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Original Title: 19_CoupledTransmissionLines

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Madhav P. Desai

1 Overview

Suppose we have two identical parallel transmission lines of length l which

are in close proximity. Let Vi (x, t), Ii (x, t) (i = 1, 2) represent the voltage

and current variables in the two lines. The two lines can be modeled by the

following per-unit length parameters

1. L0 : the per-unit-length self-inductance of the current loop formed by

each line’s forward and return path (computed by ignoring the presence

of the other line).

conductors of each line.

4. Cm : the per-unit-length coupling capacitance between the two lines.

Let V and I be defined as follows

!

V1

V =

V2

!

I1

I =

I2

and I.

′

V = −Lİ

′

I = −CV̇

1

where the matrices L and C are defined as follows

!

L0 Lm

L =

Lm L0

!

C0 + Cm −Cm

C =

−Cm C0 + Cm

The two matrices L and C have common eigenvectors

! !

1 1

Xeven = Xodd =

1 −1

(resp. C0 ) and that corresponding to Xodd is λLodd = L0 −Lm (resp. C0 +2Cm ).

It follows that L and C commute so that

LC = CL = P

1 1

T =

1 −1

Note that T−1 = (1/2)T. Consider the transformed variables U and J

defined by the relations

!

Ueven

U= = T−1 V

Uodd

and !

Jeven

J= = T−1 J

Jodd

If we apply this transformation to the differential equations relating V and

I, we obtain the following decoupled equations

−λLeven J˙even

′

Ueven =

′

Jeven = −λCeven U̇even

′ L ˙

Uodd = −λ Jodd

odd

′ C

Jodd = −λodd U̇odd

2

which leads to the decoupled wave equations

!

′′ λe 0

U = Ü (1)

0 λo

!

′′ λe 0

J = J̈ (2)

0 λo

where λe = λLeven λC L C

even and λo = λodd λodd .

From this discussion it follows that:

1. The coupled lines can be analyzed as two independent decoupled single-

line systems with the even-mode variables Jeven and Ueven correspond-

ing to one decoupled system and the odd-mode variables Jodd and Uodd

corresponding to the other.

2. If the medium in which the lines are located is homogenous (µ and ǫ

are scalars), then the velocity of propagation of the two modes must

be equal (so that λo = λe ). It follows that in this case,

Lm Cm

kL = = = kC

L0 C0 + Cm

r r

λL λL

3. Define Zeven = even

λC

and Zodd = odd

λC

. Due to the relation between

even odd

U, J and V and I, we infer that

!

Zeven +Zodd Zeven −Zodd

+

V = 2

Zeven −Zodd

2

Zeven +Zodd I+ (3)

2 2

+

= ZI (4)

and V− = −Z I− .

4. Similarly, if we defined Yeven = 1/Zeven and Yodd = 1/Zodd , then

Yeven +Yodd Yeven −Yodd

!

I+ = 2

Yeven −Yodd

2

Yeven +Yodd V+ (5)

2 2

+

= YV (6)

and I− = −Y V− .

These relations can be used to find reflection coefficients and compute

the response of the coupled pair of lines for any excitation. Instead of reflec-

tion and transmission coefficients, you will have reflection and transmission

matrices.

3

2 An example

Suppose the two lines are driven from the left by voltage sources with source

resistance 50Ω. Suppose that Zeven = 60Ω and Zodd = 40Ω. Suppose that

the line 1 source is a unit step, while the line 2 source is 0V (so line 1 is the

aggressor and line 2 is the victim). Also assume that the lines are open at

the right and have a propagation delay tpd = 10ns. We will calculate the

initial injection matrix, the reflection matrix at the right and the reflection

matrix at the left.

! !

+ u(t) 50 0

V (0, t) = − I+ (7)

0 0 50

V+ (0, t) = Z I+ (8)

Solving, we obtain !

49

+ u(t)

V (0, t) = 99

5 (9)

99

u(t)

2. At the first reflection on the right, we see that the boundary conditions

imply that I = 0. This is satisfied if V+− = V− .

by noting that

where !

1/50 0

Y0 = (11)

0 1/50

is the admittance matrix looking into the sources. Thus

and so on...

4

3 An approximation

Suppose that two lines are coupled over a part of the distance that they travel

(as illustrated in Figure 1). Then, if we assume that the perturbation on the

upper (victim) line is small, and further assume that the lower (aggressor) line

is not affected by the victim, the following approximation is sometimes useful.

Let Z0 , Y0 be the impedance and admittance matrices representing the two

lines in the uncoupled region, and Z, Y be the impedance and admittance

matrices for the two lines in the coupled region.

Assume that the aggressor sees a ramp-step at x = 0 with rise-time tR .

This ramp-step moves along the aggressor and produces disturbances in the

victim. In the infinitesimal segment of width dx at x, the disturbance injected

into the victim is

1. Due to capacitive coupling, a current pulse of width tR and height

Cm dx/tR is injected into the victim at x. This current splits equally to

the right and left and introduces a forward going wave with amplitude

(with kC = Z0 Cm )

kC

p((t − (x/c))/tR )dx (13)

2tR

and backward going wave with amplitude

kC

− p((t − (x/c))/tR )dx (14)

2tR

where p is the unit pulse function (p(u) = 1 when 0 ≤ u ≤ 1 and 0

otherwise).

2. Due to inductive coupling, a voltage pulse of width tR and height

Lm dx/Z0tR is injected in series in the victim at x. This creates a

forward going wave with (voltage) amplitude (here kL = Lm /Z0 )

kL

− p((t − (x/c))/tR )dx (15)

2tR

and backward going wave with amplitude

kL

p((t − (x/c))/tR )dx (16)

2tR

where p is the unit pulse function (p(u) = 1 when 0 ≤ u ≤ 1 and 0

otherwise).

5

The forward inductive and capacitive contributions cancel out if the

medium is homogenous. If we sit at x = 0, then the total backward con-

tribution is given by (note that the disturbance generated from x will appear

at the origin after a delay of x/c):

kC + kL l

Z

VB (0, t) = p((t − (2x/c))/tR )dx (17)

2tR x=0

kC + kL

= (xhigh (t) − xlow (t)) (18)

2tR

where xlow (t) (respectively xhigh ) is the smallest (respectively largest) value

of x for which the quantity being integrated is non-zero. We see that

xhigh (t) = min {ct/2, l} (20)

Thus, if the length of the line is such that tpd is much greater than tR , then

VB (0, t) starts from 0 and climbs to a maximum value of kC +k 4

L

, stays at a

constant value for until t = 2l/c and then goes back to 0.

Note that VB (0, t) may be seen as a reflection into the victim line from

the coupled region into the uncoupled region (this reflection is interpreted as

backward crosstalk!). The reflection into the two lines from the start of the

coupled region is given by

and the transmitted wave into the final uncoupled section towards the load

is

(I − ((Y0 + Y)−1 (Y − Y0 ))2 ) Vincident

If the size of the entries in Y − Y0 is small, we will see that the crosstalk

seen in the forward direction is much smaller than that seen in the backward

direction (but it is not zero!). Thus, the approximation shown above is good

only when the coupling between the two lines is weak, and only in the coupled

region (so that boundary conditions do not come into play).

6

Backward Forward

Contrib. Contrib.

Backward Forward

Xtalk Xtalk

Lm,Cm,

Lo,Co

1

tR

0 0

0 x x+dx l

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