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Tourism Management System

Technical Report · November 2016


DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.15777.40807

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Bennet Mathew Swetha K Rao


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Department of Computer Science

Report on
Tourism Management System

Authors
Bennet Mathew
Swetha Krishnamurthy Rao
Contents
1 Introduction 1

2 Assumptions 3
2.1 TourUser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.2 Accommodation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.3 TouristPlace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.4 Weather . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.5 Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.6 Shopping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
2.7 Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.8 PhotoAlbum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.9 Emergency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.10 Restaurant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

3 Entity Relationship Diagram 5

4 Relational Database Schema 6

5 Dependencies and Normalization 7


5.1 TourUser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.2 Accommodation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.3 TouristPlace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.4 Weather . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.5 Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.6 Shopping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
5.7 Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5.8 PhotoAlbum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5.9 Emergency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
5.10 Restaurant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

6 Realistic Queries for the System 9

7 Relational Algebra 11

8 Conclusion 12

9 References 13
1. Introduction

1 Introduction
Nearly everyone goes on a vacation and a Tourism management system would
play a vital role in planning the perfect trip. The tourism management
system allows the user of the system access all the details such as weather,
location, events, etc. The main purpose is to help tourism companies to
manage customer and hotels etc. The system can also be used for both
professional and business trips. The proposed system maintains centralized
repository to make necessary travel arrangements and to retrieve information
easily.

• The system is implemented in Oracle

• Normalization and Dependencies are handled

• Queries useful for the user of the database

• The Queries are translated into relational algebra

The tourism management systems must include solutions for tracking


visitors, analyzing trends, target marketing, and CRM. Indusa Global has
introduced a software sysem for this purpose, called VisiTrak1 The VisiTrak
solution provides customers with consulting services such as Forms and Sur-
vey Design, Process Design and Re-engineering, and Workflow Optimization.
The same software development corporation has produced a semi intelligent
system, called the VisiTrends. The VisiTrends solution provides decision
makers with the ability to slice and dice data, analyze trends, and profile
visitors demographically and psycho-graphically. VisiTrends is using ma-
chine learning and data mining techniques to guide tourists.
In general, arranging a travel can be interpreted as planning a trip, which
can be represented as a classical planning problem [11]. Representing the
system as classical planning problem let one enhance the existing systems
with well mature developments of automated planning approaches in artificial
intelligence [13, 14, 12, 10, 8, 9, 16, 15, 17, 2, 1]. In such direction, even
database transactions also can be used to solve the represented planning
problem [7, 5, 6, 3, 4]. In this style of planning, concrete or hypothetical
database transactions can be used to generate a plan for a tourist with respect
to available resources and options.
1
See more at:http://www.indusaglobal.com/tourism.html

Department of Computer Science, University of Bridgeport 1


1. Introduction

The provided database in this work establishes a well-founded data-tier


to develop a complete tourism management system. In this work, different
general or specific use cases for the problem has been considered, entities are
extracted, and related workflows have been studied.

Department of Computer Science, University of Bridgeport 2


2. Assumptions

2 Assumptions
There is a total of 10 entities with many attributes and keys. Attributes and
keys defines the entities.[?, ?, ?, ?, ?]

2.1 TourUser
This entity contains UserID, Name and Password where the primary key is
UserID. This acts as a login portal for the usage of this database.

2.2 Accommodation
Accommodation contains AccID, Name, Type, Location, MinCost, MaxCost,
Offer, WebsiteAndCost and PlaceID as foreign key from TouristPlace entity.

2.3 TouristPlace
TouristPlace holds the place where the user wishes to tour. Details such as
Name, Description, Type and PlaceID which is the primary key.

2.4 Weather
A perfect tour can always be ruined by bad weather. Weather entity holds
the MinTemp, MaxTemp and a WebLink for further insights. WeatherID is
the primary key.

2.5 Events
Events entity displays any event present near the user’s tourist spot. Details
such as EventID, EventType, StartDate, EndDate, Name and PlaceID.

2.6 Shopping
Shopping entity holds details about shopping spot around the area. Shop-
pingID, PlaceID, Category, Name and Location are stored.

Department of Computer Science, University of Bridgeport 3


2. Assumptions

2.7 Transportation
Transportation entity assist the user to move from one place to another. It
consists of TransID , PlaceID, Name, Area, ContactInfo,Category.

2.8 PhotoAlbum
This entity holds the picture album of each tour. It contains AlbumID,
PlaceID, Name.

2.9 Emergency
In case of any emergency such as health deterioration, loss of property etc.,
Emergency entity provides details such as Type, Contact, Address etc.

2.10 Restaurant
A lot of people find it difficult to find an eatery which caters to their needs.
Restaurant entity comes handy here. ResID, Name, Location, contactinfo,
type etc. are attributes of this entity.

Department of Computer Science, University of Bridgeport 4


3. Entity Relationship Diagram

3 Entity Relationship Diagram


The below figure shows the Entity Relation diagram of Tourism Management
System[?, ?]

Figure 1: ER Diagram of Tourism Management System

Department of Computer Science, University of Bridgeport 5


4. Relational Database Schema

4 Relational Database Schema


A relational database schema helps you to understand and organize the struc-
ture of a database. It is helpful when we design a new database or existing
database is modified to incorporate new functionality.

Figure 2: Relational Database Schema of Tourism Management System

Department of Computer Science, University of Bridgeport 6


5. Dependencies and Normalization

5 Dependencies and Normalization


5.1 TourUser
There exists two functional dependencies {UserID → Name} , {UserID, Pass-
word} Both are fully functional dependent on the UserID. The table is in 3
NF.[?, ?, ?, ?]

5.2 Accommodation
The functional dependencies are {AccID, Name} , {AccID → Type} , {AccID
→ Location} , {AccID → MinCost} , {AccID → MaxCost} , {AccID →
Offer} , {AccID → WebsiteAndContact} There exists full functional depen-
dency. Hence table is in 3NF.

5.3 TouristPlace
The functional dependencies are {PlaceID → Name} , {PlaceID → Descrip-
tion} , {PlaceID → AccID} , {PlaceID → WeatherID, EventID, ShoppingID,
TransID, AlbumID, ResID, EmergencyID} Since all the attributes depend on
primary key and has no transitive dependency, the table is in 3NF.

5.4 Weather
The functional dependencies are {WeatherID → MinTemp}, {WeatherID
→ MaxTemp}, {WeatherID → WebLink}. The attributes depend only on
primary key. Therefore, the table is in 3NF.

5.5 Events
The functional dependencies are {EventID → EventType} , {EventID →
StartDate} , {EventID → EndDate} , {EventID → Name} There exists
fully functional dependency. Therefore, the table is in 3NF.

5.6 Shopping
The functional dependencies are {ShoppingID → Category} , {ShoppingID
→ Name} , {ShoppingID → Location} Table is in 3NF.

Department of Computer Science, University of Bridgeport 7


5. Dependencies and Normalization

5.7 Transportation
The functional dependencies are {TransID → Name} , {TansID → Category}
, {TransID → Area} , {TranID → ContactInfo} , {TransID → Area} There
exist partial dependency and transitive dependency. Therefore, the table is
in 3NF.

5.8 PhotoAlbum
The functional dependencies are {AlbumID → Name} The table is in 3NF.

5.9 Emergency
The functional dependencies are {EmergencyID → Type} , {EmergencyID
→ Contact, Address} The attributes are fully functional dependent on Emer-
gencyID. The table is in 3NF.

5.10 Restaurant
The functional dependencies are {ResID → Name} , {ResID → Location} ,
{ResID → ContactInfo} , {ResID → type} The attributes are fully functional
dependent on ResID. The table is in 3NF.

Department of Computer Science, University of Bridgeport 8


6. Realistic Queries for the System

6 Realistic Queries for the System


1. What are the top event that people choose when they are on a trip for
more than 3 days?

SELECT DISTINCT E.Name


FROM Events E, TouristPlace T, Accommodation A WHERE
E.PlaceID = T.PlaceID AND T.PlaceID =A.PlaceID AND
(A.EndDate-A.StartDate) = 3 AND ROWNUM = 1 ORDER BY Name DESC;

2. Which is the most liked place and the least liked one?

SELECT name, MAX(cnt), MIN(cnt) FROM


(SELECT T.Name AS name, count(A.PlaceID) AS cnt
FROM Accommodation A, TouristPlace T WHERE
T.PlaceID = A.PlaceID GROUP BY A.PlaceID);

3. List a place where users have gone more than once and list the counts
if they have gone more than once. [?]

SELECT T.Name, COUNT(A.PlaceID)


FROM Accommodation A, TouristPlace T
WHERE T.PlaceID = A.PlaceID
GROUP BY A.PlaceID HAVING count(A.PlaceID) > 1;

4. List the type of Restaurants visited by people in various places

SELECT R.Type, P.Name


FROM Restaurant R, TouristPlace T, Accommodation A
WHERE R.PlaceID = T.PlaceID AND T.PlaceID = A.PlaceID
GROUP BY A.PlaceID;

5. List the means of transport used where climate is too hot and too cold?
[?]

SELECT T.Name, MAX(W.MaxTemp),MIN(MinTemp)


FROM Transportation T, TouristPlace TP, Weather W
WHERE T.PlaceID = TP.PlaceID AND TP.PlaceID = W.PlaceID
GROUP BY W.PlaceID;

Department of Computer Science, University of Bridgeport 9


6. Realistic Queries for the System

6. Which is the mostly traveled place in the Fall?


SELECT T.Name
FROM TouristPlace T, Accommodation A
WHERE T.PlaceID = A.PlaceID AND MONTH(A.StartDate) > 8
AND MONTH(A.StartDate) < 12
GROUP BY A.PlaceID;
7. Which is the event that people choose mostly when they have opted
for Accommodation for more than 10 days?
SELECT E.Name
FROM Event E, TouristPlace T, Accommodation A
WHERE T.PlaceID = E.PlaceID
AND E.PlaceID = A.PlaceID
AND (A.EndDate A.StartDate) >= 10;
8. Which is the mostly visited shopping place?
SELECT DISTINCT S.Name
FROM Shopping S, TouristPlace T, Accommodation A
WHERE S.PlaceID = T.PlaceID
AND T.PlaceID = A.PlaceID
ORDER BY A.PlaceID DESC;
9. What is the maximum count of Photo Album owned by a person for a
place?
SELECT MAX(album)
FROM (SELECT COUNT(P.AlbumID) as album
FROM TouristPlace T, PhotoAlbum P, Accommodation A
WHERE T.PlaceID = P.PlaceID AND A.PlaceID = T.PlaceID
GROUP BY A.PlaceID);
10. List the name and address of Accommodations available that cost be-
tween 75-200
SELECT Name, Location
FROM Accommodation
WHERE MaxCost <= 200
AND MinCost >= 75;

Department of Computer Science, University of Bridgeport 10


7. Relational Algebra

7 Relational Algebra
1. ΠE.Name(σ(A.EndDate-A.StartDate) = 3 ∧ Max(cnt)γE.EventID,count(E.EventID)
→ cnt,Max(cnt)[ρA(Accommodation) ./ A.PlaceID = T.PlaceID [ρE
(Event) ./ E.PlaceID = T.PlaceID ρT(TouristPlace)]]) [?, ?, ?]

2. ΠT.Name,max,min γA.PlaceID,count(A.PlaceID)→ cnt,Max(cnt) →


max, Min(cnt)→min (ρT(TouristPlace) ./ T.PlaceID = A.PlaceID ρA
(Accommodation))

3. ΠT.Name,cnt σcnt> 1 γA.PlaceID,count(A.PlaceID)→ cnt (ρT(TouristPlace)


./ T.PlaceID = A.PlaceID ρA (Accommodation))

4. ΠR.Type,T.Name γA.PlaceID (ρA (Accommodation) ./ A.PlaceID =


T.PlaceID [ρT (TouristPlace) ./ T.PlaceID = R.PlaceID ρR (Restau-
rant)])

5. ΠT.Name,MaxTemp,MinTemp γW.PlaceID, Max(W.MaxTemp) → Max-


Temp, Min(W.MinTemp) → MinTemp (ρW (Weather) ./ W.PlaceID
= TP.PlaceID [ρT (Transportation) ./ T.PlaceID = TP.PlaceID ρTP
(TouristPalce)])

6. ΠT.Name σMONTH(A.StartDate) > 8 ∧ MONTH(A.StartDate) < 12


γA.PlaceID (ρT (TouristPlace) ./ T.PlaceID = A.PlaceID ρA (Accom-
modation))

7. Π E.Name σ(A.EndDate - A.StartDate) ≥ 10 (ρA (Accommodation)


./ A.PlaceID = T.PlaceID ([ρE (Event) ./ E.PlaceID = T.PlaceID ρT
(TouristPlace)])

8. ΠS.Name A.PlaceID DESC(ρA (Accommodation) ./ A.PlaceID = T.PlaceID


[ρS (Shopping) ./ S.PlaceID = T.PlaceID ρT (TouristPlace)])

9. ΠmaxAlbum γA.PlaceID, count(P.PlaceID) → cnt, Max(cnt) → max-


Album (ρA (Accommodation) ./ A.PlaceID = T.PlaceID [ρP (Pho-
toAlbum) ./ P.PlaceID = T.PlaceId ρT (TouristPlace)])

10. ΠName,Location σMaxCost ≤ 200 ∧ MinCost ≥ 75 (Accommodation)

Department of Computer Science, University of Bridgeport 11


8. Conclusion

8 Conclusion
Tourism management system proves to be a strong system which has fol-
lowed all the industrial standards. Normalization is applied on all the tables
and are found to be in 3NF. The functional dependencies are also listed.
Working with such a system can enable the user to get any information with
low performance cost and increased throughput. As the database is created
with good design, the system can comply with any demand in the future. The
most widely used complex queries are also stated above. Also, the relational
algebraic translation proves that the database is designed properly.

Department of Computer Science, University of Bridgeport 12


9. References

9 References
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[2] Barták, R., Zhou, N.: Using tabled logic programming to solve the
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