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# List of PEKA experiments: Number Experiment 1.

## 1  Controlled / Fixed variable:

Pg. 6 Mass of marble chips,
1. Average rate of reaction and instantaneous Title Effect of surface area on the rate of volume and concentration of
rate of reaction reaction hydrochloric acid (HCl),
2. Effect of surface area on the rate of Aim To investigate the effect of total temperature
reaction surface area of the reactant on the rate
3. Effect of concentration on the rate of of reaction Operational  1. Smaller marble chips have
reaction Problem How does the total exposed surface Definition a larger total surface area
4. Effect of temperature on the rate of than larger marble chips of
Statement area of a solid reactant affect the rate
reaction the same mass.
of reaction?
5. Effect of catalyst on the rate of reaction
Hypothesis When the total surface area of marble  2. For the graph of the
6. Effect of the amount of catalyst on the rate
chips increases, the rate of reaction volume of gas released
of reaction
increases. / The smaller the size of the against time, the curve with
reactant particles, that is, the larger higher initial gradient
Number Laboratory Work 1.2 the total surface area of the reactant indicates a higher initial rate
Pg. 3 particles, the higher the rate of of reaction.
Title Average rate of reaction and reaction.
instantaneous rate of reaction Apparatus  50 cm3 measuring cylinder
Aim To determine the average rate of  150 cm3 conical flask .
reaction and the instantaneous rate of  Stopper with delivery tube
reaction  Basin Number Experiment 1.2
Apparatus  50 cm3 beaker  Burette
Pg. 10
 Test tube  Spatula
Title Effect of concentration on the rate of
 Spatula  Electronic balance
reaction
 Stopwatch
Aim To investigate the effect of
Material  Marble chip concentration on the rate of reaction
 2.0 mol dm-3 hydrochloric Material  0.5 mol dm-3 hydrochloric Problem How does the concentration of a
acid (HCl) acid (HCl) Statement reactant affect the rate of reaction? /
 0.1 mol dm-3 sodium  2 g large marble chips Does high concentration of sodium
thiosulphate, Na2S2O3  2 g small marble chips thiosulphate Na2S2O3 solution
solution  Water decrease the time taken for the mark
 1.0 mol dm-3 lead(II) nitrate ‘X’ to disappear from sight?
solution
Variables  Manipulated variable: Total Hypothesis When the concentration of sodium
surface area of marble chips thiosulphate, Na2S2O3 solution
 Responding variable: Rate of increases, the rate of reaction
. reaction increases. / The higher the
concentration of sodium thiosulphate Title Effect of temperature on the rate of acid, size of conical flask
Na2S2O3 solution, the shorter the time reaction
taken for the mark ‘X’ to disappear Aim To investigate the effect of Operational Rate of reaction is inversely
from sight. temperature on the rate of reaction Definition proportional to the time taken for the
Apparatus  150 cm3 conical flask Problem How does temperature affect the rate mark ‘X’ to disappear from sight
 50 cm3 measuring cylinder Statement of reaction?
 10 cm3 measuring cylinder Hypothesis An increase in temperature will .
 Stopwatch increase the rate of reaction.
Apparatus  150 cm3 conical flask
Number Experiment 1.4
Material  0.2 mol dm-3 sodium  50 cm3 measuring cylinder
Pg. 15
thiosulphate solution  10 cm3 measuring cylinder
Title Effect of catalyst on the rate of
 1.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid  Stopwatch
reaction
 Distilled water  Thermometer
Aim To investigate the effect of a catalyst
 White paper marked ‘X’ at  Bunsen burner
on the rate of reaction
the centre  Tripod stand
Problem How does a catalyst affect the rate of
 Wire gauze
Statement reaction? / How do catalysts affect the
Variables  Manipulated rate of decomposition of hydrogen
variable: Concentration of Material  0.2 mol dm-3 sodium peroxide?
sodium thiosulphate, thiosulphate solution Hypothesis The presence of a catalyst increases
Na2S2O3 solution  1.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid the rate of reaction. / Manganese(IV)
 Responding variable: Rate of  White paper marked ‘X’ at oxide increases the rate of
reaction the centre decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.
 Controlled / Fixed variable: Apparatus  Test tube
Concentration, volume and Variables  Manipulated variable:  Test tube rack
initial temperature of
Temperature of sodium  Spatula
sulphuric acid, H2SO4. Total
thiosulphate, Na2S2O3  Wooden splinter
volume of reactants
solution  Retort stand and clamp
 Responding variable: The  10 cm3 measuring cylinder
Operational Rate of reaction is inversely time taken for the cross ‘X’  Electronic balance
Definition proportional to the time taken for the to disappear  Weighing bottle
the mark ‘X’ to disappear from sight  Controlled / Fixed variable:
volume and concentration of
sodium thiosulphate Na2S2O3 Material  20-volume hydrogen
.
solution, volume and peroxide, H2O2 solution
concentration of sulphuric  1.0 g Manganese(IV) oxide
Number Experiment 1.3
Pg. 13
powder the rate of reaction? Chapter 2 – Carbon Compound
Hypothesis When the amount of a catalyst used
Variables  Manipulated variable: increases, the rate of reaction List of PEKA experiments:
Presence or absence of a increases. / The higher the amount of
catalyst the catalysts, the higher the rate of
reaction. 1. Combustion products of organic
 Responding variable: The
release of oxygen gas / Rate Apparatus  50 cm3 measuring cylinder compound
of reaction  150 cm3 conical flask 2. Properties of alkanes and alkenes
 Controlled / Fixed variable:  Stopper with delivery tube 3. Preparation of ethanol by
Volume and concentration  Burette fermentation
of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)  Retort stand and clamp 4. Chemical properties of ethanol
solution, temperature  Basin 5. Chemical properties of ethanoic
 Stopwatch
 Electronic balance
acid
Operational  The decomposition of
Definition hydrogen peroxide is fast if  Spatula 6. Esters – Laboratory preparation and
the glowing wooden splinter  Weighing bottle physical properties
rekindles brightly and  Beakers 7. Coagulation of latex
rapidly. 8. Elasticity of vulcanised and
 The decomposition of Material  2-volume hydrogen peroxide unvulcanised rubber
hydrogen peroxide is slow if solution 9. Latex product
the glowing wooden splinter  1.0 g manganese(IV) oxide
glows dimly and slowly. powder
Number Laboratory Work 2.1
Variables  Manipulated variable:
Pg. 25
. amount / mass of catalyst Title Combustion products of
 Responding variable: Rate of organic compound
Number Experiment 1.5 reaction Aim To identify the combustion
Pg. 17  Controlled / Fixed variable:
product of organic compound. /
Title Effect of the amount of catalyst on the Temperature, volume and
concentration of hydrogen To investigate the complete
rate of reaction
Aim To investigate the effect of the peroxide solution combustion of organic
amount of catalyst on the rate of compounds.
reaction. Operational The curves for the graph of volume of Apparatus  250 cm3 beaker
Problem How does the amount of a catalyst Definition gas liberated against time a higher  Boiling tube
Statement affect the rate of reaction? / Does gradient indicated a higher rate of  Stopper with 2 holes
higher amount of catalysts increases reaction.
 Delivery tube
 Rubber tubing bromine Number Laboratory Work 2.3
 Filter funnel  To compare the reaction Pg. 38
 Filter pump of hexane and hexane Title Preparation of ethanol by
 Retort stand and clamp with bromine fermentation
 Spirit lamp  C. Reaction with Aim To prepare samples of ethanol,
 Bunsen burner acidized potassium C2H5OH by fermentation
 0 – 110˚C thermometer manganate(VII) solution Apparatus  250 cm3 conical flask
 Test tube holder  To compare the reaction
 Wooden blocks of hexane and hexane  500 cm3 beaker
with acidified potassium  50 cm3 measuring
Material  Ice manganate(VII) solution cylinder
 Palm oil Apparatus  Evaporating dish / (round-bottomed flask)
 Limewater Porcelain dishes  Stopper with delivery
 Dropper tube
 Test tube  Stopper with 1 hole
.  Bunsen burner  0 – 110˚C thermometer
 Liebig condenser
Number Laboratory Work 2.2 Material  Hexane  Fractionating column
Pg. 32  Hexene  Retort stand and clamp
Title Properties of alkanes and  Bromine in 1,1,1-  Tripod stand
alkenes trichloroethane  Wire gauze
 0.1 mol dm-3 potassium  Glass rod
Aim To compare the properties of
manganate(VII) solution  Bunsen burner
alkanes and alkenes
 Dilute sulphuric acid  1 m rubber tubing
 Wooden splinter  Filter funnel
 A. Reaction with
 Filter paper  Boiling tube
oxygen
 To compare the
combustion of hexane Material  Glucose
and hexane .  Yeast
 B. Reaction with  Limewater
 Distilled water tube  Ice
 Filter paper (4 pieces)  Test tube holder  Concentrated sulphuric
 Fruits such as  500 cm3 beaker acid
pineapple, grape,  Retort stand and clamp  Blue litmus paper
papaya, banana, apple,  Bunsen burner
berries  10 cm3 measuring C. Dehydration of ethanol
 Cooked potatoes, rice or cylinder
tapioca  Dropper  Ethanol
 30 g dm-3 potassium
C. Dehydration of ethanol dichromate(VI),
. K2Cr2O7 solution
 Test tubes  3 g dm-3 potassium
Number Laboratory Work 2.4  Boiling tube manganate(VII),
Pg. 41  Stopper with delivery KMnO4 solution
tube  Bromine water
Title Chemical properties of ethanol
 Test tube holder  Glass wool
Aim To investigate the chemical
 500 cm3 beaker  Unglazed porcelain
properties of ethanol,
 Retort stand and clamp chips
C2H5OHA. Combustion of
 Bunsen burner  Water
ethanolB. Oxidation of
 Forceps
ethanolC. Dehydration of
 Dropper
ethanol
.
Apparatus A. Combustion of ethanol
Material A. Combustion of ethanol
 Evaporating dish Number Laboratory Work 2.5
 Ethanol Pg. 48
 Wooden splinter
Title Chemical properties of ethanoic
B. Oxidation of ethanol acid
B. Oxidation of ethanol
Aim To investigate the chemical
 Ethanol
 Test tubes reactions of ethanoic acid,
 30 g dm-3 potassium
 Boiling tube CH3COOH
dichromate(VI),
 Stopper with delivery
K2Cr2O7 solution
 Spatula (Calcium
 A. Reactions of  Glass rod carbonate/Iron(III)
ethanoic acid as an acid  Bunsen burner carbonate/Sodium
 i. reaction of ethanoic  Tripod stand carbonate)
acid with a metal  Wire gauze  Limewater
 ii. reaction of ethanoic  Evaporating dish
acid with a metal iii. reaction of ethanoic acid
carbonate B. Reaction of ethanoic acid with a base
 iii. reaction of ethanoic with alcohol
acid with a base  1.0 mol dm-3 sodium
 B. Reaction of ethanoic  Dropper hydroxide solution
acid with alcohol  Boiling tube  Metal oxide powder
 250 cm3 beaker (Copper(II) oxide)
Apparatus A. Reactions of ethanoic acid  Test tube holder
as an acidi. reaction of ethanoic  Bunsen burner B. Reaction of ethanoic acid
acid with a metal with alcohol
Material A. Reactions of ethanoic acid
 Test tube as an acidi. reaction of ethanoic  Glacial ethanoic acid
 Test tube rack acid with a metal  Absolute ethanol /
 Wooden splinter Butan-1-ol
 1.0 mol dm-3 ethanoic  Concentrated sulphuric
ii. reaction of ethanoic acid acid acid
with a metal carbonate  Metal powder  Ice
(Magnesium ribbon /  Water
 Test tubes Zinc)
 Stopper with delivery
tube ii. reaction of ethanoic acid .
with a metal carbonate
iii. reaction of ethanoic acid Number Laboratory Work 2.6
with a base  1.0 mol dm-3 ethanoic Pg. 53
acid Title Esters – Laboratory preparation
 Test tube  Metal carbonate powder
and physical properties  Wooden block .
Aim To prepare a sample of ethyl  Porous chips / tile chips
ethanoate, CH3COOC2H5 in the  Oil bath Number Laboratory Work 2.7
laboratory Pg. 60
B. Physical properties of ethyl Title Coagulation of latex
 A. Laboratory ethanoate Aim To investigate the coagulation
preparation of esterTo of latex
prepare a sample of  Test tube Apparatus  100 cm3 beaker
ethyl ethanoate  Dropper  Measuring cylinder
 B. Physical properties  Glass rod  Glass rod
of ethyl ethanoate  Sample bottle  Dropper

## To investigate the physical Material A. Laboratory preparation of Material  Rubber latex

properties of ethyl ethanoate ester  1.0 mol dm-3 ethanoic
Apparatus A. Laboratory preparation of acid
ester  Absolute ethanol  1.0 mol dm-3 ammonia
 Glacial ethanoic acid solution
 100 cm3 beaker  Concentrated sulphuric  Red and blue litmus
 500 cm3 beaker acid paper
 250 cm3 distillation  Oil
.
 250 cm3 conical flask B. Physical properties of ethyl
 50 cm3 measuring ethanoate
cylinder Number Laboratory Work 2,8
 Tap funnel  Ethyl ethanoate (from Pg. 61
 0 – 250˚C thermometer A) Title Vulcanised rubber
 Liebig condenser  Distilled water Aim To prepare vulcanised rubber
 Bunsen burner  Acetone Apparatus  10 cm x 10 cm glass
 Tripod stand  Methylated spirits plate
 Retort stand and clamp  Glass rod
 Stopper with 2 holes  Razor blade
 A pair of tongs  Unvulcanised rubber  Glass rod
 250 cm3 beaker strip  Plastics arm mould
 String
Material  Rubber latex Variables  Manipulated variable:  Retort stand and clamp
 Disulphur dichloride in Types of rubber  Basin
methylbenzene (vulcanised rubber
strip and unvulcanised Material  Fresh latex
rubber strip)  2.0 mol dm-3 ethanoic
.  Responding variable: acid
Elasticity of rubber /  Water
Number Experiment 2.1 Length of rubber strip
 Controlled/Fixed
Pg. 62
Title Elasticity of vulcanised and
variable: Mass of Chapter 3 – Oxidation and Reduction
weight, size of rubber
unvulcanised rubber
strip List of PEKA experiments:
Aim To compare the elasticity of
vulcanised and unvulcanised
Operational If the minimum weight 1. Redox reaction as loss or gain of
rubber
Definition required for the rubber strip to oxygen
Problem Is vulcanised rubber is more fail to return to its initial 2. Change of iron(II) to iron(III) ions
Statement elastics than unvulcanised length is larger, then the and vice versa
rubber? rubber strip is more elastic. 3. Displacement of metals
Hypothesis Vulcanised rubber is more 4. Displacement of halogens
elastics than unvulcanised 5. Transfer of electrons at a distance
.
rubber 6. Effect of other metals on rusting
Apparatus  Retort stand and 7. Reactivity of metals with oxygen
Number Laboratory Work 2.9
clamps 8. (A) The position of carbon in the
Pg. 64
 Bulldog clips reactivity series of metals with
 Hooks Title Latex product
oxygen (B) Heating carbon dioxide
 Metre rule Aim To prepare a rubber glove in
with metals
 Weights (50 g) the laboratory
9. The position of hydrogen in the
Apparatus  500 cm3 beaker
reactivity series of metals
Material  Vulcanised rubber strip  Dropper
(Demonstration by teacher)
10. Oxidation and reduction in metals in oxygen, carbon dioxide gas
electrolytic cells which reagent  (II) Copper(II) oxide,
11. Oxidation and reduction in undergoes oxidation iron(III) oxide and
chemical cells and which reagent lead(II) oxide undergo
12. Oxidation and reduction in voltaic undergoes reduction? reduction to form
cell with a salt bridge copper, iron and lead
B. Heating of metal oxide with respectively
Number Laboratory Work 3.1 carbon
Pg. 67 Apparatus A. Combustion of metal in
Title Redox reaction as loss or gain  In the reaction between oxygen
of oxygen metal oxide and
Aim To investigate oxidation and carbon, which reagent  A pair of tongs
reduction undergoes oxidation  Bunsen burner
and which reagent
 A. Combustion of undergoes reduction? B. Heating of metal oxide with
metal in oxygen carbon
 To investigate redox Hypothesis A. Combustion of metal in
reaction in the oxygen  Crucible
combustion of metal in  Pipe-clay triangle
oxygen gas, O2  (I) Magnesium  Tripod stand
 B. Heating of metal undergoes oxidation to  Bunsen burner
oxide with carbon form magnesium ion,  Spatula
 To investigate redox Mg2+
reaction in the heating  (II) Oxygen gas Material A. Combustion of metal in
of metal oxide with undergoes reduction to oxygen
carbon form oxide ion, O2-
 5cm magnesium ribbon
Problem A. Combustion of metal in B. Heating of metal oxide with  Sandpaper
Statement oxygen carbon  Gas jar containing
oxygen
 In the reaction between  (I) Carbon undergoes
oxidation to form B. Heating of metal oxide with
carbon .  2.0 mol dm-3 sodium
hydroxide, NaOH
 Carbon powder Number Laboratory Work 3.2 solution
 Copper(II) oxide Pg. 71  0.5 mol dm-3 potassium
powder / Iron(III) Title Change of iron(II) to iron(III) hexacynoferrate(III),
oxide powder / ions and vice versa K3Fe(CN)6 solution
Lead(II) oxide powder Aim To investigate oxidation and
reduction in the change of
Variables A. Combustion of metal in iron(II) ions, Fe2+ to iron(III) .
oxygen ions, Fe3+ and vice versa
(change of iron(III) ions, Fe3+ Number Laboratory Work 3.3
 Manipulated variable: to iron(II) ions, Fe2+) Pg. 73
Type of metal Apparatus  Dropper Title Displacement of metals
 Responding variable:  Spatula Aim To investigate oxidation and
Reaction product  Test tube reduction in the displacement
 Controlled / Fixed  Test tube holder of metals from their salt
variable: Oxygen gas  Test tube rack solutions
and the conditions of  Bunsen burner Problem How does redox reaction occur
reaction  Filter funnel Statement in a displacement reaction in
 Measuring cylinder which a metal is displaced
B. Heating of metal oxide with
from its salt solution?
carbon Material  0.5 mol dm-3 freshly Hypothesis  (I) The metal that acts
prepared iron(II) as a reducing agent will
 Manipulated variable: sulphate, FeSO4 form metal ion
Type of metal oxide solution  (II) The metal ion that
 Responding variable:  0.5 mol dm-3 iron(III) acts as an oxidising
Reaction product sulphate, Fe2(SO4)3
 Controlled / Fixed agent will be
solution precipated as metal
variable: Carbon and  Bromine water
the conditions of  Zinc powder
reaction Apparatus  Test tubes
 Filter paper (1 piece)
 Test tube rack Aim To investigate oxidation and Changes in colour in
reduction in the displacement 1,1,1-trichloroethane,
Material  Zinc strip of halogen from its halide CH3CCl3
 Copper strip solution  Controlled / Fixed
 Magnesium ribbon Problem How do redox reactions occur variable: Volume of
 0.5 mol dm-3 silver Statement in displacement reactions reaction mixture
nitrate between halogens and aqueous
 0.5 mol dm-3 copper(II) solutions of halide ions?
sulphate Hypothesis A more reactive halogen .
 0.5 mol dm-3 displace a less reactive
magnesium sulphate halogen from an aqueous Number Laboratory Work 3.5
solutions of its halide ions Pg. 77
Variables  Manipulated variable: Apparatus  Test tubes Title Transfer of electrons at a
A pair of metals and  Test tube rack distance
salt solutions Aim To investigate oxidation and
 Responding variable: Material  Chlorine water reduction in the transfer of
Precipitation of metal  Bromine water electrons at a distance
and colour changes in  Iodine water Problem How do redox reactions occur
the solutions  0.5 mol dm-3 potassium statement in displacement reactions
 Controlled / Fixed chlorine, KCl solution between halogens and aqueous
variable: Volumes and  0.5 mol dm-3 potassium solutions of halide ions?
concentrations of bromine, KBr solution Hypothesis A more reactive halogen
solutions containing  0.5 mol dm-3 potassium displace a less reactive halogen
the metal ions iodine, KI solution from an aqueous solution of its
 1,1,1-tricholoethane, halide ions
CH3CCl3
Apparatus  U-tube
.
 Galvanometer
Variables  Manipulated variable:  Connecting wire with
Number Laboratory Work 3.4 A pair of halogens and crocodile clips
Pg. 74 their halide ions  Graphite electrode
Title Displacement of halogens  Responding variable:  Retort stand and clamp
 Test tube CH3CCl3  Hot jelly solution with
 Dropper / glass tube  Controlled / Fixed a little potassium
 Stopper with 1 hole variable: Volume of hexacyanoferrate(III),
reaction mixture K3Fe(CN)6 solution
Material  2.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric and phenolphthalein
acid, H2SO4  Sandpaper
 0.5 mol dm-3 freshly .
prepared iron(II) Variables  Manipulated variable:
sulphate, FeSO4 Number Experiment 3.1 Types of metals that
solution Pg. 81 are in contact with iron
 0.2 mol dm-3 acidified Title Effect of other metals on / Different types of
potassium rusting metals
manganate(VII),  Responding variable:
Aim To investigate the effect of
KMnO4 solution Presence of
other metals on rusting
 0.5 mol dm-3 potassium colouration / Intensity
Problem How do different types of
iodide, KI solution of dark blue
Statement metals in contact with iron
 0.2 mol dm-3 acidified colouration / Rusting
affect rusting?
potassium of iron
dichromate(VI), Hypothesis When a more electropositive  Controlled / Fixed
K2Cr2O7 solution metal is in contact with iron, variable: Clean iron
 Bromine water the metal inhibits rusting. nails, medium in which
 0.2 mol dm-3 potassium When a less electropositive the iron nails are kept /
thiocyanate, KSCN metal is in contact with iron, hot jelly solution,
solution the metal speeds up rusting temperature
 1% starch solution Apparatus  Test tube
 Test tube rack Operational Blue colouration indicates
Variables  Manipulated variable: Definition rusting of iron
A pair of halogen and Material  Iron nail
their halide ions  Magnesium ribbon .
 Responding variable:  Copper strip
Changes in colour in  Zinc strip
Number Laboratory Work 3.6
1,1,1-trichloroethana,  Tin strip
Pg. 85 Variables  Manipulated variable: remove oxygen from
Title Reactivity of metals with Different types of carbon dioxide.
oxygen metals
Aim  (I) To investigate the  Responding variable: Problem How is the position of carbon
reactivity of metals the brightness of the Statement in the reactivity series of
with oxygen flame metals determined?
 (II) To arrange metals  Controlled / Hypothesis  (I) A reaction occur if
in terms of their Fixed variable: The carbon is more reactive
reactivity with oxygen amount of the metal than the metal
and potassium  (II) A reaction not
Problem How do different types of manganate(VII) occur if carbon is less
Statement metals react with oxygen? powder reactive than the metal
Hypothesis The more reactive metal react  (III) Carbon is placed
more vigorously with oxygen between aluminium
Apparatus  Boiling tube
. and zinc in the
 Retort stand and clamp reactivity series of
 Bunsen burner Number Laboratory Work 3.7 metals
 Spatula Pg. 87
 Forceps Title  A. The position of Apparatus A. The position of carbon in
carbon in the reactivity the reactivity series of metals
Material  Magnesium powder series of metals with with oxygen
 Copper powder oxygen
 Iron filings  B. Heating carbon  Crucible / Porcelain
 Lead powder dioxide with metals dish / Asbestos paper
 Zinc powder  Spatula
 Solid potassium Aim  A. To determine the  Bunsen burner
manganate(VII), position of carbon in  Pipe-clay triangle
KMnO4 the reactivity series of  Tripod stand
 Asbestos paper metals
 Glass wool  B. To determine the B. Heating carbon dioxide
ability of a metal to with metals
 Gas jar  Controlled / Fixed series of metals
 Gas jar cover variable: Carbon Apparatus  Combustion tube
 A pair of tongs powder  Porcelain dish
Material A. The position of carbon in B.  U-tube
the reactivity series of metals  Thistle funnel
with oxygen  Manipulated variable:  Delivery tube
Type of metal  Bunsen burner
 Carbon powder  Responding variable:  Retort stand and
 Solid copper(II) oxide, Intensity of flame clamps
CuO  Controlled / Fixed  Stopper with 1 hole
 Solid magnesium variable: Carbon  Stopper with 2 holes
oxide, MgO dioxide gas and the
 Solid aluminium oxide, conditions of reaction Material  2.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric
Al2O3 acid, H2SO4
 Solid zinc oxide, ZnO  1.0 mol dm-3 copper(II)
. sulphate, CuSO4
B. Heating carbon dioxide solution
with metals Number Laboratory Work 3,8  Zinc granules
Pg. 89  Solid copper(II) oxide
 Magnesium ribbon Title The position of hydrogen in  Solid zinc oxide
 Gas jar filled with the reactivity series of metals  Solid lead(II) oxide
carbon dioxide gas, (Demonstration by teacher)  Solid iron(III) oxide
CO2  Anhydrous calcium
Aim To determine the position of
 Sandpaper chloride
hydrogen in the reactivity
series of metals
Variables A. Variables  Manipulated variable:
Problem How is the position of
Statement hydrogen in the reactivity Different types of
 Manipulated variable: metal oxides
series of metals determined?
Type of metal oxide  Responding variable:
Hypothesis Hydrogen is placed between
 Responding variable: Intensity of
zinc and iron in the reactivity
Intensity of flame flameControlled /
Fixed variable:  Light bulb  Wooden splinter
Hydrogen gas and the  A pair of tongs
conditions of reaction  Spatula
.
B. Electrolytic cell involving
. aqueous electrolyte Number Laboratory Work 3.10
Pg. 97
Number Laboratory Work 3.9  Battery
Title Oxidation and reduction in
Pg. 95  Connecting wire with
chemical cells
crocodile clips
Title Oxidation and reduction in Aim To investigate the oxidation
 Electrolytic cell
electrolytic cells and reduction in chemical cells
 Carbon electrode
Aim To investigate oxidation and
 Switch Apparatus  Porous pot
reduction in electrolytic cellsA.
 Ammeter  Voltmeter
Electrolytic cell involving
 Light bulb  Connecting wires with
molten electrolyteB. crocodile clips
 Small test tube
Electrolytic cell involving
 Beaker  Beaker
aqueous electrolyte
 A pair of tongs  Measuring cylinder
Apparatus A. Electrolytic cell involving
molten electrolyte
Material A. Electrolytic cell involving Material  1.0 mol dm-3 copper(II)
molten electrolyte sulphate, CuSO4
 Crucible solution
 Cardboard  1.0 mol dm-3 zinc
 Battery sulphate ZnSO4
PbBr2
 Connecting wire with solution
crocodile clips  Copper strip
B. Electrolytic cell involving
 Tripod stand  Zinc strip
aqueous electrolyte
 Bunsen burner  Sandpaper
 Pipe-clay triangle
 0.5 mol dm-3 potassium
 Carbon electrode
iodide, KI solution
 Switch .
 Starch solution
 Ammeter
 Sandpaper
Number Laboratory Work 3.10 (Similar  Filter paper strip
experiment)
Pg. 97
Title Oxidation and reduction in
voltaic cell with a salt bridge
Aim To investigate the oxidation
and reduction in chemical cells
Apparatus  Voltmeter
 Connecting wires with
crocodile clips
 100 cm3 beakers
 Measuring cylinder

## Material  1.0 mol dm-3 copper(II)

sulphate, CuSO4
solution
 1.0 mol dm-3 zinc
sulphate ZnSO4
solution