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- A Framework for the study of Fault Tolerance of Hardware Model of Artificial Neural Network
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- Jong-Chen Chen and Ruey-Dong Chen- Toward an evolvable neuromolecular hardware: a hardware design for a multilevel artificial brain with digital circuits
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- Neural Networks in Data Mining
- Doppler
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- Homework CH 5 2013
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- Analysis of Supervised Classification Algorithms
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- A Radar Target Generator for Airborne Targets

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INTRODUCTION

Gabor Filter Approach to Joint high-resolution range profiles (HRRP) is considered

as a highly promising technique. HRRP offers a very

Feature Extraction and Target simple and rapid way to characterize a target via radar

range profiles. HRRP is essentially a one-dimensional

Recognition radar image of the target and is very sensitive to

time-shift and target-aspect variation. A traditional

approach for HRRP is “average template” which

averages the HRRPs in one aspect interval and

makes classification based on the correlation of input

data [1—3]. The modification approaches to average

FENG ZHU

template adopt more information including target

XIAN-DA ZHANG, Senior Member, IEEE aspect and velocity which are gotten or estimated

YA-FENG HU from the radar system [4—6].

Tsinghua University The disadvantages of the above methods are

that their feature extractions to HRRP ignore its

dynamic property, i.e., nonstationarity. The HRRPs

for training the recognition system are sampled

This paper presents a new approach of improving automatic in one aspect interval during the course of the

target recognition (ATR) performance by tuning adaptively the target’s movement, which can be deemed that those

Gabor filter. The Gabor filter adopts the network structure of HRRPs come from the same nonstationary stochastic

two layers, and its input layer constitutes the adaptive nonlinear process. For generalization of the recognition

feature extraction part, whereas the weights between output system, the movement factor should be out of feature

layer and input layer constitute the linear classifier. From the

extraction. As such, the extracted features should be

insenstive to the target’s movement. So, the degree of

statistic property of high-resolution range profile (HRRP), its

nonstationarity is proposed in this paper for measuring

extracted nonstationarity degree of features is tracked to extract

and aiding the stationary feature extraction to HRRPs

the discriminative features of Gabor atoms. Two experimental

in one aspect interval, which includes movement

examples show that the Gabor filter approach with simple factor comparing the above methods.

structure has higher recognition rate in radar target recognition Our aim of the feature extraction is also to extract

from HRRP as compared with several existing methods. some discriminative features from the raw data

collected in data acquisition phase. Such features

are described as a feature vector. The simplest

feature vector of a target signal consists of its linear

expansion coefficients, whereas the most common

linear expansion is the Fourier transform. However,

the Fourier transform can only provide a poor

representation of functions well localized in time.

Recently, there has been an increasing interest in

joint time-frequency analysis as feature extractors of

signals; see, e.g. [7]—[14] and references therein.

Adaptive time-frequency analysis

Manuscript received August 16, 2005; revised June 17 and

December 18, 2006; released for publication December 10, 2007. including wavelet-based filterbanks [15] and

Gabor-expansion-based filterbanks [14, 16] have

IEEE Log No. T-AES/45/1/932000. shown promise for both signal representation and

Refereeing of this contribution was handled by V. C. Chen. classification. Adaptive time-frequency analysis can be

This work was supported by the National Natural Science

regarded as generalization of the 2-D time-frequency

Foundation of China under Grant 60675002, and funded by plane to 3-D time-frequency-scale (TFS) space. As

Basic Research Foundation of Tsinghua National Laboratory for viewed from the signal classification, there is more

Information Science and Technology (TNList). useful information in 3-D TFS space than in the 2-D

Authors’ current addresses: F. Zhu, Ericsson Research, China time-frequency or time-scale plane. When we apply

Radio Research Lab, China; X.-D. Zhang and Y.-F Hu, Dept. of the 3-D TFS space in signal classification, a key

Automation, Tsinghua University, National Laboratory of Tsinghua problem is how to find a set of bases that play the

Information Science and Technology, Beijing 100084, China, most important role in signal classification. Such bases

E-mail: (feng.zhu@ericsson.com).

can be found by LDB (local discriminant bases), DP

(discriminant pursuit) and LDB-DP (combination of

0018-9251/09/$25.00 °

c 2009 IEEE DP and LDB) methods [17].

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS VOL. 45, NO. 1 JANUARY 2009 17

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Recently, Shi and Zhang [18] have proposed

a Gabor atom neural network (GNN) for feature

extraction and signal classification. The GNN has

higher recognition rate and better feature extraction

performance in radar range profiles as compared

with the above DP/LDB methods. However, GNN

consists of the well-known multilayer feedforward

neural network which is the signal classification part

as well as aiding in feature extraction. As a result,

the features extracted by GNN are not obvious and Fig. 1. Gabor filter’s structure with input layer which is

efficient enough. Furthermore, GNN’s classification nonlinear feature extraction part, weights and output layer

performance depends on the LDB initialization, which constituting the linear classification part. In the bottom, signals

reflects its weak ability in finding the discriminative (HRRPs) xi (i = 1, : : : , N) are parallel input to K Gabor atoms

g1 , : : : , gK . − unit indicates inner product of Gabor atom gk and

bases.

input signal xi and outputs Áik = jhgk , xi ij. © unit represents

By using the degree of nonstationarity, the weighted sum of K outputs of input layer, e.g. mth node in output

Gabor filter is proposed in this paper to search for PK

layer, yim = Á w where wkm is connection weight between

k=1 ik km

the discriminative Gabor atom bases and efficient kth Gabor atom node and mth output node, and m = 1, : : : , M.

signal classification from HRRPs, which is adaptive

to suppress the influence of target movement. It

should be noted that the proposed approach is joint where

2

feature extraction and classification for multi signal g(t) = 21=4 e¡¼t (2)

vectors in contrast to the single signal vector’s feature is a prototype of basic functions of the Gabor

extraction [19—20]. As a result, the main contribution transform volume. The shift-parameter u,

of this paper is the adaptive Gabor filter approach for modulation-parameter », and scale-parameter s in

joint feature extractions and classification of multi (1) have the corresponding physical meanings for an

HRRPs. aircraft [18]:

1) the shift-parameter u corresponds to the

II. HRRP FEATURE EXTRACTION IN ISAR aircraft’s key scattering centers such as engine and

inlet ducts;

The performance of a recognition system or

2) the modulation-parameter » is associated with

scheme is closely associated with radar and target. It

the resonance and dispersive mechanisms that are

is important that the design of a recognition system

relevant to the aircraft’s material coatings;

including feature extraction should consider both

3) the scale-parameter s is related to the aircraft’s

the radar and the targets. The radar applied in our

geometric size.

research is ISAR (inverse synthetic aperture radar).

ISAR is the ground-to-air surveillance radar and

can achieve high resolution in range with LFM III. GABOR FILTER FOR RECOGNITION

(linear frequency modulating) technology. The radar

works on a C band with bandwidth of 400 MHz, To determine several optimal basic functions

i.e., the range resolution of the radar range profile is and corresponding Gabor atom transform for signal

about 0.375 m. This single polarization radar’s pulse representation from a 3-D TFS space, we propose a

frequency is 400 Hz and sampling rate is 10 MHz. Gabor filter here, whose structure is shown in Fig. 1.

The electromagnetic scattering property of This is a two-layer filter whose inputs are N signals

a target plays a significant role in the feature (HRRPs) fxi , i = 1, : : : , Ng with xi = [xi (1), : : : , xi (L)]T

extractions from HRRPs. From the viewpoint of where L is the length of signal (the number of range

electromagnetic scattering, the target electromagnetic bin in HRRP), and outputs are fym, m = 1, : : : , Mg.

model corresponds to the Fresnel (optical) region The goal of the Gabor filter is to classify N signals

where the radar wavelength is much shorter than the into P classes of signals using maximum interclass

target size. An HRRP is the phasor sum of the echoes separability. It should be noted that P Gabor filters are

from different scatterers on the target located within a used for classifying P classes of signals because each

resolution cell. Gabor filter distinguishes a class of signal from the

It is shown in [7], [14], [18] that the Gabor atom other classes of signals.

is a good tool for feature extraction of high-resolution Let fgk , k = 1, : : : , Kg be the kth-scaled Gabor atom

radar’s targets. The Gabor atom can be written in a vectors, where gk = [gk (1), : : : , gk (L)]T , and gk (t) is

simple form as follows: defined by

μ ¶ μ ¶

1 t ¡ u j»t 1 t ¡ uk j»k t

gu,»,s (t) = p g e (1) gk (t) = p g e , t = 1, : : : , L (3)

s s sk sk

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where sk , uk , and »k are called the scale, shift, and

modulation parameters of Gabor atom transform,

respectively. The Gabor atoms require adaptive

adjustment until some cost function is minimized

during the learning phase.

The Gabor filter used in this paper has the

following two layers.

1) Input Layer: It has K nodes Á1 , : : : , ÁK called

the Gabor atom nodes. Here, the active function of

each Gabor atom node takes the absolute function,

Fig. 2. Testing scheme adopts P trained Gabor filters for

and Áik denotes the output of the kth Gabor atom node

classifying input test signal x̂. Decision that x̂ belongs to which

corresponding to the input signal vector xi . Thus the class depends on Gabor filter corresponding to maximum output

output Áik is defined as the absolute value of the inner among P Gabor filters.

product of the Gabor atom gk = g(uk , »k , sk ) and input

signal xi , namely,

¯Z μ ¶ ¯ weights and the Gabor atom parameters are adjusted

¯ 1 t ¡ uk ¡j»k t ¯ to minimize the sum of squared error between the

Áik = jhgk , xi ij = ¯¯ p g ¤ e xi (t)dt¯¯

sk sk desired output vector di and actual output yi of the

neural network for all input signal vector xi , i.e.,

(4)

N M

which represents the correlation between the kth 1 XX

Gabor atom gk and ith signal xi . E= (dij ¡ yij )2 = min (6)

2

2) Output Layer: It consists of M nodes y1 , : : : , yM i=1 j=1

that are linear units. The outputs Áik of the kth Gabor which is called the back-propagated error. As done

atom node in the input layer are weighted by wkm

in [18], the parameters of the Gabor atom and the

and then used as the input of the mth node yim in the

neural network’s weights are adjusted simultaneously

output layer when the input layer inputs the signal xi ,

during the training phase. However, such a joint

i.e.,

XK adjustment has two deficiencies: 1) the GNN’s better

yim = Áik wkm , m = 1, : : : , M (5) classification performance depends on the LDB

k=1 initialization [18]; 2) the neural network’s construction

and computation need skill and computation resources

where M is usually set to 1 for convenience, namely,

such as the hidden layer’s function, number of the

the Gabor filter has the only one output node.

nodes, and the corresponding weights’ adjustment.

As shown in Fig. 1, the whole filter is divided

To cope with these deficiencies, this paper

into two parts: the input layer is the nonlinear feature

proposes a new Gabor filter for joint nonlinear

extraction part, whereas the weights and the output

layer constitute the linear classification part. The feature extraction and linear classifying, which has

weights are the Gabor filter’s weights during the better performances than GNN. The basic idea of

training phase and the linear classifier’s weights the new Gabor filter is that the parameters of Gabor

during the testing phase, respectively. atom and the weights of Gabor filter are adjusted

In the training phase, the Gabor filter not only separately.

learns adequate decision functions defined by the In the training phase of target recognition, the

weight coefficients, but also looks for the optimal Gabor filter performs the following two adaptive

parts of the parameters space suitable for a reliable algorithms: 1) the first (atom) algorithm adjusts

categorization of N known input signals x1 , : : : xN to adaptively parameters of the Gabor atom; 2) for any

P classes. In the testing phase, the output ym (m = set of given Gabor atom’s parameters, the second

1, : : : , M) provides the possible class information of (weight) algorithm adjusts adaptively the weights of

signal vector xi = [xi (1), : : : , xi (L)]T where M is set to the Gabor filter. If a given set of the Gabor atom’s

1. Fig. 2 shows the testing scheme which adopts P parameters can make the second algorithm minimize

trained Gabor filters for classifying the input testing some objective function, then output a set of extracted

signal x̂. As a result, the Gabor filter’s classification features; otherwise, stop the second algorithm, and

performance relies mainly on feature extraction which return to Step 1 to get a new set of the Gabor atom’s

is also the key of our research. parameters. Such a process including Steps 1 and 2 is

called one period in the training phase.

IV. DEGREE OF NONSTATIONARITY AND FEATURE It is important to use a measure of features to

EXTRACTION determine continuing of the second (weight) algorithm

or restarting of the first (atom) algorithm. In the LDB

In [18], the method of feature extraction using method [17], this measure is the Fisher’s classifying

GNN is that both the neural network’s two layers separability among the input signals. Here, we use

ZHU ET AL.: GABOR FILTER APPROACH TO JOINT FEATURE EXTRACTION AND TARGET RECOGNITION 19

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the degree of nonstationarity as the feature’s measure where ±v2 is the variance of v(n) in (8). The excess

for the following reason: In the Gabor filter shown MSE is defined as

in Fig. 1, the real input of the adaptive filter is Áik

in (4) which is the extracted feature, and the weight Jex (n) = J(n) ¡ Jmin : (12)

of the adaptive filter is wkm in (5) which constitutes The above concepts (10)—(12) can be applied in the

the linear classifier in tesing phase. If the nonlinear analysis of stochastic process.

feature extracted is efficient to signal representation In order to provide a clear definition of the “slow”

and classification, the ideal linear classifier exists, and “fast” statistical variations of the model, Macchi

i.e., from the viewpoint of adaptive filter theory, this [22] introduces the following definition of the degree

adaptive filter can track the time-varying process of of nonstationarity:

input signal and obtain the desired results. As such, · ¸1=2

the degree of nonstationarity is better than the Fisher’s Efj! H (n)Á(n)j2 g

®= (13)

classification separability when performing feature Efjv(n)j2 g

extraction due to the well-known nonstationarity of

HRRP from the maneuvering target. where Efj! H (n)Á(n)j2 g is the expectation of the

For convenience, we suppose that the Gabor squared magnitude of the inner product of the process

filter in Fig. 1 has the only one output node, namely, noise !(n) and the input vector Á(n), and Efjv(n)j2 g is

M = 1. The weight of a Gabor filter is a K £ 1 vector, the average power of the measurement noise v(n). The

denoted by w which represents the linear classifier in degree of nonstationarity, ®, bears a useful relation to

the testing phase. the misadjustment ° of the adaptive filter:

The popular time-varying model for a Jex (1)

nonstationary environment is governed by two basic °= ¸ ®2 (14)

Jmin

processes [21].

1) First-Order Markov Process: The unknown where Jex (1) is the steady-state value of the excess

dynamic equations of environment are modeled by MSE in (12) and Jmin is the minimum MSE in (11).

a transversal filter whose tap-weight vector w(n) Regarding (14), we have the following two

undergoes a first-order Markov process: noteworthy remarks.

w(n + 1) = cw(n) + !(n) (7) REMARK 1 For slow statistical variations of the

environment, ® is small. This means that it should be

where c is a fixed parameter of the model and !(n) is possible to build an adaptive filter that can track the

the process noise vector that is white and zero mean. time-varying system.

It is assumed that the value of parameter c is very

close to unity. REMARK 2 When the statistical variations of the

2) Multiple Regression: The desired response, environment are too fast, ® may be greater than unity.

denoted by d(n), is governed by the multiple linear In such a case, the misadjustment produced by the

regression model adaptive filter exceeds 100 percent, which means

that there is no advantage to be gained in building an

d(n) = wH (n)Á(n) + v(n) (8) adaptive filter to solve the tracking problem.

where Á(n) is the input vector and v(n) is the In this paper, we focus mainly on the problem

measurement noise which is assumed to be white with of pattern classification. As a result, the degree of

zero mean and variance ±v2 . But in many applications, nonstationarity in one period is calculated as

the tap-weight vector w(n) does not obey this "P #1=2

N H 2

stochastic process of multiple regression. So, we use n=1 j! (n)Á(n)j

®= PN (15)

another model n=1 jv(n)j

2

d(n) = ŵH (n)Á(n) + e(n) (9) where N is the number of known input signals and

this equation is applied at every N iterations in one

where e(n) is the error that is not the Gaussian white

period of adaptive filter.

noise as v(n), and ŵH (n) is the tap-weight vector that

When (®)2 is used as the step size controlling

does not obey the model (8).

the adaptive Gabor filter (classifier), we have the

Let the mean square error (MSE) at iteration n be

following three important observations.

J(n) = Efje(n)j2 g (10) 1) Since ® is variational in the training phase, it

where Ef¢g represents ensemble-average. From [21], plays a role of a time-varying step size controlling the

we know that the minimum MSE is given by adaptive Gabor filter.

2) A smaller ® implies that the corresponding

Jmin = ±v2 (11) classifier’s performance is better, or vice versa.

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3) If ® in (15) keeps decreasing, the training where M is the number of the nodes of the output

of the Gabor filter can bring the ideal classifier. layer. From (5), it follows that

Furthermore, ® is equal to 0 if the whole features

extracted are totally linear separable. @yim

= wkm : (22)

@Áik

Based on the above results, we have the following

principle for feature extraction: If ® increases in Substituting (22) into (21) gives

some period of training, this period should stop and M

the parameter of the Gabor atom should be adjusted @E X

=¡ (dim ¡ yim )wkm : (23)

for the new period of training. Moreover, ® can be @Áik

m=1

applied in the learning rate of the Gabor atom’s

parameter, as shown in the next section. Hence, (18)—(20) can be rewritten as

XX N M

V. GABOR FILTER’S TRAINING ALGORITHM AND @E @Á

=¡ (dim ¡ yim )wkm ik (24)

TESTING ALGORITHM @uk @uk

i=1 m=1

@Á

parts: parameter training of the Gabor atom and =¡ (dim ¡ yim )wkm ik (25)

@sk @sk

the weights training of the adaptive filter. The i=1 m=1

Gabor atom’s parameters are adjusted by the delta N M

@E XX @Á

rule according to the back-propagated error in (6), =¡ (dim ¡ yim )wkm ik (26)

while the weights are adjusted by the adaptive @»k @»k

i=1 m=1

filtering algorithm such as least mean square (LMS),

decorrelative least mean square (DLMS) [23], respectively.

recursive least square (RLS), etc. It is assumed that for P classes of signals,

Let ¯k denote one of the kth Gabor atom node’s x1 (L), : : : , xN1 (L) are the observation data vectors of

parameters including the shift-parameter uk , the the first-class signal, and xN1 +1 (L), : : : , xN1 +N2 (L) are the

modulation-parameter »k , and the scale-parameter sk . observation data vectors of the second-class signal,

According to the delta rule, the adjustment of ¯k is whereas xN1 +¢¢¢+NP¡1 +1 (L), : : : , xN (L) are the observation

given by data vectors of the Pth-class signal.

@E In each period of the training cycle, the Gabor

¢¯k = ¡´ (16) parameters are kept invariant while the weights

@¯k

are updated by the adaptive filter’s algorithm to

where ´ is the learning rate defined by reduce the error E. If this period must stop due to

´ = ® 2 ´0 (17) the increase of the degree of nonstationarity ®, the

Gabor parameters should be adjusted by using (16),

with ® and ´0 being the degree of nonstationarity of and the next period of training begins. This process

the extracted feature signals in the last training period is repeated until the error E is settled down to a

and the initial learning rate, respectively. minimum. When convergence is achieved, the Gabor

The partial derivatives of E with respect to the atom nodes represent the optimum parts of the TFS

shift-parameter uk , the scale-parameter »k , and the space in the sense that they are reliable for a linear

modulation-parameter sk of the kth Gabor atom node categorization.

are, respectively, given by For real signals, the Gabor atom is real as well. In

N such a case, (4) can be calculated as

@E X @E @Á

= ik

, (18) ¯Z μ ¶ ¯

@uk @Áik @uk ¯ 1 ¤ t ¡ uk ¯

i=1 ¯

Áik = ¯ p g cos(»k t)xi (t)dt¯¯

sk sk

N

@E X @E @Áik ¯Z p ¯

¯ 42 ¯

= , (19) ¯ 2 2 ¯

@sk @Áik @sk = ¯ p e¡¼(t¡uk ) =sk cos(»k t)xi (t)dt¯ : (27)

i=1 ¯ sk ¯

N

@E X @E @Áik In the discrete-time case, the integral in above

= (20)

@»k @Áik @»k equation can be replaced by the sum, namely,

i=1

¯ L p ¯

where N is the number of the signals used as the ¯X 4 2 ¯

¯ ¡¼(tl ¡uk )2 =sk2 ¯

training samples. Using (6), we have Áik = ¯ p e cos(»k tl )xi (tl )¯ : (28)

¯ sk ¯

l=1

X M

@E @y

=¡ (dim ¡ yim ) im (21) The partial derivatives of Áik with respect to uk , »k ,

@Áik @Áik and sk of the kth Gabor atom node are, respectively,

m=1

ZHU ET AL.: GABOR FILTER APPROACH TO JOINT FEATURE EXTRACTION AND TARGET RECOGNITION 21

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given by filter such as LMS, DLMS, RLS. We adopt the

L · p ¸ RLS algorithm here for the following reasons.

@Áik Á X 2 4

2 ¡¼(tl ¡uk )2 =s2 First, the convergence rate of the RLS algorithm is

= ik ¼(t ¡ u k ) p e k cos(» t )x (t )

k l i l

@uk μik sk2 sk typically an order of magnitude faster than that of

l=1

the LMS algorithm. Second, the steady value of the

(29)

L μ ¶ ensemble-average squared error produced by the

@Áik Áik X 1 2 RLS algorithm is much smaller than that of the LMS

= ¡ + ¼(t ¡ uk )2

@sk μik 2sk sk3 algorithm because the RLS algorithm produces zero

l=1

p misadjustment in theory. As a result, the weight vector

4

2 2 2

wm (m = 1, : : : , M) is adjusted by the RLS algorithm as

£ p e¡¼(tl ¡uk ) =sk cos(»k tl )xi (tl ) (30)

sk follows.

L · p ¸ Initialize the algorithm by setting wm (0) =

@Áik Áik X 4

2 ¡¼(tl ¡uk )2 =s2

= ¡tl p e k sin(» t )x (t )

k l i l (31) [1 ¢ ¢ ¢ 1]T , the K £ K matrix Bm (0) = (0:01 £ IK£K )¡1 ,

@»k μik sk

l=1 where Bm is refered as the inverse correlation matrix.

For each instant of time n = 1, 2, : : :, compute

where

p Bm (n ¡ 1)Á(n)

L

X 4

2 ¡¼(t ¡u )2 =s2 km (n) = (37)

μik = p e l k k cos(»k tl )xi (tl ): (32) ¸ + ÁT (n)Bm (n ¡ 1)Á(n)

sk

l=1 em (n) = dm (n) ¡ ym (n) = dm (n) ¡ wTm (n ¡ 1)Á(n)

Using (29)—(31), we can rewrite (24)—(26) as (38)

@E XX N M

Á

=¡ (dim ¡ yim )wkm ik wm (n) = wm (n ¡ 1) + km (n)em (n) (39)

@uk μik

i=1 m=1

Bm (n) = ¸¡1 Bm (n ¡ 1) ¡ ¸¡1 km (n)ÁT (n)Bm (n ¡ 1)

X·

L

2

p

4

2 2 2

¸

£ ¼(t ¡ uk ) p e¡¼(tl ¡uk ) =sk cos(»k tl )xi (tl ) (40)

sk2 sk

l=1 T

where Á(n) = [Án1 , : : : , ÁnK ] is the input vector and ¸

(33) is the forgetting factor.

@E XX N M

Á Given training N samples x1 , : : : , xN and the

=¡ (dim ¡ yim )wkm ik

@sk μik number K of the feature parameter sets, the following

i=1 m=1

training algorithm can extract the pth class target’s K

L μ ¶

X 1 2 feature parameter triples fuk , »k , sk g, k = 1, : : : , K.

£ ¡ + ¼(t ¡ uk )2

2sk sk3 ALGORITHM 1 (Training Algorithm for the pth Class

l=1

p

4

Target)

2 2 2

Step 1 Initialize the Gabor atom parameters uk , »k ,

£ p e¡¼(tl ¡uk ) =sk cos(»k tl )xi (tl ) (34)

sk

sk and the weights W.

Step 2 Calculate the Gabor atom using the

@E XX N M

Á

=¡ (dim ¡ yim )wkm ik initialized Gabor atom parameters (2) and (3).

@»k μik Compute (28) for all Gabor atom nodes, where the

i=1 m=1

desired output di1 = ¢ ¢ ¢ = dim = 1(if xi 2 Âp ) or ¡1 (if

L · p ¸

X 4

2 2 2 xi 2

= Âp ).

£ ¡tl p e¡¼(tl ¡uk ) =sk sin(»k tl )xi (tl ) : (35)

sk Step 3 Input Áik (i = 1, : : : , N, k = 1, : : : , K) into the

l=1

adaptive filter in the Gabor filter periodically, where N

Let Âp denote the pth class signal or target. The is the period.

K £ M weight matrix W in Fig. 1 for classifying the Step 4 Adjust the weights using (37)—(40) in the

pth class of signal from the other classes of signals is RLS algorithm.

given by Step 5 Compute the degree of nonstationarity ® by

2w w ¢¢¢ w 3

11 12 1M (15) for every N iterations, and save the result. If ® is

6w w22 ¢¢¢ w2M 7 the first value calculated in one period of training, go to

6 21 7

W = [w1 w2 ¢ ¢ ¢ wM ] = 6

6 .. .. .. ..

7

7 Step 4; otherwise, continue the following steps.

4 . . . . 5 Step 6 Compare the current ® with the last ®. If

wK1 wK2 ¢¢¢ wKM ® decreases, then perform Step 7; otherwise, adjust

adaptively the Gabor atom’s parameter, save the

(36) weights and go to Step 8.

where the weight vector wm (m = 1, : : : , M) can Step 7 Evaluate the error E in (6). If E is less

be updated by several algorithms of the adaptive than a chosen threshold, then the training phase is

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finished, and go to Step 10; otherwise, return to determined in the training phase, where N = N1 + ¢ ¢ ¢ +

Step 4. Nc , and Ni denotes the number of s 2 −i (the subset of

Step 8 Use the propagated error of the Gabor the feature vectors of the ith class signal). Then, the

atom node to adjust the Gabor atom parameters within-class scatter matrix Sw is a K £ K matrix given

according to (16), (17), and (33)—(35). by [25]

Xc

Step 9 Return to Step 2 to get a new triple of the

Sw = Si (42)

Gabor atom’s parameters, and repeat the above steps.

i=1

Step 10 Save K Gabor atom parameter triples

denoted by fu(p) (p) (p) (p)

k , »k , sk g and the weight matrix W .

where X

Si = (s ¡ mi )(s ¡ mi )T (43)

REMARK When Algorithm 1 is implemented for

s2−i

p = 1, : : : , P in a parallel way, we can extract the

respective feature parameter sets of P classes of and

targets and obtain P trained Gabor filter. 1 X

mi = s: (44)

Ni

Once the feature parameter sets are extracted s2−i

for each class signal or target and P Gabor filters Define a total mean vector

are trained, the following algorithm can be used to c

recognize which class of signal or target is associated 1 X 1 X

mi = s= Ni mi : (45)

with a testing sample. Ni s Ni

i=1

ALGORITHM 2 (Testing Algorithm) Then, the K £ K between-class scatter matrix is

Step 1 Input the pth Gabor atom’s parameter specified by [25]

triples fu(p) (p) (p)

k , »k , sk g and its weight matrix W saved c

X

in Algorithm 1.

Sb = Ni (mi ¡ m)(mi ¡ m)T : (46)

Step 2 Compute the input layer’s outputs Ák =

i=1

jhgk , xij, and set Á = [Á1 , : : : , ÁK ].

Step 3 Calculate the M £ 1 output vector Let Span(U) be the K-dimensional subspace

spanned by the columns of the K £ K matrix U, and

y = WH Á: define the cost or criterion function

Step 4 By checking all outputs ym , m = 1, : : : , M Q T

diag Ub Sb U

close to 1 or ¡1, one makes a decision whether the J(U) = Q T

(47)

testing sample x belongs to the pth class signal (target) diag Uw Sw U

or not. Q

where diag A represents the product of all the

Algorithm 2 can be implemented for p = 1, : : : , P in diagonal elements of the matrix A. We use J as

a parallel way. a measure to evaluate the effectiveness of class

discrimination for given feature vectors and refer to

Span(U) as a measure to evaluate the effectiveness of

VI. EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF CLASS class discriminative subspace if

DISCRIMINATION

U = arg max J(U): (48)

In this section, we consider how to evaluate the U2RK£K

a measure of distance or dissimilarity between two rewrite (47) in the following equivalent form:

classes of signals. It can be used to determine feature

QK K

Y

ranking and to evaluate the effectiveness of class uTi Sb ui uTi Sb ui

discrimination. Let K be the number of triple features, J= QKi=1 T = (49)

i=1 ui Sw ui

uTi Sw ui

namely the number of Gabor atoms in Fig. 1. Let the i=1

T Clearly, J is maximized if and only if

si = [Ái1 , Ái2 , : : : , ÁiK ] (41)

where Áik is the absolute value of the inner product of uTi Sb ui

Ji (ui ) = (50)

the Gabor atom gk = g(uk , »k , sk ) and input signal xi . uTi Sw ui

For the c-class problem, as the generalization are maximized for i = 1, : : : , K. The expression

of Fisher’s linear discriminant involving c ¡ 1 (50) is well known in mathematical physics as the

discriminant functions, we consider the projection generalized Rayleigh quotient. It is easy to show that a

of all the K-dimensional feature vectors onto a vector ui that maximizes Ji must satisfy

K-dimensional discriminant space. Suppose we

have a set of K-dimension feature vectors s1 , : : : , sN Sb ui = ¸i Sw ui (51)

ZHU ET AL.: GABOR FILTER APPROACH TO JOINT FEATURE EXTRACTION AND TARGET RECOGNITION 23

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TABLE I

Parameters of Reduced Scale Aircraft Models and Radar

Aircraft Model Central Frequency (MHz) Bandwidth (MHz) Length (m) Width (m) Height (m) Scale

Q-6 15656.25 4687.5 0.7 0.435 0.19 1:20

Q-7 15656.25 4687.5 1.048 0.477 0.22 1:15

matrix pencil fS, Sw g: Recognition Rate (%) of Seven Different methods For Example 1

The above analysis suggests the following

Training Testing Sets

algorithm for finding the optimum class discriminative Classification Methods Set 1 2 3 4

subspace.

Range Profiles 91.4 89.8 90.8 90.7 91.6

ALGORITHM 3 (Optimum Discriminative Subspace) FFT 78.8 77.5 76.4 77.0 78.5

Step 1 Use (42) and (46) to compute the Gabor Transform 89.2 84.0 85.7 84.4 84.5

within-class matrix Sw and the between-class scatter Wavelet Transform 85.1 85.3 85.1 84.5 84.2

LDB-DP 89.2 88.7 88.6 88.6 89.0

matrix Sb , respectively. GNN (initialized randomly) 91.6 90.7 91.1 91.1 92.0

Step 2 Perform the generalized eigenvalue Gabor filter (initialized 96.3 95.5 95.2 96.1 95.9

decomposition of the matrix pencil fSb , Sw g, giving the randomly)

generalized eigenvalue and eigenvector pair (¸i , ui ) such

that ¸1 ¸ ¸2 ¢ ¢ ¢ ¸ ¸K .

vectors, and use these coefficients as the inputs of the

Step 3 Take Uc¡1 = [u1 , : : : , uc¡1 ] whose column

RBF neural network.

vectors span the (c ¡ 1)-dimensional optimum

4) Wavelet transform method: Select wavelet

discriminative subspace.

transform coefficients of range profiles as feature

Once the K £ (c ¡ 1) matrix Uc¡1 is obtained by vectors, and use them as the inputs of the RBF neural

using Algorithm 3, we can compute the projection network. Here, the Daubechies wavelet is used.

of each given K-dimensional feature vector onto the 5) The LDB-DP method [17]: Use the LDB-DP

(c ¡ 1)-dimensional optimum discriminant subspace, method for feature extraction and linear discriminative

yielding analysis to construct the classifier.

yi = UTc¡1 si , i = 1, : : : , N (52) 6) GNN method with random initialization [18].

7) Gabor filter method with random initialization.

which can provide an intuitional figure of the

divergence of c-class targets on the (c ¡ 1)- EXAMPLE 1 Aircraft Models in Microwave Anechoic

dimensional optimum discriminant subspace. In Chamber: Consider range profiles of three different

the following section on experimental results, this scaled aircraft models collected in a microwave

projection will be computed for the Gabor atom anechoic chamber for classification purposes. The

feature vectors consisting of GNN and Gabor filter original data were measured at stepped-frequency

to compare their discriminative capabilities for aircraft mode. The three models are B-52, Q-6, and Q-7. The

targets. parameters of target models and radar are shown in

Table I. By inverse Fourier transforming the raw data

which is computed according to the reduced scale,

VII. NUMERICAL EXAMPLES 1084 range profiles are obtained, in which 322 range

profiles are from B-52 whereas 311 and 451 profiles

To demonstrate the effectiveness of the Gabor

correspond to Q-6 and Q-7, respectively. The actual

filter in signal classification, we present two numerical

data size of each profile is 101. The aspect angles

examples of radar target recognition in this section. In

of the range profiles change from 0± to 155± (0± is

order to verify the Gabor filter method of this paper,

defined as the head direction) with average interval of

we compare the following seven methods for signal

0:43± , whereas the elevation angles remain constant at

classification.

5± and the SNR is about 25 dB.

1) The range profile method: Use directly original

range profiles as the inputs of the radial basis function The range profile set for each aircraft model is

(RBF) neural networks (classifier) whose hidden layer subdivided into five subsets: one for training and

consists of 25 multivariate Gaussian functions [24]. others for testing. We pick the sets as equally spaced

2) The fast Fourier transform (FFT) method: Use points throughout the original data, i.e., the first subset

the magnitude of the Fourier transform of range consists of the 1st, 6th, 11th, etc. range profiles in the

profiles as the input of the RBF neural network. original set, and the second subsets consists of the

3) Gabor transform method: Choose Gabor 2nd, 7th, 12th, etc. range profiles in the original set.

transform coefficients of range profiles as feature In the learning stage, only the first subset is used for

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TABLE III

B-52’s Gabor Atom Parameters u (time shift), » (frequency modulation) and s (scale) of GNN

Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

u 41.7 42.4 43.2 43.8 44.1 45.7 46.5 47.6 44.1 51.2 54.2 54.3 55.4 57.6 59.7

» 0.270 0.295 0.394 0.393 5.932 5.838 0.391 5.972 5.932 0.311 0.410 5.948 0.039 0.856 5.899

s 48.3 119.2 1.9 67.2 56.9 25.9 86.0 56.9 59.6 53.6 77.2 34.8 25.9 25.4 108.3

TABLE IV

B-52’s Gabor Atom Parameters u (time shift), » (frequency modulation) and s (scale) of Gabor Filter

Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

u 32.2 37.1 41.5 42.2 43.2 45.8 46.2 47.4 48.5 51.1 54.6 55.6 56.3 61.1 64.3

» 9.753 9.334 0.213 0.298 0.344 5.891 0.313 5.995 6.070 0.332 0.456 0.470 0.348 0.812 6.469

s 110.1 75.9 48.2 56.9 1.4 25.2 86.9 56.2 107.0 53.6 77.4 25.4 25.8 107.3 43.7

separately. The time-shift parameters, denoted by u, of

GNN are in the range from 40 to 60, whereas those

of the Gabor filter are out of that range sometimes.

For example, in Table IV, the first, second, and last

two time-shift parameters are out of the range from

40 to 60. It should be emphasized that the time shift

parameter corresponds to the position of the scatterer.

From Fig. 3, we can intuitively see the positions of

a B-52’s main scatterer are not only limited in the

range bins from 40 to 60 but also out of that range as

the u of the Gabor filter shows. Besides, the Gabor

Fig. 4. Training data of Q-6.

atom parameters of the GNN and the Gabor filter

are very similar in the range bins from 40 to 60. It

can be concluded that the Gabor filter is prior to the

training the Gabor filter. In the testing stage, all five GNN in the features extraction. And the parameters

subsets are used to examine the trained Gabor filter. » and s correspond to the main scatterer’s frequency

It should be noted that the target rotates at a modulation and scale property, respectively. Their

variant speed, and the sampling aspects are not contribution to the classification is shown in the

uniform. The training data of three airplane models following text.

are shown in Figs. 3—5. The recognition rates achieved For further comparing the feature extraction

by the above seven methods are shown in Table II. between the GNN and Gabor filter, the test sets’

For analyzing the recognition results, a B-52’s projection coefficients of the Gabor atom feature

parameters of the trained Gabor atoms from GNN and vectors onto 2-dimensional discriminative planes, of

ZHU ET AL.: GABOR FILTER APPROACH TO JOINT FEATURE EXTRACTION AND TARGET RECOGNITION 25

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Fig. 8. Yak-42 trajectory.

when recognizing three model aircrafts.

the An-26’s trajectory is divided into 7 segments in

Fig. 7. Projection of Gabor filter on optimum discriminative Fig. 9. To evaluate the generalization performance of

plane when recognizing three model aircrafts. the above nine methods, the testing data and training

data are selected from the different data segments.

the GNN and the Gabor filter, are shown in Fig. 6 The 2nd and 5th segments of Yak-42, the 5th and 6th

and Fig. 7, respectively. From Fig. 6 and Fig. 7, segments of the An-26, the 6th and 7th segments of

we can see that the projection of GNN onto the the Cessna S/II are selected as the training data; all the

own optimum class of the discriminant plane has rest the data segments are selected as the testing data.

the largest between-class scatter and the smallest As shown in Table V, these measured range profiles

within-class scatter, which coincides with the fact that contain the azimuth variation degree and the elevation

the Gabor filter method has a higher recognition rate variation degree which are measured by the radar. The

than GNN. corresponding maximum target elevation difference

between the training data and the testing data is

EXAMPLE 2 Actual Aircraft in Outfield: In this

about 6± . It should be noted that the aspect angle of

example, range profiles of three kinds of actual

the aircraft is different from the azimuth provided

aeroplanes (Yak-42, An-26, and Cessna S/II)

by the radar. Suppose the airplane’s movement can

measured by an C-band wideband ISAR in the

be divided into two parts including rotating and

outfield, mentioned in Section II, are used, where the

translation. The azimuth is the radar’s absolute rotary

SNR is approximately 23 dB. The geometrical sizes

degree for tracking the airplane whereas the aspect is

(length £ width) of the three aircraft are 36:8 m £

the airplane’s relative rotary degree after its translation

34:88 m, 23:8 m £ 29:2 m, and 14:4 m £ 15:9 m,

compensation. Fig. 11 shows the aspect angle and the

respectively.

azimuth between the airplane and the radar. So, the

The projection of target trajectories onto the aspect angle is an unknown factor to our recognition

ground plane and the position of radar are shown in in the testing phase, which is a big difficulty and can

Figs. 8—10, where the measured data of each target be solved by the following subclass method.

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TABLE V

Every Segment’s Variation Degrees of Azimuth and Elevation for 3 Eeroplanes

Segment Azimuth Elevation Azimuth Elevation Azimuth Elevation

2 174.407-172.798 10.767-8.870 221.724-260.649 22.032-16.885 198.640-238.960 27.347-27.782

3 172.831-172.406 8.870-7.574 260.848-256.503 16.835-11.111 239.328-266.047 27.717-19.334

4 172.422-174.879 7.574-6.658 256.356-236.523 11.065-9.069 266.205-258.031 19.269-13.842

5 174.889-177.076 6.658-6.012 236.325-225.523 9.069-12.446 257.883-240.685 13.791-12.778

6 177.078-177.709 6.012-5.606 225.646-242.704 12.490-10.859 240.570-251.588 12.807-15.448

7 242.653-235.521 10.820-8.257 251.717-241.428 15.417-12.663

Average Recognition Rate (%) of Seven Different methods For of this experiment, we separated one target into 6

Example 2

subclasses, i.e., there are 18 subclasses for 3 target in

Classification Methods Average Recognition Rate

this experiment. For example, Yak-42 has 6 subclasses

whose range profiles are from [1, 25], [26, 50],

Range Profiles 85.2

[51, 75], [76, 100], [101, 125], and [126, 150]. One

FFT 70.1

Gabor Transform 82.7 subclass corresponds to one Gabor filter, or one GNN

Wavelet Transform 82.3 and another computation unit for training. So, there

LDB-DP 84.2 are 18 Gabor filters, 18 GNN, or 18 neural networks

GNN (initialized randomly) 86.1 for recognition. The testing scheme is shown in the

Gabor filter (initialized randomly) 92.6

Fig. 2.

Shown in Table VI are the average recognition

Every segment has 75 range profiles, so every rates of the above seven methods. For analyzing the

aeroplane has 150 training range profiles. The recognition results, Yak-42’s parameters of the trained

dimensions of range profiles is 256. And the total Gabor atoms from GNN and Gabor filter are detailed

training data of three aeroplanes is 450 range profiles. in Table VII and Table VIII, separately. The time-shift

The range profile is sensitive to the variation of aspect parameter u of GNN lies in the range from 109 to

angle, namely the sample number. Moreover, these 127, whereas those of the Gabor filter are out of that

three aeroplanes have some similar property of range range sometimes. For example, in Table VIII, the first,

profiles, which results in the difficulty of classification and the last three time-shift parameters are out of the

because of the superposition in the feature space. range from 109 to 127. The positions of Yak-42’s

To reduce the influence of the range profile’s main scatterer are not only limited in the range bins

large variation from the aspect angle’s large variation, from 109 to 127, but also out of that range as the

we separate one target class into several subclasses u of Gabor filter shows. Besides, the Gabor atom

TABLE VII

Yak-42’s Gabor Atom Parameters u (time shift), » (frequency modulation) and s (scale) of GNN

Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

u 109.2 111.2 112.7 113.9 115.6 115.9 116.6 118.4 118.6 119.3 120.3 121.6 123.2 124.7 127.8

» 0.110 0.115 1.331 4.108 0.413 2.573 4.420 5.032 4.848 0.589 3.181 3.093 2.473 1.076 4.729

s 53.0 155.4 161.2 94.8 147.2 115.5 11.2 6.9 80.1 3.2 98.2 174.8 23.7 9.0 156.7

TABLE VIII

Yak-42’s Gabor Atom Parameters u (time shift), » (frequency modulation) and s (scale) of Gabor Filter

Type 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

u 97.1 110.2 111.3 114.0 115.5 116.4 118.4 120.2 121.7 123.2 124.9 129.7 132.6 136.2 141.4

» 5.092 0.217 0.120 4.025 0.432 4.491 5.185 3.315 2.938 2.328 1.132 4.963 1.675 0.341 1.626

s 120.0 53.8 156.1 96.1 147.9 12.4 5.7 98.2 174.7 22.1 9.3 157.2 216.0 48.8 164.1

ZHU ET AL.: GABOR FILTER APPROACH TO JOINT FEATURE EXTRACTION AND TARGET RECOGNITION 27

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Fig. 11. Aspect angle and azimuth between aircraft and radar.

triples for Example 1.

when recognizing three aeroplanes.

triples for Example 2.

has a higher recognition rate than GNN.

From Table II and Table VI, we can see that the

recognition rates achieved by the nine methods for

feature extraction are sorted as follows:

Fig. 13. Projection of Gabor filter on optimum discriminative ¼ Wavelet transform < LDB-DP

plane when recognizing three aeroplanes.

< Range profiles < GNN < Gabor filter.

parameters of GNN and Gabor filter are very similar As seen, the Gabor filtering has a stronger ability in

in the range bins from 109 to 127. feature extraction than the other listed methods.

For further comparing the feature extraction When implementing the Gabor filter method, it

between GNN and Gabor filter, the testing sets’ is an important and interesting problem to decide

projection coefficients of Gabor atom feature vectors the number of feature triples K. In simulations, we

onto 2-dimensional discriminative planes, of GNN changed K = 5, : : : , 25 and took the output number

and Gabor filter, are shown in Fig. 12 and Fig. 13, M = 1. Figs. 14 and 15 show the corresponding

respectively. From Fig. 12 and Fig. 13, we can see recognition rates versus the number of feature triples

that the projection of GNN on own optimum class for Examples 1 and 2, respectively. From Figs. 14 and

of discriminant plane has the largest between-class 15, we see that when K > 16, the recognition rates are

scatter and the smallest within-class scatter, which higher, and their change is smaller.

28 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS VOL. 45, NO. 1 JANUARY 2009

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VIII. CONCLUSIONS [9] Gaunaurd, S. C., and Strifors, H. C.

Signal analysis by means of time frequency

(Wigner-type) distributions-Applications to sonar and

In this paper, we proposed a Gabor filter approach radar echoes.

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The Gabor filter’s input layer constitutes the nonlinear [10] Sayan, G. T., Leblebicioglu, K., and Ince, T.

feature extraction part, whereas the weights between Electromagnetic target classification using time-frequency

the input layer and the output layer constitute the analysis and neural networks.

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett., 21 (1999), 63—69.

linear classifier for signal classification. The feature

[11] Dickhaus, H., and Heinrich, H.

extraction part and the classification part search for

Classifying biosignals with wavelet networks.

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optimal linear classifier, respectively, so that the [12] Delfs, C., and Jondral, F.

output error of the Gabor filter is minimized. Classification of piano sounds using time-frequency

Importantly, the features are extracted obviously signal analysis.

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Joint time-frequency analysis.

time-frequency approaches (LDB-DP and Gabor

Signal Processing Magazine, 16 (Mar. 1999), 52—67.

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[15] Zhang, J., Walter, G. G., Miao, Y., and Lee, W. N. W.

Wavelet neural networks for function learning.

IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 43 (June 1995),

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Feng Zhu was born in 1979, in Chongqing, China. In 2007, he got the Ph.D.

degree with the highest honor at Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

He is currently working at Ericsson Research. His research interests include

all aspects of cellular systems (HSPA, HSPA evolution and LTE), in particular,

MIMO and QoS of a cellular system. He holds several patents on radio

communication.

Xian-Da Zhang (SM’93) was born in Jiangxi, China. He received the B.S. degree

in radar engineering from Xidian University, Xi’an, China, in 1969, the M.S.

degree in instrument engineering from Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin,

China, in 1982, and the Ph.D. degree in electrical engineering from Tohoku

University, Sendai, Japan, in 1987.

Since 1992, he has been a Professor with the Department of Automation,

Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. From August 1990 to August 1991, he

was a postdoctoral researcher with the Department of Electrical and Computer

Engineering, University of California at San Diego. From April 1999 to March

2002, he was with the Key Laboratory for Radar Signal Processing, Xidian

University, Xi’an, China, as a Specially Appointed Professor awarded by the

Ministry of Education of China and the Cheung Kong Scholars Programme.

His current research interests include signal processing and intelligent signal

processing with applications in wireless communications and radar. He has

published over 120 papers including more than 50 IEEE transactions/journal

papers in the areas of signal processing, and authored six books (all in Chinese).

He holds four patents.

Dr. Zhang is the recipient of the 1997 National Natural Science Award of

China.

Ya-Feng Hu was born in 1981, in Jiangsu, China. He received the B.S. and M.S.

degrees in automation from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, in 2003 and

2005, respectively. He got the Ph.D. degree from Tsinghua University in 2008.

Now he joins China National Railway Research & Design Institute of Signal

& Communication, and works as an engineer in the theory and methods of

transportation optimization.

30 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AEROSPACE AND ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS VOL. 45, NO. 1 JANUARY 2009

Authorized licensed use limited to: NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROURKELA. Downloaded on June 30,2010 at 05:49:51 UTC from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

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