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Gibbs Phenomenon:

Typically a signal having certain number of discontinuity needs infinite numbers of coefficients to reconstruct.
Representing 𝑥(𝑡) by a finite series results in an overshoot behavior at the points of discontinuity. The magnitude of
the overshoot is approximately 9%. This phenomenon is known as the Gibbs phenomenon.

Example:
Book Problem Example 3.3.1
2𝐾
, 𝑛 = 𝑜𝑑𝑑
𝐶𝑛 = {𝑗𝜋𝑛
0, 𝑛 = 𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑛
0, 𝑛=0

For perfect reconstruction we have to take 𝑛 = −∞ 𝑡𝑜 ∞



2𝜋𝑛𝑡
𝑥(𝑡) = ∑ 𝐶𝑛 exp [𝑗 ]
𝑇
𝑛=−∞
But,
Taking finite numbers of 𝑛 = −3 𝑡𝑜 3 we get, 𝐾 = 2

-1

-2

-3
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4

Taking finite numbers of 𝑛 = −9 𝑡𝑜 9 we get, 𝐾 = 2

-1

-2

-3
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
Taking finite numbers of 𝑛 = −100 𝑡𝑜 100 we get, 𝐾 = 2

-1

-2

-3
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4

So, we can conclude here saying that, increasing the number of coefficients does not have any effect on percent
overshoot.
Book Problem Example 3.3.2
𝐸
, 𝑛 = 𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑛
𝜋(1 − 𝑛2 )
0, 𝑛 = 𝑜𝑑𝑑
𝐶𝑛 = 𝐸
, 𝑛=1
4𝑗
−𝐸
, 𝑛 = −1
{ 4𝑗
Taking finite numbers of 𝑛 = −5 𝑡𝑜 5 we get, 𝐸 = 𝜋

2.5

1.5

0.5

-0.5
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4

Taking finite numbers of 𝑛 = −15 𝑡𝑜 15 we get, 𝐸 = 𝜋

2.5

1.5

0.5

-0.5
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4