
unknown person, never send any other sensitive o Firewalls
information (picture in school uniform, credit card PIN, User IDs
etc.) • To log on to a network, a user must type in a user ID
• Ask their ISP to eanble email filtering to classfy spam • User ID assigns user privilege once user logs in
mails as spam. • The top-level privilege for a network is an administrator:
Social Media Safety o Able to set passwords and delete files from server etc.
• Blcok and report users who seem suspicous or use • User privilege may only allow to access their own work
inappropriate language area
• Never use you real name, only use a nickname Passwords
• Use appropraite language • After typing in user ID, the user will be requested to type
• Do not enter private chat rooms, as users can lure you in their password
into giving personal inforamtion by seeming too nice. • Generally, it is a combination of letters and numbers
• Do not meet anyone off the internet for the first time on • Passwords are shown as stars (***) so nobody
your own, or atleast speak to a trusted adult first. overlooking can see it
• Do not missue images (of someone to blackmail them, • Many systems ask for password to be typed in twice as a
for e.g.) verification check, in case of input errors
• Respect the confidentiality of other users • To help protect the system, user has a finite number of
• If password is forgotten, administrator must reset it
• If password is forgotten on a website, it will be sent to
your e-mail
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Biometric Data Features of a Secure Web Page
• Uses features of the human body unique to every • Webpage URL: If the webpage is secure, it will start with
individual, such as fingerprints, retina, iris, face and voice ‘https’ instead of ‘http’.
recognitions. It is used in authentication techniques as it • Padlock sign
is very difficult / impossible to replicate. Phishing
• Phishing is a fraudulent operation involving the use of
ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES • The creator sends out a legitimate looking email hoping
• Usernames and • The readers are expensive to gather personal and financial information from the
passwords don’t have to • Damages in fingerprints can recipient of the email
be remembered deny access • The message appears to be from a legitimate source
• Almost impossible to • Some people worry about (e.g. a famous bank)
replicate body parts. their personal information • When the user clicks on the link they are sent to a spoof
• Somebody else can’t being stored website
gain access, like with a • They will be asked for personal info e.g. credit card
stolen card details, PINs
• They can’t be forgotten, • This could lead to identity theft
like a card • ISPs attempt to filter out phishing emails
Digital Certificate • Pharming is a scam in which malicious code is installed
• A digital certificate is an electronic passport used in the on a computer hard disk or a server
security of data sent over the internet. • This code can misdirect users to fraudulent websites
• They can be attached with mails so that the receiver can without their knowledge
know that the mail is sent from a trusted source. • Phishing requires an email to be sent to every person
who has been targeted, while pharming does not require
Secure Socket Layer (SSL) emails to be sent out to anyone
• Type of protocol that allows data to be sent and received • Pharming can target a larger group of people more easily
securely over the internet • How pharming works:
• When a user logs onto a website, SSL encrypts the data o A hacker will infect the computer with a virus, either
• https or padlock in the status bar by sending an email or installing software on their
• When user wants to access a secure website: computer when they first visit their website
o User’s web browser sends a message, so it can o Once infected, the virus sends user to a fake website
connect with required website which is secured by SSL that looks identical to the one they wanted to visit
o Web browser requests that the web server identifies o Personal info. from the user’s computer can be picked
itself up by the pharmer/hacker
o Web server responds by sending a copy of its SSL o Anti-spyware, anti-virus software or anti-pharming
certificate software can be used to identify this code and correct
o Web browser checks if certificate is authentic the corruption
o Sends signal back to web browser Smishing
o Starts to transmit data once connection is established • An attempt to extract a user’s confidential information
o If not secure, browser will display an open padlock via SMS (short message service) by tricking the user into
downloading a Trojan horse (a virus that masks itself).
• It is phishing via SMS.

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Preventing Phishing, Pharming & Smishing Spam
• User education • Spam is electronic junk mail and is a type of advertising
• Set up anti-malware and anti-spyware software from a company sent out to a target mailing list
• Enabling protocols such as SPF and DKIM • Harmless but can clog up networks and slow them down
• Do not download random .exe (executable file formats), • It is more of a nuisance than a security risk
.php, .bat, .com etc. • Many ISPs are good at filtering out spam, and prevent
• Users should when being redirected to other websites. the user from getting these spam emails.
• Therefore, technology enables unauthorised users to • It is often necessary to put a legitimate email address
gain access to otherwise inaccessible information. into a contact list to ensure wanted emails are not
• If a person on the internet is asking for personal filtered out by mistake
information, or to meet in real life or acting suspicious, Encryption
they should be reported to cyber security agencies, or • The conversion of data to code by encoding it
one’s parents/guardians. • Done by using encryption software
• Websites/pop-ups can be made to mimic legitimate • Since data is encoded, it appears meaningless to a
ones, or seem too good to be true, for hacker
instead of • This technique prevents illegal access
• Necessary to use decryption software to decode the data
• Used to protect sensitive data e.g. banking details
• Encryption keys are complex algorithms which makes
codes almost unbreakable
Computer Viruses
• It is a malicious program that replicates itself and is
designed to cause harm to a computer system. They
spread through downloadable files, external store media
(e.g. pen drives, etc.)
• Banks and organisations will never ask for a PIN to be
o May cause the computer to crash
entered on website like this.
Effects of phishing, pharming and Smishing on a user: o Loss of files, corruption of the data
• Personal and sensitive information is lost, which can be • Viruses infect computers through email attachments,
used for previously stated purposes. illegal software or downloaded files
Moderated & Unmoderated Forums • Prevention of Viruses
Online forums are places on the internet where people o Anti-virus software - Detects and then removes or
isolates and use firewalls
can join discussions on almost any topic and also add their
o Do not use illegal software
o Only download from reputable sites
• There are two types of forums:
The threats of using credit cards online and prevention:
• Key logging/spywares: records the keys pressed on a
• Has a moderator who • No moderator who checks keyboard.
checks comments the comments o Can be used to obtain credit card details, passwords
before they are posted • Spams, rude and offensive and personal information.
• There will be no spams comments present o Use virtual keyboards to type in password.
or rude and offensive • Diversions from topic are o Install anti-spyware software.
comments possible
• No diversions from the • Personal information can
topic be obtained from you
• Highly secure due to • Not secure due to lack of
moderation moderation

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• Bogus sites: sites that look exactly like the original sites, • Tasks carried out by firewall:
but aren’t. o Examining ‘traffic’
o They can steal your card details and personal o Checking weather incoming or outgoing data meets
information when you make purchases. criteria
o Always type in URLs, sometimes links in the mails can o If data fails the criteria, the firewall blocks ‘traffic’
be of bogus sites. o Firewall can keep a list of all undesirable IP addresses
• Phishing, pharming and Smishing: o Helping to prevent viruses or hackers entering the
o They trick you to reveal card and personal details as user’s computer
responses to messages or mails. Methods of Internet Security
o Open attachments only from trusted sources. AUTHENTICATION ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
o Install anti-spyware software. METHOD
PASSWORDS • Inexpensive, • Can be easily
• Hacking into secure sites to obtain the details:
as nothing hacked
o Encrypting the details will make it of no use to the other than a • Can be forgotten
hacker. computer is
o Use strong passwords. required
o Use firewalls. FINGERPRINT • Highly • Intrusive
• Tapping into wireless networks: SCANS recognized • Damages will
everywhere prevent access
o Always use a password controlled Wi-Fi since it is
• Very high
relatively hard to tap into a secured Wi-Fi. accuracy
CREDIT CARDS) * storage
Cloud Storage requirement

• Your data is stored remotely and not on your computer,

so you don’t have control over the physical security of SIGNATURE • Non-intrusive • Problems occur if
your data. RECOGNITION • Very little sign is not
• Some of the data stored may be personal data which are time to consistent
open to hackers, and have to be encrypted in order to identify • High error rate
• Relatively low (one in 50)
prevent hackers from obtaining them.
• The company providing the storage may go out of RETINA SCANS • Very high • Very intrusive
business. In this case what has to be done to the data accuracy • Relatively slow to
will have to be considered. • No known verify retina scans
• The company providing the storage will have to put in all way to • Very expensive to
its efforts and safety measures in order to keep your replicate a install and set up
data safe. retina
• If the company providing the storage doesn’t backup IRIS RECOGNITION • Very high • Very intrusive
your data, you may lose it in case of power cuts or fires, accuracy • Lot of memory
etc. • Verification needed for
Firewalls time is usually storage
• A firewall sits between the user’s computer and an less than 5 • Very expensive to
seconds install and set up
external network (internet) and filter information in and
FACE • Non-intrusive • Affected by
out of the computer RECOGNITION • Relatively changes in
inexpensive lighting, person’s
hairstyle, age and

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Audience Needs
9. AUDIENCE • After finding out about your targeted audience you need
to aim to meet those demands
9.1 Audience Appreciation • Developers of the ICT product must ensure that they
Knowing Your Audience meet as many of these needs as possible
• When designing ICT solutions, you must consider • Common Needs for Common Audiences:
• There are 4 main characteristics of an audience • Bright/cheerful colours
• Age: • Animations/sounds/pictures
o Can affect audience’s interests in your product • Less text
o Large fonts and colours attract children YOUNG
• Simple wording
o More stylish and trendy layout attracts young adults CHILDREN
• Large text
• Gender • Games/activities
o Design product for a specific gender • Easy to use
o Younger girls are often attracted to pink • Attractive/stylish colours
o Males generally prefer blue spectrum • Interesting content
• Income TEENS &
• Balance of pictures and text
o Knowing this will help in attractive pricing strategies ADULTS
• Clear fonts
o Promoting certain products are targeted for people • Bullet points
within a specific range of incomes
• Contrasting/easy-to-read colours
• Interests
• Include clear instructions
o Can help with advertising content
• Use slightly larger font sizes
o Content that meets the exact description of audience’s SENIORS
• Fewer technical terms
interest is more likely to attract them to your product
• Consistent design
• Easy to use
Potential Problems
• If products are not built towards a specific audience well
then problems may arise
• An older audience may not be able to understand or
read text due to poor font design
• A younger audience may not be able to understand
certain text due to complex wording & structure
• Several audiences may just not find content interesting
since it is not relevant enough to them
• Several audiences may not find content attractive
enough and thus not purchase or use it at all
• Younger & older audience may not understand how to
use the product due to lack of simple instruction

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Implications of ICT Solutions
9.2 Legal, Moral, Ethical & Cultural • When creating an ICT solution, all the following have to
Appreciation be considered and the solution must be made in
Copyright Legislation response and respect to these factors:
• A law that protects books, music art and other media o Legal: Ensure copyright laws are abided by including
that are written is copyright law not using any coding or branding from existing
o It is an automatic right and does not need applying for copyrighted software.
o The person who owns the rights must be asked before o Morality: To distinguish from right or wrong.
it can be used again Sometimes it may not be illegal to carry out an act
o Software is a specific thing created and written on a however it could be against your morals. For example,
computer setting up a fake website to deceive is not illegal but
o Needs to be protected as it is so easy for people to questions your level of morality.
copy o Ethics: Is to break a code of conduct. For example,
o This is a way of protecting software from being used disclosure of information about the new software to a
without permission rival software publisher or to the press.
o Users create a license which determines the terms and o Culture: When software is released in different
conditions cultures then care must be taken so that people are
Copyright Laws not offended. If certain computer games mock religion
• It is not legal to make a copy of software, then sell it or or cultural beliefs, then again this could cause offence.
give it away to other people
• Software cannot be used on a network unless a network 10. COMMUNICATION
license has been acquired
• Not legal to use coding from software in your own 10.1 Email
software without permission National Laws
• Renting out software without permission is illegal • In some countries, emails are monitored or read, thus
• It is illegal to use the name of copyrighted software limiting the topics on which you can speak.
without permission Acceptable Language
Software Protection • Language used in emails must lie within an acceptable
• Installed software will require a unique reference code of practice. The following is a list of unacceptable
number content that are beyond the code of practice:
• User will have to accept license agreement o Obscene images
• Holograms are used to indicate software is original o Abusive language
• Software may only run if CD-ROM or DVD-ROM is o Racist, exploitative and violent messages
actually in the drive o Use of illegal materials in messages
• Some software will only run if a memory stick is plugged
• Copyright laws apply to text in emails. Forwarding a
in USB ports
block of text or an image without the copyright owner’s
Creating ICT Solutions
permission, it would be illegal.
• ICT solutions, for e.g. a website should be made in
Employer Guidelines
accordance to the legal, moral, ethical and cultural
• If the rules in the ‘contract of employment’ set out by
beliefs of the target audience.
the employer is not obeyed, you would be in breach of
your contract and could be dismissed.
• Emails containing personal information should be
encrypted to prevent hackers from understanding the
information if they manage to hack into the email.

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Netiquette Cloud storage:
• Some of the rules that the netiquette contains is: • The storage of data (remotely) on the internet.
o Don’t be abusive • This data is accessible by the user with the requirement
o Don’t send spam of an appropriate authentication technique (e.g. user ID
o Be precise and password).
o Check spelling and grammatical errors Search Engine:
o Ensure attachments are not too large • A search Engine is used to find information on the
o Don’t use CAPITAL LETTERS to highlight comments internet without knowing the (Uniform Resource
o Don’t plagiarize Locator) of the webpage holding the information.
o Don’t use too many emoticons Blog
User ID and Password Protection • Personal internet journals where the writer posts their
• Email services are require a user ID to authenticate users observations on a topic
• Passwords should contain alphabets, numbers and • No training is needed to do this
special characters (#,*). • Blogs range from minor projects (e.g. people gossiping
• Email Groups about a topic) to important subjects such as politics or
• Easier to send out multiple mails by grouping them advertising products
under one name. • Comments are not immune from the law
• Companies and organization can group people according • Bloggers can be prosecuted for offensive comments
to their target group for marketing purposes. Wiki
• Spammers can create email groups by buying addresses • Software allowing users to easily create and edit web
of people from a certain company and send in easier pages without using any web browser
ways. • A wiki will support hyperlinks and has a very simple
• Companies use email groups to set up meetings. Typing syntax (language rules) for creating pages
out individual addresses may leave out a few mail IDs. • Wikis are described as ‘web pages with an edit button’
• Anyone can use wikis- content should be treated with
10.2 Internet Fundamentals caution
• The world wide web (WWW) is a system of interlinked Social Networking
hypertext documents accessed via the Internet • These sites focus on building online communities of
• Protocols are a set of rules that are followed between users who share the same interests
the sender and recipient of data which is being • Enable people to share photos of themselves, their
transferred between devices. favourite music and videos, what they like to do, what
• HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP): A protocol that is they like to eat etc.
followed between the sending and receiving devices • Example: Facebook
when data is being transferred using the internet. • These are becoming the modern way of interacting
• HyperText Transfer Protocol secure variant (HTTPS): socially
HTTP that is followed when data being transferred is • They allow people to communicate across the world and
encrypted. share their interests and views with many people.
• Hyperlink: Data that redirects the user to another
webpage/section of same webpage/file when clicked. 10.3 Information on the Internet
• File Transfer Protocol(FTP): Used to upload website files • Information is more likely to be up to date than in books,
to the web hosting space. To upload these files since websites can be updated very quickly
successfully, the user needs: • Much easier to get information from websites- search
o An FTP client engines link key words together and find information
o Login details to the web hosting server (host and port that matches the criteria- cause for popularity
used, username and password for FTP.

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• Vast amount of information on the internet- easier to 11.2 Reduce File Sizes for Storage or
locate than using indices in books Transmission
• Information on the internet however may be relevant or • Files that are smaller in size upload and download faster
correct, not reliable, inaccurate or even biased- it does than larger ones and thus are better for transferring
not go through any checking process data.
• Information overload can make it difficult for the user to
find relevant information 12. IMAGES
• Ensure use of reliable websites that properly cite all their • An image should be edited when doing so will enhance
sources its usefulness.
• Always look for primary sources of information & form
own conclusions 13. LAYOUT
• Do not quote/use secondary often biased opinions or • Headers and footers ensure each page has all the
gossip required information like the page numbers, logos, titles,
• Do your research etc.
• A common mnemonic is "An orphan has no past; a
11. FILE MANAGEMENT widow has no future"

11.1 Manage Files Effectively 14. STYLES

• Several organisations use a ‘corporate house style or
corporate branding, which is used to print on websites,
visiting cards, letters, etc. It refers to a specific style of
.CSS Cascading Stylesheet Stylesheets in
fonts and formats used in the making of ICT solutions by
.CSV Comma Separated Store tabular
• A corporate house style when used effectively identifies
Value data
the users of the style.
.GIF Graphics Interchange Moving images
• Consistent styles enable users to associate a particular
organisation with a style and also show consistency in
.HTM Hypertext Mark-up Webpages
the ICT solutions created by the organisation
.JPG Joint Photographic Standard for
Experts Group images
.PDF Portable Document Documents to be 15.1 Software Tools
Format circulated over
• When a person’s/organisation’s name is entered or
sometimes newly coined terms are used, spell checkers
might pick these up as errors, because they are not
.PNG Portable Network Compressed
found in the dictionary. This makes spell checkers less
Graphic images
.RTF Rich Text Format Word processed
• Validation ensures that the data being entered into an
ICT solution is reasonable and makes sense. Entered data
.TXT Text (File) Simple Text files
is checked against set criteria to be validated.
.ZIP Zone Improvement Sending many
Plan files over the

• Generic file formats can be opened by any software to

access the data held in them.

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15.2 Proofing Techniques 17. DATA MANIPULATION
• Verification: checking of data when copied from one
medium to another to prevent errors. 17.1 Create a Database Structure
• Verification is also important and is a way of preventing • Flat file databases are tables that have data sorted in
a difference in data when it’s being transferred from one rows and columns, whereas relational databases are
system to another. This tries to make sure data entered several tables grouped together to from a link, thus
is correct, relative to the source. preventing unnecessary repetition of data.
• Primary key: The key field of a table which is unique and
16. DOCUMENT PRODUCTION identifies each record
• Widow: A paragraph-ending line that falls at the • Foreign key: The field linked to the primary field of the
beginning of the following page or column, thus table linked to through a relationship
separated from the rest of the text. Relational database Flat-file database
• Orphan: A paragraph-opening line that appears by itself Complex queries can be Poor at complex queries
at the bottom of a page or column, thus separated from carried out
the rest of the text. Better security Poor at limiting access
• Page, section and column breaks are used to ensure that Cater for future Harder to update, so
widows and orphans are not present in a document requirements inherently inefficient
(these show poor typography). Data is only stored once Potential duplication
• A mail merge document is created in order to create a Require more planning Easy to design
standard template and then use it to send documents Non-unique records
personalised (by the computer system) for the Harder to change data
respective recipient of the document format.
• At times placeholders for media such as images, sound
bites and video clips are used to enhance the usability of
a database


18.1 Create a Data Model
• Charts: A graphical representation of (usually tabulated)
• Accurate data ensures the results obtained by the
processing of data is relevant, which is essential to the
usability of the model
• Formulae are mathematical operators defined by the
user to perform a function, whereas functions are
predefined logical and mathematical operations a user
can use in a spreadsheet
• Mathematical operations are performed in the order
PEMDAS (Parenthesis [Brackets] Exponents
Multiplication Division Addition Subtraction). Brackets
are used to notate data used by a function, e.g. =SUM

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• Relative cell referencing is made when the cell reference
is supposed to change when the cell it is referred to in is 18.2 Test the Data Model
changing. It aids more efficient designing of models. • A model prepared needs to be tested before being used
Absolute cell referencing is made when the cell to ensure that all results computed are accurate. The
referenced stays constant when the cell it is referred to test plan must be justified to be apt for the model. E.g.
in is changing. This aids the preparation of a model when all the mathematical operations must be tested in a
a set of data is constantly being referred to throughout model that relies on calculations.
the model. Cell reference or relative cell reference • Definitions:
describes how far away a cell or group of cells is from o Testing: Checking if the designed model delivers the
some other cell in the same spreadsheet. Basically, the expected outcome when tested with data.
cell’s address o Test data: The input data used for testing model.
• A model prepared needs to be tested before being used o Expected outcome: The output a model is supposed to
to ensure that all results computed are accurate. give with the test data.
• Definitions: o Actual outcome: The output a model actually gives the
o Cells: A space for data to be entered a table; a box user when the test data is input.
formed by the intersection of columns and rows
o Rows: Horizontal boxes that divide the table in 19. WEBSITE AUTHORING
o Columns: Vertical boxes that divide the table in 19.1 Web Development Layers
segments • Content/Structure layer: Holds the content of the
o Sheets: A table of data webpage structure.
o Tabs: A module of a database program that holds the • Presentation layer: The layer responsible for the
tables on the computer, formatting of a webpage(s) or elements (using a
o Pages: Full pieces of papers that contain information stylesheet).
held on one sheet of paper. • Behaviour layer: scripting language of a web page or an
o Ranges: A group of cells in a table individual element
o Named cell: A cell in a table that is given a name (like
‘profit margin’) and can be referred to using that name.
19.2 Create a Webpage
o Named range A group of cells in a table that are given • Tables make the basic structure of a webpage and
a name (like ‘Pricing’) and can be referred to using that organise page layout.
name. • Anchor: An element in a webpage that creates a
o Nested formulae/function: A formula/function used hyperlink between a source anchor and a destination
inside a formula/function as an argument anchor. These can be used to link 2 resources together.
• Relative file paths are used for attached stylesheets as
the stylesheet is going to be stored on a server in the
same directory as the webpage, and not where it an
absolute file path says.

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• Definitions:
o Relative file path: A path referring to a file in the same
directory relative to the page the reference is made in.
o Absolute file path: The full path of a file, which is not
relative to anything, whereas relative links only point
to a file or a file path, the browser then redirects the
user to that location on the current site.
▪ Absolute paths always include the domain name of
the website
▪ These should not be used to refer to locally saved
webpages as the computer the webpage is stored on
(the server) is not the same as where the webpage
was developed and thus an absolute file path would
point to the wrong address.

19.3 Use stylesheets

• CSS (cascading stylesheet) is a text-based language
which is attached to webpages to set their format. CSS
files have a “.css” extension
• These should be attached using relative file paths as they
are stored along with the webpage and thus can be
linked relative to them.
• Internal CSS have more preference over Inline CSS
• If several external stylesheets are attached to one web
page, the stylesheet attached last (at the bottom of that
part of the code) is given preference over the other
attached ones).

19.4 Test and Publish a Website

• To upload and publish content on a website using FTP, a
user must have:
o FTP client software
o All files in one folder
o Host Name/URL/IP address for ftp
o Host port to be used for upload
o Username and password
• The test plan used to test a webpage must be justified
based on the elements being tested. E.g. If hyperlinks
are being teste, it makes to check if all the hyperlinks are
redirecting the user to the correct webpage/ section of

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