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✔stimulus boundedness -- too focused in one small group of students teacher's attention
interrupted by extraneous stimulus
✔Thrust – “ babagal bagal – bibilis” teacher interrupts students engaged in activities w/o
considering whether the student is ready or not.
✔Dangles -- teacher interrupts activity of student and return to it again.
✔Truncations – naka hung ung topic” teacher does not return to current act. After being
✔Over dwelling -- teacher focuses on a certain topic that will lead to too much time consumption,
the lesson will slow down.
✔Fragmentation -- chunks of lesson for students to understand his/her lesson effectively or
breaking down of act. To cause too much time.
✔Flip Flop -- not clear direction teacher changes its activity from current activity to new one and
vice versa whenever he/she changes his/her mind.
✔Wilhelm Woundt = german psycologist "founder of modern psychology.
✔Titchener = structuralism psychology
William james, G. Stanley Hall, James M. Cattell.... these three promote "functionalism psychology
✔Charles darwin = theories to mental characteristics as human think, feel & behave (" evolutionary
✔Herman Ebbinghaus = associationism psychology
✔Edwin Guthrie = (stimulus and response ) :; temporal congruity
✔Edward Lee Thorndike = "satisfaction" "the law of effect".
✔Ivan Pavlov = involuntary behavior
✔Max Wertheimer = gestalt psychology
✔Otto Loewi = discovered "acetylcholine" responsible in stimulation of muscles
✔Ulf von Euler discovered "norepinephrine" bringing our nervous system into "high alert" ✔Arvid
Carlsson discovered "dopamine" the reward mechanisms in the brain
✔Jean Piaget -- cognitive dev't , info processing , dynamic interrelation.
✔Sigmund Freud -- psychosexual , psychoanalytic
✔Erik Erickson -- psychosocial
✔Lawrence Kohlberg -- moral dev't,
✔Burrhus Frederic Skinner -- operant cond.
✔Ivan Pavlov -- classical cond.
✔Edward Lee Thorndike – connectionism / ATTorndike
✔Albert Bandura -- social learning, neo - behaviorism
✔Robert Gagne -- sequence of instruction
✔Abraham Maslow -- hierarchy of needs , motivation theory
✔William Kohler -- insight learning
✔Robert Havighurst -- devt task theory
✔Benjamin Bloom -- bloom's cognitive taxonomy
✔Simpsons / Anita Harrow -- psychomotor domain
✔David Krathwohl -- affective domain
✔Jerome Bruner -- constructivist, spiral curr, instrumental conceptualism
✔Lev Vygotsky -- socio-cultural theory of cognitive devt , linguistic theory, Scaffolding
✔Edgar Dale -- cone of exp. (20% remember)
✔kohler,koffka, weirtheimer -- gestalt psychology
✔John Locke -- tabularasa , empiricism
✔Howard Gardner -- multiple int.
✔Noam Chomsky -- language acquisition theory , fr of linguistic, nativism
✔David Ausubel -- meaningful learning, graphic organizer, assumption
✔Charles Cooley -- looking glass self theory
✔John Flavel -- metacognition
✔Sandra Bem -- gender schema theory
✔Elliot Turriel -- social domain theory
✔Robert Sternberg -- triachic theory of int.
✔John Watson -- behaviorial theory
✔Maria Montessory -- transfer of learning, kinder garten preparation of children.
✔Edward Tolman -- purposive behaviorism and goal oriented
✔Edward Torrance -- creative problem solving
✔Bernard Weiner -- attribution theory
✔Daniel Goleman/coleman -- emotional intelligence
✔Wolfgang Ratke -- used vernacular for approaching the class.
✔mencius -- idealistic wing of confucianism
✔hzun tzu -- realistic wing of confusianism
✔taoism -- lao tzu
✔Herbart spencer -- moral devt
✔Pestallozi -- symmetrical and harmonious devt of child
✔John Jacques Rosseau -- nature of child
✔Arnold Gesell - maturation theory
✔John Dewey - Learning by doing
✔David Froebel - Father of kinder garten
✔John Bowly - Attainment Theory
✔Edward Boro - Six Thinking Hats Theory
✔Auguste Comte - Father of Sociology
✔Carlos Linnaeus - Father of modern taxonomy.
✔John Amos Comencius - Fr. of modern education.
✔Erasmus Desiderius - Fr. of humanism/ social humanism
✔William Kilpatrick - Project method.
IDEALISM -- plato
REALISM -- aristotle
PERENNIALISM -- hutchins
BEHAVIORISM -- skinner or watson
STRUCTURALISM -- helmholts or wundt?
FUNCTIONALISM -- james,nugell, or carr?
✔NATURALISM -- only nature exist, nature is better than civilization (NATURALESA ng isang
✔IDEALISM -- spiritual, values, moral, socratic method , though, absolute values, justice, charity
✔REALISM -- natural world, values are natural and absolute, reality exist undeceived, manifested,
executed, action
✔PRAGMATISM/EXPERIMENTALISM -- practical, problem solving research, knowledge is what
works, values are related, truth is warranted assertion.
✔ESSENTIALISM -- 3r's (4r's ngayon), achievement test, certain knowledge&skills are essential for
rational being.
✔PROGRESSIVISM -- process of development, higher level of knowledge, the child's need and
interest are relevant to curriculum.
✔EXISTENTIALISM -- knowledge is subjective, man shapes his being as he lives, we are what we
do, deciding precedes knowing.’ choice”
✔PERENNIALISM -- great books education that last for century, universalist, constant knowledge
is eternally valid.
✔SOCIAL RECONSTRUCTIVISM -- for better society, community based learning
✔RECONSTRUCTUONALISM -- the school should help rebuild the social order thus social change.
✔BEHAVIORISM -- learning is change in behavior, S-R relationship
✔EMPIRICISM -- knowledge comes thru senses, 5 senses (observatory learning)
✔STRUCTURALISM -- complex mental exp. such as image,feeling and sensation
✔FUNCTIONALISM -- focus to motivation, thinking & learning.
✔PURPOSIVISM -- individual hormones are responsible for the motive to strive towards fulfillment
of his/her objective.
✔PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS -- reality is what verifiable, truth correspondes to reality, usage
determines meaning
9155 -- Governance of basic educ. act of 2001
6728 -- GASTPE
7722 -- creating CHED
7784 -- " " of center of excellence
7796 -- creating TESDA
6655 -- Free public secondary act of 1988
4090 -- creating a state scholarship council to intergrate, systematize, administer and implement all
program scholarships and appropriating funds.
5447 -- creation of a special educ. fund act enacted in 1968
-- organization and extension of classes
-- adding classroom to remote areas,barrios and provincial schools
6139 -- regulated the secretarian schools/private school in charging higher tuition fee
7687 -- science and technology scholarship act of 1994
7743 -- establishment of city and municipal libraries.
8292 -- higher educ. modernization act of 1997
6850 -- an act to grant Civil Service eligibility under certain conditions to Gov. employees appointed
under provisional or temporary status who rendered 7 years of efficient service
8545 -- amending RA 7628 Expanded GASTPE Act
8525 -- Adopt a school program
8491 -- Flag and Heraldic code of the Ph.
7797 -- lengthen the school prog. to 200 days and not more than 220 days
8190 -- act of granting priority to residents of the brgy.. wherein school is located in the appointment
and assignment of school.
6972 -- Act of establishing DAY CARE CENTER FOR EVERY BRGY.
7624 -- integrating of drug prevention and control in the intermediate & secondary curricula and
indigenous learning system
7743 -- act providing libraries and reading centers throughout the Ph.
7877 -- anti-sexual harassment act of 1995
9163 -- NSTP of 2001
6193 -- regulation of tuition fees of private educ. institution
10627 -- anti-bullying act of 2013
10533 -- enhance basic educ. act of 2013 (K-12 PROGRAM)
9485 -- anti-red tape act
Executive Order (E.O.) 66 -- rule of cancellation of classes due to typhoon, flooding and other
Philosophers Related to Learners Development
✔SIGMUND FREUD -- "the mind is like an iceberg, it floats with one-seventh of its bulk above
ID -- pleasure center
EGO -- reality center
SUPER EGO -- conscience / judgment center.
ORAL -- thumb sucking, biting
ANAL -- toilet training, control of their bowel.
PHALLIC -- sexual interest, genital stimulation.
LATENCY -- sexual urges & interest were temporary
GENITAL -- adult sexual interest and activities come to dominate.
Oedipus complex - son vs. father towards mother/wife feelings. (Excessive attachment)(Phallic
Electra complex - daughter vs. mother towards father/husband feelings. (Excessive
attachment)(Phallic stage)
Personality Dynamics

✔ERIK ERICKSON -- "healthy children will not fear in their elders have integrity enough to fear of
CRISIS -- a person goes through
MALADAPTATION -- result from failure to effectivity resolve the problem
VIRTUE -- emerges when balance & resolution of crisis attained.
Stage: Early Childhood (2 to 3 years)
Basic Conflict: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Important Events: Toilet Training
Outcome: Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of
independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and
Stage: Preschool (3 to 5 years)
Basic Conflict: Initiative vs. Guilt
Important Events: Exploration
Outcome: Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in this
stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert too much power experience
disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt.
Stage: School Age (6 to 11 years)
Basic Conflict: Industry vs. Inferiority
Important Events: School
Outcome: Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense
of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority.
Stage: Adolescence (12 to 18 years)
Basic Conflict: Identity vs. Role Confusion
Important Events: Social Relationships
Outcome: Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to
stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self.
Stage: Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years)
Basic Conflict: Intimacy vs. Isolation
Important Events: Relationships
Outcome: Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success leads
to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation.
Stage: Middle Adulthood (40 to 65 years)
Basic Conflict: Generativity vs. Stagnation
Important Events: Work and Parenthood
Outcome: Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having children or
creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and
accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world.
Stage: Maturity(65 to death)
Basic Conflict: Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Important Events: Reflection on life
Outcome: Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage
leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair.
✔LEV VYGOTSKY -- "the teacher must orient his work not on yesterday's devt in the childs but on
SCAFFOLDING -- is the systematic manner of providing assistance of the learners to effectively
acquire skills.
MKO (More Knowledge Others) -- higher level of performance.
✔JEAN PIAGET -- "the school should be creating men & women who are capable of doing new
things not simply repeating what other generation have done.
SENSORY MOTOR (BIRTH - 2y/o) -- infants knowledge.
PRE-OPERATIONAL ( 2-7y/o) -- pretend to play but still struggle with logic-mental symbols interest.
CONCRETE OPERATIONAL (7-11) -- think logically, hypothetically and concepts, solve problems
FORMAL OPERATIONAL (11-UP) -- deductive reasoning and understanding of abstract ideas,
think symbolically.
✔LAWRENCE KOHLBERG -- "right action tends to be defined in terms of general individual rights
and standards that have been critically examined & agreed upon by the whole society.
PRE-CONVENTIONAL -- obedience & punishment (consequences), individualism & exchange
CONVENTIONAL --interpersonal relationship, maintain social order.
POST-CONVENTIONAL -- social contract and individual rights, universal principles, set of values
and beliefs.
MICROSYSTEM -- surrounding of individual: family, friends, neighborhood
MESOSYSTEM -- connections between context, school experiences to church experience.
EXOSYSTEM -- includes other people and places that the child herself may not interact with often
herself but that still have a large effect on her.
MACROSYSTEM -- which is the largest and most remote set of people and places and things to a
child but which still has a great influence over the child.
environment affects child's personality: learning occurs by simply observing people, people learned
from what they see and the consequences of what they did

✔LEANING TO KNOW -- focuses on combining broad gen. knowledge and basic educ. with the
opportunity to work on a small number of subjects in the light of rapid changes brought about by
scientific progress and new forms of economic and social activity.
❇Learning how to learn and to discover, as to benefit from ongoing educational opportunities
continuously arising throughout life.
❇Developing the faculties of memory, imagination, reasoning and problem solving.
❇Understanding about one's environment.
❇Communicating with others.
✔LEARNING TO DO -- emphasizes on the learning of skills necessary to practice a profession or
❇applying in practice what has been learned.
❇developing vocational / occupational and technical skills
❇developing social skills in building meaningful interpersonal relationships.
❇developing competence, social behavior, aptitude for teamwork
❇enhancing the ability to communicate and work with others
❇managing and resolving conflicts.
✔LEARNING TO BE -- prioritizes the development of the human potencial to the fullest.
❇tapping the talents hidden with individual.
❇developing personal commitment and responsibilty for the common good.
✔LEARNING TO LIVE TOGETHER -- emphasizes understanding of others, their history, tradition
and cultures, and also living and interacting peacefully together.
❇appreciating diversity of human race
❇being receptive to others and encounter others through dialogue and debate.
❇caring about others
❇working toward common objectives in cooperative undertakings.
❇managing and resolving conflicts.


✅German word means "whole, form, pattern or configuration"
✅the focus of this theory is on Perception and how people assign meaning to visual stimuli "The
whole is more than the sum of all parts"
LAW OF PROXIMITY -- elements that are closer together be perceived as a coherent object.
LAW OF SIMILARITY -- similar will perceived as part of the same form.
LAW OF CLOSURE -- ignoring gaps in the figure.
LAW OF CONTINUATION -- patterns establish an implied direction, people tend a good continuous
LAW OF PRAGNANZ -- stimulus will be organize into a good figure as possible.
LAW OF FIGURE/GROUND -- we tend to pay attention and perceived things in the foreground first.
INSIGHT LEARNING -- Gestalt adheres to the idea of learning takes place by discovery.
✔Ripple Effect -- spreading effect of series of consequences caused by single action or event.
✔Hawthorne Effect -- type of reactivity effect in which individuals improve an aspect of their
behavior in response to their awareness of being observed.
✔Halo Effect -- cognitive bias which an observer overall impression of a person, influences the
observers feeling and thoughts about the entity's character or property
✔Pygmalion Effect -- Shows the teacher's expectation (self-fulfillment)
✔Golem Effect -- low expection leads to decrease in performance.
Positive -- presence of stimulus
Negative -- absence of stimulus
Escape -- removes stimulus
Avoidance -- prevents stimulus
Reinforcement -- increase of behavior
Punishment -- decrease of behavior
Short Quiz in Biology
1. What is the highest level of classifications of living organisms?
A. Kingdom
B. Domain🌟🌟🌟🌟🌟
C. Family
D. Phylum
2. The individual living thing is
A. Cell--life fundamental unit of structure and function
B. Organism🌟🌟🌟🌟🌟
C. Tissue--a group of cells that work together,performing a specialized function
D. Organ-- a body part that carries out a particular function in the body
3. The domain that includes prokaryotes that live in Earth's most extreme environment.
A. Bacteria --the domain that includes prokaryotes which are the most diverse and widespread of all
B. Virus
C. Archaea 🌟🌟🌟🌟🌟
D. Eukaryote--cells containing membrane-enclosed òrganelles
4. Various functional components present in cells?
A. Organelles 🌟🌟🌟🌟🌟
B. Tissue
C. DNA--a self-replicating material which is present in nearly all living organisms as the main
constituent of chromosomes
D. Blood --carrying oxygen to and carbon dioxide from tissues of the body
5. The process of change that has transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the
diversity of organisms living today.
A. Biology --the study of life
B. Evolution 🌟🌟🌟🌟🌟
C. Ecosystem --all the living things in a particular area,along with all the nonliving components of the
environment with which life interacts
D. Biosphere--all life on Earth and all the places where life exists
Short Quiz for Science
1. The vitamin which helps in the coagulation of blood is
A. Vitamin E--it is an antioxidants that may help prevent damage to the body's cells and may provide
protection against serious diseases including heart disease and cancer.
B. Vitamin C - strengthens resistance to infection but does not cure colds& water soluble vitamins
C. Vitamin K-🌟🌟🌟🌟🌟
D. Vitamin A - for vision,tissue strength and immunity & growth
2. The law which gives relation between electric potential difference and electric current is called
A. Faraday's Law -- basic law of electromagnetism
B. Newton's Law -- an object at rest will remain at rest until a net force acts upon it
C. Ohm's Law - 🌟🌟🌟🌟🌟
D. Oersted's Law -currents cause magnetic fields - field is perpendicular to charge,in closed loop
3. There are rings around which of the following planet ?
A. Uranus
B. Mars
C. Jupiter
D. Saturn-🌟🌟🌟🌟🌟

4. The gland that secretes tears is

A. Pituitary Gland
B. Adrenal gland
C. Pancreas gland
D. Lachrymal gland 🌟🌟🌟🌟🌟

5. The most precious metal element is

A. Gold
B. Diamond
C. Platinum 🌟🌟🌟🌟🌟is more precious than gold because it is very strong dense metal that never
corrodes. Platinum exists relatively higher abundance on the moon. It is used in
catalyst,dentistry,laboratory equipment,thermometer and jewellery.
D. Silver
Short Quiz for Earth Science
1. What is the movement of the earth on its orbit?
A. Rotation--movement of the earth on its axis
B. Revolution --🌟🌟🌟🌟🌟
C. Solstice-- used to describe the exact moment when the Sun reaches its north point or
southernmost point
D. Counterclockwise--
2. It is measured by a hygrometer or psychrometer
A. Typhoon
B. Humidity🌟🌟🌟🌟🌟
C. Sandstorm
D. Volcanic eruption
3. It is conversion of ammonia(NH4) to nitrates (NO3) is called
A. Assimilation -- plants are ready to absorb nitrates (NO3)
B. Nitrification 🌟🌟🌟🌟🌟
C. Denitrification--reduction of nitrates back into the largely inert nitrogen gases (N2)
D. Ammonification -- converts the organic nitrogen to ammonia
4. A coniferous rain forest is one kind of what biome?
A. Tundra--vast area of stark landscape,which is frozen for much of the year
B. Taiga 🌟🌟🌟🌟🌟found in the upper parts of the globe but below Tundra areas
C. Forest
D. Grassland --average annual precipitation is great enough to support grasses
5. A place where an organism lives
A. Niche -- functional role of a species in the community including relationships and activities
B. Habitat🌟🌟🌟🌟🌟
C. Community
D. Population