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Jordan Cox


Pre-AP English, P1

11 January 2018

Mini-Research Project Bibliography: Genetic Engineering

Editorials/Opinionated Articles:

1) Dewey, Caitlin. “The Apple That Never Browns Wants To Change Your Mind About

Genetically Modified Foods.” ​The Washington Post​, 23 Jan. 2017,

2klckxv?tid=ss_tw-bottom&utm_term=.30706adad631. Accessed 11 Jan. 2018.

The article titled, ​The Apple That Never Browns Wants To Change Your Mind About

Genetically Modified Foods​ by the Washington Post has a clear and straightforward opinion

about GMOs: it supports and approves of them. This article discusses the effects and importance

of the first non-browning apples, marketed under the brand Arctic Apple. Scientists discovered a

way to halt the natural browning of apples when left out in the open through genetic engineering,

and many people believe this could change the course of the debate concerning GMOs. Several

businesses and companies are eager for new GMO products, and many speculate that this apple

could provide opportunities for more GM produce, like pink pineapples and antioxidant-enriched

tomatoes, to hit the market.

GMO critics, however, hope that consumers will be hesitant towards this apple,

regardless of the growing evidence that GMOs hold little threat. Anti-GMO groups have

successfully limited the practice of genetic engineering to commodity crops such as soybeans

and corn, and even had GM crops banned in some locations due to their campaigns opposing
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GMOs for the last 30 years. This non-browning apple has not yet been sold to the public, but it’s

success or downfall in sales will greatly impact the debate over GMOs for better or for worse on

either side. Promoters of this apple and of GMOs are fighting to get them on the market and are

explaining to the public that there are no environmental or health risks associated with the

growing or consumption of GMO products. So no ideas for prevention are given and no

suggestions for change beyond placing these products on the market are presented.

2) “GMO Facts.” ​Non-GMO Project​, Accessed 11

Jan. 2018.

The Non-GMO Project organization website covers everything from explanations and

sciences of GMOs to the safety and effects of them on farmers and the environment. This

website clearly opposes GMOs and the organization wants to provide sources of non-GMO

products and teach consumers about them. According to this association, GMOs are organisms

whose genetic material has been artificially modified using genetic engineering, creating genes

that do not occur naturally. Even though they claim that an increasing amount of evidence is

connecting GMOs with environmental damage and health problems, they do admit that no

scientific consensus on the safety of GMOs has been made. Along with providing sources for

non-GMO products, it also presents lists of high-risk crops and inputs and why they are

high-risk. Some of these high risk crops include, Alfalfa, canola, and corn--and though there

aren’t yet a numerous amount of genetically modified crops, they are generally commodity crops

that get processed into other foods as a variety of ingredients. These high-risk ingredients

become present in a number of products as anything ranging from amino acids and alcohols to
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vitamins and yeast products.

To prevent this problem and the further spread of GMOs, this organization has created

ways in which the public can aid in the cause as well. People can go on the non-GMO project

website and non-GMO products, retailers, product verification, and more. They are also given

options on how to get involved to help change things. The non-GMO organization furthermore

accepts donations from the public as well. However, the association unfortunately does not

present any suggestions for change beyond the further verification of food and the diminishing of


Scientific Articles:

3) Jordan, Carl F. “Genetic engineering, the farm crisis, and world hunger. (Forum).”

BioScience​, vol. 52, no. 6, 2002,

SCIC?u=hend78154&xid=92e0e0bc. Accessed 12 Jan. 2018.

The article ​Genetic engineering, the farm crisis, and world hunger​ by Carl F. Jordan

begins by discussing the farm crisis and supply and demand. The farm crisis is due to

overproduction, but farmers must increase their production to raise their incomes, leading to a

further oversupply. Genetic engineering is seen as a solution to this crisis. Several farmers

claimed that planting genetically modified crops enlarged their production and decreased crop

losses, thus raising their incomes. The problem is though, that prices will most likely plummet

due to oversupply if all farmers begin planting GM crops. Organic agriculture is somewhat, but

not entirely seen as an alternate solution for this due to its low productivity and high cost, but

there are methods to possibly fix these problems through the restoration of healthy soil and
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controlling of weeds by cover crops, even if it could be somewhat costly for farmers.

Concerning world hunger, however, many believe that GMOs are the best option to boost

food production enough to satisfy the demand. It is argued that genetic engineering is important

to the improvement of agriculture in countries currently developing. Yet others suggest a better

way would be to integrating native crops instead of GMOs into the local agriculture since they

are already adapted to local conditions. Biotechnology though, is not enough to fix all these

problems, so it may be time to consider alternate methods of agriculture. There is no discussion

of the prevention of GMOs, but more suggestions for change include reducing the oversupply of

food by eliminating crop subsidies and having farmers in developing countries cultivate crops for

their families and neighbors instead of commodity crops that go to the government.

4) LaJeunesse, Sara. “The Science of GMOs.” ​Penn State Ag Science Magazine​, 15 May


Accessed 12 Jan. 2018.

The article titled, ​The Science of GMOs​ by Sara LaJeunesse at Penn State College of

Agricultural Sciences aims only to inform people of the science and statistics behind GMOs.

According to this article, much of the public have no idea what exactly GMOs are, so Sara

begins her article by explaining it. She analyzes in depth when and how they were created, when

this type of genetic manipulation was first introduced, what GM crops are approved for sale in

the US, and more. The regulation of GMOs and the global production of biotech crops are

discussed as well, and it is stated that in 2014, 181.5 million hectares of biotech crops were

produced by 28 countries, the largest producer among them being the US with 73.1 million.
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Human health and the environment are other major topics in this article and though it quotes

scientists repeatedly claiming that there are no major health risks for people or risks for the

environment, it is clarified that no reputable sources have confirmed that there are indeed risks or

if there are not.

The effects of the use of herbicides and pesticides on GMOs, “horizontal gene transfer”

(the transfer of genes between organisms without reproduction or human interference), and

animal health after being fed GMOs are all taken into account when analyzing human health and

the environment. Though, many scientists still declare that there are no evident and/or

undeniable risks concerning GMOs. It is pointed out that the production of GMOs are a good

way to feed a rapidly increasing population. However, it is not the only answer for it--only a

mere part of the solution. Suggestions for change regarding GMOs are not explicitly stated, and

neither are any methods for the prevention of them.