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EDU 300



I think the role of deductive reasoning is to teach students to get facts and

knowledge from a wider view of a certain problem and narrowing it to a smaller and

simpler view. For example Students are advised to form a research title by

thinking of wider (Nation wise or global wise problem) and narrow it to smaller,

simpler and specific problem

The other role of inductive reasoning is that it helps the teacher in preparing the lessons

in a manner that specific objectives are provided firstly following the general once and

hence makes easy understanding of students

QN 4

 Difference between Perenialism and Essentialism.

In essentialism education is teacher centered and the methods used is lecture

methods while in Perenialism education is student centered since they are

taught to solve problems in their real environment.

In Essentialism the main focus of education is on intellectual and moral standard

that should be taught by the school. While in Perenialism the focus of education is

to search problem solving ideas and literary while students grow in

religious teaching.
In essentialism the purpose of education is to teach students hard work, respect

for the authority and discipline while in Perenialism students are taught knowledge

about western civilization.

According to essentialism curriculum must focus on teaching student reading,

speaking, writing and computing simple mathematics and thinking logical. Also

school should be practical to prepare responsible member of the society. While in

Perenialism curriculum should change according to the social need,


Perenialism and essentialism are the result of realism and idealism.

They both have the similar purpose of education

Both are based on developing intellectual power to the learners.

They both deals with empowering students with moral qualities

Both do not allow student to dictate teachers teaching.

 Essentialism is an education theory with ideas and skills based to a culture

that should be taught to all alike by tested method. Also it accept the idea

that the core curriculum may change, schooling should be practical, preparing

students to become valuable member of society.

 Perenialism is based on the belief that some ideas have lasted over

centuries and are as relevant today as when they were first conceived.

These ideas should be studied in school. The perennialist believed that

human is rational and the aim of education is to improve man as man.

 The similarities between essentialism and Perenialism are:-

a) Both are educational concepts applying to a society as whole

b) Both believe that there are certain aspects of the culture that must be

learned by all included in it.

c) Both are among the six philosophical perspectives on education.

d) Both aim to rigorously develop all student intellectual powers and moral


e) Both advocates classroom centered around teachers in order to

accomplish these goals. The teachers do not allow the students interests or

experience to substantially dictate what they teach.

QN 6

 Pragmatism is the view that considers practical consequences or real

effect to be vital components of both meaning and trust. Or

 Pragmatism means thinking of or dealing with problems in a practical way

rather than by using theory or abstract principles.

 The following are the application of pragmatism philosophy in education

system of Tanzania.

 Through pragmatism philosophy Tanzania education system provided to make

learner learn by doing through establishing laboratories which make student

to condense their ideas into reality as learning by doing, especially science

subject like chemistry, physics and biology.

 Through pragmatism philosophy Tanzania education system made teachers to

use their environment to make students understand what is the application

of what they learn in real life situation For example: in primary schools

teacher assign the students to find cork so as to understand when counting

numbers in real.

 Through pragmatism philosophy in Tanzania education system structured

according to the needs of the society; the educations provided in Tanzania

prepare the learners to solve the problems existing in society. For example

the preparation of teachers due to the existence of the needs of teachers

in Tanzanian schools. So the knowledge they get is due to the problems

existing and which might be solved by them. This is due to pragmatism


 Through pragmatism philosophy Tanzania education system its activities

should lie at center of all educative process. The learners should learn on

how to liberate themselves and to improve the living standard as through

entrepreneur education which provided in higher learning institution, the

learners should be able to use knowledge they get so as to make life proper.

 Through pragmatism philosophy Tanzania education system should make

learners use their experience to utilize the acquired knowledge which make

the individual learner improve his/her personality.

 Through pragmatism philosophy Tanzania education system provide discipline

to student which gives list of freedom to children, must be provided in

vulnerable environment, and not exposed by authority and participating in

school society which gives them the real life.

 Education should serve as an end and means, education should improve man

and serve as means of doing things, for example VETA is the best example
where by education which provided over there are the practical education in

which students are learn by doing therefore later on he or she improved and

will able to perform the different activities.

 Education system should constantly reflect the rapid changes in the word of

knowledge, now days Tanzania education applied this theory for introducing

ICT issues in which gives more priority in changing the world in terms of

technology thus government introducing ICT (Tehama) subject in primary


 Also it is usefully in science subject in which students are learn through

experience it or practical or experimentation in which student go to school

laboratory for more diagnosis. For example in biology subject student

observed or experience by doing the whole process of a certain surgery by

using an insect.

 Education should serve as an end and means, education should improve man

and serve as means of doing things, for example VETA is the best example

where by education which provided over there are the practical education in

which students are learn by doing therefore later on he or she improved and

will able to perform the different activities.

 Education system should constantly reflect the rapid changes in the word of

knowledge, now days Tanzania education applied this theory for introducing

ICT issues in which gives more priority in changing the world in terms of

technology thus government introducing ICT (Tehama) subject in primary


 Also it is usefully in science subject in which students are learn through

experience it or practical or experimentation in which student go to school

laboratory for more diagnosis. For example in biology subject student

observed or experience by doing the whole process of a certain surgery by

using an insect.

QN 7: QN. Compare between behaviorism and existentialism, and explain their role

in education.

Existentialism is a philosophy concerned with finding self and the meaning of life

through free will, choice, and personal responsibility. The belief is that people are

searching to find out whom and what they are throughout life as they make choices

based on their experiences, beliefs, and outlook. And personal choices become

unique without the necessity of an objective form of truth. An existentialist

believes that a person should be forced to choose and be responsible without the

help of laws, ethnic rules, or traditions.

Behaviorism is a learning theory that only focuses on objectively observable

behaviors and discounts any independent activities of the mind. Behavior theorists

define learning as nothing more than the acquisition of new behavior based on

environmental conditions.

 Also the other comparison between existentialism and behaviorism are

as follows;

-both are philosophical concepts despite of describing or advocating the different


-both deals with speculating the truth beyond the nature.

-both applied in teaching and learning process facilitating the processes to a good


The role of behaviorism in education is to change learner’s behavior from

unpleasant behavior so as to fit in the community.

Also it helps to study the behavior of the student example in behaviorism by

understanding why student behave in the way they are.

Also by existentialism it helps to study the fact things that they real exist

different from abstract things example science issues.

Though there are the difference between existentialism and behaviorism like,

Existentialism should made person to understand himself while Behaviorism

designed in order to shape the behavior of learners.

Existentialism should enable learners to solve the problems while Behaviorism

teachers and school environment is the agent to shape the learners behavior.

QN 12


Idealism is the metaphysical and epistemological doctrine that ideas or thoughts

make up fundamental reality. Essentially it is any philosophy which argues that the

only thing actually knowable is consciousness whereas we never can be sure that

matter or anything in the outside world really exists thus the only the real things
are mental entities not physical things which exist only in the sense that they are




According to idealism man is the most beautiful creation of god-His grandest

work. It lays great stress on the exaltation of human personality it is self-

realization The aim of education is to develop the self of the individuals higher

till self-realization is achieved It is in fact making actual or real the highest

potentialities of the self.


Education according to idealism should be universal in nature. The universe is

regarded as a thought process. Education should be based on the teaching of

Universal truth from the stand-point of rationality of the Universe


Idealists give greater importance to spiritual values in comparison with material

attainments. According to Rusk, “Education must enable Mankind through its

culture to enter more and more fully into the spiritual realm, and also enter more

and more fully into the spiritual realm, and also enlarge the boundaries of spiritual



The aim of idealistic education is the preservation ; enrichment and transmission

of culture, Education must contribute to the development of culture

.It should help in enlarging the boundaries of spiritual realm


According to idealism, man is essentially a moral being. Therefore, moral,

intellectual and aesthetic aspects of his personality should be promoted.

According to Dr.Prem Nath “The process of education must lead to the deepest

spiritual insight and to the highest moral and spiritual insight and to

the highest moral and spiritual insight and to the highest moral and spiritual

conduct .”


Idealism prepares an individual for a holy life. Froebel says. “The object of

education is the realization of a faithful, pure, inviolable and hence holy life.’’


Idealism wishes that education should develop the mind fully. It makes a person

rational as well. Only the highly developed mind can understand the all-pervading

force. The idealists believe that

education must help in the full evolution of mind , the

emancipation of spirit, self-realization and the realization of higher values

of life and to train the whole

man completely and fully for manhood and not some part of man.


While developing curriculum, idealists give more importance to thought, feelings,

ideals and values than to the child and his activities. They firmly hold that

curriculum should be concerned with the whole humanity and its experiences. It

must consist of humanities.

The curriculum should give good mental experience of all types.

So cognition (knowing) affecting (feeling) and striving should find due

place. Sciences and art should be taught as fully integrated. Since

the main aim of education according to the philosophy of idealism is

to preserve and advance the culture of human race ,so subjects like Religi

on, Ethics, philosophy, History,

Literature etc., should be provided in the curriculum. Healthy mind is

found in healthy baby only. So health, hygiene, games and sports should find an

important place in the curriculum.


Idealism has not prescribed specific methods of teaching. According to idealism,

class-room is a temple of spiritual learning; a meeting place of human minds- a

place for self-education. For this no particular method has been suggested.

However, the following methods have been advocated by different

idealists: Learning through reading, learning through lecturing, Learning through

discussion, learning through imitation, Descartes employed the device of simple

to complex


Naturalism provides unrestricted freedom to the child whereas Idealism wants to

keep the child under discipline. Idealists believe that there can be no spiritual

development of the child without discipline. This leads to inner discipline. “The

discipline is not to be imposed on pupils. The teacher has only to help them to

develop self-discipline and through that self-knowledge”

Self-insight and self-analysis are the main disciplinary factors. The main task of

education is the cultivation of higher values of life through moral and religious

education. It requires the teacher to present a good example and exercise lasting

impact upon the pupil’s mind. A teacher is an ideal person to be emulated by this



Idealism assigns a special role to the teacher. It considers teacher as a spiritual

guide for the child. The teacher serves as a living model for the student. He sets

the environment in which education takes place. He carries the child from darkness

to light. He is to guide the student towards utmost possible perfection

Idealism regards the teacher as the priest of man’s spiritual heritage. He is a co-

worker with God in perfecting man. An idealist teacher is a philosopher, friend and

guide. According to Gentle- A teacher is “a spiritual symbol of right conduct.” He is

thus, an indispensable necessity.

According to Froebel, the school is a garden, the teacher is a cautious gardener

and the child is a tender plant. The plant can grow, no doubt, without help but the

good gardener sees that the plant grows to the finest possible perfection. Through
teacher’s guidance the child can make his natural development into a process

leading to perfection and beauty.


(1)The common criticism regarding Idealism is that it is an abstract and vague

doctrine. It avoids the present realities and prepares the child for the next world.

(2) Idealism is concerned with the ultimate end of life. It avoids the real

problems day to day living. Education should be such as to make individuals capable

to solve the problems that confront them from time to time able to lead a happy

and contented life.

(3) Idealism lays more emphasis on thinking and mental activities. This increases

the importance of intellectualism unnecessarily.

(4) Idealistic education gives more importance to teacher in relation to the

child. Modern psychology emphasizes the prime and central importance of child.

(5) Idealistic methods of teaching emphasize cramming and rote memory. In

modern education, these methods are given little importance.

6 Accepts real needs and real feelings only. it does not believes in imagination

and sentiments

7 Great stress upon physical world

8 Does not give any importance to the ideas and values

9 Fails to answer illusion and faulty knowledge

10 Emphasize on scientific subject and neglects art and literate subjects

QN 8

.8 Which state that

John Dewey (1859-1952) was closely associated with pragmatism, as part of


a) What are the main values and features identified with pragmatism?

b) Do you think that Dewey’s thinking was influenced by any events or

developments of this time?

Part (a) the main values and features identified with pragmatism;

Experimentation, John Dewey says, “I affirm that the term ‘pragmatic’ means only

the rule of referring all thinking, all reflective consideration, to consequences for

final meaning and test.” Pragmatism places a superior pressure on the value of

experimentation. It stands for testing every statement by finding out its practical

implications. If these implications are desirable, the statement is accepted,

otherwise rejected. Man is always carrying out various experiments in his life. But

no judgment is possible before an experiment is tested by experience. Only that

thing is good and beautiful which emerges our useful after experimentation.

Axiology, Pragmatism does not trust in eternal values. Man himself creates values.

Values are not programmed. In the context of religion, Dewey has said, ‘God is

active relation between Ideal and Reality; they consider the use of intelligence in

the solution of problems.

Epistemology, Pragmatism considers experience as the source of attaining

knowledge. Human being receives knowledge through experience based activity and

ideas by acting and reacting with human environment. Pragmatists consider

experimental methods as the best means of attaining knowledge.

Pragmatism deals with methods of instruction, where in pragmatism the teaching

method is the child centered methods. Teaching should consider student's


Pragmatism therefore is what is real and what we experience or what we observe.

Also the main aim of pragmatism is on practical and scientifically utility-of


therefore pragmatism believes in practical ideas and experimental-ism.

Educational implications are

- education for life

-education as growth

-education as a social process

-education as are restructuring of experience

Also pragmatism as the following impacts on the curriculum

- principle of utility

-principle of interest

-principle of experience

-principle of integration
QN 13


What is self-reliance? How can Mwalimu Nyerere ideas of self-reliance are

considered as a philosophy of education.

Self-reliance refers to the ability to depend on yourself or your own abilities

(Cambridge Academic Content Dictionary).It refers to the abilities of person to

make his or her own decision without any aids from the somebody else, For example

ability to choose a course for carrier or the ability to choose any satisfaction of a

person to being

The education for self-reliance is providing learners with abilities in appropriate

vocations and with self-employment skills (Nyerere, 1967). Acquired skills and

abilities are meant to be useful in performing community tasks and for solving

personal and community challenges. In this way, education becomes a tool for


How can Mwalimu Nyerere ideas of self-reliance are considered as a

philosophy of education?

Together, teachers and students should engage in productive activities such as

animal husbandry and crop production. Students should participate in the planning

and decision-making process that surrounds the organization of these activities

and this can be accompanying with pragmatism as the school of thought focused on

learning by doing. Thus, as long as a teacher is the one who supposed to shape a

behavior of learners therefore it is necessity to him or her to participate in those

activities surrounding school together with his or her pupils so as to modernize

them to the goal of self-reliance. Going to school was believed to be a panacea to

escape the misery of farming and rural life

How can Mwalimu Nyerere ideas of self –reliance are considered as a

philosophy of education

The ideas of Mwalimu Nyerere about self-reliance are considered as a philosophy

of education because proposed that

 Education to students should influence to become self-confident and co-

operative, and develop critical and inquiring minds. (summarized in Kassam

1995: 253

 Education must also prepare young people for the work they will be called

upon to do in the society which exists in the Tanzania-a rural society. This

mean that education that a person acquire from school should enable him or

her to engage in rural activities because of high population are living in rural

area as putting forward by existentialism school of thought. In a Tanzanian

rural context, this means that education becomes meaningful and useful

when learners as community members, acquire the basic principles of modern

agriculture and adapt knowledge and skills to solve local problems such as

malnutrition and soil degradation (Taylor&Muhal, 1997).

 Productive work should become an integral part of the school curriculum

and provide meaningful learning experience through the integration of

theory and practice

But also apart from that also the following are the reasons why Nyereres' idea of

self-reliance education is considered as philosophy of education

a) Education should be Problem Solving; For educated people to serve the people

and help in solving the problems affecting the society, it is implied that the

educative process must involve not only training in specific skills and techniques

through a method of practical work geared to problem solving, but also acquiring

those habits which make him or her virtuous. These virtues will make him or her

religious minded, courageous, truthful, good-natured and the like. This type of

education will help him or her manage ones affairs of this world with foresight.

Consequently, he will be happy and be able to contribute to the society

development this idea is considered as philosophy of education because it goes

together with pragmatism school of thought.

b) Education should be Work Oriented; Nyerere, as he has already indicated,

prescribes that education should be work oriented and that the educated must be

inculcated into a commitment to community service. He held that education should

be service geared to eradicating illiteracy, ignorance, improving health standards

and life expectancy, and perhaps above all the service that will enable the citizens

to exploit and utilize their country’s natural resources for the benefits of the
workers and peasants of Tanzania that why he proposed the enrollment age for

standard one should be 7 years which means after completing standard seven that

boy/girl can engage direct to self-employment.

c) also he proposed that education given must ensure that students can become

self-reliant and cooperative (that is develop willingness and ability to work with

others), also be creative and develop inquisitive mind as proposed by

pragmatists the former of school of thought .to him education provided to child

should enhance cooperation and develop willingness and ability to work with others.

d) also Nyerere's idea of self-reliance is considered as philosophy of education

because it proposed that primary education should be completed in itself

rather merely serving as a means to higher education, this means for him

primary education provided to the learner should be enough to him/her to engage

in economic and other social activities even without reaching at higher education

stages like secondary and universities.

QN 10 & 14

 Critical Thinking is the ability to analyze the way you think and present

evidence for your ideas, rather than simply accepting your personal

reasoning as sufficient proof. You can gain numerous benefits from

mastering critical thinking skills, such as better control of your own learning

and empathy for other points of view.

 Critical Thinking is, in short, self-directed, self-disciplined, self-monitored,

and self-corrective thinking. It presupposes assent to rigorous standards of

excellence and mindful command of their use. It entails effective

communication and problem solving abilities and a commitment to overcome

our native egocentrism and sociocentrism.

 From solving problems in class assignments to

facing real world situations, Critical Thinking is a valuable skill for students

to master.
 Critical Thinking skills teach a variety of skills that can be applied to any

situation in life that calls for reflection, analysis and planning.

 Critical Thinking is a domain-general thinking skill. The ability to think

clearly and rationally is important whatever we choose to do. If you work in

education, research, finance, management or the legal profession, then

critical thinking is obviously important. But critical thinking skills are not

restricted to a particular subject area. Being able to think well and solve

problems systematically is an asset for any career.

 Critical Thinking is very important in the new knowledge economy. The

global knowledge economy is driven by information and technology. One has

to be able to deal with changes quickly and effectively. The new economy

places increasing demands on flexible intellectual skills, and the ability to

analyses information and integrate diverse sources of knowledge in solving

problems. Good critical thinking promotes such thinking skills, and is very

important in the fast-changing workplace.

 Critical Thinking enhances language and presentation skills. Thinking

clearly and systematically can improve the way we express our ideas. In

learning how to analyses the logical structure of texts, critical thinking also

improves comprehension abilities.

 Critical Thinking promotes creativity. To come up with a creative solution

to a problem involves not just having new ideas. It must also be the case that

the new ideas being generated are useful and relevant to the task at hand.

Critical thinking plays a crucial role in evaluating new ideas, selecting the

best ones and modifying them if necessary

 Critical Thinking is crucial for self-reflection. In order to live a

meaningful life and to structure our lives accordingly, we need to justify and

reflect on our values and decisions. Critical thinking provides the tools for

this process of self-evaluation.

 Good Critical Thinking is the foundation of science and a liberal

democratic society. Science requires the critical use of reason in

experimentation and theory confirmation. The proper functioning of a liberal

democracy requires citizens who can think critically about social issues to

inform their judgments about proper governance and to overcome biases and

 Critical Thinking is something that is valued both in the university setting

and in the professional situations you will find yourselves in after you

graduate, and is part of lifelong learning. Critical Thinking is important in

life. It helps you to think creatively – ‘outside the box’. It keeps you from

becoming narrow. Critical Thinking is expected of you in higher education. It

can lead to developing your judgment, evaluation and problem solving


 Learning Critical Thinking skills can also enhance your academic

performance. According to Linda Elder and Richard Paul, authors of "Critical

Thinking Development: A Stage Theory," students who know how to analyze

and critique ideas are able to make connections across disciplines, see

knowledge as useful and applicable to daily life and understand content on a

deeper, more lasting level.

 Rather than relying on teachers and classroom time for instruction and

guidance, students with critical thinking skills become more independent,

self-directed learners. Researcher Jane Qinjuan Zhang writes that critical

thinking enables students to assess their learning styles, strengths and

weaknesses, and allows them to take ownership of their education.

QN 10

a) Who is a critical thinker and how can you identify him/her?

Critical thinker: Is one who is: eager to acquire and apply the best knowledge and

reason in all fields, willing to acknowledge and correct flaws in their own thinking,

better equipped to create more profoundly effective solutions to the challenges we

face in life, wait for valid evidence and prefer to be aware of there are of


How to identify the critical thinker

 who understand the links between ideas

 who handle uncertainty

 the one who raise vital questions and problems, formulating them clearly and


 Who gather and assess relevant information using abstract ideas to

interpret it effectively

 Who are well-reasoned conclusions and solutions, testing them against

relevant criteria and standards?

b) Education system of Tanzania is rooted in essentialism philosophies. Argue for

or against this statement

It is true that education system of Tanzania is rooted in essentialism philosophies


 it prepare young people for the work

 It prepares people for their responsibilities as free workers and citizens in

a free and democratic society.

 Prepare students to become a good citizens

 A good critical thinker knows how to separate facts from opinions, how to

examine an issue from all sides, how to make rational inferences and how to

withhold personal judgment or biases.

 Rational critical thinkers are generally the voices of reason in times of mass

hysteria or panic. As Franklin D. Roosevelt said, "We have nothing to fear

but fear itself." The critical thinker usually has the comprehensive skills to

consider all possible options and solve a problem.

 The critical thinker remains calm and knows when he is right. Critical

thinkers are less likely to fall for scams or tricks because they approach

everything with a healthy amount of skepticism. Those who lack critical

thinking skills often assume that everything they hear is true, regardless of

the source.
 Critical thinkers consider all

options before they act. If time is an important factor, they consider the

fastest method of achieving a goal. They may even discover a shortcut.

Critical thinkers embody the phrase "work smarter, not harder." They are

masters of efficiency.

 A critical thinker has the self-awareness to know the difference between a

rational thought based on careful consideration and an emotional response

based on personal bias. Emotion is the enemy of reason. By understanding

your own perspective, you can also consider the perspective of others and

come to a conclusion based on fact, not feelings.

 Increasingly more and more employers

are looking not for employees with highly specialized academic skills, but

those with good thinking and communication skills. Employees who learn

quickly and can solve problems, think creatively, gather and analyze

information meaningfully.

 Many of the highest paying jobs require critical thinking skills, such as

generating effective ideas and making important decisions. Job interviewers

often ask applicants questions that test their ability to think critically.

Critical thinking skills may also be a deciding factor when an employee seeks

a promotion.

 It's easy to let your emotions

take over when making an important decision or arguing for your opinion,

especially if you are personally invested in it. However, "Why Critical

Thinking?", a report from York University, asserts that critical thinking can

help you effectively use emotional appeal, letting your feelings influence, but

not control your reasoning.

 Ultimately, Critical Thinking Skills help you to better understand the

experiences and views of others, enhancing your ability to work with

different people.

QN 1


The scope of philosophy of education is unlimited” Critically evaluate this



The scope of philosophy of education includes following.

Aims and Ideals of Education Philosophy Education critically evaluate the

different aims and ideals of education. These aims and ideals have been proposed

by various philosophers in different times. They are character building, man

making, harmonious human development, preparation for adult life, development of

citizenship, utilization of leisure, training for civic life, training for international

living, achieving social and national integration, scientific and technological

development, education for all, equalizing educational opportunities and human

source development..

Interpretation of Human Nature: The philosophical picture of human

nature is a result of the synthesis of the facts borrowed from all the human

science with the values discussed in different normative, sciences. The

philosophical picture, therefore, is broader as compared to the picture of man

drawn by biology, sociology, psychology, economics and anthropology and other

human science.
Also the scope of philosophy of education is unlimited in educational system due to

the following ways or reasons

Providing the educational planners, administrators and educators with

the progressive vision to achieve educational development, Spencer has rightly

pointed that only a true philosopher can give a practical shape to education.

Philosophy of education provides the educational planners, administrators and

educators with the right vision which guides them to attain the educational goals


Preparing the young generation to face the challenges of the modern

time, Social commentators have given many labels to the present period of history

for some it is the information age and for others it is post modernity, later

modernity, high modernity or even the age of uncertainty

It helps to achieve the set objectives. It is through the contribution of

philosophy of education when the objectives being set to implement them are

achieved through employing different philosophical ideas, including the learner’s


It enables set of plan and formulates the policy of education, through

philosophy of education is where the plans such as short plan and long plans in

Also it enables to set the specific curriculum and specific methods through the

discipline of philosophy the reliable curriculum set according to the needs of the

society and interest of learners.

It is true that the scope of education is unlimited because philosophy of education

appears in all aspects of education. And the following are the reasons;

1. It enables to implement the curriculum.

2. It helps in policy planning. Example education training policy.

3. It helps in planning for educational objectives.

4. It helps in selection of which books to be used as reference books

QN 2

While the thinker Socrates viewed a philosopher as one who is a lover of the

vision of truth, his pupil, Plato, defined such a person as “he who has a taste for

every sort of knowledge, who is curious to learn and is never satisfied”.

a) Did these two men differ in their perception?

b) Do you yourself agree with their perception?

c) What do you believe to be the principal functions of philosophy as a


a) Yes they do differ, because a seeker of knowledge is not the same as lover of

truth. Because knowledge does not necessarily contain the truth. Plato represents

a philosopher as an active dynamic figure who is eager to learn and has an interest

for different kind of knowledge and does not employ one kind of knowledge. But

under Socrates perspective a philosopher is viewed as a static figure who is easily

satisfied with finding one kind of truth and is not eager to find other kind of


b) Yes, I agree with Socrates that a philosopher is one who is a lover of vision of

truth, but actually i follow more Plato's vision because, philosophy is about asking

questions rather than providing the right answers.

c) The following are the principal function of philosophy as a discipline

i) Speculative function, under this function philosophers involve in legal critical

thinking on an issue and attempt to come up with pleasurable explanation of

different phenomena in the universe.

ii) Prescription, philosophers tend to find out intellectual direction and guidance

about an issue.

iii) Synthesizing, philosophy tend to provide comprehensive summary view of world

or universe

iv) Analysis, involve a logical reasoning which seek to clarify meaning and evidence

to support view
QN 7

Behaviorism deals with how human behaviors are shaped by forces in an

environment. It was advocated by B.F. Skinner. Existentialism deals with how

human beings are free and responsible for their actions in the world without

meaning. The following are the comparisons between behaviorism and


Both behaviorism and existentialism are philosophical concepts whereby the

behaviorists believe that human behaviors are shaped by forces in the

environment for example student's behaviors are shaped by the family, the school

and the community surrounding that student and existentialism is a theory

which emphasize that human beings are free and responsible for their actions in

the world without meaning.

Both deals with speculating the truth whereby behaviorists believe that reality is

what can be experienced by through human senses. Truth should be obtained

through experiment and observation and in existentialism the theorist believe

that reality is what human beings chooses and are responsible for their choices.

The role of behaviorism in education is to change learner’s behaviors from

unpleasant behaviors to pleasant behaviors so as to fit in the community. This can

be achieved through re reinforcement, repetition and motivation.

The role of existentialism in education is to enable learners to make their own

choices on different issues like proper selection of career, selecting combinations

and selecting courses in universities.

QN 11

In the formulation of an argument, let’s recap steps of formulating an argument:

Make sure to get the topic or question correct. You get no points for effectively
arguing a case you weren’t asked to make. The best way to be sure you are dealing
with the correct topic is to make the topic a part of your thesis statement. For
instance, if I have been asked to argue the points for higher speed limits on
highways, I can ensure I am arguing that point by making my thesis statement,
‘Why higher speed limits on highways are beneficial. This will keep me more
focused than if I made my thesis statement, “Why cars are well equipped to handle
higher speeds on the highway”. I could easily veer into arguing the merits of
advanced engineering or automatic steering and breaking, which may or may not
have anything to do with higher speed limits on highways.

Support your argument with good reason. Providing your point with logic and reason
includes having good, factual data as well as presenting your viewpoint in ordered
steps that are easy for your reader to understand and follow.

Use good support that will seem valid and unbiased to your reader for your view.
Present support from a variety of resources. This includes the use of definitions,
statistical analyses, facts, historical precedents and any other information that
would be relevant to your topic and your point.