You are on page 1of 43

25 Pebruari 2014


Locational aspect/spasial

Location theory

Von Thunen model

Aplication of Von Thunenmodel

 Geography law“ Tobler”
“every thing has a linkage with other things,
but more adjacent have more relevance than
others”, (Tobler dalam Rustiadi, 2009).
 Aspek lokasi/spasial
 Teori lokasi
 Hukum Geografi “ Tobler”
 Locational Aspect
basic of location and space(Tarigan , 2005)
 Space is the earth's surface, either on it or
underneath it all humans can reach.
 Location describe the position in space . In the
context of the region, describe the location of
linkages between activities in one location and
a variety of other activities at other
locationsfactor to the close proximity /
 Location Theory
 Geography law “ Tobler”
 Locational aspect
 Location Theory
the science that investigates spatial order
economic activity, or the science which
investigates the geographical allocation of
potential resources, as well as its relationship
with or influence on the existence of a wide
variety of business / other activities both
economically and socially(Tarigan, 2005)
 Location analysis
 Locational Analysis is the basic question of
economics region.
 Locational analyzes basically seeking answers
(Rustiadi, 2009). about "where" and "why"
choose the location of economic activity
 Classical location theories:
 Neo Classical location theories
 Development of theory location
 Location analysis
 Classical location theories
At first (until the 1950s), location theory
dominated by approaches geographic-
locational or referred to classical location
theory (Von Thunen, Weber, Palander,
Hotteling, Predhol, Losch, and others).
 Neo Classical location theories
 Development location theory
 Location analysis
 Classical location theories
 Neo Classical location theories
After the 1950s, the theory developed locations
analogies general economics, and enriched by
quantitative analyzes of standard economics,
particularly econometrics, dynamic models and
optimization models as the development of a
regional branch of science.
 Development of theory location
 Location analysis
 Classical location theories
 Neo Classical location theories
 Development of theory location
Since the late 1980s began growing
quantitative methodological approaches that
consider the spatial aspects, related to the
development of methods of spatial
statistics, spatial econometrics and GIS.
 Von Thunen location theory written by Johann
Heinrich von Thunen in 1826. Von Thunen
location theory preceded by the analysis of
the location of agricultural production area.
 The concept entitled 'Der Isolierte Staat (The
Isolated State or State Isolated). Von Thunen
describe an isolated country with a climate and
soil are uniform, uniform and flat topography,
and the means of transport which are only
serviced by the same horse-drawn carriage.
 Assumptions - assumptions:
 Agricultural areas has the same variance (uniform) in
the environment attribute.
 There is only one market due to an isolated location.
 The same transport and transport costs increase
with the distance to the market.
 All farmers act rationally / economical, the use of
land to maximize profits, they have enough
information about production costs and market
 Spatial pattern with
circular shapes around
the city area 
Consentric Zone
 Area Isolated State :
ideal model of
isolated regional
 Modified Condition:
presence of rivers
and sub ​centers /
other market
 Classification of zones
 Classification
 Zona 1
close to the town
/ market,
cultivated plants
are easily
damaged (highly 1
perishable), such
as vegetables
and potatoes
(free cash
 Classification
 Zona 2
a timber-
(foresting) 2
 Classification
 Zona 3
produce grains
such as wheat,
with the result 3
that relatively
durable and
 Classification
 Zona 4
land and
grasses that
produce such
as milk, butter
and cheese
 Classification
 Zona 5
for plant
changing, two
to three types
of plants 5
 Classification
 Zona 6
form of land
farthest from
the center,
used for grass
and livetock
 The basic concept is a model of Von Thunen;
create a curve that describes the relationship
between land rent and distance to
market.(Nugroho, 2004)
 Sewa lahan / Land Rent is the value or price
associated with assets that provide a stream
of products and services on land used(Mills
dalam Nugroho, 2004).
 Thus, land rent is a residual (private profit) of
the economic benefits of land use after
deducting the cost of construction and
R = E ( p – a ) – E. f. k
 E =Production per unit area
 p = Price per unit of commodity
 a = Production cost per unit commodity
 f = transport cost per unit distance per unit commodity
 k = Distance to market
 The basic concept is a model of Von Thunen;
create a curve that describes the
relationship between land rent and
distance to market.(Nugroho, 2004)
Commodity A
R = E ( p – a ) – E. f. k

Distance to Market
 There is more than one commodity, will
result in the most optimum land rent for
each commodity.
R = E ( p – a ) – E. f. k
Commodity A

Rent Commodity B

Zero Rent Margin Distance to Market


R = E ( p – a ) – E. f. k

10 20 50


Farmers planted with apple harvest 2 tons / ha, while
the market price of apples in IDR. 5 million / ton and
production costs IDR. 1.5 million / ton. the transport
cost to market are IDR. 100.000 / ton / km. How far is
the maximum distance from the market that allows
farmers to grow apples?

R = E ( p – a ) – Efk
R = E ( p – a ) – Efk
R = 2 ( 5 – 1.5) – (2)(0.1)k

R = 0 , Zero land rent / no private profit / not
possible anymore for planting apples.
0 = 10 – 3 – 0.2k
0.2k = 7 ------- k = 35 km as the maximum
Commodity A B C
Market price
(IDR/Kg) 600 300 500
(ton/Ha) 1 3 2
Production cost
(IDR/Kg) 400 100 200
Transport cost
(IDR/Km/Kg) 2 4 3
1. What kind of commodities grown in areas
close to the market?
2. What kind of commodities grown in a
location away from the market?
3. Draw the diagram above three commodities
von Thunen!
•Land Use Model
•Urban Sprawl
 Von Thunen Land
 Urban bid-rent
Curve (distance decay
 used as the basis for
the analysis of land
use and is a basic
component in the
model land use until

(buku: Community Economic,Theory & Application)

(buku: Community Economic,Theory & Application)
 Von Thunen
Land Rent
 Urban bid-
rent Curve
(distance decay
 The apllication
to land use 
Used to see
how the
allocation of an
activity in a
 The process of the urban physical appearance
spillovers outwards (Yunus: 125, 2000)
 The areal expansion of urban concentrations beyond
what they have been. Urban sprawl involves the
conversion of land peripheral to urban center that
has previously been used for non urban uses to one
or more urban uses (Notham, 1975)
 The continuos expansion around large cities, where by
there is always a zone of land that is in the process of
being converted from rural to urban use (Harvey
dan Clark, 1971)
 The growth of metropolitan area through the process of
development of miscellaneous types of land use in the
urban fringe area (Domouchel, 1976)
 Factor of Urban Sprawl : Sentrifugal movement
(Daldjoeni, 1987)
 Sentrifugal movement motion out of the
population and various efforts  dispersion
of human activities and the relocation of city
 Factors driving the centrifugal movement (Daldjoeni, 1987):
1. Repetitive disturbance, such as congestion and
2. Modern industry requires relatively empty land in
the suburbsallows low density residential and
3. Land Rent land at a location away from the city
which is much cheaper than in the city center.
4. The limited expansionlimited land space in the
city center
5. Housing in the city is generally narrow, ancient,
unhealthy  housing in the suburbs can be more
healthy, spacious, sophisticated models.
6. Most residents want to live outside the city that
have a natural environment
 Von Thunen model in explaining the phenomenon of Urban
Sprawl :
 Principle land uses: highest and best use
 The use of land for agriculture and forestry have a lower
value than the use for residential, industrial,
commercial  considered stable commodity prices bid-
rent curve is relatively flat compared to other land uses
 Assumption that economic growth in urban areas
 The background
Increased economiclabor market
stimulation better jobs more and more
new housing  demand for land for
residential, industrial, commercial
geographic allocation will increase land
demand is also increasing.
 The effect of Growth
Increased demand for land land
supply with changing land use
conversion occurs  increase in land
prices the bid-rent curve changed, 
changing the city area "urban sprawl"
 Von Thunen model is a basic theory in the
development of location theory further.
 Von Thunen models experience
improvements in the development of other
experts, in order to better explain the
complex picture of the location of the current
analysis, due to the development of transport
technology, production technology. So the
barriers of distance becomes relative.
1. Perencanaan dan pengembangan Wilayah (2009),
Ernan Rustiadi, Sunsun saefulhakim, Dyah R. Panuju.
Crestpent Press dan Yayasan Obor Indonesia. Jakarta
2. Perencanaan Pembangunan Wilayah (2005).
Robinson Tarigan. Bumi Aksara. Jakarta
3. Pembangunan Wilayah; Perspektif Ekonomi, Sosial
dan Lingkungan (2004). Iwan Nugroho dan Rochmin
Dahuri. LP3ES. Jakarta.
4. Community Economic: Theory & Application, second
edition.(2004). pengarang: Ron Shaffer, Steve Deller,
Dave Marcouiller. Penerbit: Blackwell Publishing.