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Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology

Lecture Notes, Study Materials and Important questions answers

Subject : Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology


The Human Organism
1. Anatomy - Answer (click here)
2. Physiology - Answer (click here)
3. Structural and Functional Organization of the Human Body - Answer (click
here)
4. Characteristics of Life - Answer (click here)
5. Microbesin Your Body - Answer (click here)
6. Homeostasis - Answer (click here)
7. Terminology and the Body Plan - Answer (click here)

The chemical basis of life


1. Basic Chemistry - Answer (click here)
2. Chemical reactions - Human Organism - Answer (click here)
3. Acids and Bases - Answer (click here)
4. Inorganic Molecules - Answer (click here)
5. Organic Molecules - Answer (click here)

Cell Structures and their Functions


1. Cell Structure - Answer (click here)
2. Function of the cell - Answer (click here)
3. Structure of the Cell membrane - Answer (click here)
4. Movement through the cell membrane - Answer (click here)
5. Organelles - Cell Structures and their Functions - Answer (click here)
6. Whole cell activity - Answer (click here)
7. Cellular aspects of aging - Answer (click here)

Tissues
1. Tissues and Histology - Answer (click here)
2. Epithelial Tissue - Answer (click here)
3. Functions of Epithelia - Answer (click here)
4. Classification of Epithelia - Answer (click here)
5. Connective tissue - Answer (click here)
6. Functions of Connective Tissue - Answer (click here)
7. Muscle tissue - Answer (click here)
8. Nervous tissue - Answer (click here)
9. Tissue membranes - Answer (click here)
10. Tissue damage and inflammation - Answer (click here)
11. Tissue repair - Answer (click here)
12. Effects of aging on tissues - Answer (click here)

Integumentary System
1. Functions of the Integumentary System - Answer (click here)
2. Skin - Answer (click here)
3. Subcutaneous Tissue - Answer (click here)
4. Accessory skin structures - Answer (click here)
5. Physiology of the integumentary system - Answer (click here)
6. Integumentary system as a diagnostic Aid - Answer (click here)
7. Burns: Classify burns on the basis of the amount of skin damage
produced - Answer (click here)
8. Skin Cancer - Answer (click here)
9. Effects of Aging on the Integumentary System - Answer (click here)

Skeletal System Bones and Joints


1. Functions of the Skeletal System - Answer (click here)
2. Extracellular Matrix - Answer (click here)
3. General Features of Bone - Answer (click here)
4. Bone and calcium homeostasis - Answer (click here)
5. General Considerations of Bone Anatomy - Answer (click here)
6. Axial Skeleton - Answer (click here)
7. Appendicular Skeleton - Answer (click here)
8. Joints - Answer (click here)
9. Effects of Aging on the Skeletal System and Joints - Answer (click here)

Muscular System
1. Functions of the Muscular System - Answer (click here)
2. Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)
3. Skeletal Muscle Structure - Answer (click here)
4. Excitability of Muscle Fibers - Answer (click here)
5. Nerve Supply and Muscle fiber Stimulation - Answer (click here)
6. Muscle Contraction - Answer (click here)
7. Energy Requirements for Muscle Contraction - Answer (click here)
8. Fatigue - Answer (click here)
9. Effect of Fiber Type on Activity Level - Answer (click here)
10. Smooth Muscle and Cardiac Muscle - Answer (click here)
11. General Principles - Skeletal Muscle Anatomy - Answer (click here)
12. Nomenclature - Skeletal Muscle Anatomy - Answer (click here)
13. Muscles of the head and Neck - Answer (click here)
14. Trunk Muscles - Answer (click here)
15. Upper limb Muscles - Answer (click here)
16. Lower Limb Muscles - Answer (click here)
17. Effects of Aging on Skeletal Muscle - Answer (click here)

Nervous System
1. Functions of the Nervous System - Answer (click here)
2. Divisions of the Nervous System - Answer (click here)
3. Cells of the Nervous System - Answer (click here)
4. Electrical Signals and Neural Pathways - Answer (click here)
5. Resting Membrane Potential - Electrical Signals and Neural Pathways -
Answer (click here)
6. Action Potentials - Electrical Signals and Neural Pathways - Answer (click
here)
7. The Synapse - Electrical Signals and Neural Pathways - Answer (click here)
8. Reflexes - Electrical Signals and Neural Pathways - Answer (click here)
9. Neuronal Pathways - Electrical Signals and Neural Pathways - Answer
(click here)
10. Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems - Answer (click here)
11. Spinal Cord and Spinal Cord Reflexes - Answer (click here)
12. Spinal Nerves - Answer (click here)
13. Brain Anatomy - Answer (click here)
14. Sensory Functions - Answer (click here)
15. Motor Functions: Motor Areas Of The Cerebral Cortex, Descending
tracts, Cerebellum - Answer (click here)
16. Communication Between the right and Left hemispheres - Brain
Functions - Answer (click here)
17. Speech - Brain Functions - Answer (click here)
18. Brain waves and Consciousness - Brain Functions - Answer (click here)
19. Memory - Brain Functions - Answer (click here)
20. Limbic system and emotions - Brain Functions - Answer (click here)
21. Meninges - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
22. Ventricles - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
23. Cerebrospinal fluid - Nervous System - Answer (click here)
24. Cranial Nerves - Answer (click here)
25. Autonomic Nervous System - Answer (click here)
26. Enteric Nervous System - Answer (click here)
27. Effects of Aging on the Nervous System - Answer (click here)

Senses
1. Sensation - Answer (click here)
2. Sensory Receptors - Answer (click here)
3. General Senses - Answer (click here)
4. Special Senses - Answer (click here)
5. Olfaction - Answer (click here)
6. Taste - Answer (click here)
7. Vision - Answer (click here)
8. Accessory Structures of the Eye - Answer (click here)
9. Anatomy of the Eye - Answer (click here)
10. Functions of the Eye - Answer (click here)
11. Neuronal Pathways for Vision - Answer (click here)
12. Hearing and Balance - Answer (click here)
13. Anatomy and function of the Ear - Answer (click here)
14. Hearing - Ear - Answer (click here)
15. Neuronal Pathways for Hearing - Answer (click here)
16. Balance - Ear - Answer (click here)
17. Neuronal Pathways for Balance - Ear - Answer (click here)
18. Effects of Aging on the Senses - Answer (click here)

Endocrine System
1. Principles of Chemical Communication - Answer (click here)
2. Functions of the Endocrine System - Answer (click here)
3. Characteristics of the Endocrine System - Answer (click here)
4. Chemical Nature of Hormones - Answer (click here)
5. Control of Hormone Secretion - Answer (click here)
6. Hormone Receptors and Mechanisms of Action - Answer (click here)
7. Pituitary and hypothalamus - Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones -
Answer (click here)
8. Thyroid Gland - Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones - Answer (click
here)
9. Parathyroid Glands - Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones - Answer
(click here)
10. Adrenal Glands - Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones - Answer (click
here)
11. Pancreas, Insulin, and Diabetes - Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones
- Answer (click here)
12. Testes and Ovaries - Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones - Answer
(click here)
13. Thymus and Pineal Gland - Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones -
Answer (click here)
14. Other Hormones - Answer (click here)
15. Effects of Aging on the Endocrine System - Answer (click here)

Blood
1. Functions of Blood - Answer (click here)
2. Composition of Blood - Answer (click here)
3. Plasma - Answer (click here)
4. Formed Elements - Blood - Answer (click here)
5. Preventing Blood Loss - Answer (click here)
6. Blood Grouping - Answer (click here)
7. ABO Blood Group - Answer (click here)
8. Rh Blood Group - Answer (click here)
9. Diagnostic Blood Tests - Answer (click here)

Heart
1. Functions of the Heart - Answer (click here)
2. Size, Form, and Location of the Heart - Answer (click here)
3. Anatomy of the Heart - Answer (click here)
4. Heart valves - Answer (click here)
5. Route of Blood Flow Through the Heart - Answer (click here)
6. Blood Supply to the Heart - Answer (click here)
7. Histology of the Heart - Answer (click here)
8. Electrical Activity of the Heart - Answer (click here)
9. Cardiac Cycle - Answer (click here)
10. Heart Sounds - Answer (click here)
11. Regulation of Heart Function - Answer (click here)
12. Effects of Aging on the Heart - Answer (click here)
Blood Vessels and Circulation
1. Functions of the Circulatory System - Answer (click here)
2. General Features of Blood Vessel Structure - Answer (click here)
3. Blood Vessels of the Pulmonary Circulation - Answer (click here)
4. Blood Vessels of the Systemic Circulation: Arteries - Answer (click here)
5. Blood Vessels of the Systemic Circulation: Veins - Answer (click here)
6. Physiology of Circulation - Answer (click here)
7. Control of Blood Flow in Tissues - Answer (click here)
8. Regulation of Arterial Pressure - Answer (click here)
9. Effects of Aging on the Blood Vessels - Answer (click here)

Lymphatic System and Immunity


1. Functions of the Lymphatic System - Answer (click here)
2. Anatomy of the Lymphatic System - Answer (click here)
3. Immunity - Answer (click here)
4. Innate Immunity - Answer (click here)
5. Adaptive Immunity - Answer (click here)
6. Origin and Development of Lymphocytes - Answer (click here)
7. Activation and Multiplication of Lymphocytes - Answer (click here)
8. Antibody-mediated immunity - Answer (click here)
9. Cell-Mediated Immunity - Answer (click here)
10. Acquired Immunity - Answer (click here)
11. Overview of Immune Interactions - Answer (click here)
12. Immunotherapy - Answer (click here)
13. Effects of Aging on the Lymphatic System and Immunity - Answer (click
here)

Respiratory System
1. Functions of the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
2. Anatomy of the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
3. Nose - Anatomy of the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
4. Pharynx - Anatomy of the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
5. Larynx - Anatomy of the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
6. Trachea - Anatomy of the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
7. Bronchi - Anatomy of the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
8. Lungs - Anatomy of the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
9. Pleural Cavities - Anatomy of the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
10. Lymphatic Supply - Anatomy of the Respiratory System - Answer (click
here)
11. Ventilation and Respiratory Volumes - Answer (click here)
12. Changing thoracic Volume - Answer (click here)
13. Lung Recoil - Answer (click here)
14. Changing Alveolar Volume - Answer (click here)
15. Respiratory Volumes and Capacities - Answer (click here)
16. Gas Exchange - Respiratory System - Answer (click here)
17. Gas Transport in the Blood - Answer (click here)
18. Rhythmic Breathing - Answer (click here)
19. Generation of Rhythmic Breathing - Answer (click here)
20. Nervous and Chemical Control of Breathing - Answer (click here)
21. Effect of Exercise on Breathing - Answer (click here)
22. Respiratory Adaptations to Exercise - Answer (click here)
23. Effects of Aging on the Respiratory System - Answer (click here)

Digestive System
1. Functions of the Digestive System - Answer (click here)
2. Anatomy and Histology of the Digestive System - Answer (click here)
3. Anatomy of Oral Cavity, Pharynx, and Esophagus - Answer (click here)
4. Anatomy of the oral Cavity - Answer (click here)
5. Saliva - Answer (click here)
6. Swallowing - Digestive System - Answer (click here)
7. Stomach - Answer (click here)
8. Anatomy of the Stomach - Answer (click here)
9. Secretions of the Stomach - Answer (click here)
10. Regulation of Stomach Secretions - Answer (click here)
11. Movement in the Stomach - Answer (click here)
12. Anatomy of the Small intestine - Answer (click here)
13. Secretions of the Small intestine - Answer (click here)
14. Movement and Absorption in the Small Intestine - Answer (click here)
15. Anatomy of the liver - Answer (click here)
16. Functions of the Liver - Answer (click here)
17. Anatomy and Functions of the Pancreas - Answer (click here)
18. Anatomy of the large intestine - Answer (click here)
19. Functions of the Large Intestine - Answer (click here)
20. Digestion, Absorption, and Transport in Digestive System - Answer (click
here)
21. Effects of Aging on the Digestive System - Answer (click here)

Nutrition Metabolism and body Temperature Regulation


1. Nutrition and Nutrients - Answer (click here)
2. Kilocalories - Answer (click here)
3. Carbohydrates - Human Nutrition - Answer (click here)
4. Lipids - Human Nutrition - Answer (click here)
5. Proteins - Human Nutrition - Answer (click here)
6. Vitamins - Human Nutrition - Answer (click here)
7. Minerals - Human Nutrition - Answer (click here)
8. Daily Values - Human Nutrition - Answer (click here)
9. Metabolism - Answer (click here)
10. Regulation of Metabolism - Answer (click here)
11. Carbohydrate Metabolism - Answer (click here)
12. Lipid Metabolism - Answer (click here)
13. Protein Metabolism - Answer (click here)
14. Metabolic States - Answer (click here)
15. Metabolic Rate - Answer (click here)
16. Body Temperature Regulation - Answer (click here)

Urinary System and Fluid Balance


1. Functions of the Urinary System - Answer (click here)
2. Anatomy of the Kidneys - Answer (click here)
3. Urine Production - Answer (click here)
4. Filtration - Urine Production - Answer (click here)
5. Regulation of Filtration - Urine Production - Answer (click here)
6. Tubular Reabsorption - Urine Production - Answer (click here)
7. Tubular Secretion - Urine Production - Answer (click here)
8. Regulation of Urine Concentration and Volume - Answer (click here)
9. Urine Movement - Answer (click here)
10. Body Fluid Compartments - Answer (click here)
11. Regulation of Extracellular Fluid Composition - Answer (click here)
12. Regulation of Acid-Base Balance in Human Body - Answer (click here)

Reproductive System
1. Functions of the Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
2. Formation of Gametes - Answer (click here)
3. Male Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
4. Physiology of Male Reproduction - Answer (click here)
5. Regulation of Reproductive Hormone Secretion - Answer (click here)
6. Puberty In Males - Answer (click here)
7. Effects of Testosterone - Answer (click here)
8. Male Sexual Behavior and The Male Sex Act - Answer (click here)
9. Infertility in Males - Answer (click here)
10. Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
11. Ovaries - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
12. Oogenesis and Fertilization - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click
here)
13. Uterine tubes - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
14. Uterus - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
15. Vagina - Female Reproductive System - Answer (click here)
16. Mammary Glands and Anatomy of the Breast - Female Reproductive
System - Answer (click here)
17. Physiology of Female Reproduction - Answer (click here)
18. Puberty in Females - Answer (click here)
19. Menstrual Cycle - Answer (click here)
20. Female sexual Behavior and the Female sex act - Answer (click here)
21. Effects of Aging on the Reproductive System - Answer (click here)

Development Heredity and aging


1. Prenatal Development - Answer (click here)
2. Formation of the Germ - Prenatal Development - Answer (click here)
3. Neural tube and neural Crest Formation - Prenatal Development - Answer
(click here)
4. Formation of the General Body structure - Prenatal Development -
Answer (click here)
5. Development of the Organ Systems - Prenatal Development - Answer
(click here)
6. Growth of the Fetus - Prenatal Development - Answer (click here)
7. Parturition - Answer (click here)
8. The Newborn - Answer (click here)
9. Lactation - Answer (click here)
10. First Year Following Birth - Answer (click here)
11. Life Stages - Answer (click here)
12. Genetics - Answer (click here)
13. Genes - Answer (click here)
14. Genetic Disorders and Counseling - Answer (click here)