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A Hard

Turn
Toward
Efficiency
Principles of Workholding
Workholding: III that Works

Site Safety
Tooth Tips

Company Profile:
Advanced Machine &
Engineering Co.

Q&A: Robert O’Connor


J. Schneeberger Corp.

APRIL 2009
2 gearsolutions.com
April 2009
VOLUME 7 NO. 73

FEATURES
20 companyPROFILE Advanced Machine & Engineering Co.
by Russ Willcutt
Whether it’s tombstones, mechanical clamp-force cylinders, or self-aligning fixture
elements, this company has the answers to your workholding challenges.

p. 20
22 A Hard Turn Toward Efficiency
By Christer Richt
While grinding is the traditional finishing technique for hardened steel gears, hard part
turning provides quite a few benefits that may improve your process, and your product.

32 Principles of Workholding: Part III


By Juergen Kempf and Tim Peterson, CMfgT
In the third—and final—installment in a multi-part series on workholding, Toolink
Engineering and König-mtm discuss inspection, special fixtures, and more.

40 Workholding that Works


By Ann Pettibone
p. 22 Smart manufacturers can maximize their workholding investment by learning how to use
these devices efficiently and to the full extent of their capacity.

DEPARTMENTS
8 industryNEWS
New products, trends and developments in the gear-manufacturing industry.

17 siteSAFETY Terry McDonald


Equipment must be designed to accomplish the task at hand, of course, but it’s
important that operator safety be taken into consideration as well.

p. 32
19 toothTIPS William Crosher
Gear-drive inspection reveals the effects of residual stresses on face contact in
high-speed gear units. This installment explores the issue and provides solutions.

52 Q&A with Robert O’Connor, sales manager


J. Schneeberger Corporation

INDUSTRY RESOURCES
45MACHINES 48MARKETPLACE 51ADVERTISERINDEX
p. 40

Gear Solutions (ISSN 1933 - 7507) is published monthly by Media Solutions, Inc., 266D Yeager Parkway Pelham, AL 35124. Phone (205) 380-1573 Fax (205) 380-1580 International subscription rates: $72.00 per year. Periodicals Postage Paid at Pelham AL and at additional
mailing offices. Printed in the USA. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Gear Solutions magazine, P.O. Box 1210 Pelham AL 35124. Publications mail agreement No. 41395015 return undeliverable Canadian addresses to P.O. Box 503 RPO West Beaver Creek Richmond
Hill, ON L4B4R6. Copyright®© 2006 by Media Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved.

APRIL 2009 
Letter
From THE EDITOR David C. Cooper
Publisher

Over the years we’ve developed quite a few innovative, multi-part features with the help of Chad Morrison
our friends in all sectors of the gear manufacturing industry. I can think back to a number of Associate Publisher
series that have allowed the authors to really stretch their intellectual legs and explore top-
ics of their choosing in depth and detail. This is the same philosophy behind our columns,
EDITORIAL
in which authors from various fields range beyond the confines of a single article and share
Russ Willcutt
Editor
their expertise in installments, over many issues. Terry McDonald, author of “Site Safety,”
has been with us from the very beginning, for instance, and William Crosher has been mak- Sales
ing his contribution in “Tooth Tips” for many years, as well. You will find just such an instance Brad Whisenant
in this issue of the magazine, in which Tim Peterson, CMfgT—engineering and sales man- National Sales Manager
ager for Toolink Engineering—and Juergen Kempf of König-mtm conclude their three-part
series on workholding. All three articles are available for download on our Web site [www. Circulation
gearsolutions.com] and together represent a very nice education on aspects of workholding Teresa Hall
that are sure to help you streamline your manufacturing operation. The reason I mention this Manager
is because I’d like to make clear that, just as we’re always interested in hearing your story
ideas for single articles, we’re also open to teaming up with you on more ambitious projects
Jamie Willett
Assistant
that will be of benefit to our readers, and to the gear manufacturing industry at large.
In addition to the Toolink/König article “The Principles of Workholding: Part III,” longtime Kassie Hughey
contributor Ann Pettibone—CEO of the Drewco Corp.—has penned “Workholding that Assistant
Works,” in which she shares tips on how to maximize your workholding investment by learn-
ing how to use these devices fully and efficiently. It’s a pleasure to welcome Drewco back to ART
our pages after their initial contribution to the fourth issue of the magazine, in July of 2003, Jeremy Allen
and an opinion column the following April. You will also enjoy reading “A Hard Turn Toward Art Director
Efficiency” by Christer Richt, who is with Sandvik Coromant, in which he discusses how Michele Hall
developments in machinery, component materials, and hardening processes, among other Graphic Designer
improvements, have made the metal cutting of hardened parts an attractive alternative to
grinding. William Crosher discusses how gear-drive inspection reveals the effects of residual Contributing writers
stresses on face contact in high-speed gear units in this month’s installment of “Tooth Tips,” William P. Crosher
and Terry McDonald points out the importance of current shop-floor signage and how opera- Juergen Kempf
tor-safety features should be built into new machine designs in “Site Safety.” Our company Terry McDonald
profile this month is the Advanced Machine & Engineering Co. (AME)—many thanks to Alvin Tim Peterson, CMfgT
Goellner and Doug Robinson for taking the time to speak with me—and Robert O’Connor, Ann Pettibone
sales manager for the J. Schneeberger Corp., is our Q&A subject. Christer Richt
In closing, we will soon be launching Wind Systems magazine, as you know, and one thing
we’ve noticed in developing this project is how many of our longtime friends in gear manu-
facturing are involved in that industry as well. If you’re one of those companies and plan to
attend the American Wind Energy Association’s WINDPOWER 2009 conference and exhibi- Published by Media Solutions, Inc.
P. O. Box 1987 • Pelham, AL 35124
tion in Chicago, please stop by to see us at booth #2516, where we’ll be introducing Wind
(800) 366-2185 • (800) 380-1580 fax
Systems. The event will be help May 4-7 at the McCormick Place Convention Center, and you
Dav id C. Cooper
can learn more by going to www.windpowerexpo.org. Hope to see you there! President
Chad Morrison
Vice PresidenT
Ter esa Hall
Operations

Russ Willcutt, editor


Gear Solutions magazine
editor@gearsolutionsonline.com
(800) 366-2185
No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form
or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, record-
ing, or any information storage-and-retrieval system without permission in
writing from the publisher. The views expressed by those not on the staff
on Gear Solutions magazine, or who are not specifically employed by
Media Solutions, Inc., are purely their own. All "Industry News" material
has either been submitted by the subject company or pulled directly from
their corporate web site, which is assumed to be cleared for release.
Comments and submissions are welcome, and can be submitted to
 gearsolutions.com editor@gearsolutionsonline.com.
INDUSTRY
“No other method of grinding or cut-
ting can compare in performance with
its speed, precision, repeatable accu-

NEWS
racy, and clean operation,” says Joe
DeAngelo, director of technical develop-
New Products, ment. “MDP can even eliminate second-
Trends, Services,  ary operations such as electro polishing,
and Developments micro blasting, and deburring without
generating thermals or causing internal
stress and distortion in the material. Its
Raycar Gear & Machine Celebrates its 20th Anniversary applications are endless.”
Over the past 20 years Raycar Gear & Machine’s accomplishments have included more During MDP an electric current flows
than tripling its qualified manpower and manufacturing space, continuously increasing between the negatively charged abra-
its productivity and capabilities by adding state of the art CNC gear equipment, and sive wheel and the positively charged
maintaining a high level of customer satisfaction. The company is ISO9001:2000 and workpiece through an environmentally
AS9100:2004 certified, and it is always focused on continued quality improvement. friendly electrolyte (saline) solution. A
In the spring of 2008 Raycar added its third Hofler Helix CNC gear grinder. With decomposing action occurs, causing the
three gear grinders the company has the capacity to grind practically any tooth pro- material surface to oxidize. This oxidized
file including crown, taper, and tip relief, and with nearly any imaginable modification. surface is then removed by the spe-
Raycar consistently achieves and exceeds AGMA class 12 quality gears, and it has also cially formulated abrasives in the wheel,
recently added a Gleason Sigma 7 gear analyzer, resulting in increased gear-checking exposing more material and repeating
capabilities. The summer of that same year saw the purchase of a Mitsubishi GD50 CNC the cycle. MDP cuts conductive materi-
hobbing machine, increasing productivity even further by ramping up feed rates on all als 80 percent faster than conventional
axes along with speedier table and spindle rotational speeds. This machine modernizes methods and is especially effective
Raycar’s hobbing capabilities by allowing for larger gears to be produced while decreas- on super-alloys and exotic metals. It
ing cycle times. The combination of these machines, along with experienced operators, can be used with the following con-
allows Raycar to excel in manufacturing precise, high-quality gears. ductive materials: aluminum, beryllium,
Raycar Gear & Machine celebrates two decades of success by continuing to provide cobalt chrome, copper, inconel, iridium,
the quality products and excellent service its customers have come to expect. To learn molybdenum, nickel, nitinol, platinum,
more call (815) 874-3948, send e-mail to sales@raycargear.com, or visit online at rhenium, single crystal alloys, stain-
[www.raycargear.com]. less steel, titanium, titanium carbide,
tungsten carbide, zirconium, and other
Proprietary Grinding Technology from Oberg conductive ceramics and plastics.
Oberg Industries offers the world’s After working closely with Compositron
most advanced grinding technology Corporation for over five years to further
with the Molecular Decomposition develop and refine the process, Oberg
Process™ (MDP™). Developed for the acquired the MDP technology and the full
most efficient removal or cutting of consumable products line of Voltron™
any conductive material, MDP uses an grinding wheels and electrolyte in July
electrochemical action and an abra- 2007. Voltron grinding wheels and elec-
sive wheel to achieve a surface finish trolytic solution continue to be manufac-
of less than 1 RA and precision toler- tured and developed at Oberg’s Sarver,
ances held to ± 0.0002", all without Pennsylvania, campus to fit a variety
generating heat. The process is ideal of cutting and grinding applications. To
for use with consumer or industrial learn more go to [www.oberg.com].
products where surface finish and
dimensional stability are imperative. MDP is also suitable for applications requiring a New Gear Brochure from DSM
surface free of micro cracks and fissures or other highly polished weight bearing and Engineering Plastics
articulating surfaces. Gentle enough to grind thin-walled components without damage DSM Engineering Plastics announces the
or distortion, MDP works well with tubing, rapid cut-off needs, and grinding of complex release of its new gear brochure, which
features in exotic metals, including nitinol. highlights the use of Stanyl polyamide 46

Companies wishing to submit materials for inclusion in Industry News should contact Editor Russ Willcutt at editor@gearsolutionsonline.com.
Releases accompanied by color images will be given first consideration.

 gearsolutions.com
for high-temperature, high-torque transmit- DSM Engineering Plastics is a busi- TPC, Arnite® PBT and PET polyesters,
ting applications. For OEMs and manufac- ness group in the performance materials Xantar® polycarbonate, Yparex® extrud-
turers looking for high performance, safety, cluster of DSM, with approximately 1,550 able adhesive resins. These materials
and durability in motor management gears, employees worldwide. It is one of the are used in technical components for
this brochure highlights material proven world’s leading suppliers of engineering electrical appliances, electronic equip-
solutions for gear applications that deliver thermoplastics, offering a broad portfolio ment and cars, and in barrier packaging
mechanical and constant performance at of high performance products including films, as well as in many mechanical
high temperature, excellent tribological Stanyl® high performance polyamide and and extrusion applications. Stanyl is
behavior, and high fatigue resistance. Akulon® 6 and 66 polyamides, Arnitel® the global market leader in high heat
polyamides. To learn more please visit
[www.dsmep.com].
Royal DSM N.V. creates innovative
products and services in life and materi-
als sciences that contribute to the quality
of life. DSM’s products and services are
used globally in a wide range of markets
and applications, supporting a healthier,
more sustainable, and more enjoyable
way of life. End markets include human
and animal nutrition and health, personal
care, pharmaceuticals, automotive, coat-
ings and paint, electrics and electron-
ics, life protection, and housing. DSM
employs some 23,000 people worldwide.
The company is headquartered in the
Netherlands, with locations on five con-
tinents. A PDF of the brochure can be
downloaded at [www.stanyl.com]. Also go
to [www.dsm.com].

OSU GearLab Presents Basic


and Advanced Gear Noise Short
Courses
The Gear and Power Transmission
Research Laboratory (GearLab) at The
Ohio State University announces two
upcoming educational opportunities: the
Basic and the Advanced Gear Noise
Short Courses. Details are as follows:

• Basic Gear Noise Short Course: June


10-12, 2009
This course has been offered for over
30 years and is considered extremely
valuable for gear designers and noise
specialists who encounter gear noise
and transmission design problems.
Attendees will learn how to design
gears to minimize the major excita-
tions of gear noise: transmission error,
dynamic friction forces, and shuttling
forces. Fundamentals of gear noise gen-
eration and gear noise measurement
will be covered along with topics on

10 gearsolutions.com
gear rattle, transmission dynamics, and & Defense Services for independent audi- during 2008 were commended for their
housing acoustics. This course includes tors Det Norske Veritas, an accredited environmental performance with more
extensive demonstrations of specialized certification body of quality, environmen- than 80 positive noteworthy efforts and
gear analysis software in addition to the tal, and safety management systems. no major nonconformances:
demonstrations of many Ohio State gear “Congratulations to Boeing on this sig-
test rigs. A unique feature of the course nificant accomplishment. We look forward •Alabama: Huntsville
is the interactive workshop session to our ongoing partnership in continual •Arizona: Mesa
that invites attendees to discuss their environmental improvement.” •Australia: Bankstown, Fishermans Bend
specific gear and transmission noise The following Boeing sites certified •California: El Segundo, Long Beach,
concerns. Cost: $1,590

• Advanced Gear Noise Short Course:


June 15-16, 2009
This advanced session is an extension
of the basic course and will be taught
through lectures on selected topics
coupled with a series of hands-on
workshops. Based upon their interests
the attendees may select from the fol-
lowing topics: analytical and comput-
er modeling (prediction of gear whine
excitations, general system dynamics,
bearing/casing dynamics, gear rattle
models); and experimental and compu-
tational approaches (modal analysis of
casings, acoustic radiation, advanced
signal processing, sound quality analy-
sis, transmission error measurement).
Cost: $1,090

To learn more, or to enroll, call Jonny


Harianto at (614) 688-3952 or fax to
(614) 292-3163. Send e-mail to hari-
anto.1@osu.edu, or go online to [www.
gearlab.org].

Boeing Achieves Major


Environmental Certification Goal
Boeing has announced that all of its
major manufacturing facilities received
the internationally recognized ISO 14001
environmental certification by the end of
2008, marking achievement of one of the
company’s most significant environmen-
tal goals. Certification is a global bench-
mark of an organization’s commitment to
understand and continually improve its
environmental performance.
“We recognized many areas of excel-
lence at Boeing, from employee involve-
ment programs to recycling efforts, in
one of the most aggressive ISO 14001
certification efforts we've seen,” says
Sidney Vianna, director of Aviation, Space

APRIL 2009 11
Seal Beach, Sylmar, Taft, Torrance Integrated Defense Systems sites in “Certification is a tremendous achieve-
•Canada: Winnipeg Puget Sound ment by our employees, ensuring that
•Florida: Kennedy Space Center Boeing products, from our super-efficient
•Missouri: St. Louis, St. Charles “As a responsible corporate citizen commercial airplanes to our military air-
•Pennsylvania: Philadelphia and neighbor we are focused on reducing craft, satellites, and world record-holding
•Texas: San Antonio energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, solar cells, are manufactured in facilities
•Utah: Salt Lake City pollution, and waste at our facilities,” that conform to the ISO 14001 standard
•W ashington: Auburn, Frederickson, says Mary Armstrong, Boeing vice presi- of environmental performance.”
Renton, and Nor th Boeing Field, dent, Environment, Health and Safety. Facilities in Exmouth, Australia; Everett,
Wash.; and Portland, Ore. had previously
achieved ISO 14001 certification. Boeing
is committed to pioneering environmen-
tally progressive products and services and
T H E S E V E N T H L A R G E S T U S E D M A C H I N E R Y WA R E H O U S E I N T H E W O R L D reducing its environmental footprint. Some
other highlights of its 2008 work include
the establishment of aggressive targets
to improve by 25 percent greenhouse gas
emissions intensity, energy efficiency, and
recycling rates at its major manufacturing
facilities by 2012, with a similar goal for
hazardous waste reduction. The company
also conducted the world’s first series of
test flights powered in part by sustain-
able biofuels, in collaboration with Air New
Zealand, Continental Airlines, and Japan
Airlines. Boeing is focused on research
for advanced generations of sustainable
biofuels using biomass that do not com-
We have a variety of flexible services pete with food crops or water resources,
to fit your needs and it released an environmental report
detailing its performance, strategy, and
Consulting actions to reduce its environmental foot-
Customized marketing plans designed to meet 150,000 square foot
your company’s unique business needs. print and lead the aerospace industry with
used machinery warehouse
APPRAISALS • environmentally progressive products and
Take it to the bank: Accurate, services. In addition, it conducted the
expert equipment appraisals all at one location
from AMEA-certified appraisers. 2,500 machines in stock world’s first straight-and-level flight of a
AUCTIONS • manned airplane powered only by a fuel-
Over $44 million gross sales in the two 50 ton p&h cranes
last three years. cell, led by Madrid-based Boeing Research

LIQUIDATIONS & Technology Europe—the research may
The right buyers...the right prices. railroad siding
benefit secondary aircraft system power
brokerage
A sensible, commission-based sales option. use—and it delivered world-record holding
consignment solar cells by Boeing subsidiary Spectrolab,
A full-service partner you can depend on. Inc., to an Australian customer to power a
storage 154MW power station. To learn more go to
Secure storage at a reasonable price.
[www.boeing.com].

New Fixturing CD from Advanced


Machine & Engineering
Advanced Machine & Engineering Co. (AME)
announces its newly updated Fixturing
Solutions CD. Included on the CD is a brief
10601 Glendale Road • Cincinnati, Ohio 45215
Phone (513) 771-1952 • Fax (513) 771-5120 • Email: sales@mohawkmachinery.com fixturing overview and video along with
www.mohawkmachinery.com detailed information about AME’s fixturing
products and services, links to complete

12 gearsolutions.com
online catalogs, CAD models, and a com- sors, engines, gearboxes, fuel systems, (454 g). A convenient three-way rocker
pany overview and video, plus contact infor- and more. switch allows easy control of the light
mation. New additions to the CD include The lamp features three ultra-high inten- sources and a lightweight, angled lamp
new fixturing products such as dedicated sity UV LEDs for fluorescent leak detec- body ensures fatigue-free inspections.
manual fixturing and Jakob Antriebstechnik tion, plus a white light LED for general Instant-on operation allows the lamp to
clamps with new CAD models, plus an ISO component inspection. Its broad-beam reach full intensity immediately. It has
conversion calculator and measurement an 8-foot (2.4 m) power cord with an
unit convertor. AC plug and is available in 120V, 230V,
AME can design and build Amrok® ready- 240V, and 100V models. Also available
to-use dedicated manual fixtures from is the TRITAN™ 365M portable, battery-
the ground up for horizontal and vertical operated AC/DC lamp kit. Along with the
machining centers and other CNC machin- TRITAN lamp it has a rechargeable NiMH
ery. Dedicated manual fixtures offer a battery pack with an adjustable shoulder
variety of benefits for customers, including: strap and belt loop, AC cord set, smart
reduced machine setup and cycle times; AC charger, and UV-absorbing glasses,
improved operator safety; improved toler- all packed in a padded carrying case.
ances resulting from the use of a single For more information call (516) 333-
fixture as opposed to multiple fixtures; and profile provides extra-wide area coverage, 4840 or go to [www.spectroline.com].
reduced workpiece handling, which in turn while its compact head gets into cramped
can result in increased part production. areas larger lamps can’t reach. It has Fanless Panel PCs from Maple
Several new workholding clamping prod- an inspection range of 20 feet (6.1 m) Systems
ucts from Jakob Antriebstechnik offer sim- or more. A built-in fan keeps the LEDs Maple Systems, a leading manufacturer
ple manual operation, high clamping forces, cool, providing optimum light output during of industrial operator interface products,
and high operation safety. The variety of extended use. has announced the release of three new
clamps, nuts, springs, and screws can be The TRITAN 365 is extremely compact additions to its Gold Series family of
used to clamp workpieces and tools or to and lightweight, weighing just 16 ounces space-saving panel PCs. These new slimly
clamp down closing lids of tanks and enclo-
sures. They can also be used in presses,
punches, machine tools, jigs, and fixtures.
Advanced Machine & Engineering—locat-
ed in Rockford, Illinois, and profiled in this
issue of Gear Solutions magazine—is a
global manufacturer and distributor of pre-
cision machine components, fluid power
components, fixturing/workholding, power
drawbar and spindle interface compo-
nents, and saw machines and blades. The
company also designs and builds special
machines for a variety of industries and
provides machine rebuilding, retrofitting,
and contract manufacturing services. AME
has partners and customers around the
world and across the United States. To
learn more go to [www.ame.com].

UV Lamp for Industrial Leak


Detection from Spectronics
The Spectronics Corporation has intro-
duced the powerful Spectroline® TRITAN™
365, a multi-LED, broad-beam UV leak
detection lamp. When used with Spectroline
fluorescent dyes it pinpoints fluid leaks
in a wide range of industrial systems
such as hydraulic equipment, compres-

APRIL 2009 13
contoured 10 inch, 15 inch, and 17 inch
fanless models have Intel processors and
are preloaded with Windows XP Pro. Like
all in the Gold Series, these new models
are powerful, state of the art, fully func-
tional PCs that will run most Windows-
based software.
“Affordable, yet fortified with computing
power, the Gold Series fanless models
are quiet, draw less electricity, produce
less heat, and eliminate the problem
of particulate matter being drawn into
the unit itself—perfect for tightly sealed
environments where there is no available
air flow,” according to Larry St. Peter,
president. “But just as important, these
flat panels are cutting edge PCs that oper-
ate most windows software applications,
and they offer an affordable functional
solution to innumerable manufacturing
challenges and computing tasks. And,
unlike many of our competitors, the price
includes the drive, the high-speed proces-
sor, the memory, and the Windows XP
Professional operating system.”
With high-resolution, high-brightness
TFTs that support 16.7 million (24bit)
colors, these innovative Gold Panel PCs
are versatile precision touchscreen inter-
faces. In fact, all Gold Series panel PCs
can utilize Windows-compatible industrial
applications as well as Maple Systems’
optional HMI/SCADA Webstudio Software,
which is a real-time supervisory control
and data acquisition (SCADA) program for
creating fully functional media-fortified
web-based HMI solutions.
Like all members of the Gold Series
family, these three new fanless models
are geared to deal with remote data
entry, remote monitoring, and scenarios
that require support for multiple devices.
Additionally they are RoHS compliant and

14 gearsolutions.com
include a NEMA4/IP65 certification. The Gold Series come
with a one year warranty and top-notch customer service
and support. For more information call (425) 745-3229 or
visit [www.maplesystems.com].

New 12VDC Gearmotors, Motors, and DC Speed


Control from Bodine
Bodine Electric Company now offers a new selection of 12
volt permanent magnet DC (PMDC) gearmotors, motors,
and a new DC motor speed control for continuous duty
OEM applications. These compact and cost-efficient prod-
ucts provide the predictable performance required for low-
voltage, battery powered, remote-location, or solar appli-
cations. When these gearmotors and controls are used
together they provide a complete, single-source motion
control system.
The 12 volt PMDC
gear motor s and
motors are available
in both 24A- and
33A -frame motor
sizes. They can be
built in combination
with most of Bodine’s
parallel shaft, hollow
shaft, or right-angle
gearheads, with gear-
motor output speeds
from 5.6 to 660 rpm. Horsepower extends from 1/50 to
1/8 hp (93 W), and they are able to generate up to 310 lb-
in (35 Nm) torque. Higher output ratings are possible for
intermittent duty applications. Custom models are avail-
able with encoders installed, special output shafts, cords,
and customer-specific mounting configurations.
Bodine’s new Type WPM–12 VDC speed control is ideal
for battery powered, solar powered, and other low-voltage
applications that require basic, single-direction speed
control. This pulse-width-modulation (PWM) speed control
provides cool motor operation, long brush life, lower audi-
ble noise, and a wide speed range. DIP-switches allow the
control to be easily calibrated for different size motors.
Terry Auchstetter, manager for custom product devel-
opment, describes how these new low-voltage products
can be used. “A customer recently selected our low-volt-
age 12VDC products to drive solar powered pumps on
pipelines. Because these pumps are used in some of
the world’s most remote locations, it was critical that the
motors did not drain the back-up battery when solar power
was not available. By choosing the most efficient wind-
ing, gear ratio, and control combination we were able to
create a dependable system that is already being used in
over 500 systems worldwide.” Visit online at [www.bodine-
electric.com].

APRIL 2009 15
siteSAFETY
There is an important safety subject that comes
up so rarely that we tend to ignore it, or even to
forget about it. This subject is safety signage. A
lot of us have made a tour of our shop at some
point, often when we first opened the business, terryMcDONALD
and posted the signage that we felt was neces- Member of the ANSI Subcommittee on Gear Safety
sary. We then figured we had complied with the
intent of the regulations and promptly forgot about
them. We realize that the regulations have changed
Equipment must be designed to accomplish the
over the years, of course, and we might have even
task at hand, of course, but it’s important that
added some signage when we heard about a new
requirement, but have you considered the changes operator safety be taken into consideration as
that have occurred in your own shop? Each time we
replace or add a piece of equipment there are new well. In addition, signage can play a valuable
signs that we should be posting. Every machine in
our facilities should have the appropriate signage role in ensuring workplace safety.
pertaining not only to operation, but also to the so that we do not inadvertently create a hazard? I often notice that flammable
personal protective gear required when running materials such as oil storage and propane storage aren’t labeled clearly.
the equipment. It is also required to have lockout/ Also, when lubricants are present, be sure that the proper Material Safety
tagout points identified, as well as any special Data Sheets (MSDS) are on hand. Although we have discussed the safety
aspects of proper lubrication a number of times in the past, as new products

“When designing a in the lubrication field are introduced—as well as advancements made to new
machinery—it would be wise if we reviewed our safety standards concerning

workholding device it is lubrication on a regular basis. Simply keeping up to date with the MSDS forms
is something that has to be reviewed on a regular basis, and if you find there

of the first consideration have been changes it is definitely a clue that further review is necessary, and
that appropriate labeling posted.
that it securely and So take a moment to make sure that your signage is up to date and legible.
Often signs become dirty, torn, or otherwise unreadable in a shop atmosphere,
properly holds the part, and it behooves us to remedy such situations immediately. Not only will it help
protect our employees, it will make our insurance carriers happy, and it may
but of no less importance even reduce our insurance costs.
One of the subjects in this month’s issue is workholding. You may wonder
is the safety of the how safety procedures factor into workholding. Actually, safety is a major
aspect of workholding in a gear shop, or in any machining operation, in fact.
operator when loading When designing workholding devices it is the first consideration, of course,
that your design securely and properly holds the part. Of no less importance,
and unloading parts.” however, is the safety of the operator when loading and unloading parts. You
must take into consideration things such as pinch points, sharp corners or
requirements pertaining to this particular piece edges, ease of handling the part, consideration of handling the part when it
of equipment. Often a sign stating that all of the has been cut, and access to the tooling. Another prime consideration is the
protective guarding furnished with the equipment ergonomics of the operator when loading and unloading the tooling. I am sure
must be used would be an appropriate addition. that all of us have seen machine setups where, although the workholding tool-
Another area that is often missed simply involves ing being used is sufficient to securely hold the part while it is being machined,
changes in the shop layout. Are all of the signs it is very difficult at best to load and unload. These are some of the things that
that we used to have in place still there, and are often get overlooked in the design of proper workholding devices.
they readable? By changing the layout of our shop,
have we created a situation where safety signage
is not posted where it needs to be? What about About the author:
things like fire extinguishers; are they well marked Terry McDonald is partner and manager of Repair Parts, Inc., and a member and
so a new employee would have ready access to past–chairman of the ANSI B11.11 Subcommittee on Safety Requirements for
Construction, Care, and Use of Gear Cutting Equipment. Contact him at (815)
them? Is there enough space around fire doors 968–4499, rpi@repair–parts–inc.com, or [www.repair–parts–inc.com].
and electrical cabinets, and are they well marked

APRIL 2009 17
TOOTHTIPS
High-speed standards usually require
verification of the mating accuracy, and that this
record be maintained. This entails recording
profile, lead, and pitch deviations. The mating
gears are considered as a matched set that must williamCrosher
be checked for contact on a checking stand and Author, engineer, and former director of the
then when installed in the housing. A thin coating
National Conference on Power Transmission
of a material such as the popularly used Prussian
Blue is applied at three locations 120º apart. Four
or more teeth are covered on a dry degreased Gear-drive inspection reveals the effects of
gear. The gears must be properly aligned with
parallel shafts and at a set distance within the
residual stresses on face contact in high-speed
closest of tolerances. The gears are rotated with gear units. This installment explores the issue
a nominal torque in their operating direction. Up
mesh is preferred, pinion pulled upwards/gear and provides solutions.
downwards. The weight of any pulled-upwards
rotor is countered by the tangential load. The when the unit is placed into service it will operate without interruption for three
acceptable contact pattern has been previously or even five years. It is generally accepted that face load factors greater than
determined and made available to the purchaser’s 1.1 can be used when the manufacturer can demonstrate that their correction
representative. This is especially necessary as the factors for the elastic and thermal distortions expected to occur in service have
manufacturer may have made lead modifications been proven to provide the required contact pattern.
for torsion, bending, and temperature. Without Some 10 years ago, after 10,000 to 20,000 hours, a gear unit had a tooth
modification—which is unusual with high-speed breakage at the extreme end of the pinion tooth. The cause was determined
gearing—the contact area would be expected to to be misaligned shaft centerlines that concentrated the tooth forces at the
cover 80 percent of the tooth face. All the records breakage point. The misalignment itself was caused by foundation distortion
are expected to be maintained for 20 years. and the inexperience of the erection people—a classic case of failure due to
improper tooth contact. The second incident on another unit occurred between
“The gear’s performance 30,000-100,000 hours, when damage was seen in the mid-tooth section of
the pinion. The gear wheel and pinion revealed that distorted geometry had

is dependent on the concentrated the tooth forces in the midsection. These geometrical changes
from residual stresses had happened over a prolonged time period. As a result
an extensive inspection of numerous gear units was undertaken for the sake
designed contact pattern of collecting data. The size, pitchline velocity, hours in operation, previous
inspection reports, and the profiles were recorded to create a service-versus-
being maintained through- failure profile. Approximately 10 percent of all high-velocity drives were found
to be in need of corrective action. This required realignment and, in some
out its life, and complete instances, regrinding of the profile.
Different designs of gear units were involved. The corrective action deemed

drive and auxiliaries are necessary was a reeducation of both service and installation personnel, a tooth
contact check after 2,000 hours of operation, and a change in manufacturing
procedures. These include but are not limited to reduction of residual stresses
designed for a minimum by subsequent machining, low-distortion hardening methods, and new nitrided
steels that provide increased hardness penetration depth. ME quality steels
life of 20 years.” vacuum degassed with 5 grain or finer. Forging ratio ≥3.5 and further additional
testing of mechanical properties. Gears are now operating at speeds and
The contact pattern is lifted from the teeth with powers that until recently were considered impossible. Material is literally being
an adhesive paper that is attached to a notated stretched by centrifugal loads and, although the drives can still perform within
sheet that has been witnessed and signed. the required criteria, more-frequent inspection of the contact pattern would seem
After the running tests at 110 percent maximum a necessary requirement for these state of the art drives.
continuous speed at partial or even full power, the
top half of the housing is removed and the gears About the author:
are again inspected for any damage and further
William P. Crosher is former director of the National Conference on Power
verification of the contact pattern. The gear’s Transmission, as well as former chairman of the AGMA’s Marketing Council and
performance is dependent on the designed contact Enclosed Drive Committee. He was resident engineer-North America for Thyssen
pattern being maintained throughout its life. The Gear Works, and later at Flender Graffenstaden. He is author of the book Design
complete drive and auxiliaries are designed for a and Application of the Worm Gear.
minimum life of 20 years. It is also expected that

APRIL 2009 19
COMPANY
PROFILE

Advanced Machine
& Engineering Co.
By Russ Willcutt
When Willy Goellner immigrated to the United States from Ger- fabrication, with its primary market being machine tool machine
many in the late 1950s he brought with him business contacts protection products, gear producers also utilize this line to safe-
that would lead to the founding of his own company, Advanced guard their expensive equipment. AME’s products are of particu-
Machine & Engineering (AME). “The company began by provid- lar benefit to gear manufacturers, however, such as its carbide
ing contract machining services,” according to the founder’s son, saws—useful in quickly and efficiently cutting bar stock—and
Alvin Goellner, who is product manager of the company’s fixturing especially its fixturing/workholding devices. The purchase of a
group, “and then grew as it took on new lines as a result of dad’s fixturing company some 15 years ago propelled AME to expand its
European contacts.” work in designing and manufacturing stock and custom workhold-
Those lines have come to include Hennig machine protection ing equipment. This includes dedicated hydraulic or pneumatic fix-
devices and Spieth precision locknuts, clamping sleeves, guide tures, AMFORCE power-off mechanical clamp-force cylinders, AM-
bushings, hydraulic sleeves, and expansion gibs, in addition to ROK tombstones, AMFLEX/S.A.F.E. self-aligning fixture elements,
Tschudin & Heid linear rollers. AME also began designing its own and the S.A.F.E.-LOCK line of fixture plates. It also represents
equipment, such as AMSAW carbide saws, and components in- the Triag line of modular workholding systems. Not only does this
cluding AMBUSH squeeze bushings and AMDISK clamp disks. type of product/service diversification help AME remain produc-
Throughout this evolution the company has remained 100-per- tive should one market sector sag, it also helps the company’s
cent family owned, Goellner says. “My father acquired Hennig just representatives address a wide variety of challenges when visit-
after he founded AME, and he was the president of both compa- ing with its customers.
nies as well. My brother, Dietmar, now holds those positions, and “If we’re touring a client’s facility to discuss Hennig products,
my other brother, Harold, is vice president of both companies.” the conversation often leads to other challenges we can help
While Hennig’s core manufacturing competency is sheet-metal them overcome,” according to Doug Robinson, marketing director

20 gearsolutions.com
Whether it’s tombstones, mechanical clamp-force
cylinders, or self-aligning fixture elements, this company
has the answers to your workholding challenges.

for both AME and Hennig, “and that’s especially true with workhold- AME has experienced engineers on hand, and it backs up its
ing. That also points to the strong relationships we’ve developed work by providing CMM reports on parts made using the equipment
with our customers, where they’ve come to rely on us not only to they design. It has also established a strategically located network
make suggestions, but to provide solutions.” of representatives to make sure that its customers’ needs are met
What is often encountered, he explains, is that new equipment immediately. “I’ve found that a quick response is one of the most
is purchased with workholding as an afterthought, even though the important things a person can provide, no matter what business
capital expenditure was meant to increase both capabilities and they’re in,” Goellner says. “We’ve placed our representatives very
efficiency. “And that’s the beauty of what Alvin’s group does,” Rob- carefully so that they can get to our customers throughout the Unit-
inson says. “We help our customers shift workholding from an af- ed States and Canada quickly when they are needed.”
terthought to a high-performance fixturing program that can really With Advanced Machine & Engineering’s wide variety of products,
take them to the next level.” equipment, and services—in addition to its reputation for quality,
A longtime fixturing expert, Goellner oversees the company’s accuracy, and excellent customer service—it expects to continue
workholding-related activities and is often the point person when expanding its capabilities based on its customer’s needs. In sum-
discussions turn toward that area. “We might begin by talking about ming up the company’s core philosophy, Robinson says that “we
a tombstone they need, and I’ll start asking questions about how can provide a value-engineered solution of the highest quality and
it will be used and before you know it we’re talking about some precision in order to maximize our customer’s production output.
dedicated machining on that tombstone, and then the clamps and We’re here to share our creativity and expertise so that our clients
components they’ll need to hold their parts, and then vices,” he can realize their professional goals, which allows AME to do the
explains. “So we’ll start off talking about a single device and end same.”
up discussing a complete turnkey package.”

For more information:


Call (800) 225-4263, send e-mail to dougr@ame.com, or go to [www.ame.com].

SEPTEMBER 2008 21
r n
Tu
rd
Ha
ht
ic
rR
te
ris
Ch
By

While grinding is the traditional finishing technique


for hardened steel gears, hard part turning provides
quite a few benefits that may improve your process,
and your product.
Since its broader introduction in the mid 1980s hard part turning
has evolved considerably as a machining process. Developments
of machinery, component material, hardening processes, cutting
tools, and complete set-ups has made the metal cutting of hard-
ened parts an attractive alternative to grinding, and easily acces-
sible for any machine shop involved in gear manufacturing.

History of Hard Turning


The conventional solution to finishing hardened steel parts has been
grinding, but there are a number of clear benefits to the machining
of hard parts with a cutting tool. These have justified many exisiting
applications that are growing in number, especially involving turn-
ing and milling. Hard part turning (HPT) should not be seen
as the alternative to all grinding operations, however, and
there are also applications where the two processes
complement each other.
HPT was early recognized and pioneered
by the automotive industry as a means of
improving the manufacturing of trans-
mission components. Gear-wheel
bearing surfaces are a typi-
cal example of early applica-
tions converted from grind-
ing to HPT using inserts
in polychrystalline cubic
boron nitride (CBN). Today
hardened components are
machined widely across many
different industries. Case hardened
steel components are typical, often having
a hardness-depth of just over 1 mm, giving it a
wear resistant case and a tough core. Components
that make use of this combination of material properties
include gears, axles, arbors, camshafts, cardan joints, driving
pinions, and link components for transportation and energy products,
as well as many applications in general mechanical engineering.

Defining Hard Part Turning


In its broad definition, HPT is the single-point turning of workpieces
with a hardness of above 45 HRc although most frequently the pro-
cess concerns hardnesses of 58 to 68 HRc. The workpiece materials
involved include various hardened alloy-steels, tool steels, case-
hardened steels, superalloys, nitrided irons and hard-chrome coated
steels, and heat-treated powder metallurgical parts. It is mainly a
finishing or semi-finishing process where high dimensional, form, and
surface finish accuracy have to be achieved. The following benefits of
HPT have been experienced by users of the process:

•  asy to adapt to complex part contours


e
• quick change-overs between component types
• several operations performed in one set-up
• high metal removal rate
• same CNC-lathe as used for soft turning is possible
• low machine tool investment
• environmentally friendly metal chips
• elimination of coolants in most cases
• small tool inventory
• occupies relatively small machine shop space
• advantageous surface finish in many cases.
Hardness
When steel is hardened it may become twice
as hard as it is in the soft condition. Hardness
adds to the resistance of a material to be plasti-
cally deformed and to be penetrated by another
material, but the harder the metal, the harder it
is to cut. In machining the hardness of the work-
piece material generally makes a considerable
difference in how well a cutting edge stands up Fig. 2: Most hard part turning involves
to demands. For application purposes there is hardnesses of 58 to 68 HRC, which
hard steel (45-55 HRC) and extra-hard steel means higher temperatures and cutting
(55-68 HRC). Generally, the harder the mate- forces than soft-material turning. The
rial the lower the cutting speed, or shorter the hard workpiece material needs a very
Fig. 1: Gear-wheel bearing surfaces hard, strong cutting edge and stable
tool-life. When component hardness exceeds a are a typical example of hard part
certain limit, a change to a harder tool material
conditions.
turning applications, often converted
is needed: a hard cemented carbide insert will from grinding. Indexable inserts in HPT is more demanding than soft turning
perform satisfactorily within a lower hardness polychrystalline cubic boron nitride because of the higher cutting forces involved,
range (up to 45 HRC), much harder and they are used primarily. in combination with the tight dimensional and
are usually not a practical solution. Most hard surface finish limits. As an indicator, hard
components are in the region of 55 to 68 HRC, very high dimensional, form, and surface finish steels typically have a specific cutting force
and this requires a harder, stable tool material tolerances. The first indicator of excessive tool of 3250 N/mm2 at 45 HRC, while extra hard
such as CBN or ceramic inserts to provide the wear is usually the deterioration in maintaining steel has 6450 N/mm2 at 65 HRC. The harder
cycle times and quality consistency needed these tolerances, emphasizing the need for workpiece material needs a strong cutting
today. CBN is much harder than cemented selecting the right cutting tool as well as for it edge, and this means a relatively blunt edge.
carbide and ceramics, while diamond is harder to be correctly applied. The insert cross-section has to be large and
than CBN but useless in ferrous materials. In well-optimized hard part turning set-ups a strengthening lands and micro-edges need to
It should also be noted that CBN should be surface finish Ra 0.25, Rz 1 micron have been be added, depending upon the operation at
avoided in materials with a hardness lower than achieved and accuracy levels of 0.01 mm on hand. The result of this is often even higher
45 HRC due, somewhat surprisingly, to rapid a diameter. Other typical values that may be cutting forces and, consequently, the higher
tool wear. part of demands on hardened components are demands in HPT for rigidity, stiffness, and
roundness, conical accuracy, and surface pro- stability throughout the set-up, from the cutting

Toughness file bearing, all of which HPT responds to well.


A minimum amount of working allowance is
edge to the machine tool base.
The general stability, rigidity, and condition
This is also an issue in hard part turning,
vital for both HPT as well as grinding, depend- of the machine tool are directly decisive as
in that mere hardness leads to brittleness.
ing upon form and tension-conditions from to the level of cutting data, type of cuts, and
Some hard components have long, continuous
the hardening process. The minimum value results that can be achieved. The effects of
cuts in stable conditions, which make high
depends upon component size and cross-sec- intermittent cuts and the demands of acheiv-
demands on hardness for wear resistance
tional differences, but if 0.1 mm is suitable for ing super-finish limits should not be underes-
but low demands on toughness. Some com-
grinding, the HPT-value should generally be an timated in HPT. The dynamic stability and the
ponents, however, have various degrees of
additional 0.1 mm, bringing it to 0.2 mm. behavior during the cut of the machine often
intermittance, and some have unstable condi-
determine the practical limits. Knowledge of
tions, needing edge toughness. Component
intermittance may be in the form of gear HPT Demands the machine behavior during the stress of HPT
and the condition of the machine are therefore
teeth, slots, surface unevenness, burrs, etc.
Instability comes from weak machines, set-
and Priorities quite important. Minimizing the amount of over-
When selecting cutting tools for HPT the hard- hang of the workpiece and the tooling is always
ups, and components, as well as overhangs.
ness of the workpiece material, machining critical to determining overall rigidity, but even
These phenomena generate various magni-
conditions, and tolerance limits are the main more so in HPT.
tudes and directions of compressive or tensile
points to consider. The setting up and orientation of cutting
stresses and strains on the cutting edge. Very
CBN is the most widely used HPT tool mate- tools is also more vital when it comes to HPT.
hard tool materials such as CBN and ceramics
rial because it fulfills the requirements made in Centerline setting of the cutting edge should
thus need varying combinations of toughness
most applications. Today there are various CBN be very accurate, and the direction of and
for edge strength. Generally speaking, high
insert grades available that cover the different support against cutting forces in the form of
hardness is needed for the material demands
operational demands of HPT, including cutting well-supported parts of the toolholder, turret
on the tool while toughness is needed for the
speed, feed, continuous or interrupted cuts, position, and machine should be assessed.
mechanical loads on the tool.
and surface finish demands and conditions. Insert locking needs to be uncompromising,
Ceramic inserts represent a lower tool cost but as does the tool holding, where only the most
Expected Results are limited to continuous cuts when thermal stable solution should be considered. A basic
The absolute majority of operations in hard shocks are small. Also, they are not as suitable success factor of HPT is minimizing any move-
part turning are finishing operations, many with for super finishing as CBN inserts are. ment or vibration tendency of the system

24 gearsolutions.com
soft turning on the working allowance for
HPT can mean unsatisfactory results, partly
because HPT uses such small depths of cut.
It is therefore vital that sufficiently-close tol-
erances are established for the soft turning
based on the experience gained from HPT
operations.
The soft turning should reflect the demands
made on HPT results especially as it regards
Fig. 3: Crater wear is the dominant type form and dimensional accuracy. The soft turn-
of wear in hard part turning as a result ing should not be seen as just a roughing opera-
of the high pressure that the chip exerts tion but as the close semi-finishing operation,
on the cutting edge. This is countered
as the HPT operation should not be expected to
by selecting the most suitable insert
correct deviations or distortions. Thus, the qual-
grade for the application in question.
ity of the soft turning operation—as well as that
elements such as the insert, toolholder, and of the hardening process—will directly affect
tool clamping, as well as the machine turret, the quality, tool life, and productivity of HPT.
spindle, slides, frame, and base. Whereas in Furthermore, variations of the working allow-
the past only a few CNC lathes could be picked ance and form passed down from the soft turn-
on the basis of suitablity for HPT, or could be ing also lead to cutting force levels varying in
modified to stand up to the higher demands, HPT, which means compromising cutting data
many of today’s CNC lathes can perform HPT to cope with the highest force level. This is Fig. 4: Insert geometry is an issue for
with good results and cycle times. often in the form of feed rate having to be low- hard part turning. The right entering
ered to minimize tool or component deflections angle, edge nose radius, chamfer, and
during the cut. As the feed directly infuences honing make a significant difference to
Tackling the Soft Issues the machining time, this becomes a productiv- performance. Wiper inserts can provide
The HPT operation will inherit any form and ity as well as a quality and security issue. It is an advantageous feed rate and surface
dimensional deviation from previous soft turn- always more cost-efficient to tackle the soft- finish combination.
ing. For example, an excessive tolerance for turning issues than the those related to HPT.

Custom
Custom Bevel
Bevel Gear
Gear Manufacturing
Manufacturing
Per your SPECIFICATIONS and/or sample
providing inverse engineering to make a clone of your sample

• Spiral Bevel Gears: 66" PD • IN-HOUSE STEEL MATERIAL WAREHOUSE


• Straight Bevel Gears: 80" PD • FULL HEAT TREATING SERVICES
• Spurs-Helicals-Spline Shafts • EDM WIRE BURNING
• Gearbox Repair/REBUILDs

BREAKDOWN
BREAKDOWN SERVICES
SERVICES
4809 U.S. Highway 45 • Sharon, TN 38255
Toll Free: (800)-238-0651 • Phone: (731)-456-2636 • Fax: (731)-456-3073
Email: inquiry@brgear.com • www.brgear.com
Family owned and operated since 1974

APRIL 2009 25
however, are countered with various geometri- resulting in a new generation of more-capable
Cutting Tool Developments cal cutting edge designs and larger or different insert grades.
As productivity is an increasingly important insert nose-radii concepts. Tool wear in the form of craters forming
factor for HPT today, tool developments play a Insert grades are becoming ideally positioned on the cutting edge dominates in HPT as a
more-important role. Trends include that of cut- to respond to today’s operational demands in result of the high pressure from large cutting
ting speeds having been elevated to present HPT. These include continuous cuts of various forces combined with high temperatures in
potential levels—well above 200 m/min with lengths, light intermittent cuts to heavy inter- the concentrated machining zone. CBN is the
some grades—with longer, more-predictable mittent cuts, as well as differences in machin- tool material best equipped to stand up to the
tool lives. Feed rates have also been pushed ing conditions. CBN grades are generally the demands involved in HPT with high hardness
higher to achieve shorter cutting times, though first choice, backed by a ceramic grades, and and varying amounts of toughness. The most
resulting in higher cutting forces. These forces, recent developments have been considerable, recent CBN-grade development has provided
the means to limit tool wear further, improve
edge security, and extend the application area,
as well as to allow cutting speeds to rise by
some 20 percent.
Today’s HPT needs a range of tool materi-
als that can optimize different conditions,
operational demands, and quality results. The
following is one such range of different grades
that complement each other:

• Low-content CBN for continuous cuts which


may include occasional, light intermittent
cuts with stable machining conditions at high
cutting speeds, primarily for case-hardened
steels (CB7015);
• Medium-content CBN for operations char-
acterized as having substantial amounts of
light to heavy interrupted cuts mixed with
continuous cuts at medium cutting speeds,
often characterized by poor entry-into-cut
condtions such as burrs and unchamfered
corners on mainly case hardened steels
(CB7025);
• Extremely hard CBN grades with high edge
toughness for severe conditions where the

Fig. 5: To tackle hard part turning suc-


cessfully you need a range of tool ma-
terials to enable the selection of the
best insert for optimization. Continuous
cuts, light intermittent cuts, and heavy
interruptions and distortions need the
right cubic boron nitride insert grade.

26 gearsolutions.com
component shape varies considerably and major distortions may the standard nose-radius insert generates the lowest cutting forces with
prevail, or where there are unchamfered interruptions primarily on low stability requirements, but it does not have the high productivity/sur-
hardened steels (CB7050); face finish combination of wipers.
• A mixed aluminium oxide-based ceramic grade with good heat-resis-
tant properties and high wear resistance, but limited to light, continu-
ous finishing in good, stable machining conditions (CC650).

Alternative Insert Geometries


When it comes to insert geometry, cutting edges for HPT are relatively
dull because bluntness is needed for high edge-strength. This, however,
does not mean that geometrical issues are nonexistant. Although chip-
breakers are not part of the insert face, edge chamfers, honing, nose
radius, wiper radii, and entering angle combinations are critical new care-
fully-developed features to achieve higher performance and results.
As an example, a correctly designed 30-degree edge chamfer on a CBN
edge for HPT helps to direct the crater-making forces further away from the
edge, reducing the weakening effects of this type of wear. There are main-
ly two types of chamfers: the S-type, where the land is complemented by
light honing for added strength, and; the T-type with no honing, giving rise
to the lowest cutting forces and best surface-finish generating capability.
The wiper insert is based on a sophisticated radii-combination edge con-
cept that has revolutionized finishing turning, and has come to improve
HPT as well. There are now specially developed wiper inserts for HPT for
both finishing and semi-finishing operations. A WH geometry generates
Fig. 6: The locking of the cubic boron nitride corner on
the best surface finish, while providing high feed rate capability with
multi-corner inserts for hard part turning needs to be very
either T- or S-land edges. A WG geometry is suitable for semi-finishing secure so as not to be a source of instability. Safe-lok me-
operations when performed at stable machining conditions, when cut- chanical interlocking provides an absolute bond for a corner
ting forces are higher but so is the feed rate capability. In comparison, that copes with most types of cut.

28 gearsolutions.com
A subsequent new innovation involves an insert geometry with a Safe-lok mechanical interlocking provides an absolute bond, resisting
straight cutting edge, presented at a carefully balanced, smaller enter- higher pressure from larger feed rates, depths of cut, and the added
ing angle, blended with a wiper edge. An Xcel geometry insert generates severity of more-substantial intermittent cuts.
a chip with an even thickness, eliminating extremes as regards wear Movement and vibrations of the insert in the seat is a well-rec-
mechanisms. Thanks to the load from a more-constant chip and the ognized culprit that affects the component quality and leads to pre-
reduction in heat development in the cutting zone, slower and more mature edge breakdown. For this reason clamping the insert in the
advantageous tool wear development is achieved for this and many toolholder is the next vital step in the stability link. A rigid clamping
other HPT operations. Benefits are especially high when the whole edge system, type RC, combines the downward force of a clamp on the
is used for one-pass operations. insert with precise, well supported tip-seat positioning. The result
This insert leads with a very small entering angle (10 degrees) along is very rigid insert clamping and high indexing repeatablity to suit a
the main cutting edge, which reduces the chip thickness relative to the majority of turning applications, and especially to hold and support
feed rate. This then allows much higher feed rates to be used, leading CBN and ceramic inserts in HPT. Indexing of insert and shim is facili-
directly to shorter cutting times. tated by the design of the clamp set.
Multi-corner indexable inserts for HPT are typically cemented carbide
inserts with CBN corners. In the past this has meant a potential source
of instability or weakness at the joining of the two materials in the insert. Tool-Path Strategies
The locking of the CBN cornerpiece onto the basic carbide insert needs An HPT application can be optimized using wiper inserts or conventional
to be very firm, with no inherent instability or weakness. It also needs to nose-radius inserts by adopting either a one- or two-cut strategy for
accomodate enough capability for the insert to perform the frequently machining. The one-cut way of HPT is the quickest but entails acheiving
occurring cuts in turning such as profiling, facing, back turning, undercut- the required finish and accuracy in one cut. Demands are made on tool
ting, and chamfering. Today’s brazed CBN/carbide insert—in addition to life for the tool to maintain component limits, and good stability is neces-
taking long, continuous cuts—also needs to cope with relatively severe sary throughout, as all material is taken in the one pass. On the other
intermittent cuts and elevated cutting data in order to provide higher hand, the machining time is short, and only one tool is needed.
productivity in HPT operations. The two-cut way needs two tools—one for semi-finishing, and one for
A new, solid, mechanical interlocking method and brazing design finishing—and the tool dedication means better quality consistency and
has provided a longer, multicorner CBN edges with high insert stability, longer life per tool. More consistently maintaining higher surface finish
removing a multicorner inserts limitation. With the brazed joint being and closer tolerances (best process stability) are the main advantage
further away from the intense heat of the HPT machining zone, the insert to be weighed against longer machining time. The right type of insert
has become more capable of continuous cuts at higher cutting speeds. needs to be selected to suit each application.

APRIL 2009 29
Machine Shop Experience tal advantages in using a metal cutting process
that requires no coolant. Some of the neces-
Correctly applied, hard part turning with modern
sary conditions for success include:
cutting tools and methods can lead to advan-
tages over grinding and outdated HPT such as
• A good CNC lathe is recommended, having
higher productivity through shorter cycle times;
the right capability, where general stability,
higher production flexibility through the use of
high tailstock pressure, and suitable slides
CNC lathes; and higher operational capability
are factors without necessarily being a HPT-
of turning giving good quality surfaces. Lower
dedicated design.
machine costs with lower-cost machinery can
• Good workholding equipment and minimized
also be realized, and there are also environmen-
overhang are necessary as stability is vital

Fig. 7: Hard part turning has come a


long way and today is an efficient man-
ufacturing method. Certain conditions
need to be in place for applications to
be successful, but these can be accom-
modated relatively easily, especially
with knowledgeable support.

for example solid center instead of live and


well-dimensioned spindle bearings.
• Ensure that the quality level of hardened
workpieces is consistent, in size, form, hard-
ness, run-out, etc.
• Use the best of the latest cutting tools,
carefully selected for the job at hand with
correct machining methods, and get qualified
support
• Establish the optimum cutting data range
to give the best combination of productivity,
quality, and security

With regard to cutting tool requirements,


make sure there is good accessibility for tools
for various shapes of components, very stable
insert clamping, strong and stable tool mount-
ing, and predictable and sufficiently long tool-
life in order to eliminate tool changes during
the course of the operation. Also make sure
there is sufficient tool accuracy and stability,
especially concerning the insert, to enable toler-
ances to be kept consistently and to minimize
adjustments required during the process, and
that you have qualified application back-up.

About the author:


Christer Richt is with Sandvik Coromant
and can be reached at christer.richt@
sandvik.com. Also go online to [www.
sandvik.com].

30 gearsolutions.com
In the third—and final—installment in a multi-part series on

workholding, Toolink Engineering and König-mtm discuss

inspection, special fixtures, and more.


By Juergen Kempf and Tim Peterson CMfgT

To conclude our three-part series on the offers a line of light-metal, or aluminum bod-
principles of workholding we will begin with ied, hydraulic arbors. These arbors offer the
an overview of inspection devices, both same accuracy as their traditional steel coun-
hydraulic and mechanical. Next we will intro- terparts, though, and weigh up to 60 percent
duce some holding fixtures for special appli- less. The clamping area remains unchanged,
cations such as tapered bore components, being made of high-alloy tool steel, while the
clamping devices with multiple clamping base arbor is made of lightweight aluminum.
functions, and devices with unique fea- High-speed steel inserts are used for the cen-
tures for special applications. Finally, we ters and other wear areas, such as the axial
will outline some of the application-spe- location surface. All other functional aspects
cific additions that can be incorporated into are identical to steel versions. This tooling
your clamping systems, including electronic design is ideal for measuring, balancing,
clamping pressure control. turning, gear grinding, and other applications,
assuming that minimal heat is imparted to
the clamping device during the process.
Inspection Devices When weight is not an issue, nearly or
While many companies may have dedicated, exactly the same device that is used to clamp
quality, precise workholding for the manufac- your components during manufacturing can
ture of gears, surprisingly few have equal- be used for inspection. Arbors and chucks
quality tooling to inspect their finished prod- can be actuated manually, or by whatever
uct, let alone a solution that clamps or holds method is available on the machine for auto-
the workpiece in the same fashion as occurs mated inspection.
during manufacture. Given the increasingly common use of
If your shop is manufacturing high-preci- analytical gear inspection machines, another
sion parts it’s a good rule of thumb that your hurdle for inspection applications is providing
inspection tooling should provide an accuracy clearance for the measuring probe to allow
error of no more than 10 percent of the part the machines to measure lead, involute, and
tolerance. To maintain this quality it is dif- runout, for example (fig. 1). In this situation
ficult and time consuming, if even possible, both a colleted hydraulic arbor and a mechani-
to operate with a solid mandrel or a simple/ cal arbor are available. Given the hydraulic
rudimentary collet type mandrel. Hydraulic solution, the base arbor is sized well below
or mechanical clamping solutions for inspec- the diameter of the clamping area. The base
tion can easily replicate, and most frequently arbor is then fitted with a “pocketed” collet
exceed, the quality of existing manufacturing (fig. 2) that allows at least four pockets for
tooling. probe clearance in between the other contact
An obstacle that is frequently faced with areas of the collet on the clamping diameter.
inspection devices is weight. Despite the These arbors can be prepared for use with
size of the component, heavy steel clamping multiple diameter collets and changeable
fixtures are difficult to handle. The repetitive axial support flanges. If your workpieces have
process of loading parts onto the clamping smaller differences in bore sizes, but enough
fixture, and then onto centers or the like, can difference to exceed the clamping range of a
be back-breaking, or simply time consuming if direct-clamping hydraulic device, a mechani-
a crane must be used. To combat this König cal “four leg” arbor may be ideal.
To clamp on a soft metal sleeve, König
Special Tooling offers a hydraulic expansion arbor with a
You have all encountered a tricky compo- plastic expansion sleeve. This softer plas-
nent or an application that challenges your tic sleeve contacts the workpiece without
machine’s capability, or a part that is simply scratching or marring, and the sleeve or
a bear to hold during machining. There are collet can easily be replaced as it begins to
always those who will give you fits determin- wear.
ing how to clamp the part while locating on In some instances arbors and chucks can
the datums, etc. König prides itself on offer- be combined in one device to offer both
ing solutions for your challenges. Perhaps ID and OD clamping. For example, on a
you have a tapered bore. Occasionally a bore Reishauer RZF machine the same device has
is lined with a soft metal bushing such as ID clamping for the bores of the dressers,
copper or brass or aluminum that could be while at the end of the device is a chuck for
damaged. If you have ever thought, “If I could OD clamping on the journal of the component
only…” chances are that König has. (figs. 3, 4). Hydraulic devices are not always
For tapered bores, hydraulic expansion limited to one clamping area or diameter and
arbors are a solution, and face clamping is are in fact fully capable of having multiple
not always necessary. If the taper of the bore clamping areas, as well as multiple clamping
is less than 5° it can be clamped directly on diameters.
a tapered hydraulic arbor. For greater flex- At other times, when significant torque is
Fig. 1: Measuring probe ibility you can also use straight hydraulic being transferred to your component, addi-
The four leg arbor is a mechanical device arbors with a slotted collet and a tapered OD tional clamping force beyond radial clamping
through which the workpiece is centered and geometry. A straight arbor using tapered col- may be necessary. In this scenario additional
clamped over four “legs” that are operated lets can accommodate the same total taper clamping force can be gained by combining
by hand over an integrated torque limiting angle of 5°. On taper angles higher than 5° hydraulic face clamping with radial clamp-
device. This design of arbor offers up to 600 König offers mechanical, solid mandrels with ing force. This design of arbor utilizes three
microns of expansion while still maintaining automatic actuated ejectors, for use on gear hydraulic ports—in this case, of a Kapp KX
runout accuracies of 5-10 microns. grinding machines, for example. 300—to clamp radially, then swing out the

34 gearsolutions.com
“swivel hooks” and clamp axially (face clamp- enable you to use this type of chuck for more
ing), and finally to retract the swivel hooks and than one clamping diameter. This arrangement
unclamp the device. has proven to be very successful, for example,
To locate and align gear shafts between on several Hoefler machine applications.
centers while clamping on an outside diam- The collet is actuated over a clamping
eter that is not running with the center, König bell, and this clamping bell is located over a
has designed a mechanical chuck with radial wobble device with the base chuck. Through
adjustment. The chuck has an integrated this feature the clamping collet follows the out-
center to align and locate the shaft between side geometry of the component and doesn’t
chuck center and tailstock center. The chuck align over the collet. With this configuration
operates with changeable slotted collets that you have an effective drive dog system for

Fig. 2: “Pocketed” collet

Figs. 3 & 4: ID (top) and OD clamping

April 2009 35
locating between centers while enabling you to
clamp and load/unload automatically.
For turning powder metal gears on horizontal
lathe machines with automatic loading, König-
mtm developed a hydraulic expansion arbor
with a retractable axial stop flange. The retract-
able support flange, or axial stop, allows you
to turn the gear on the top and bottom face in
one operation.
The arbor is actuated over a drawbar. The
first 10 mm of the clamping stroke clamps the
part on the arbor, and the remaining 35 mm
of the clamping stroke retracts the axial stop
flange to provide enough space to turn the rear
side of the gear within the same operation.
The procedure of securely clamping the part Fig. 5: Pressure sensor’s magnetic Fig. 6: Layout and display of the König-
first before retracting the axial stop is man- contact dorn clamping pressure control dms 1
aged through an integrated actuation system
inside the arbor. Powder-metal companies have that is too high or too low, each with their unacceptable component quality, but could
used this arbor design with great success for own disadvantages. Typical expansion rates completely ruin the tool during the machining
increased quality and a reduced production time. of hydraulic mandrels and chucks fall into the process. The costs associated with a machine
range of a maximum of 0.3 percent of the crash add up quickly when you consider the
clamping diameter. While this provides suffi- tool replacement, workholding repairs, scrap,
Electronic Clamping cient clamping in some circumstances, others and resultant downtime. At the other extreme,
Pressure Control require a more accurate clamping pressure. if the clamping pressure is too high, sensitive,
With hydraulic clamping devices, and manually If clamping pressure is too low the compo- or thin-walled, workpieces can be deformed.
actuated arbors and chucks in particular, it is nent can shift axially, radially, or both on the Once machining is completed the stretched
easily possible to reach a clamping pressure mandrel. Said effects could include not only workpieces return to their static form and

36 gearsolutions.com
specified tolerances cannot be kept.
To remove any doubt an electronic clamping
pressure control can be included in your clamp-
ing solution. During manufacture the arbor
or chuck is outfitted with a pressure sensor.
The pressure sensor is then connected to a
digital readout (DRO) via dirt-insensitive, mag-
netic contacts (fig. 5). For manually actuated
devices the clamping pressure can be read
digitally on the DRO as the actuation screw is
turned, enabling maximum control and repeat- Fig. 7: Königdorn clamped (left), unclamped (center), and being readjusted, right
able clamping pressures for each use.
For automatic clamping or actuation initi-
ated over the machine, an upper and lower
limit is determined and preset in the control.
The device can be connected to the machine
through a pressure-free outlet, thus allowing
any disturbances or changes to be moni-
tored and/or recognized immediately by the
machine’s control system with the measured
pressure displayed from 0-1,000 bar (fig. 6).
Use of electronic clamping pressure con-
trol not only guarantees the same clamping
pressure in a König arbor or chuck, but it
also eliminates potential variation from one
operator to another, ensuring consistent and
repeatable results while sparing damage to
expensive tools, components, and manufactur-
ing devices.

Application-Specific
Additions
To further customize your workholding, and to
help continue capitalizing on your tooling invest-
ment, several additions can be made to your
workholding solution, depending on the applica-
tion. Most of König’s hydraulic devices include
an adjusting screw. Given the nature of the
function of a hydraulic expansion device, there
are internal seals that can wear in time. As the
seals wear or begin to harden, small amounts
of hydraulic oil can be lost, resulting in a loss of
clamping pressure. To resolve this, an adjust-
ing screw is included. After several clamping
cycles, if there is a slight loss in clamping pres-
sure, you can simply turn the adjusting screw
as necessary. The adjusting screw moves a
piston, which then forces a “reserve” of hydrau-
lic oil back to the front side of the actuation
piston/system, thus maintaining the necessary
volume of oil for expansion of the clamping
sleeve and, finally, your component.
For automatically actuated devices, the previ-
ously mentioned manual adjustment can be
avoided by using an automatic adjustment
device. The function is the same, although the
adjustment is made automatically, as needed.
The auto adjustment device consists of a

April 2009 37
Fig. 8: Coated for corrosion resistance Fig. 9: Shows spiral groove and MHB coating

spring-loaded piston that is constantly under pressure. If any amount In some applications where volumes are high or additional torque is
of hydraulic oil is lost the spring forces the piston in, displacing the lost needed, coatings can be used on the clamping surface. König uses an
volume of oil and maintaining clamping pressure. The piston cannot be MHB coating that increases the surface coefficient from 0.1 to 0.15,
forced back under pressure thanks to a ratcheting-tooth type design. providing up to 50 percent more clamping force. These optional coatings
Along the same lines as the adjusting screw, an operation indicator increase wear resistance, while also providing the added benefits of
pin can also be added to arbors and chucks, assuming they are clamped higher torque transmission and/or corrosion resistance (fig. 8).
over an external oil supply (fig. 7). The operation indicator pin protrudes On occasion it is also necessary or beneficial to add a spiraled groove
through a cut-away nut. The pin is fully extended when the device is to the clamping surface (fig. 9). Through experience König has found that
clamped, while the pin is retracted slightly when relaxed. As an added during part changes—and the machining process in general—a thin film
feature, the pin has colored bands. If the bands are no longer visible, this of oil can form on the clamping surface. Without the spiral groove, when
is an indication that the Königdorn is in need of adjustment. the device is actuated or clamped the film of oil trapped between the

38 gearsolutions.com
or wobble plate can be implemented. These wobble plates vary in com-
plexity as necessary, yet can be as simple as an o-ring that will allow
some “give” as needed.
In summary, through our three articles (all available for download at
www.gearsolutions.com) we have introduced and briefly discussed some
of the principles of workholding and the different designs and/or configu-
rations that are available. We have also touched on a few applications
yet clearly not all. Our intent was to encourage a review of your current
workholding, and identify weaknesses that could benefit from a more
robust, easier to use, higher precision workholding solution.
Workholding is often overlooked as a means through which to cut
costs and improve upon quality, but the truth is just the opposite.
Fig. 10: Plastic sleeved arbor Improved clamping solutions can reduce setup and changeover times
while also reducing individual part cycle times, producing higher qual-
ID of the component and the OD of the clamping surface (or vice versa) ity, more precise parts in the process. The end result is less scrap,
could act as a fluid bearing or cushion of sorts. Not only could this reduce increased productivity and, ultimately, increased profits.
the torque or clamping force, it could also be a safety hazard, as the part König-mtm has identified their individual strengths in the workholding
could potentially be flung from the clamping device during machining. arena and has longstanding relationships and product knowledge of sev-
This spiraled groove provides a channel for any oil trapped between the eral major machine tool builders. They are proven candidates for high pre-
part and clamping surface to be routed out and away from the action. cision and challenging workholding solutions both in manufacturing and
Finally, when an application calls for a workpiece to locate on a flat inspection. We encourage you to “Get a Grip” on your workpieces and
face that may not be qualified or running with the bore, a pendular device reap the benefits that improved workpiece clamping solutions offer.

About the authors:


Tim Peterson, CMfgT, is the engineering and sales manager for Toolink Engineering, the exclusive North American distributor of the König line
of workholding. Juergen Kempf is a mechanical engineer and technical sales manager for König-mtm in Wertheim, Germany, and the primary
technical contact for North-American customers. Peterson can be reached at (303) 776-6212 or tpeterson@toolink-eng.com. Visit online at
[www.toolink-eng.com] or [www.koenig-mtm.de].

April 2009 39
Workholding
that Works
Smart manufacturers can maximize their workholding investment
by learning how to use these devices efficiently and to the full
extent of their capacity. Drewco provides important tips.
By Ann Pettibone
Like most manufacturers, gear manufactur- to machine new parts, or new parts can be added to existing fixtures.
ers today find themselves with the challenge Additionally, the life of collets, chucks, and components can be sig-
of maintaining viability, maximizing profits, nificantly improved by changing materials, heat treating, web design,
and enhancing productivity. Most are also and over-travel protection.
experiencing varying states of budgetary con-
straints. Whether you have no budget, or some Increasing Capacity
form of a limited budget, the takeaway from One way of increasing capacity is by changing the part-holding meth-
the current economic situation is clear. It is od; for example, changing from multiple large dedicated part supports
the old adage “make the most of what you to movable supports has proven to reduce setup time by 88 percent.
have.” Low- or no-cost solutions and innova- This kind of change in part-holding method also increases quality by
tions play a vital role in improving agility and reducing operator error and adds floor space by reducing storage
sustaining a competitive strategy. We now requirements.
continually hear the lament from engineers Another would be to expand the family of parts being held.
and production managers that are asked to Workholding should always be designed initially to provide for future
improve production without significant spend- part additions or variations. Conservatively, more than 50 percent of
ing, and to do it quickly. In many situations an all hobbing and grinding workholding fixtures have the inherent capac-
answer can be found in low-cost workholding
solutions. Improving workholding can now gen-
erate significant cost savings. You often don’t
have to make major capital expenditures, buy
new machines, or redesign whole processes
to increase production and reduce costs.
In a booming economy the vital role of work-
holding is often lost in the activity of new cell
development, or inside the process of major
capital expenditure of new machines. When
these activities produce satisfactory results,
the refinement and added significance of
well-designed workholding can often be lost
or become an afterthought. We have even had
several customers who, in the complicated
process of selecting and purchasing new Fig. 1: Quick-change expandable fixture
machine, have forgotten to order workholding.
But right now workholding can become the ity to handle additional part sizes. Expanding the family of parts that
resource that makes the difference that gear your workholding fixtures hold is, of course, one of the most effective
manufacturers need. Workholding can address ways to inexpensively improve production capacity (see fig. 1).
productivity and profitability, representing low- To look at expanding the range of parts that can be run on exist-
cost actions can make real improvements. ing fixtures, two areas will need to be considered: machine capac-
All workholding suppliers would like to be ity, and current fixture flexibility. The parts to be added to the fixture
designing and manufacturing shiny new work- will be examined for pitch diameter, helical angle, bore size, and
holding components. Currently, however, help- face widths. Many times a few minor changes to the existing fixture
ing gear manufacturing customers make the can improve the fixture and allow faster changeover of existing and
most of what they have may in many cases new parts. As an example, we were recently asked to add 22 more
be just what the doctor ordered, and how the gears to a fixture we’d originally designed for 120 parts. With the
workholding industry can be of the best ser- addition of seven more collets the customer gained 20 percent
vice to its gear customers. more machine capacity.
Where can workholding help? When design You can also have your quick-change fixtures multitask by making
enhancements, refurbishing, protection, and them interchangeable between machines, adding or redesigning uni-
planning are implemented, workholding can versal bases into the fixtures. Most gear manufacturers have demand
go a long way toward create big returns with for short runs, and in this economy that demand has increased.
the least cost and lead times. Retrofitting fixtures with universal bases and quick-change features
inexpensively adds agility (see fig. 2).
Design Enhancements In addition, you can color-code exchangeable workholding compo-
Without major manufacturing budgets, oppor- nents to increase setup speed and reduce operator error. Operators
tunities to refine and maximize the current are under even more time constraints now. The no-cost color-coding
processes still abound. Design enhance- of collets to match parts or part families reduces costly errors and
ments include changes that either improve saves both parts and tooling (see fig. 3). What in a different economy
setup and/or run time, or provide changes may have seemed like tweaking can now make a much-needed dif-
that adjust for any current issues or deficien- ference. Small enhancements to tooling improve operator speed and
cies. Design enhancements encompass sev- ergonomic comfort; e.g. access to activation screws, anti-rotation
eral options. Existing fixtures can be recycled pins, machine orientation, and other limiting factors.
Providing Process and at least a 25-percent improvement in
cycle time. They also enjoyed the benefits
the life of collets. The total distance that
a collet travels can be broken into three
Improvements of a cleaner environment. zones: load clearance, grip tolerance, and
Design enhancements can facilitate the Adding clamping as close to the pitch amount of over-travel.
profitable moves to improved processes. line as possible allows for increased gear Historically, with manually loaded work-
The important switch to the dry hob pro- teeth cutting speeds through improved holding, the amount of load clearance was
cess can be facilitated with new rigid workholding rigidity. Reducing the amount kept at a minimum. With automated load-
workholding and tooling (fig. 4). We have of clearance required between the grip ing systems, however, the amount of load
seen our customers get 62-percent more diameter and the relaxed state of the col- clearance required has increased. This
parts production between tool sharpening let can reduce costs through extending moves the gripping diameter toward the

Fig. 2: Universal base fixture,


interchangeable between multiple
machines

Fig. 3: Color-coded collets

Fig. 4: Dry hob rigid tooling

42 gearsolutions.com
other end of the travel, where the internal Processing gears by machining the when it comes to improving on a current
stresses reach a maximum. Adding a lead finished bore first is more cost effective process. At Drewco we favor a quote from
to the end of the collet helps to guide the than trying to finish the bore while locat- business author Ken Blanchard: “None of
workpiece over the collet. This, combined ing off of the pitch line. Changing to a col- us is as smart as all of us.” Workholding
with a more-stringent setup of the auto- let fixture, which is more forgiving to tight experts have seen hundreds of design
mation, can help make this a reality. We tolerances, generates cost reductions. issues, and they have developed as many
have seen customers reduce the amount Finally, when it comes to design solutions through design or manufactur-
of load clearance and gain collet life that enhancements, communication is king. ing methods—many at very little cost. Be
is doubled, tripled, and more by creating Communication is vital to getting it right sure to ask for a consultation and share
these minor changes (fig. 5). the first time, and it is also imperative your thoughts, issues, and goals fully.

Fig. 5: Load clearance graph Fig. 6: Refurbishing a chuck body used in ID grinding

april 2009 43
Fig. 7: Refurbishing nose activation angle used in OD Fig. 8: Adding a textured surface to improve gripping
grinding
Issues that may not seem fixable, or ones that you just live with, of workholding that, in a more progressive economy, would be
can actually have a very workable solution. considered perishable. So don’t throw it out, refurbish it!
Manufacturers using worn fixturing often reduce their speed
Refurbishing to avoid runout and preserve quality, driving production costs
Whether it is a smaller interchangeable component, whole up. Refurbishing tooling, from collets to whole fixtures, can
chucks, or a machining center fixture, refurbishing is a relatively double the tool life.
inexpensive way to improve tooling function while also improving Collets: Sometimes referred to as bushings or sleeves, collets
tooling life and its function (see figs. 6, 7). In addition, manu- that are sealed or bonded can, over time or with certain cool-
facturing firms are often unaware that they can extend the life ants, become brittle and lose their elasticity. This can directly
Continued on pg. 50 >

44 gearsolutions.com
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MODUL #ZFZW 800, 29.8” Dia, 16.25” Face, 2.5 DP Crowing, 2-Cut REF#103 BARBER-COLMAN 16-16, S/N 3580, ’59 Dbl Thrd w/Diff & Auto Hobshift REF#104
BARBER-COLMAN #1600-36, 16" Dia., 39.5" Face, 6 DP REF#103
GEAR ACCESSORIES, PARTS & TOOLING BARBER-COLMAN 16-16 Multicycle, S/N 3641, ’60 Dbl Thrd w/Diff REF#104
CHONG QIN #Y3180H, 31.5 Dia., 15" Face, 3 DP REF#103
BARBER-COLMAN 16-16, S/N 3660, ’57 Sgl Thrd REF#104
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FELLOWS Parts Available For All Models REF#103
HOLROYD – 2AC 10” Dia REF#103 BARBER-COLMAN 16-16, S/N 4473, ’73 4-Thrd w/Workclamp Cyl “C” Style REF#104
BARBER-COLMAN – PARTS AVAILABLE FOR ALL MODELS REF#103 BARBER-COLMAN 16-16 Multicycle, S/N 4520, ’75 Dbl Thrd w/Gooseneck Slide REF#104
KOEPFER #140 , 2.75” DIa, 4” Face REF#103
KOEPFER #153B, 5.6” Dia, 5.9” Face REF#103 BARBER-COLMAN 16-16 Multicycle, S/N 4631, ’79 “C” Style End
GEAR HOBBERS/CUTTERS CNC LANSING #GH-32, 32” Dia, 12” Face, 2.5 DP REF#103 Brace, 4W Adj Ctr REF#104
LANSING #GH-50, 50” Dia, 17.75” Face, 2 DP REF#103 BARBER-COLMAN AHM (36”), S/N 1152, ’42 Dbl Thrd REF#104
PFAUTER #PE-150, 6” Dia, 6-Axis CNC, New ‘86 REF#101 LIEBHERR #L-252, 9.8” Dia, 7.9” Face, 4.2 DP REF#103 BARBER-COLMAN 16-36, S/N 4090, ’66 Dbl Thrd, “C” Style End Brace REF#104
LIEBHERR #LC-152, 6”/8” Dia, 7-Axis CNC w/Automation, New ’90 REF#101 LIEBHERR #L-400, 16” Dia, 11” Face, 6 DP REF#103 BARBER-COLMAN 16-36 Multicycle, S/N 4232, ’68 Dbl Thrd “C” Style
PFAUTER #PA-320, 14” Dia, 6-Axis, Rebuilt/Retrofit ’06 REF#101 MIKRON #79 1.5 Dia, 26 DP REF#103 End Brace w/Diff REF#104
G&E #96H, 100” Dia, .75 DP, CNC Universal REF#101 PFAUTER #P-630 REF#103 BARBER-COLMAN 16-56, S/N 3136R84, ’53 (Reb ’84), Dbl Thrd REF#104
G&E #120H, CNC, Gasher/Hobber, Twin Stanchion, 1/2 DP, 42” Face, ‘94 REF#103 STAEHELY SHS-605 REF#103 BARBER-COLMAN 10-20, S/N 6700045890, ’76 Dbl Thrd w/2 Cut Cycle REF#104
HAMAI 60H, CNC 4-Axis, 3.5" OD, 9" Face, 12 DP, New ‘89 REF#103 G&E #60S REF#103 TOS OFA Series Conventional Gear Hobbers, 12” & 40” Dia REF#105
LIEBHERR #LC-255 CNC, 6-Axis, 10” Dia, 10” Face, 4 DP, ‘87 REF#103 PFAUTER #RS-00 REF#103 TOS OHA Series Conventional Gear Shapers, 12” & 40” Dia REF#105
G&E #96H REF#103
PFAUTER #PE-150, 6-Axis CNC, 6” Dia, 5 DP, 6” Face, Fanuc 18MI REF#103
MIKRON #132.0 , 4’ Dia, 12DP REF#103
SYKES #H160, 4-Axis CNC Hobber, 6” Dia, All the Features, ‘93 REF#103
BARBER-COLMAN TYPE T REF#103 GEAR PINION HOBBERS & SPLINE MILLERS
G&E #60 S-2 CNC Gasher/Hobber REF#103 IUG –Craiova FD-3600 REF#103
BARBER-COLMAN #16-36, 16” Dia, 4-Axis, 6 DP, 36” Face REF#103 LIEBHERR #L-401, 15.7” Dia 11” Face, 3DP REF#103 HURTH #KF-32A 15” Dia, 59” Face, ‘67 REF#103
G&E #96H, CNC, Gasher/Hobber, New ‘07 REF#103 LIEBHERR #L-902 36” Dia REF#103 SCHIESS RFW 10S 55 x120” Single Index REF#103
G&E #160H, CNC, Gasher/Hobber, New ‘07 REF#103 MODUL ZFWZ 400-3, 16” Dia REF#103 MICHIGAN Tool #3237 REF#103
LIEBHERR #LC-502 6-Axis CNC Gear Hobber, 20" Diam. Cap., Loading REF#103 PFAUTER #P-251 & P-253 10” Dia, 9” Face, 4 DP REF#103
WANDERER GF 345 CNC Hobbing and Milling Machine 4-Axis 24" Swing REF#103 MODUL ZFWZ 400-4, 16” Dia REF#103 GEAR HOB & CUTTER SHARPENERS (incl CNC)
LIEBHERR #ET-1802 CNC – 98” Diam REF#103 OVERTON #HD-400, 15.7” Dia, 12” Face, 3 DP, New ‘88 REF#103
MUIR CNC Gear Hobber, 4-Axis, 118” Dia REF#103 FAUTER #P-630R, 25" Max. Spur Dia, 12" Max Rotor Dia. 12" REF#103 BARBER COLMAN #2 1/2-2, 2.5” Dia, Straight Flute Hobs REF#101
PFAUTER #PE-800, 3-Axis, 31.5” Dia REF#103 BARBER-COLMAN #6-20, 6” Dia, 10.5’ Face REF#103 FELLOWS 6HCS, 6” Dia, Helical Shaper Cutter Sharpener REF#101
LIEBHERR #ET-1202 CNC - 70” Dia REF#103 SHIBURA HHK-250A Single Index REF#103 GLEASON 2JST Straight Bevel “Coniflex” Cutter Sharpener REF#101
G&E 120/188, CNC Gasher/Hobber, 188” Dia REF#103 SCHIESS 1 RF-10, Dia 60” REF#103 GLEASON 13 Universal Hypoid Bevel Cutter Sharpener REF#101
GLEASON #125GH, 6-Axis Fanuc REF#103 CRAVEN Horizontal REF#103 ARTER #A-12, 12” Rotary Surface Grinder for Sharpening Sharper Cutters REF#103
TOS OFA Series CNC Gear Hobbers, 12” & 40” Dia REF#105 MODUL ZFWZ-5000, 196” Dia, Special Worm Hobber 86 REF#103 BARBER-COLMAN #6-5, 6" Dia, 5" Length, Manual Dresser, ‘57 REF#103
TOS OHA Series CNC Gear Shapers, 12” & 40” Dia REF#105 TOS FO-16, Max Cut w/support 90” REF#103 BARBER-COLMAN 10-12, 10" Dia, 12" Length, Spark Out REF#103
BARBER-COLMAN 2 1/2 -4, S/N 119, ’62 Hi-Production Spur Gear REF#104
TOS OFA 32 CNC 6 13” Dia 11” Face REF#105 FELLOWS #6SB, Helical Cutter Sharpener, 6” Dia, up to 50 Degrees REF#103
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10 SYKES, Triple Thrd w/Lever Operated Collet Assy REF#104
KAPP #AS-305GT, 1 DP, 28" Grind Length, 10" Diam., Str. & Spiral REF#103
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10 B&C Ltd, S/N 8079, Triple Thrd REF#104
GEAR HOBBERS/CUTTERS BARBER-COLMAN 6-10, S/N 4626, ’57 Triple Thrd 3” Hob Slide REF#104 KAPP #AS204GT, 10” Dia, Wet Grinding, CBN Wheels, ‘82 REF#103
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10, S/N 4659R, ’56 Triple Thrd Adj Ctr Assy REF#104 BARBER-COLMAN #3 HS, Hob Sharpener, 4" Max. OD., 4" REF#103
KOEPFER #150, 6” Dia, REFurbished w/Accessories REF#101 BARBER-COLMAN 6-10, S/N 4665, ’57 Fine Pitch Prec Triple Thrd REF#104 BARBER-COLMAN #4-4HRS, Hob Sharpener, 4" Max. OD. 4" REF#103
KOPEFER #151, 6” Dia, REFurbished w/Accessories REF#101 BARBER-COLMAN 6-10, S/N 4701, ’58 Triple Thrd w/Power Down Feed REF#104 REDRING MODEL #SGH "PREIFORM" SHAVE CUTTER GRINDER/SHARPENER REF#103
KOPEFER # 170, 5.1” Dia, REFurbished, w/Accessories REF#101 BARBER-COLMAN 6-10 M/C, S/N 4755, ’59 Triple Thrd w/MC Conversion REF#104 STAR 6X8 HOB SHARPENER PRECISION GEAR & SPLINE HOBBER REF#103
PFAUTER #RS00S, 8”/10” Dia, 6 DP, Diff REF#101 BARBER-COLMAN 6-10 Multicycle, S/N 4778R87, ’60 (’87 Rebuild), Sgl Thrd HYBCO #1900 Tool Grinder REF#103
LIEBHERR #L-301, 12” Dia, 2-Cut, Crowning REF#101 Hi-Spd REF#104 BARBER-COLMAN 2-2 1/2 , 2.5” Dia REF#103
CLEVELAND #CR-300, 12” Dia, Crowning, 2-Cut, New REF#101 BARBER-COLMAN 6-10 M/C, S/N 4913, ’63 Triple Thrd w/90 Deg Hob Slide REF#104 KAPP AS-410B REF#103
PFAUTER # P-400, 16” Dia, Vertical Universal, High Tailstock REF#101 BARBER-COLMAN 6-10 Multicycle, S/N 5055, ’66 Triple Thrd, 800 RPM REF#104 GLEASON #12 Sharpener, 40” Dia REF#103
PFAUTER #P-403, 18” Dia, Auto-2-Cut, New ’79 REF#101 BARBER-COLMAN 6-10, S/N 5141, ’67 Triple Thrd w/Prec Hob Shift REF#104 BARBER-COLMAN 2 1/2-2, S/N 16, ’66 Wet w/Auto Feed REF#104
BARBER-COLMAN 6-5, S/N 110R, ’55 Wet w/Auto Dress & Sparkout REF#104

APRIL 2009 45
BARBER-COLMAN 6-5, S/N 396, ’66 Wet w/Auto Dress & Sparkout REF#104 REDIN #18, 28” Dia, 2, 3, 4 Spindle, Deburrer/Chamfer, PLC’s, Tilt Table REF#103 MICHIGAN DETROIT GG-10x24A, 10” Dia, Ext Gear & Spline Grinder REF#101
BARBER-COLMAN 6-5, S/N 433, ’69 Wet w/Auto Dress & Sparkout REF#104 REDIN #20D, 20” Dia, Twin Spindle, Deburrer/Chamfer REF#103 REISHAUER ZA, Gear Grinder, 13" Dia, 6" Face, Strait & Helix REF#103
BARBER-COLMAN 10-12, S/N 643R83, Wet w/Auto Dress, PC Control, Fact Reb ‘83 SAMPUTENSILI #SCT-3, Chamf/Deburrer, 14” Dia, 5” Face, ‘82 REF#103 RED RING #SGJ-18, 18” Dia., 9” Face, Internal Attachment, New ‘78 REF#103
REF#104 SAMPUTENSILI #SM2TA Gear Chamfering Mach, 10” Max Dia, (3) New ‘96 REF#103 DETROIT Gear Grinder #GGI-16x3A, Internal Gear Grinding, 16" OD REF#103
TOS OHA Series CNC Gear Shapers, 12” & 40” Diameter REF#105 HURTH MODEL# ZK-5, Twin Spindle, 12” Dia, Two Spindle REF#103 HEALD/CINCINNATI #2EF73 Internal Grinder REF#103
TOS OFA Series CNC Gear Hobbers, 12” & 40” Diameter REF#105 REDIN #24 CNC Dia 4” Setup Gear Deburring REF#103 HEALD, #272 Sizematic ID GRINDER REF#103
CROSS #54 Gear Deburrer, 30” Dia, 18” Face REF#103 NILES ZSZT-35 139” Dia REF#103
CROSS #55 Gear Deburrer, REF#103 CINCINNATI –CHOMIENN RC REF#103
GEAR SHAPERS CNC
CROSS #60 Gear Tooth Chamferer, 10” Dia, Single Spindle REF#103 HEALD, #273A INTERNAL GRINDER REF#103
36” Shapers, 14” Throat Risers, 53” of Swing, Qty 3 REF#102 FELLOWS #100-180/60 CNC Max Dia 180”, Single Spindle REF#103 MAAG SD-32-X REF#103
FELLOWS #10-4/10-2, Qty 150 REF#102 CIMTEC #50 Finisher REF#103 NILES 630-CSP REF#103
HYDROSTROKE #50-8, Qty 2 REF#102 RPM #GC-500 CNC 20” Dia, Single Spindle REF#103 GLEASON #463, 15” Dia REF#103
HYDROSTROKE #20-8, Qty 5 REF#102 RED RING #24 Twin Spindle Dia 4” REF#103 NILES ZSTZ-10, 49.2” Dia REF#103
HYDROSTROKE #FS630-125, Qty 1 REF#102 REISHAUER ZB, Gear Grinder, 27" Dia, 11” Face REF#103
HYDROSTROKE #FS400-90, Qty 2 REF#102 GEAR Honers
FELLOWS #20-4, Qty 6 REF#102 GEAR RACK MILLERS/SHAPERS
FELLOWS #48-8Z, Qty 1 REF#102 Fassler #K-400 CNC Hone 16" Dia REF#103
FELLOWS #10-4 One-Axis CNC (A/B), 10" Dia, 4" Face, 4 DP REF#103 Fassler K-400A CNC Hone 16” Dia REF#103 MIKRON #134 Rack Shaper, 17.4" Length, 1.1" Width, 16.9 DP REF#103
FELLOWS #FS-180, 3-5 Axis, 7” Dia, 1.25” Face., 6 DP, New ‘88 REF#103 Kapp #CX120 Coroning 4.7” Dia REF#103 SYKES VR-72 Vert Rack Shaper, 72" Cut Length, 4DP, 4" Stroke, ‘80 REF#103
LIEBHERR #WS-1, 4-Axis CNC, 8" OD, 2" Stroke, Fanuc 18MI REF#103 Kapp #VAC65 Coroning 10” Dia REF#103 SYKES VR-60 Vert Rack Shaper, 60” Cut Length, 4DP, Stroke 4” REF#103
LORENZ # LS-180, 4-Axis CNC, 11” OD, 2” Stroke, 5 DP REF#103 Red Ring #GHD-12 REF#103
FELLOWS FS400-90 Hydrostroke Gear Shaper CNC Nominal Pitch 15.7" REF#103 Red Ring GHG REF#103 GEAR THREAD & WORM, MILLERS/GRINDERS
LORENZ #LS-304 CNC Gear Shaper 5-Axis Heckler & Koch Control REF#103
MITSUBISHI #SA25CNC, Fanuc CTRL, 9.84" Dia., 2.38" Face REF#103 GEAR SHAVERS WMW HECKERT #ZFWG 250 X 2000, 19.6” Over Bed, 19.6” 78.7”
STANKO /RPM #48-8 Gear Shaper CNC REF#103 Hob Length REF#103
LORENZ #LS-156 CNC Gear Shaper Dia 6” REF#103 RED RING #GCY-12, 12” Dia, 9” Cutter-Head REF#101 LEES BRADNER #LT 9"x 54" Thread Mill, 9" Dia, 54"Length REF#103
RP-GS 1250 CNC Max Dia 12”, Face 11”, 2 DP REF#103 RED RING #GCU-12”, 12” Dia, 9” Cutter-Head REF#101 J&L #12x45, Thread Grinder, 12” OD, 45” Length, ‘75 REF#103
RP-GS 800 CNC Max Dia 9”, Face 8”, 2.5 DP REF#103 KANZAKI #GSF-400CNC5, CNC, 16” Dia, 10” Cutter-Head ‘90 REF#101 LEES BRADNER #HT 12x54, Dia 12” /54” REF#103
RP-GS 400 CNC Max Dia 7.8” Face 8”, 3 DP REF#103 RED RING #GCU-18, 18” Dia, Crowning REF#101 MOREY-SHIELDS THREAD MILLER, Dia 12” REF#103
SCHIESS RS-20 S REF#103 RED RING #GCJ-36/60, 60” Dia, 12” Cutter-Head REF#101 BARBER-COLMAN #10-40, 10" Dia., 40" Length, 4 DP REF#103
FELLOWS #20-4 20” Dia, 4” Face, 4DP REF#103 Fellows #4 Fine-Pitch REF#103 EXCELLO #31L, External Thread Grinder, 5" OD, 20" Grind Length REF#103
FELLOWS FS400-125, 16” Dia, 3.5 DP 5” Face REF#103 Kanzaki #GSP320 CNC 2.6" Dia REF#103 EXCELLO #33 Thread Grinder 6” Dia 18” Length REF#103
FELLOWS #10-2 CNC REF#103 Nachi GFG Shaver-5+1 Axis REF#103 EXCELLO #35 and #35L Thread Grinder, 84" Between Centers REF#103
Nachi Raso CNC Shaver REF#103 EXCELLO #39L Int. Thread Grinder, 9.5" Max Dia., 10" Max. Swing REF#103
Red Ring #GCX-24" Shaver REF#103 HURTH #KF-33A Multi-Purpose Auto-Milling Machine 88” REF#103
GEAR SHAPERS
Red Ring #GCU-12 REF#103 LEES BRADNER #HT12x102, Extra Large Capacity REF#103
FELLOWS #3, 3” Dia, Fine Pitch, w/Change Gears REF#101 Red Ring #GCU-8 Shaver REF#103 J&L AUTOMATIC THREAD GRINDER, 6" X 36", ‘38 REF#103
FELLOWS #7125A, 7” Dia REF#101 Red Ring #GCY-12 REF#103 HOLFER PROMAT 200 , 7.87” Dia, REF#103
FELLOWS #4AGS, 7” Dia REF#101 Red Ring GCI 24 REF#103 MITSUI-SEIKI GSE-50A, 20” Dia , REF#103
FELLOWS #10-4, 10” Dia, 4” Face REF#101 LEES BRADNER #HH-144 REF#103
FELLOWS #10-2, 10”Dia, 2” Face REF#101 GEAR GENERATORS, STRAIGHT BEVEL LEES BRADNER #HT 12"x 144" Thread Mill, 12" Dia, REF#103
FELLOWS Z-Type Horizontal, 18” Dia, Change Gears, Nice REF#101
FELLOWS #36-6, 40” Dia, 6” Face, 6” Riser REF#101 GLEASON #710, 10” Dia, Coniflex REF#101 GEAR TESTERS/CHECKERS (incl CNC)
FELLOWS #36-6 Spur/Helical, 36” Dia, 6” Face, w/Vari Helix Head REF#101 GLEASON #14, 24” Dia, Coniflex w/gauges, gears REF#101
FELLOWS 100” Dia, 8” Face-Width, Change Gears, Extra Guide, Gears REF#101 OERLIKON #K4A, 60”/90” Dia w/Templates, Crowning, Gears REF#101 GLEASON 13, Universal Angular Bevel Tester REF#101
FELLOWS #10-2, (10” Dia), 2” Face REF#102 GLEASON 645 Hypoid Generators REF#103 GLEASON #17A, 90-Degree Hypoid Bevel Tester REF#101
FELLOWS #10-4, (10” Dia), 4” Face REF#102 GLEASON #37 Str. Bevel Planer, 6” Dia REF#103 FELLOWS #12M, 12” Dia, Involute REF#101
FELLOWS #4A Versa, 10” Dia, 3” Face, 4 DP, New ‘70’s REF#103 GLEASON #54 Str, Bevel Planer, 60” Dia REF#103 FELLOWS 600RL, 24” Dia, Roll Checker REF#101
FELLOWS #8AGS Vert Gear Shaper, 8” Dia, 2” Face, 6-7 DP REF#103 GLEASON #104 Angular/Straight Bevel Tester REF#103 David Brown #24 Worm Tester REF#103
FELLOWS #10-2, 10” Dia, 4” Face, 4 DP REF#103 GLEASON #496 Straight.& Spiral. 7.5” Dia REF#103 Fellows 12H Gear Tester REF#103
FELLOWS #20-4, 20” Dia, 4” Face, 4 DP, ‘70’s REF#103 GLEASON 726-Revacycle REF#103 Fellows #12M Gear Tester REF#103
MAAG #SH-100/140, 57” Dia., 12.6” Face, 2 DP, Internal Attachment REF#103 GLEASON 725-Revacycle REF#103 Fellows 20M Gear Tester REF#103
FELLOWS #3-1, 3” Max Dia, 1” Face, Pinion Supp, High Precision REF#103 GLEASON 2A, Coniflex Straight Bevel REF#103 Felows #24 Involute Measuring Instrument REF#103
FELLOWS #48-6 INTERNAL GEAR SHAPER ONLY,0-72"OD,6" Face REF#103 GLEASON 14, Coniflex Straight Bevel REF#103 Gleason/Goulder IL600SV REF#103
FELLOWS Model Z Shaper, 5" Stroke, 17" Bore in Table, ‘50’s REF#103 GLEASON 24A Straight Bevel REF#103 Gleason #4, #6, #13 and #17 Testers REF#103
LORENZ #SJV00, 7” Dia, 2” Face, ‘50’s REF#103 Hofler EMZ-2602 Int/Ext Gear Tester 102” REF#103
MAAG #SH-100K 47”/12.6”/1.7 ‘60’s Internal Attachment REF#103 Klingelnberg #PFSU-1200 Gear Tester REF#101
GEAR GENERATORS, SPIRAL BEVEL (HYPOID)
MAAG #SH-150, 57" Dia.12.6" Face REF#103 Klingelnberg #PFSU-1600 Gear Tester-2001 REF#103
MICHIGAN #18106 SHEAR-SPEED GEAR SHAPER,14" DIA,6"FACE 4 DP REF#103 GLEASON #16, 16” Dia Hypoid Spiral Bevel Gear Generator REF#101 Klingelnberg PWF-250 Tester REF#103
PFAUTER #SH-180 Shobber 7" capacity hobbing, 9.45" cap REF#103 GLEASON #26, 36” Dia, Hypoid Spiral Bevel Gear Generator REF#101 Kapp Hob Checker WM 410 REF#103
FELLOWS #36-6 Max Dia 36” 6” Face, 3 DP REF#103 GLEASON #106 Hypoid REF#103 Maag #ES-430 Gear Tester REF#103
FELLOWS #7, #7A, 715, 75A,, 7” Dia, 0-12” Risers, Several Avail REF#103 Maag #SP-130 Lead and Involute Tester REF#103
FELLOWS #HORZ Z SHAPER, 10 x 6 Dia 27.6 Face 8.5” REF#103 M&M CNC Gear Tester #3515 REF#103
GEAR GRINDERS CNC
MAAG #SH-75C, 30”/8”/2.5”/’52 REF#103 M&M CNC Gear Tester #3012 REF#103
MAAG NBP 40 REF#103 HOEFLER #H-650/800, 36” Dia, CNC w/On-Board Inspection, New ‘98 REF#101 National Broach Gear Tester GSJ-12 REF#103
FELLOWS #6, #6A, #645A, From 18”-35” Dia, 0-12” Risers REF#103 GLEASON # 130, 36” Max Dia, CNC Curvic Cplg, Comp Reb REF#101 Oerlikon #ST2-004 Soft Tester REF#103
FELLOWS #10x6 REF#103 HOGLUND, Model #264, CNC Internal Gear Grinder REF#103 Parkson #15N Gear Rolling Tester REF#103
MAAG #SH-600, 235” Dia 36”, 1DP REF#103 KAPP #VAS-482 CNC GEAR GRINDER, 11.8" SWING DIA REF#103 Parkson #42N Worm Gear Tester REF#103
FELLOWS #4GS & 4AGS, 6” Dia, 2” Face, 4DP, ’68, Ref.# Several REF#103 NILES ZSTZ 06-800 CNC REF#103 Vinco Dividing Head Optical Inspection REF#103
MAAG #SH-180-300, REF#103 NILES ZSTZ 08-800 CNC REF#103 Fellows #24H Tester REF#103
SCHIESS #RS-20, 12”Stroke REF#103 RED RING #SF-500 CNC Int/Ext, 26” Dia, 30” Face, 2 DP, ’88 REF#103
MAAG #SH-350/500 REF#103 REISHAUER RZ300E Electronic Spur/Helical Gear Grinder, 11.8" Dia REF#103 MISCELLANEOUS
TOS OH-6, Dia 19.7” REF#103 GLEASON/TAG – 400 REF#103
SCHIESS #RFW-10-S REF#103 GLEASON Phoenix 200G Hypoid Grinder CNC REF#103 WARNER & SWAYSEY #4A M-3580 Turret Lathe, 28 1/4 Swing, 80” Centers, 12” Spindle
TOS OHA50 CNC 5 20” Dia 5” Face REF#105 REISHAUER RZ-801 CNC, 31.4” Dia REF#103 Hole 50/25 Motors, 480/3 Phase, Year 1965 REF#100
TOS SU & SUS Series Conv Lathes REF#105
GEAR GRINDERS TOS SUA Series CNC Flat-Bed Lathes REF#105
GEAR DEBURRING/CHAMFERING/POINTING GLEASON #529 Quench, 16" Diameter REF#103
CROSS #75, 10” Dia REF#101 MAAG #HSS-30A, 11.8” Dia, Spur REF#101 VERTICAL TURNING LATHES AND MORE - Please Check Our Website To View Our Entire
REDIN #24, 28” Dia, CNC, Twin Spindle Deburring Mach, Yr ’90 REF#101 REISHAUER #AZA-K, 13” Dia, SPA Diamond Disc, Taper Grinding New ’79 REF#101 Inventory REF#103
REDIN #18, 20” Dia, Twin Spindle Deburring Mach REF#101 REISHAUER RZ-300E, 11.8” Dia, Diamond Disc Dresser, Shift – New ‘85 REF#101
CROSS #50 Gear Tooth Chamferer, 18” Dia, Single Spindle REF#103 SHG-360 OKAMOTO, 14” Dia, FAESSLER DSA, Crowning, New ’74 REF#101
CROSS #75 Gear Tooth Chamferer, 10” Dia, 10” Face, ‘52 REF#103 DETROIT GEARGRIND GGI-16x3A Internal Gear Grinder REF#101

46 gearsolutions.com
Just as its name implies, Wind Systems magazine will
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GEAR GRINDING SERVICES Abundant Manufacturing, Inc.


820 cochran street • Statesville, NC 28677
Phone: (704) 871-9911
Gear cutting from raw material Fax:      (704) 871-9961
to finished parts Email: Kevin@Abundantmfg.com
Website: www.Abundantmfg.com
Ground tooth gears and pinions
to 1 D.P. and up to AGMA quality
class 13

From 1” Diameter, 64 D.P.


to maximum sizes listed Max. Face Max. Size Max. Pitch
Spur Gears 24” 92” P.D. 1 D.P.
Helical Gears 24” 72” P.D. 1 D.P.
Spur & Helical Gears,
Crown Hobbed 22” 72” P.D. 1 D.P.
Internal Gears & Splines 8” 100” P.D. 1-1/4 D.P. Gear Grinding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27” Diameter
Ground Gears, Crowned or Straight 20.5” 72” P.D. 1 D.P. Gear Hobbing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84” Diameter   36” Face
Herringbone Gears, Center Grove 14” 36” P.D. 2 D.P. Gear Shaping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120” Diameter    8” Face
Gear Shaving. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24” Diameter
2182 E. Aurora Rd., Twinsburg, OH 44087
Phone: (330) 425-4419 • Fax: (330) 425-8600
www.mwgear.com • E-mail: sales@mwgear.com
ABUNDANT — Geared to service your needs!

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PLACE Manufacturing excellence
through quality, integration, materials,
maintenance, education, and speed.

FELLOWS 70-15 GEAR SHAPER 105” Dia. • 70” Pitch Dia. • 15” Stroke Capacity
SPECIALTY MACHINE — ONE OF ONLY A HANDFUL IN THE WORLD!

We Manufacture
(Statesville Chamber’s 2006 Industry of the Year) Broaches & Related
Now Hiring Tooling for
• Machine Tool
Mechanics
• Machine Tool
Mechanic Trainee any Broach Machine
• Machine Tool Electrical • Machine Tool
Panel Builders Builder Trainee Sharpening or Reconditioning
— Must have own tools
— Three years experience
— Must have own tools
— Some experience preferred
Also Production Broaching
preferred
— High school education or
— High school education or
GED required
We Weld Broken & Chipped Broaches
GED required — Entry Level Position
— Overtime Required — Overtime Required

• Machine Tool Field Service Technician


Broach House
3 years minimum electrical machine tool experience,
Fanuc control experience, traveling required.
Mfg., Inc.™
R.P. Machine offers competitive wages, We Have Used Broaches In Stock
benefits, 401K retirement and relocation
costs on all positions 11383 Route 166 • Marion, Il 62959
Apply in person or send resume 618-993-3530 • Fax:618-997-9158
to bill@rpmachine.com e-mail: gerard1@midamer.net

APRIL 2009 49
< Continued from pg. 44

Protect What You Have


Fixturing: Proactive fixture maintenance is a given in any economic
environment, but right now maintaining the maximum toleranced
functioning of workholding fixturing is crucial. It seems rudimentary,
but we see a lot of issues that could have been avoided by a thor-
ough cleaning, and especially cleaning chips out of the activation
angle area. Fixturing represents a substantial investment, and pro-
tecting this investment through regular maintenance will pay many
dividends. Regular maintenance will provide optimum part holding
and part location, giving you optimum production. Here are a few
tips:

• Clean fixtures after use. This sounds simple, but it’s the single
most important part of maintenance.
• Lubricate fixtures after cleaning. This will prevent rusting, as well
as allowing smooth operation of the fixture.
Fig. 9: Simple steps extend collet life • Store fixtures in a clean, dry location.

affect the ability to hold tolerances, and these collets are often Collets: Custom collets range in price and complexity. They are stable
disposed of. units but are frequently highly tolerance. Here are a few pointers to
Many people don’t know that collets can be resealed for a make collets last longer and maintain maximum precision (fig. 9):
fraction of the cost of new ones. Resealing collets will extend its
life while also protecting the arbor or other tooling from prema- • Store collets in lined drawer or containers. Avoid letting them roll
ture failure. In the process of having your workholding supplier around or knock up against each other.
reseal your collets, the collet runout and concentricity should • Take care not to drop collets. If a collet is dropped it should be
also be reconfirmed, insuring maximum tooling performance. visually checked to be sure it is not cracked or bent, and then
Arbors and mandrels: Over time arbors, mandrels, and collets checked for runout at installation.
become worn and develop runout or lose the ability to grip the • Reduce operator error by marking collets clearly. Consider color
parts correctly. Runout not only negatively affects spindle time, coding collets and posting laminated instructions for chuck
but it also increases setup time and affects part quality. Arbors, assembly and part loading.
mandrels, and collets can be reground or chrome plated and then • Examine collets regularly for wear, and reseal when necessary.
reground. This process will return the components to like-new • And, of course, never activate a collet fixture without a part in the
condition. Small costs that will reduce set up time and improve fixture.
both production and profitability. Applying an abrasive coating
to the gripping surface of fixturing can increase wear resistance Planning
and transmit more driving force to the part, reducing slippage There are some experts who believe that when the economy recov-
and improving performance (fig. 8). Out-of-tolerance hydrau- ers it will do so rapidly. Even if the overall recovery is not rapid,
lic arbors can be unassembled and have only the worn parts depleted inventories will need to be replenished across the board.
replaced. In addition, hydraulic arbors that no longer expand can Demand will increase, and the manufacturer who can respond quick-
often be repaired by replacing seals and recharging. ly will pick up market share from the suppliers that haven’t remained
Chuck and fixture refurbishing and re-engineering: As with forward thinking. Our large OEM customers are telling us that when
smaller components, whole chuck assemblies and fixtures can the economic landscape improves they expect things to get hot and
be refurbished. Missing print dimensions often appear as an hectic, and we will all be expected to respond accordingly. Future
impediment to assembly refurbishing. We find that many people planning to maximize capacity and growth at the end of the current
are unaware of the extent to which an experienced workholding economic tunnel is essential. Taking stock now, and planning capital
supplier can help them through re-engineering. Often customers expenditures to dovetail with lean-type processes such as reducing
are frustrated when critical dimensions are omitted from their batch sizes and shortening lead times, will allow suppliers to seize
tooling prints. This can create problems when they have a work- upcoming opportunities. Planning now for workholding that is inter-
holding component, like a collet or even an entire fixture that changeable, versatile, and expandable will provide the production
needs repair or a replacement made. It is especially problematic agility that will be even more important in the recovery.
in the case of foreign products where cost and delivery can play
a larger role. This can be frustrating when price and delivery are
crucial. An expert workholding firm can recreate missing print About the author:
dimensions, and even produce new replacement parts from a Ann Pettibone is CEO of Drewco Workholding. To learn more call
handful of broken parts where no print is available. This can (262) 886-5050, send e-mail to service@drewco.com, or visit
save the day for many customers, and in the process also pro- online at [www.drewco.com].
vide an additional or backup supplier.

50 gearsolutions.com
advertiser
INDEX
COMPANY NAME PAGE NO.
Abundant Manufacturing Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Allen Adams Shaper Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Allied Sinterings, Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
American Gear Manufacturers Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Arrow Gear Company. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
AWEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
B & R Machine and Gear Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Barit International Corporation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Bourn & Koch, Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Broach House Manufacturing, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Butler Gear Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Carnes-Miller Gear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Circle Gear & Machine Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Cole Manufacturing Systems, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Colonial Tool Group, Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Drewco. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Encoder Products Company. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11,36
Gear Manufacturing, Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13,49
Hanik Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
High Performance Gear, Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
HobSource, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Hydra-Lock Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Innovative Rack & Gear Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
J. Schneeberger Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
James Engineering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
KAPP Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Ka-Wood Gear & Machine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
KH Gears. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
KISSsoft USA, LLC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Klingelnberg GmbH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Lawler Gear Corporation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Micro Surface Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Midwest Gear Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BC
Mohawk Machinery, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Moore Gear & Manufacturing Company, Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
New England Gear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
P&G Machine & Supply Company, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Precision Gage Company, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Process Equipment Company. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
R P Machine Enterprises, Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3,15,49
Raycar Gear & Machine Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Repair Parts, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Riverside Spline & Gear, Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Russell Holbrook & Henderson, Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Stock Drive Products/Sterling Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Stor-Loc Modular Drawer Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
The Broach Masters, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IBC
The Company Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
The Gear Works—Seattle, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
TMFM, LLC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Toolink Engineering, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IFC www.hanikcorp.com
TSA America, LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Ty-Miles, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
CORPORATION
Walker Forge, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Wind Systems Magazine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

APRIL  2009 51
Q&A
robertO’CONNOR
Sales Manager
J. Schneeberger Corporation

sharpener that’s ideally suited for sharpen- three machines in stock. We have an
ing straight hobs and cutters, which do not Aries on the floor, at present. The grinding
require complex wheel profile dressing. In applications best suited for the Aries are
addition to a generous work envelope and typically less complex than the other mod-
a GE-Fanuc control, the work is typically els, so we can quickly configure them for
GS: Could you tell us a little about the held between centers in a very comfortable, prompt delivery. With the larger machines
company’s history? ergonomical fashion on a t-slotted bed. We the integration work is typically handled at
RO: Of course. The company was founded offer an extensive line of five- and six-axis the plant, but our lead time is generally
by Walter Schneeberger in 1923 to manufac- CNC grinders such as the Corvus GDS with around six months, which is very competi-
ture tool grinders for profiling woodworking five-axis grinding for oversized tools and tive. We do carry an extensive inventory of
and molding cutters. We are headquartered the Corvus BBA for grinding broaches. The spare parts, ranging from electronic parts
in Roggwil, Switzerland, with subsidiaries in Gemini model also offers five-axis grinding to rebuilt spindles for prompt replacement.
Germany, France, Italy, Great Britain, China, for both tool regrinding and production, and
and the United States. Schneeberger was it was designed for automated high-per- “Schneeberger
pivotal in the development of the first CNC formance tool production. Our production
controlled profile grinders, which were intro-
duced in 1985, and it launched the world’s
machines can be outfitted with integrated
robotic handling as well as the Galileo opti-
was pivotal in the
first five-axis tool grinder into the market in
1990. Our Elgin, Illinois, facility was incor-
cal measuring machine. We can also config-
ure the machines to provide different direct
development of CNC
porated in 1994 when it became clear that
the service and application demands were
drive spindle horsepower ratings of up to 56
Hp for coarse pitch hobs and spindle speeds
controlled profile
such that we needed direct representation
here in the States to handle installation and
up to 18,000 RPM, and also to provide
automatic in-machine CNC wheel dressing. grinders in 1985, and
Our CNC machines utilize a touch screen
training. We do work through sales repre-
sentatives—we’re represented by some 20 with a Windows XP platform driving GE-Fanuc launched the world’s first
agencies around the world, in fact—but if controls with our own menu-driven, graphical,
we’re talking about something like the gear- Quinto software. Other options and peripher- five-axis tool and cutter
manufacturing industry, the technology is als include integrated optical measuring sys-
very specific, so we do work closely with our
representatives to handle those aspects of
tems, integrated laser wheel measurement
systems, and automated coolant filtration
grinder in 1990.”
the relationship. We also send our techni- systems. The integrated optical measur- One thing we’re quite proud of is the solid
cians back to Switzerland for a minimum of ing system allows the user to compare the foundation incorporated in the design of
two weeks of recurrent training each year, actual with the desired profile, which is an the larger models. These are massive,
and we host technicians from the home option that’s very popular in Europe, where heavy duty, stable machines, as we start
office quite regularly. Our dedicated sales this level of automation is in heavy use. Our with an advanced polymer concrete bed
staff also has a strong grasp of the technol- longtime expertise in this area, through work- and make extensive use of linear drive
ogy involved. ing with our customers globally, is invaluable motors and glass scales, which very much
here in the States as the interest in profile differentiates us from companies that are
GS: Describe the grinders you manu- automation is growing. still relying on relatively outdated technolo-
facture, especially those of interest to gy. Add Schneeberger monorail linear ways
gear manufacturers. GS: Is all the manufacturing conducted in on the horizontal axis and water-cooled
RO: Our Aries model is an economically Switzerland? If so, what do you stock? spindles for thermal stability and you have
priced four-axis CNC hob and shaper cutter RO: Yes, it is, but we usually have two or an accurate, flexible, dependable machine.
But what it really boils down to is hav-
FOR MORE INFORMATION: ing a solid machine foundation, because
you’re not going to get the highest-quality
Call (847) 888-3498, send e-mail to robert@schneeberger-us.com, or go online to
grinding unless you have that solid, stable
[www.schneeberger-us.com].
platform.

52 gearsolutions.com
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