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: Optimum design of welded stiffened plate structure for a fixed storage tank roof, International Conference on Safety and Reliability of

Welded Components in Energy and Processing Industry, Graz, Austria, 10 - 11 July 2008, Welding in the World, Vol. 52, Special issue 2008, 42859.pdf, 6 p. ISSN

0043-2288

storage tank roof

K. Jármai and J. Farkas

University of Miskolc, H-3515 Miskolc, Hungary

altjar@uni-miskolc.hu

characteristics are sought: number and size of radial rolled I-

The optimization problem of a welded fixed roof for a section-beams, the thickness and the transverse non-

vertical storage tank is studied. The load from snow and from equidistant stiffening of the deck plate elements.

a 150 mm soil layer is considered. The roof is constructed

from stiffened sectorial trapezoidal plate elements and radial The roof is designed to carry the snow load as well as the

beams. The stiffeners are of halved rolled I-section and the load of 150 mm thick soil layer mentioned earlier. Since the

radial beams are constructed from rolled I-sections. To find deck plate sectorial elements are trapezoidal and the deck

the minimum cost solution the thickness of the base plate, the plate thickness should be constant, the transverse stiffening is

position, number and size of circumferential stiffeners, the designed as non-equidistant. The variable distance of

size of radial beams as well as the number of sectors is stiffeners is calculated from the condition that the deck plate

varied. The distances of stiffeners are non-equidistant. In the of given thickness should fulfil the bending stress constraint

cost function the cost of material, welding and painting is in each part between two stiffeners.

taken into account.

2 Loads

1 Introduction

Snow load is calculated according to Eurocode 1 [5]

In 1960 the first author has designed a roof structure for a

series of storage tanks. The roofs constructed from welded s = µ1C e C t s k (1)

stiffened plate sectorial elements have been suitable for

carrying the load of a 150 mm soil layer used to decrease the µ1 = 0.8, C e = Ct = 1, s k = 1.25 kN/m2, thus s = 0.8x1.25 =

evaporation loss of stored liquid (kerosene). 1.0 kN/m2.

From this time the design of stiffened plates has been the

main research theme for the first author. The problem of

selecting the optimal number of stiffeners led to the structural

optimization and the authors have worked out a lot of studies

in the field of optimum design of metal structures.

cost of welded structures is an important task for designers.

Therefore, our research group, based on international welding

time data, has developed a suitable cost analysis. The

adaptation and development of effective mathematical

optimization methods made it possible to use an optimum

design system for the economic (minimum cost) design of

welded structures [1]-[4].

for a fixed storage tank roof constructed from stiffened plate

sectorial elements and radial beams. In the optimization

Figure 1. A fixed tank roof

104β 908 948 985 1017 1189 1235 1246 1250

Soil load: 150 mm thick layer of a humid light sand of bulk

density 17 kN/m3 The values of Table 1 are approximated by the following

ps = 0.15x17 = 2.55 kN/m2. expressions

Snow and soil together s + ps = 3.55 kN/m2, multiplied by a x

safety factor of 1.5 β i = β ξi if xi − xi −1 ≤ xi f ω i.e. xi ≤ i −1 (3)

1 − fω

pM = 5.325x10-3 N/mm2.

Safety factor for the self mass of sectorial elements is 1.35, β i = βηi if xi − xi −1 > xi f ω (4)

and for self mass of radial beams is 1.1.

Storage tank diameter D = 20 m, inner ring beam diameter d

= 1.0 m, roof angle α0 = 150.

Length of a radial beam L = 9500/cos 150 = 9835 mm. The

characteristic sizes of a trapezoidal deck plate xA = 518, xB =

10353 mm. α = 180/ω, where ω = 10, 12, 14, 16 is the

number of sectors. The length of stiffeners is calculated for

given ω: yi = xifω, where fω = 2tanα.

elements

4.1 Calculation of stiffener distances (x0i)

Figure 3. Stiffener distances and a part of the base plate

These distances are determined using the condition that the

maximum normal stress due to bending in each plate element xi f ω

b ξi = a0 + bξ i + cξ i2 + dξ i3 + eξ i4 xi = (5)

between stiffeners should not be larger than the yield stress. xi − xi −1

The maximum bending moment in a deck plate element is

xi − xi −1

calculated approximately for a simply supported rectangular bηi = a 0 + bη i + cη i2 + dη i3 + eη i4 ηi = (6)

plate according to Timoshenko [6] xi f ω

0.009575, e = -0.00056537

where ai is the smaller side length and βi is given in function

From equation

of bi / ai ≥ 1 in Table 1.

TABLE 1. BENDING MOMENT FACTORS

b/a 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 t is the deck plate thickness, fy = 235 MPa is the yield stress,

104β 479 554 627 694 755 812 862 fy1 = fy/1.1 using equation (2).

b/a 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 >5

t 2 f y1

ri = (8) where

6β i p M

and the sought stiffener distance is si fy

β 0i = , but β 0i ≥ 1 (13)

t E

xi −1

x0i = ri + xi −1 if xi ≤ (9)

1 − fω E = 2.1x105 MPa is the elastic modulus.

ri xi −1

x 0i = if xi > (10) The required section modulus is given by

fω 1 − fω

M si max

The value of x0i can be obtained by iteration with a W0 i = (14)

MathCAD program. f y1

It should be noted that in this calculation the transverse

bending moments are neglected but the plate elements are The cross-sectional area of a stiffener of halved rolled I-

calculated as simply supported and it is also neglected that section and the effective plate part

their edges are partially clamped.

h1i t wi

4.2 Design of stiffeners Aei = + bi t fi + s ei t , h1i = hi – 2tfi (15)

2

A stiffener is subject to a bending moment The distances of the gravity centres Gi

1 hi + t − t fi

z Gi = + + bi t fi

(16)

x − xi −1

Aei 2 4 2 2

where s i = i +1

2

hi + t − t fi

and z G1i = − z Gi (17)

and the effective plate width 2

s ei = − 2 s i (12)

β 0i β 0i 2

hi + t − t fi

2

h3t h t h t

ts I yi = s ei tz 2

Gi + 1i wi + 1i wi 1i + − z Gi + bi t fi − z Gi

96 2 4 2 2

se

aw (18)

t

The section moduli are defined as

zG

G

h1/2 hs

Wyi = Iyi/z0i (19)

b

tf where z0i is the greater of zGi and zG1i.

The required stiffener profile is selected from Table 2 to

fulfil the stress constraint

W yi ≥ W0i

I-SECTION STIFFENERS

UB profile h b tw tf

152x89x16 152.4 88.7 4.5 7.7

168x102x19 177.8 101.2 4.8 7.9

203x133x26 203.2 133.2 5.7 7.8

Figure 4. Cross-section of a stiffener and connection to the 254x102x25 257.2 101.9 6.0 8.4

radial beam 305x102x28 308.7 101.8 6.0 8.8

4.3 Cost calculation for a sectorial stiffened plate element constants for SAW and SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc

Welding) fillet welds, respectively,

The fabrication sequence has two parts: aw = 3 mm, the second part is multiplied by 2, since the

(a) Welding of the base plate from 7 elements using welding position is mainly vertical.

SAW (Submerged Arc Welding) butt welding. The The time of welding of the two edge radial plates to the base

length of the plate (9835 mm) is divided into 7 parts deck plate is

welded together with 6 butt welds using SAW

technology. The total length of welds is Ts = 1.3C ω3 a ω2 Ls , Ls = 2 x9835 1 + 0.25 f ω2 (28)

Lω1 = 30783 f ω (20)

Material cost of a complete sectorial element is

and the cost is calculated as

K m1 = k m ρV2 , k m = 1.0 $/kg. (29)

(

K w1 = k w Θ1 7 ρV1 + 1.3C w1t 2 Lw1 ) (21)

The painting cost of a complete sectorial element is

where

K P1 = k P S , k P = 28.8 x10 −6 $/mm2, (30)

0.1559x10-3,

S = Ss + ∑S

i

sti + 2 x53.4581x10 6 f ω (31)

10353 + 518

V1 = 9835 f ω t = 53.4581x10 6 f ω t (22) S s = 2 x9835h s 1 + 0.25 f ω2 (32)

2

(b) Welding of stiffeners to the base plate and to two S sti = (h1i + 2bi )xi f ω (33)

edge radial plates to complete a sectorial plate

element using fillet welds: The total cost of a sectorial element is

K s = K m1 + K w1 + K w 2 + K P1 (34)

K w 2 = k w Θ 2 (nst + 3)ρV2 + ∑ Ti + Ts (23)

i

Results of cost calculation for a sectorial element of ω = 12

show that the minimum cost corresponds to the thickness of t

where nst is the number of stiffeners, Θ 2 = 3,

= 4 mm. Therefore the further calculations are performed for

this thickness only. Table 3 shows the calculated stiffener

V2 = V1 + Vs + ∑ Vsti (24) distances and sizes for ω = 12 and t = 4 mm.

i

the volume of the edge radial plates is ω = 12 AND t = 4 mm

518 -

2197 152.4

ts = 6 mm, hs equals to the stiffener maximum height + 30

3314 152.4

mm,

4299 152.4

volume of a stiffener is

5248 152.4

6184 152.4

h1i t wi

Vsti = Asti xi f w , Asti = + bi t fi (26) 7114 152.4

2 8041 152.4

8968 177.8

welding time for a stiffener is

9600 177.8

Ti = 1.3C w 2 a w2 2 xi f w + 1.3C w3 a w2 2(2h1i + 4bi ) (27) The cost parts in $ for this sectorial element are as follows:

Km = 1259, Kw1 = 212, Kw2 = 639, Kp = 2001, the total cost for

where C w 2 = 0.2349 x10 −3 , C w3 = 0.7889 x10 −3 one element is Ks = 4112.

5 Design of radial beams 6 Cost of a radial beam

Radial beams of rolled I-section are subject to bending and Material cost

compression. The load is calculated from snow and soil load

(pM), the mass of a sectorial element (q) and the self mass K M = k m rV R , V R Ar LR , LR = 9825 mm, (44)

(ρ1Ar):

cost of welding to the inner ringbeam and to the tank shell

p = pM + q + ρ1Ar, q = ρ1V2/L1, ρ1 = 7.85x10-5 N/mm3, L1 =

9500 mm. (35)

[

K W = k w Θ 2 ρV R + 1.3C w3 a w2 2 x 2(2h1 + 4b ) ] (45)

The maximum bending moment is

the factor of 2 is used since the welding is mainly vertical.

M r max = pL / 8

2

(36) Cost of painting

1

The compression force is

Total cost of a radial beam

N H = FM cos15 0 + FV sin 15 0 (37)

where K R = K M + KW + K P (47)

7 Additional cost

mm (38)

Material, welding and painting of a deck plate of size

1 L d 200x6x9825 connecting the sectorial elements as well as

FH = FV L1 − PM − = 2.0333PM (39)

H 2 2 welding of the sectorial elements to the radial beam

It should be noted that the load acting on the half tank side K A = k m ρV A + 1.3C w 2 a w2 4 LR k w + k P 200 LR (48)

only causes smaller forces acting on radial beams.

Stress constraint for bending and compression according to VA = 200x6LR (49)

Eurocode 3 [7]

Total cost of the whole roof structure

NH M

+ k yy r max ≤ 1 (40)

χAr f y1 W y f y1 K = ω (K s + K R + K A ) (50)

where

8 Optimization results

χ=

1

[

, φ = 0.5 1 + 0.21(λ − 0.2 ) + λ 2 ] (41) Table 4 and 5 summarize the results (masses and costs) for

φ + φ −λ2 2

different values of ω for a sector and for the whole roof

λ = , λE = π = 93.9 (42)

rλ E fy CONTAINING A SECTORIAL ELEMENT AND A

RADIAL BEAM

r is the radius of gyration, Ar is the cross-sectional area,

ω ρVs Ks $ ρVR KR $

N H 10 1600 5046 806 1352

k yy = 0.951 + 0.6λ (43)

χAr f y1 12 1259 4112 729 1248

14 1072 3556 588 1078

16 927 3081 588 1078

The suitable rolled I-profile is selected from an Arcelor

product catalogue using the British UB profiles.

It can be seen that ω = 14 and ω = 10 gives the minimum

mass and minimum cost for the whole roof, respectively. It

should be noted that the case of ω = 8 is unrealistic, since in

that case the sectorial element has not a trapezoidal but a

circular sector form, which needs also partial radial stiffeners

beside of the circumferential ones and the cost increases.

WHOLE ROOF

ω ρVroof Kroof $

10 24060 66550

12 23856 67400

14 23240 68470

16 24240 70650

9 Conclusions

Minimum cost design of a fixed roof of a vertical steel

storage tank is worked out for a numerical model structure.

Load of snow and a soil layer is considered. The roof is

constructed from sectorial stiffened plate elements and radial

beams. The number of sectors is varied between 10 and 16.

The sectorial elements are circumferential stiffened with

halved rolled I-section stiffeners welded to the base plate.

The non-equidistant distances of stiffeners are calculated so

that the plate parts are equally stressed. The radial beams are

constructed from rolled I-sections. The cost function contents

the cost of material, welding and painting. The cost

calculation shows that the minimum roof mass and cost

corresponds to the number of sections of 14 and 10

respectively.

References

[1] J. Farkas, Optimum design of metal structures, Chichester: Ellis

Horwood, 1984.

[2] J. Farkas and K. Jármai, Analysis and optimum design of metal

structures, Rotterdam: Balkema, 1997.

[3] J. Farkas and K. Jármai, Economic design of metal structures,

Rotterdam: Millpress, 2003.

[4] J. Farkas and K. Jármai, Design and optimization of metal structures,

Chichester: Horwood Publishing Ltd., 2008.

[5] Eurocode 1. Actions on structures. Part 1-3. General actions. Snow

loads. 2003.

[6] S. Timoshenko and S. Woinowsky-Krieger, Theory of plates and shells,

New York-Toronto-London: McGraw Hill, 1959.

[7] Eurocode 3. Design of steel structures. Part 1-1. General structural rules.

2002.

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