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Computer Arch.

& Organization -I

The Basic Organization of


Computers
In this chapter . . .
You will learn about

 the basics of computer system


organization
 the stored program concept
 how computer’s main memory is
organized
 types of instructions for a typical
processor
 scale and performance factors
Electronic Digital Computers
 based on stored
program design
 processor system
 CPU
 memory
 input/output
system
 input/output
devices
 secondary storage
Central Processing Unit
 manages the instruction-execution cycle
 FETCH – DECODE – EXECUTE
 coordinates the activities of other devices
Main Memory
 (fast access) storage device for
preserving binary data and instructions
 memory is divided into units or words
 each is usually a standard size or fixed-
length
 each memory word has a unique
address for random access
Main Memory
 Random Access  Read Only Memory
Memory (RAM) (ROM)
 readable  readable
 writeable  permanent
 usually volatile (e.g.,  nonvolatile
Dynamic RAM or  special-purpose
DRAM) storage for data and
 general storage instructions
The CPU and Main Memory
Inside the CPU
Inside the CPU
memory
address
register
Inside the CPU
memory
memory data
address register
register
Inside the CPU
memory
memory data
address register
register

program
counter
Inside the CPU
memory
memory data
address register
register

instruction
register

program
counter
Inside the CPU
memory
memory data
address register
register

instruction
register

program arithmetic
counter logic unit
Inside the CPU
memory
memory data
address register
register

accumulator
(work
instruction register)
register

program arithmetic
counter logic unit
Inside the CPU
memory
memory data
address register
register

accumulator
(work
instruction register)
register

program arithmetic
system logic unit
counter clock
FETCH the instruction
1. address of the
next instruction is
transferred from
PC to MAR

2. the instruction is
located in memory
FETCH the instruction

3. instruction is
copied from
memory to MDR
DECODE the instruction

instruction is
transferred to
and decoded in
the IR
EXECUTE the instruction

control unit
sends signals
to appropriate
devices to cause
execution of the
instruction
Fetching & Exécution Cycles

 Fetching Cycles
 The fetch cycle takes the instruction required from memory,
stores it in the instruction register, and
 Moves the program counter on one so that it points to the
next instruction.

 Execute cycle
 The actual actions which occur during the execute cycle of an
instruction.
 Depend on both the instruction itself and the addressing mode
specified to be used to access the data that may be required.
20
Fetching an instruction

Step 1: Instruction pointer (program counter) hold


the address of the next instruction to be fetch.
Fetching an instruction…

Step 2
Fetching an instruction….Cont….

Step 3
Fetching an instruction….Cont….

Step 4
Fetching an instruction….Cont….
Step 5
Fetching an instruction….Cont….

Step 6
Data flow from memory to MPU

Steps and data flow, when


the instruction code
01001111 (4FH – MOV C, A)
stored in the location 2005H,
is being fetch.

Fetch Cycle: To fetch the


byte, the MPU needs to
identify the memory
location 2005 and enable the
data flow from memory
Data flow from memory to MPU
Cont…

Step 1: MPU places the 16 bit memory address from PC on


the address bus
Step 2: Control unit send the signal RD to enable memory
chip
Step 3: The byte from the memory location is placed on
the data bus.
Step 4: The byte is placed on the instruction decoder of the
MPU and task is carried out according to the instruction.
Types of Processor Operations
 Data Movement  Arithmetic and
Operations Logical Operations
 moving data from  integer arithmetic
memory to the CPU  comparing two
 moving data from quantities
memory to memory  shifting, rotating bits
 input and output in a quantity
 testing, comparing,
and converting bits
Types of Processor Operations
 Program Control
 starting a program
 halting a program
 skipping to other
instructions
 testing data to
decide whether to
skip over some
instructions
Scale and Performance Factors
 Modern computer systems are driven by
processors fabricated using very large-
scale integration
Scale and Performance Factors
 single-user computer systems
 personal digital assistants (PDAs)
 laptops, notebook computers

 desktop computer systems

 workstations

 multiuser computer systems


Thank You

Reference
Slide Data taken from internet resources and
various renowned books related to CAO