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Jármai,K.,Farkas,J.

: Optimum design of welded stiffened plate structure for a fixed storage tank roof, International Conference on Safety and Reliability of
Welded Components in Energy and Processing Industry, Graz, Austria, 10 - 11 July 2008, Welding in the World, Vol. 52, Special issue 2008, 42859.pdf, 6 p. ISSN
0043-2288

Optimum design of welded stiffened plate structure for a fixed


storage tank roof
K. Jármai and J. Farkas
University of Miskolc, H-3515 Miskolc, Hungary
altjar@uni-miskolc.hu

Abstract procedure the optimum values of the following structural


characteristics are sought: number and size of radial rolled I-
The optimization problem of a welded fixed roof for a section-beams, the thickness and the transverse non-
vertical storage tank is studied. The load from snow and from equidistant stiffening of the deck plate elements.
a 150 mm soil layer is considered. The roof is constructed
from stiffened sectorial trapezoidal plate elements and radial The roof is designed to carry the snow load as well as the
beams. The stiffeners are of halved rolled I-section and the load of 150 mm thick soil layer mentioned earlier. Since the
radial beams are constructed from rolled I-sections. To find deck plate sectorial elements are trapezoidal and the deck
the minimum cost solution the thickness of the base plate, the plate thickness should be constant, the transverse stiffening is
position, number and size of circumferential stiffeners, the designed as non-equidistant. The variable distance of
size of radial beams as well as the number of sectors is stiffeners is calculated from the condition that the deck plate
varied. The distances of stiffeners are non-equidistant. In the of given thickness should fulfil the bending stress constraint
cost function the cost of material, welding and painting is in each part between two stiffeners.
taken into account.
2 Loads
1 Introduction
Snow load is calculated according to Eurocode 1 [5]
In 1960 the first author has designed a roof structure for a
series of storage tanks. The roofs constructed from welded s = µ1C e C t s k (1)
stiffened plate sectorial elements have been suitable for
carrying the load of a 150 mm soil layer used to decrease the µ1 = 0.8, C e = Ct = 1, s k = 1.25 kN/m2, thus s = 0.8x1.25 =
evaporation loss of stored liquid (kerosene). 1.0 kN/m2.
From this time the design of stiffened plates has been the
main research theme for the first author. The problem of
selecting the optimal number of stiffeners led to the structural
optimization and the authors have worked out a lot of studies
in the field of optimum design of metal structures.

Since the welding is an expensive technology, the decrease of


cost of welded structures is an important task for designers.
Therefore, our research group, based on international welding
time data, has developed a suitable cost analysis. The
adaptation and development of effective mathematical
optimization methods made it possible to use an optimum
design system for the economic (minimum cost) design of
welded structures [1]-[4].

In the present study this economic design method is applied


for a fixed storage tank roof constructed from stiffened plate
sectorial elements and radial beams. In the optimization
Figure 1. A fixed tank roof
104β 908 948 985 1017 1189 1235 1246 1250
Soil load: 150 mm thick layer of a humid light sand of bulk
density 17 kN/m3 The values of Table 1 are approximated by the following
ps = 0.15x17 = 2.55 kN/m2. expressions
Snow and soil together s + ps = 3.55 kN/m2, multiplied by a x
safety factor of 1.5 β i = β ξi if xi − xi −1 ≤ xi f ω i.e. xi ≤ i −1 (3)
1 − fω
pM = 5.325x10-3 N/mm2.
Safety factor for the self mass of sectorial elements is 1.35, β i = βηi if xi − xi −1 > xi f ω (4)
and for self mass of radial beams is 1.1.

3 Numerical data (Figure 1 and 2)


Storage tank diameter D = 20 m, inner ring beam diameter d
= 1.0 m, roof angle α0 = 150.
Length of a radial beam L = 9500/cos 150 = 9835 mm. The
characteristic sizes of a trapezoidal deck plate xA = 518, xB =
10353 mm. α = 180/ω, where ω = 10, 12, 14, 16 is the
number of sectors. The length of stiffeners is calculated for
given ω: yi = xifω, where fω = 2tanα.

Figure 2. Forces from the roof load

4 Design of sectorial stiffened deck plate


elements
4.1 Calculation of stiffener distances (x0i)
Figure 3. Stiffener distances and a part of the base plate
These distances are determined using the condition that the
maximum normal stress due to bending in each plate element xi f ω
b ξi = a0 + bξ i + cξ i2 + dξ i3 + eξ i4 xi = (5)
between stiffeners should not be larger than the yield stress. xi − xi −1
The maximum bending moment in a deck plate element is
xi − xi −1
calculated approximately for a simply supported rectangular bηi = a 0 + bη i + cη i2 + dη i3 + eη i4 ηi = (6)
plate according to Timoshenko [6] xi f ω

M i max = β i p M a i2 (2) a0 = -0.08022658, b = 0.180443, c = -0.061636, d =


0.009575, e = -0.00056537
where ai is the smaller side length and βi is given in function
From equation
of bi / ai ≥ 1 in Table 1.

M i max = f y1t 2 / 6 (7)


TABLE 1. BENDING MOMENT FACTORS

b/a 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 t is the deck plate thickness, fy = 235 MPa is the yield stress,
104β 479 554 627 694 755 812 862 fy1 = fy/1.1 using equation (2).
b/a 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 >5
t 2 f y1
ri = (8) where
6β i p M
and the sought stiffener distance is si fy
β 0i = , but β 0i ≥ 1 (13)
t E
xi −1
x0i = ri + xi −1 if xi ≤ (9)
1 − fω E = 2.1x105 MPa is the elastic modulus.
ri xi −1
x 0i = if xi > (10) The required section modulus is given by
fω 1 − fω
M si max
The value of x0i can be obtained by iteration with a W0 i = (14)
MathCAD program. f y1
It should be noted that in this calculation the transverse
bending moments are neglected but the plate elements are The cross-sectional area of a stiffener of halved rolled I-
calculated as simply supported and it is also neglected that section and the effective plate part
their edges are partially clamped.
h1i t wi
4.2 Design of stiffeners Aei = + bi t fi + s ei t , h1i = hi – 2tfi (15)
2
A stiffener is subject to a bending moment The distances of the gravity centres Gi

M si max = p M s i xi2 f ω2 / 8 (11)  h1i t wi  h1i t 


1  hi + t − t fi 
z Gi =   +  + bi t fi  
 (16)
x − xi −1
Aei  2  4 2   2 
where s i = i +1
2
hi + t − t fi
and z G1i = − z Gi (17)
and the effective plate width 2

 1.8 0.8  the moments of inertia


s ei =  − 2  s i (12)
 β 0i β 0i  2
 hi + t − t fi 
2
h3t h t h t 
ts I yi = s ei tz 2
Gi + 1i wi + 1i wi  1i + − z Gi  + bi t fi  − z Gi 
96 2  4 2   2 
se
aw (18)
t
The section moduli are defined as
zG
G
h1/2 hs
Wyi = Iyi/z0i (19)
b
tf where z0i is the greater of zGi and zG1i.
The required stiffener profile is selected from Table 2 to
fulfil the stress constraint

W yi ≥ W0i

TABLE 2. UB PROFILES USED FOR HALVED ROLLED


I-SECTION STIFFENERS

UB profile h b tw tf
152x89x16 152.4 88.7 4.5 7.7
168x102x19 177.8 101.2 4.8 7.9
203x133x26 203.2 133.2 5.7 7.8
Figure 4. Cross-section of a stiffener and connection to the 254x102x25 257.2 101.9 6.0 8.4
radial beam 305x102x28 308.7 101.8 6.0 8.8
4.3 Cost calculation for a sectorial stiffened plate element constants for SAW and SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc
Welding) fillet welds, respectively,
The fabrication sequence has two parts: aw = 3 mm, the second part is multiplied by 2, since the
(a) Welding of the base plate from 7 elements using welding position is mainly vertical.
SAW (Submerged Arc Welding) butt welding. The The time of welding of the two edge radial plates to the base
length of the plate (9835 mm) is divided into 7 parts deck plate is
welded together with 6 butt welds using SAW
technology. The total length of welds is Ts = 1.3C ω3 a ω2 Ls , Ls = 2 x9835 1 + 0.25 f ω2 (28)
Lω1 = 30783 f ω (20)
Material cost of a complete sectorial element is
and the cost is calculated as
K m1 = k m ρV2 , k m = 1.0 $/kg. (29)

(
K w1 = k w Θ1 7 ρV1 + 1.3C w1t 2 Lw1 ) (21)
The painting cost of a complete sectorial element is

where
K P1 = k P S , k P = 28.8 x10 −6 $/mm2, (30)

k w = 1.0$ / min, Θ1 = 2, ρ = 7.85 x10 −6 kg/mm3, Cw1 =


0.1559x10-3,
S = Ss + ∑S
i
sti + 2 x53.4581x10 6 f ω (31)

10353 + 518
V1 = 9835 f ω t = 53.4581x10 6 f ω t (22) S s = 2 x9835h s 1 + 0.25 f ω2 (32)
2

(b) Welding of stiffeners to the base plate and to two S sti = (h1i + 2bi )xi f ω (33)
edge radial plates to complete a sectorial plate
element using fillet welds: The total cost of a sectorial element is

  K s = K m1 + K w1 + K w 2 + K P1 (34)
K w 2 = k w  Θ 2 (nst + 3)ρV2 + ∑ Ti + Ts  (23)
 i 
Results of cost calculation for a sectorial element of ω = 12
show that the minimum cost corresponds to the thickness of t
where nst is the number of stiffeners, Θ 2 = 3,
= 4 mm. Therefore the further calculations are performed for
this thickness only. Table 3 shows the calculated stiffener
V2 = V1 + Vs + ∑ Vsti (24) distances and sizes for ω = 12 and t = 4 mm.
i

TABLE 3. STIFFENER DISTANCES AND SIZES FOR


the volume of the edge radial plates is ω = 12 AND t = 4 mm

V s = 2 x9835hs t s 1 + 0.25 f ω2 (25) xi mm h mm


518 -
2197 152.4
ts = 6 mm, hs equals to the stiffener maximum height + 30
3314 152.4
mm,
4299 152.4
volume of a stiffener is
5248 152.4
6184 152.4
h1i t wi
Vsti = Asti xi f w , Asti = + bi t fi (26) 7114 152.4
2 8041 152.4
8968 177.8
welding time for a stiffener is
9600 177.8

Ti = 1.3C w 2 a w2 2 xi f w + 1.3C w3 a w2 2(2h1i + 4bi ) (27) The cost parts in $ for this sectorial element are as follows:
Km = 1259, Kw1 = 212, Kw2 = 639, Kp = 2001, the total cost for
where C w 2 = 0.2349 x10 −3 , C w3 = 0.7889 x10 −3 one element is Ks = 4112.
5 Design of radial beams 6 Cost of a radial beam
Radial beams of rolled I-section are subject to bending and Material cost
compression. The load is calculated from snow and soil load
(pM), the mass of a sectorial element (q) and the self mass K M = k m rV R , V R Ar LR , LR = 9825 mm, (44)
(ρ1Ar):
cost of welding to the inner ringbeam and to the tank shell
p = pM + q + ρ1Ar, q = ρ1V2/L1, ρ1 = 7.85x10-5 N/mm3, L1 =
9500 mm. (35)
[
K W = k w Θ 2 ρV R + 1.3C w3 a w2 2 x 2(2h1 + 4b ) ] (45)
The maximum bending moment is
the factor of 2 is used since the welding is mainly vertical.
M r max = pL / 8
2
(36) Cost of painting
1

K P = k P (2h1 + 4b )LR (46)


The compression force is
Total cost of a radial beam
N H = FM cos15 0 + FV sin 15 0 (37)
where K R = K M + KW + K P (47)

FV = PM = pL / 2, L = 20000 mm, H = 9500sin15 = 2459 0


7 Additional cost
mm (38)
Material, welding and painting of a deck plate of size
1   L d  200x6x9825 connecting the sectorial elements as well as
FH =  FV L1 − PM  −  = 2.0333PM (39)
H   2 2  welding of the sectorial elements to the radial beam

It should be noted that the load acting on the half tank side K A = k m ρV A + 1.3C w 2 a w2 4 LR k w + k P 200 LR (48)
only causes smaller forces acting on radial beams.
Stress constraint for bending and compression according to VA = 200x6LR (49)
Eurocode 3 [7]
Total cost of the whole roof structure
NH M
+ k yy r max ≤ 1 (40)
χAr f y1 W y f y1 K = ω (K s + K R + K A ) (50)
where
8 Optimization results
χ=
1
[
, φ = 0.5 1 + 0.21(λ − 0.2 ) + λ 2 ] (41) Table 4 and 5 summarize the results (masses and costs) for
φ + φ −λ2 2
different values of ω for a sector and for the whole roof

10353 E TABLE 4. MASSES IN kg AND COSTS FOR A SECTOR


λ = , λE = π = 93.9 (42)
rλ E fy CONTAINING A SECTORIAL ELEMENT AND A
RADIAL BEAM
r is the radius of gyration, Ar is the cross-sectional area,
ω ρVs Ks $ ρVR KR $
 N H  10 1600 5046 806 1352
k yy = 0.951 + 0.6λ (43)

 χAr f y1  12 1259 4112 729 1248
14 1072 3556 588 1078
16 927 3081 588 1078
The suitable rolled I-profile is selected from an Arcelor
product catalogue using the British UB profiles.
It can be seen that ω = 14 and ω = 10 gives the minimum
mass and minimum cost for the whole roof, respectively. It
should be noted that the case of ω = 8 is unrealistic, since in
that case the sectorial element has not a trapezoidal but a
circular sector form, which needs also partial radial stiffeners
beside of the circumferential ones and the cost increases.

TABLE 5. MASSES IN kg AND COSTS FOR THE


WHOLE ROOF

ω ρVroof Kroof $
10 24060 66550
12 23856 67400
14 23240 68470
16 24240 70650

9 Conclusions
Minimum cost design of a fixed roof of a vertical steel
storage tank is worked out for a numerical model structure.
Load of snow and a soil layer is considered. The roof is
constructed from sectorial stiffened plate elements and radial
beams. The number of sectors is varied between 10 and 16.
The sectorial elements are circumferential stiffened with
halved rolled I-section stiffeners welded to the base plate.
The non-equidistant distances of stiffeners are calculated so
that the plate parts are equally stressed. The radial beams are
constructed from rolled I-sections. The cost function contents
the cost of material, welding and painting. The cost
calculation shows that the minimum roof mass and cost
corresponds to the number of sections of 14 and 10
respectively.

References
[1] J. Farkas, Optimum design of metal structures, Chichester: Ellis
Horwood, 1984.
[2] J. Farkas and K. Jármai, Analysis and optimum design of metal
structures, Rotterdam: Balkema, 1997.
[3] J. Farkas and K. Jármai, Economic design of metal structures,
Rotterdam: Millpress, 2003.
[4] J. Farkas and K. Jármai, Design and optimization of metal structures,
Chichester: Horwood Publishing Ltd., 2008.
[5] Eurocode 1. Actions on structures. Part 1-3. General actions. Snow
loads. 2003.
[6] S. Timoshenko and S. Woinowsky-Krieger, Theory of plates and shells,
New York-Toronto-London: McGraw Hill, 1959.
[7] Eurocode 3. Design of steel structures. Part 1-1. General structural rules.
2002.