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THIS ARTICLE, THE FOURTH IN A SE- RAY MARSTON internal block diagram of the

ries on phase-locked loops, is device. It can be seen that its


about a tone and frequency de- principal blocks are the phase-
coder monolithic integrated cir- series explained the basic oper- locked loop, a quadrature phase
c u i t . T h e t o n e decoder IC ating principles of the phase- detector, a n amplifier, a n d a n
contains a stable phase-locked locked loop and then went on to output transistor. The phase-
loop a n d a transistor switch e x a m i n e p o p u l a r PLL ICs. locked loop block contains a
8 t h a t produces a grounded Those included t h e Harris current-controlled oscillator
squarewave when a selected CD4046B PLL IC, the Philips (CCO), a phase detector and a
tone is introduced at its input. (formerlySignetics) NE565 PI;L feedback filter.
Tone decoders can decode tones IC, a n d the NE566 function The Philips NE567 has a n op-
8 at various frequencies. For ex- generator IC. erating temperature range of 0
8 ample, it can detect telephone This article is based on the to + 70°F Its electrical charac-
g Touch Tones. The tone-decoder Philips NE567 tone decoder1 teristics are nearly identical to
z ICs are also found in communi- phase-locked loop. The device is those of the Philips SE567,
.-C cations pagers, frequency a low-cost commercial version which has a n operating temper-
monitors and controllers, preci- of the 567 packaged in an eight- ature range of - 55 to + 125".
o,
4-
sion oscillators, and telemetry pin plastic DIP Figure 1 shows However, the 567 has been ac-
decoders. the pin configuration of that cepted a s a n industry standard
62 The last three articles in this package, and Fig. 2 shows the tone decoder, and it is alternate-
sourced by many other multina- of the similarities between
CAPACITORc3 tional semiconductor inter- these devices, they will be re-
OW-PASS FILTER GROUN grated circuit manufacturers. ferred to collectively a s t h e
CAPACITORc2 For example, Analog Devices "567" for the remainder of this
offers three versions of i t s tone decoder article.
ELEMENTS R1. C1 AD567, Exar offers five versions
of its XR567, and National Sem- The 567 basics
iconductor offers three versions The 567 is primarily used a s a
of its LM567. All of the different low-voltage power switch that
brands and models of this de- turns on whenever it receives a
vice will work in the circuits de- sustained input tone within a
decoder in a eight-pin DIP package. scribed in this article. Because narrow range of selected fre-
quency val&s. Stated i n an-
other way, the 567 can function
a s a precision tone-operated
switch.
The versatile 567 can also
function as either a variable
waveform generator or as a con-
ventional PLL circuit. When it is
organized a s a tone-operated
switch, its detection center fre-
quency can be set at any value
from 0.1 to 500 kHz, and its de-
tection bandwidth can be set at
any value up to a maximum of
14% of its center frequency.
Also, its output switching delay
can be varied over a wide time
range by the selection of exter-
nal resistors and capacitors.
The current-controlled os-
FIG. 2 -BLOC# DIAGRAM OF AN NE567 TONE DECODER.
cillator of the 567 can be varied
over a wide frequency range
with external resistor R1 and ca-
pacitor C1, but the oscillator
can be controlled only over a
very narrow range (a maximum
of about 14% of the free-run-
ning value) by signals at pin 2.
As a result, the PLL circuit can
"lock" only to a very narrow
range of preset input frequency
values.
The 567's quadrature phase
detector compares the relative
frequencies and phases of the
input signal and the oscillator
output. It produces a valid out-
FIG. 3 -TYPICAL CONNECTION DIAGRAM of a 567 tone decoder showing output ,

waveforms at pins 5 and 6.

C
FIG. 5 -PRECISION SQUAREWAVE
FIG. 4--PRECISION SQUAREWAVE generator based on the 567's 20-nanosecond rise generator based on a 567 configured for
and fall times. a high-current output. 63
TABLE 1-ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS put-drive signal (which t u r n s
transistor Q1 o n ) only when
these two signals coincide (i.e.,
when the PLL is locked). The
center frequency of the 567 tone
switch is equal to its free-run-
ning oscillator frequency, a n d
its bandwidth is equal to the
lock range of the PLL.
Figure 3 shows the basic con-
nections for a 567 organized a s
a tone switch. The input tone
signal is AC coupled through ca-
pacitor C 4 to pin 3, which has
an input impedance of about 20
kilohms. An external o u t p u t
load resistor (R,) is inserted be-
tween pin 8 and a positive sup-
ply voltage whose maximum
value is 15 volts.
Pin 8 is capable of sinking u p
to 100-milliampere load cur-
r e n t s . P i n 7 is n o r m a l l y
grounded, a n d pin 4 is con-
nected to a positive supply with
a minimum value of 4 . 7 5 volts
and a maximum value of 9 volts.
Pin 8 can also be connected to
the same power source if that
restriction is observed.
The center frequency K)of
the oscillator can be determined
by the formula:
fo = l.l/(Rl x C1) (1)
Where resistance is in kilohms
and capacitance is in units of
microfarads
From this equation the value of
capacitor C1 can be determined
by transposing terms:
C l = l.l/(f,xRl) (2)
With these formulas, values for
resistance and capacitance can
be determined. The value of re-
sistor R1, which should be in
the range of 2 to 20 kilohms,
and C1 can be determined from
formula 2.
The oscillator generates a n
exponential sawtooth waveform
that is available at pin 6 and a
square waveform that is avail-
able at pin 5. The bandwidth of
the tone switch (and thus the
lock range of the PLLI is deter-
mined by C 2 and a 3.9 kilohm
resistor within t h e IC. T h e
ouput switching delay of the cir-
cuit is determined by the value
of C 3 and a resistor within the
IC. Table 1 lists the electrical
10Hz 1OOHz IkHz IOkHz 1OOkHz 1MHz characteristics of the Philips
. OSCILLATOR FREQUENCY NE567 which has nearly identi-
FIG. &RESISTOR-CAPACITOR SELECTION GUIDE for the current-controlled os- cal characteristics to all other
cillator section of the tone decoder. brands of the 567.
to-peak amplitude equal to the
supply voltage value minus 1.4
volts. It can be externally loaded
by any resistance value greater
that 1 kilohm without adversely
affecting the circuit's function.
Alternatively, the squarewave
o u t p u t c a n be applied ( i n
slightly degraded form) to a low
impedance load (at peak cur-
rents up to 100 milliamperes at
pin 8 output terminal, a s shown
in Fig. 5
By applying formulas 1 and 2
FIG. 7-SQUAREWAVE GENERATOR WITH A VARIABLE marWspace ratio output. for oscillator frequency and ca-
pacitance, respectively, a s pre-
sented earlier, various values
can be determined. Again, R1
must be restricted to the 2 to 20
kilohm range. To save time in
making t h i s determination,
component values as they relate
to oscillator frequency can be
read directly from t h e
nomograph, Fig. 6.
For example, if you want the
decoder's oscillator to operate a
10 H z ,the values for C1 and R1
could be either 0.055 micro-
FIG. 8-SQUAREWAVE GENERATOR WlTH quadrature outputs.

I I

OUTPUT +V
(PIN 8)

FIG. 9-TRANSISTOR BUFFER in-


creases the permissiblevalue of resistor
R1.

LOW-PASS
FILTER
(PIN 2)

FIG. 11-WAVEFORMS AT PINS 2 AND 8 under in-band input voltage conditions.

squarewave outputs from the farads and 2 kilohms or 0.0055


567. The nonlinear ramp wave- microfarads and 20 kilohms, re-
FIG. 10-OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
form available at pin 6 has only spectively
buffer increases the permissible re- limited usefulness, b u t t h e The oscillator's frequency can
sistor value without waveform symme- squarewave available at pin 5 be shifted over a narrow range
try loss. has excellent characteristics. As of a few percent with a control
shown in Fig. 4, that output can voltage applied to pin 2 of the
Oscillator design have both 20-nanosecond rise 567. If this voltage is applied,
Figures 4 and 5 illustrate how and fall times. pin 2 should be decoupled by
to o b t a i n various precision This sqbarewave has a peak- (Continued on page 68)
t r a i n i n g t r a n s m i t t e r a s you
RETRO REMOTE would any other remote control.
continuedfrom page 38 As discussed earlier, the power-
on command is decoded by the
dress DIP switches open, ad- receiver as decimal 15. But, be-
d r e s s zero w i t h all e i g h t cause the training transmitter
switches closed, or anything in understands only BCD, set all
between. Regardless of the ad- four data DIP switches at logic
dress you select, be sure to set high (1111).
the same address on the re- Now activate the learning re-
ceiveddecoder board. mote's learning mode, press the
Apply power to the receiver on button, and press the trans-
and connect a 9-volt battery to mit b u t t o n o n t h e t r a i n i n g
the transmitter. Test the train- transmitter until the learning
ing transmitter and receiver by remote indicates that it has re-
aiming the transmitter at the ceived the command. Next set
receiver and pressing the trans- the mute function as decimal 14
mit switch. If the circuit is (1110),volume-up as decimal 13
working correctly, t h e valid (11011, and volume-down a s 12
transmission LED on the re- (1100).
ceiver will light up as long a s How you program the remain-
you hold down the transmit ing 12 receiver command codes
switch. The w LED should light is your choice. You might want
regardless of the settings of the to map 0 through 9 to buttons 0
DATA DIP switches (S2 a-d). If through 9 on the remote. That
the LED does not light, find and still allows for two additional
repair the mistake. commands. Don't forget to pro-
Follow the manufacturer's in- BOARD. This board allows unique cod- gram all your other remote con-
structions for programming the ing that won't interfere with nearby re- trols into the learning remote
learning remote. Operate the mote-controlled equipment. too. R

TONE DECODER
continuedfrom page 65
C2, whose value should be ap-
proximately double that of C1.
The circuits in Figs. 4 and 5
can be modified in several dif-
ferent ways, as shown in Figs. 7
to 10. In Fig. 7, the duty cycle or
marMspace ratio of the gener-
ated waveform is fully variable
over the range of 27:l to 1:27
with trimmer potentiometer

FIG. 13-TONE SWITCH WITH A TRIMMER potentiometer adjustment for skew.

R2. Capacitor C1 alternately phase by 90". In this circuit, in-


charges through resistor R1, di- put pin 3 is normally grounded.
ode Dl, and the left side of R2, If it is biased above 2.8 volts, the
and it discharges through re- square waveform at pin 8 shifts
sisor R1, diode D2, a n d the by 180".
right side of R2 in each operat- Figures 9 and 10 show how
ing cycle. The operating fre- the oscillator circuit can be
quency varies only slightly a s modified to allow timing re-
the marwspace ratio is varied. sistor values to be increased to a
Figure 8 shows how the os- maximum of about 500 kilo-
FIG. 12-TRANSFER FUNCTIONof aver- cillator generates quadrature hms. This permits the value of
'age voltage at pin 1 with respect to in- outputs. The squarewave out- timing capacitor C1 to be pro-
band input voltage. puts of pins 5 and 8 are out of (Continued on page 85)
TONE DECODER In Fig. 9 this buffer is a n emit- Five 567 outputs.
ter-follower transistor stage. The 567 has five output ter-
continuedfrom page 68 Unfortunately, this stage causes minals. Two of these (pins 5 and
a slight loss of waveform syrn- 6 ) give access to the oscillator
portionately reduced. In both metry. By contrast, the circuit output waveforms. A third (pin
circuits, a buffer stage is con- in Fig. 10 includes a n opera- 8 ) functions a s the IC's main
nected between the junction of tional amplifier follower as the output terminal, a s previously
resistor R1 a n d capacitor C1, buffer. It, however, causes no stated. The remaining two out-
and pin 6 of the 567. waveform symmetry loss. puts are available on pins 1 and
2 of the decoder.
Pin 2 gives access to t h e
phase detector output terminal
of the PLL, and it is internally
biased at a quiescent value of
3.8volts. When the 567 receives
in-band input signals, this volt-
age varies as a linear function of
frequency over the typical range
of 0.95 to 1.05 times the os-
cillator's free-running frequen-
cy. It has a slope of about 20
millivolts per percent of fre-
quency deviation.
Figure 11 illustrates the time
relationship between the out-
puts of pin 2 and pin 8 when the
5 6 7 is organized a s a t o n e
switch. The relationships are
shown at two bandwidths: 14%
and 7 % .
Pin 1 gives access to the out-
p u t of the 567's quadrature
phase detector. During tone
lock, the average voltage at pin 1
is a function of the circuit's in-
band input signal amplitude, a s
FIG. 14--DUAL-TONE DECODER with a single output. shown in transfer graph Fig. 12.
Pin 8 at the collector of the out-
p u t transistor t u r n s on when
the average voltage at pin 1 is
pulled below its 3.8-volt thresh-
old value.
Detection bandwidth
When the 567 is configured a s
a tone switch, its bandwidth (as
a percentage of center frequen-
cy) has a maximum value of
about 14%. That value is pro-
portional to the value of in-band
signal voltage in the 25 to 200
millivolt RMS range. However, it 2
is independent of values in the 8
200 to 300 millivolt range, and 2
is inversely proportional to the
product of center frequency and
5
capacitor C2. The actual band- -2
width (BW) is: E
(D
2
BW = 10704- 9,-
in % off, andVi 5 200 millivolts $
RMS S
Where Vi is in volts RMS and C2
is in microfarads
FIG. 15-DUAL-TONE SWITCH with 24 % bandwidth. (Continued on page 88) 85
TONE DECODER circuit response. If C 3 is too
small, the output at pin 8 might
NEW BOOKS continued from page 85 pulsate during switching be-
cause of transients.
for the Project Builder I To select a C2 value by an edu-
cated trial and error process, Multiple switching
start by selecting a value that is Any desired number of 5 6 7
twice that of C1. Then either in- tone switches can be fed from a
crease its value to reduce band- common input signal to make a
width, or reduce its value to multitone switching network of
increase bandwidth. any desired size. Figures 14 and
15 are two practical two-stage
Detection band skew switching networks.
Detection band skew is a mea- The circuit in Fig. 14 func-
sure of how well the band is cen- tions as a dual-tone decoder. It
tered about the center frequen- has a single output that is acti-
cv. Skew is defined as: vated in the presence of either of
gmw+fmin - 2fo)l'f two input tones. Here, the two
tone switches are fed from the
PCP119- Wheref,, andfmi, are the fre-
ELECTRONIC MUSIC quencies corresponding to the same signal source, and their
AND MlDl PROJECTS o u t p u t s a r e NoRed b y a
1 ..........................$14.95 edges of the detection band.
Iuf a tone switch has a center CD4001B CMOS gate IC.
Save cash by building the
1 MlDl gadgets you need. frequency of 1 0 0 kHz a n d a Figure 15 shows two 5 6 7 tone
Want a MlDl THRU box, bandwidth of 10 kHz, and its switches connected in parallel
I program change pedal,
edge of band frequencies are so that they act like a single tone
Metronome, analog echo
I u n ~ tMIDI
, patchbay or symmetrically placed at 9 5 kHz switch with a bandwidth of
2 4 % . In this circuit, the operat-
switcher? Over 16 prac- and 105 kHz, its skew value is
1 tical and v e n useful music and MlDl oroiects-all zero %. However, if its range of ing frequency of the IC2 tone
I inthis book[ The projects are explained'in detail
I band values is highly nonsyrn- switch is made 1.12 times lower
with full instructions on assemblv.
metrical at 100 kHz and 110 than that of the IC1 tone switch.
BP301-ANTENNAS
I kHz, its skew value increases to As a result, their switching
.......................... $6.00 I
FOR "HI AND UHF 5%. bandwidths overlap. ~2
The skew value c a n be re-
From installing a TV or I
FM antenna to setting up
duced to zero, if necessary, by
a multi-antenna array for I

>
introducing a n external bias
shortwave listening or trim voltage at pin 2 of the IC
amateur radio, this book I
explains the basics of VHF
and UHF antenna opera- I
with a trimmer potentiometer
R2 and 4 7 kilohm resistor R4.
as shown in Fig. 13. Moving the
( TRY THE NEW
tion and installation. The
1 text describes in eas,I-to-understand terms the 1
- wiper up will lower the center
essential information about how antennas works, frequency, and moving it down
the advantaaes of different antenna tvpes, and I will raise it. Silicon diodes D l
how t o get ihe best performance from an an-
I tenna. and D2 are optional for temper-
I
Mail to:
ature compensatjon.
1 I I BBS
Tone-switch design
I Electronic Technology Today, Inc. Practical tone-switch circuits 516-293-2283
1 P.O. Box 240 based on the typical connection
Massapequa Park, NY 11762-0240
diagram Fig. 3 are easy to de-
I Shipping Charges in USA (I Canada sign. Select the resistor R1 and COMMUNICATE WITH
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I Subtotal ....................................$
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.- Name tion, add a skew adjustment
- II
,O
Address
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stage, as shown in Fig. 13.
Finally, to complete the cir-
Please allow 6-8 weeks for delivery. cuit design, give C3 a value dou-
88 k--------- ble that of C2, and check the