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COM (hons) 8th SEMESTER

Submitted to:
Sir Usman Sheikh

Submitted by:
Hamza Shabbir (F14-31)



Assignment no .2
What is Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 ?

Web 2.0


Web 2.0 is term that was introduced in 2004 and refers to the second generation of
the World Wide Web. The term "2.0" comes from the software industry, where new
versions of software programs are labeled with an incremental version number. Like
software, the new generation of the Web includes new features and functionality that
was not available in the past. However, Web 2.0 does not refer to a specific version
of the Web, but rather a series of technological improvements.
Web 2.0 is the term given to describe a second generation of the World Wide
Web that is focused on the ability for people to collaborate and share information
online. Web 2.0 basically refers to the transition from static HTML Web pages to a
more dynamic Web that is more organized and is based on serving Web
applications to users. Other improved functionality of Web 2.0 includes open
communication with an emphasis on Web-based communities of users, and more
open sharing of information. Over time Web 2.0 has been used more as a marketing
term than a computer-science-based term. Blogs, wikis, and Web services are all
seen as components of Web 2.0.

History of Web 2.0:

Web 2.0 was previously used as a synonym for Semantic Web, but while the two are
similar, they do not share precisely the same meaning.

Web 2.0 technologies provide a level user interaction that was not available before.
Websites have become much more dynamic and interconnected, producing "online
communities" and making it even easier to share information on the Web. Because
most Web 2.0 features are offered as free services, sites like Wikipedia and Facebook
have grown at amazingly fast rates. As the sites continue to grow, more features are
added, building off the technologies in place. So, while Web 2.0 may be a static label
given to the new era of the Web, the actual technology continues to evolve and

Web 2.0 is the current state of online technology as it compares to the early days of
the Web, characterized by greater user interactivity and collaboration, more
pervasive network connectivity and enhanced communication channels. One of the
most significant differences between Web 2.0 and the traditional World Wide Web
(WWW, retroactively referred to as Web 1.0) is greater collaboration among Internet
users, content providers and enterprises. Originally, data was posted on Web sites,
and users simply viewed or downloaded the content. Increasingly, users have more
input into the nature and scope of Web content and in some cases exert real-time
control over it.The social nature of Web 2.0 is another major difference between it
and the original, static Web. Increasingly, websites enable community-based input,
interaction, content-sharing and collaboration. Types of social media sites and
applications include forums, microblogging, social networking, social
bookmarking, social curation, and wikis.

Some examples of features considered to be part of Web 2.0 are listed below:

Blogs - also known as Web logs, these allow users to post thoughts and updates
about their life on the Web.

Wikis - sites like Wikipedia and others enable users from around the world to add
and update online content.
Social networking - sites like Facebook and MySpace allow users to build and
customize their own profile sand communicate with friends.

Web applications - a broad range of new applications make it possible for users to
run programs directly in a Web browser.

More Examples of Web 2.0

 Hosted services, of which Google Maps is the prime example.

 Web applications (e.g., Internet-based word processing, spreadsheets, slide
shows), including OpenOffice, Google Docs, and Flickr.
 Social networking. The online communities MySpace and Facebook are the
most popular social network sites used primarily by pre-college (MySpace)
and older audiences (Facebook), respectively.
 Video sharing sites, of which YouTube is the most popular example.
 Content Syndication (RSS). True to its name, Simple Syndication (RSS) is a
simple yet powerful way to feed information across the Web in a news-
channel format that can deliver text, audio, pictorial, and video content.
Podcasting is a form of RSS; blogs and wikis also can create RSS news
channels. Web-based news aggregators are NewsGator, Google Reader,
and Bloglines. Moreover, the latest versions of the browsers have RSS readers
built in.
 Wikis. You can get a free Wiki at If you plan to install your
own server, the recommended Wiki engines are MediaWiki (which
powers Wikipedia), PmWiki, and Instiki.
 Blogs. Good places to start your blog are at and WordPress.
Search engines for blogs are Technorati and Google Blog Search. There is
a free Blogger add-infor editing blogs with MS Word.
 Microblogging. The most famous example is Twitter. Follow this link to
learn how Twitter works.
 Podcasts. Search engines for podcasts are at Podcast Alley and the iTunes
podcast directory where there are tutorials showing how to create podcasts.
 Synchronous conferencing. Audio and video conferencing is on every
Macintosh via iChat A/V. Windows has AOL Instant Messenger (AIM)
and Google Talk, which is available for both Macs and PCs.
 Mashups. An outstanding example is the Semantic Interoperability of
Metadata and Information in un Like Environments (Simile) project at MIT.
This is what the World Wide Web's inventor, Tim Berners-Lee, is currently
working on, so it is worth exploring. See especially the Timeline widget.
 Folksonomies. Social tagging whereby users collaborate and manage tags to
categorize and annotate content. Examples are the Delicious social
bookmarking service, the Digg social news service with voting, and
the Diigo Web highlighter with sticky notes.
 Widgets. Prefabricated Ajax controls that can be embedded on a Web page.
Examples include tabbed panels, data charts, and calendars with date-pickers.
 Content management systems (CMS). You can preview several open source
content management systems at open source CMS or commercial systems
 Tagging. Enables a Web site to be searched via keywords and mined by
aggregators that index Web content according to tagging.
 Tag cloud. A diagram that pictures the relative frequency of a tag’s occurrence
by manipulating the size of the font to represent the tag’s importance in the
search. Printed here is a sample of a Web 2.0 tag cloud. Click the sample to
view it full size.
Web 3.0

“Web 3.0 The Future”

Some industry pundits are already claiming that Web 2.0 is merely a transitional
phase between the early days of the World Wide Web's existence and a more
established phase they're calling Web 3.0, also known as the Semantic Web.

The creator of the World Wide Web, Tim Berners-Lee, suggests that the Web as a
whole can be designed more intelligently to be more intuitive about how to serve a
user's needs. Berners-Lee observes that although search engines index much of the
Web's content, they have little ability to select the pages that a user really wants or
needs. He suggests developers and authors, singly or in collaboration, can use self-
descriptions or similar techniques so that new context-aware programs can better
classify the information that might be relevant to a user. Web 3.0 will involve the
publishing of web resources in languages intended for data (such as XML, RDF,
OWL and XHTML) to supplement them with metadata that will allow software to
analyze, classify and deliver content for more personal relevance. The Semantic
Annotations for Web Services group at W3C is defining the specifications for the
Web 3.0.

Ubiquitous Computing

The model of Web 3.0’s machine-classified, data sharing world creates a basis
for ubiquitous computing. Ubiquitous computing, also known as pervasive
computing, is a scenario in which embedded processing in everyday objects enables
intercommunication and unobtrusive data sharing throughout the user’s
environment. The concept overlaps with that of the Internet of Things (IoT), in which
almost any entity or object imaginable can be outfitted with a unique identifier (UID)
and the ability to exchange data automatically. A modest example of this concept is
a fridge that sends a grocery lists to one’s smartphone.